Idaho History May 24, 2020

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 6

Idaho Newspaper clippings October 4 – 14, 1918

Liberty Bond Parade Moscow, Idaho October 1918

1918LibertyParadeMoscow-a
Looking south at Main Street in Moscow from 1st Street, during a Liberty Bond parade in October 1918. Courtesy of Ott Historical Collection, University of Idaho Library Digital Initiatives

source: courtesy Keith Gunther
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The Meridian times., October 04, 1918, page 1

No case of the Spanish influenza has as yet been reported in Meridian.

19181004LibertyBondsAd

source: The Meridian times. (Meridian, Idaho), 04 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Meridian times., October 04, 1918, page 8

19181004MT-headline

Another Meridian Boy Gives Life For His Country

Wallace Atkinson, son of Mr. and Mrs. Joe Atkinson, residing northwest of Meridian, died in the service at Washington, D. C. according to a telegram received from the department Saturday. It has been rumored that his death resulted from the prevailing influenza, but no official word to that effect has been received. The body is expected to arrive in Meridian the last of the week, when the funeral service, to be held at the Christian church in Meridian, will be announced.

Wallace attended school in Meridian for several years, the last years being in the high school.

source: The Meridian times. (Meridian, Idaho), 04 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. October 08, 1918, page 7

Steve Garvey returned to Bonners Ferry Thursday evening after spending several months in the shipyards in Seattle, Tacoma and other coast points. Mr. Garvey states that he likes the shipyard work, but left the coast on account of the epidemic of Spanish influenza, which is prevalent there.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 08 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., October 09, page 1

19181009DSM-headline

Cease All Public Meetings in State

Spanish Influenza Causes Drastic Order Against Public Gatherings

The quarantine has been placed in Idaho. All public gatherings, excepting schools, both public and private, are forbidden by an order issued today by the state board of health. The order for this county came to Dr. Rae, acting county health officer and directs the closing of all places of public amusement excepting schools. This is taken to mean the closing of churches, and it is feared will prohibit the meetings to be held next Tuesday for the bond rally throughout the county. The telegram received by Dr. Rae follows:

“County Health Officer.
“Moscow, Idaho.

“State board of health directs you to inform mayors of cities and chairmen boards of village trustees in your county that because of Spanish influenza all public assemblages and places of public amusement excepting private and public schools, will be prohibited from operation on and after Thursday, October 10, 1918, until further notice. Letter of verification follows. You are directed to secure compliance with this order.
“Biwer, Secy.”

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 09 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Grangeville Globe. October 10, 1918, page 1

Proclamation.

By virtue of and pursuant to an order issued by the State Board of Health of the State of Idaho, issued on the 9th day of October, 1918, and to me directed, I, T. E. Edmundson. Mayor of the City of Grangeville, Idaho, do hereby make and publish the following proclamation. to wit:

That because of Spanish influenza, all public assemblages and all places of public amusement, except public and private schools within the City of Grangeville, Idaho, are hereby prohibited from operating on and after Thursday. October Tenth, 1918, until further notice.

Signed and dated at Grangeville, Idaho this October 9, 1918.
T. E. Edmundson, Mayor of the City of Grangeville, Idaho.
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19181010GG1-headline

Boise, Oct. 8. — The state board of health issued a drastic order tonight closing all public places of amusement in Idaho, the order to go into effect Thursday.

The action In taken to head off any possible epidemic of Spanish influenza that may develop and is precautionary in form. They will not be reopened until it Is certain that there is no possibility of an epidemic.

The public schools of the state are not included in the order at the present time. That may become necessary later if the disease develops.

Spanish influenza has already broken out in Canyon and Ada counties with isolated eases at some other points in the state. The members of the board authorizing the order are: Attorney General Walters, State Engineer Wilkie, Dr. W. R. Hamilton, Weiser; Dr. Floyd Wendell, Hope, and Dr. M. T. Biwer, Boise.

In obeying the closing order it should be remembered that there are no cases of influenza reported in this county at the present time and if this precautionary measure is strictly obeyed the chance that the epidemic will secure a foothold will be mitigated.

The disease has become quite prevalent throughout the west and all through Washington similar orders are in effect at the present time.

Spanish Influenza

The disease now occurring in this country and called “Spanish Influenza” resembles a very contagious kind of a “cold” accompanied by fever, pains in the head, eyes, ears, back or other parts of the body, and a feeling of severe sickness. In most of the cases the symptoms disappear after three or four days, the patient then rapidly recovering; some of the patients, however, develop pneumonia, or inflammation of the ear, or meningitis, and many of these complicated cases die. It is not known whether this so called “Spanish Influenza” is identical with the epidemics of influenza of earlier years.

Epidemics of influenza have visited this country since 1647. It is interesting to know that this first epidemic was brought here from Valencia, Spain. Since that time there has been numerous epidemics of that disease. In 1889 and 1890 an epidemic of influenza starting somewhere in the Orient, spread to Russia, and thence over practically the entire civilized world. Three years later there was another flare-up of the disease. Both times the epidemic spread widely over the United States.

Although the present epidemic is called “Spanish Influenza,” there is no reason to believe that it originated in Spain. Some writers who have studied the question believe that the epidemic came from the Orient and they call attention to the fact that the Germans mention the disease as occurring along the eastern front in the summer and fall of 1917.
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How to Guard Against Influenza?

In guarding against diseases of all kinds, it is important that the body be kept strong and able to fight off disease germs. This it be done by having a proper proportion of work, play and rest, by keeping the body well and by eating sufficient, wholesome, and properly selected food. In connection with diet, it is well to remember that milk is one of the best all-around foods obtainable for adults as well as children. in far as a disease like influenza is concerned, health authorities everywhere recognize the very close relation between its spread and over crowded homes. While it is not always possible, especially in times like the present, to avoid such overcrowding, people should consider the health danger and make every effort to reduce the home overcrowding to a minimum. The value of fresh air through open windows can not be over emphasized.

Where crowding is unavoidable, as in street cars, care should be taken to keep the face so turned as not to inhale directly the air breathed out by another person.

It is especially important to beware of the person who coughs or sneezes without covering his mouth and nose. It also follows that one should keep out of crowds and stuffy places as much as possible, keep homes, offices and workshops well aired, spend some time out of doors each day, walk to work if at all practicable – in short make every possible effort to breath as much pure air as possible.

“Cover up each cough and sneeze. If you don’t you’ll spread disease.”
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WM. Shields Dead.

Former Clerk at Imperial Hotel Victim Influenza.

William Shields. a young man about 20 years of age, formerly in the employ of the Imperial Hotel as day clerk, passed away at Camp Lewis last Monday from an attack of influenza.

The news was received by his sister, Mrs. James Heath, and caused a shadow of gloom among those who had known him best. He received his call while in the employ of the hotel.

The remains were shipped to the family home at Colfax and were laid to rest this Thursday afternoon.
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Soldier Has Influenza.

Dr. and Mrs. Stockton received a letter this week from their son Andrew who is a midshipman in the U. S. Naval Academy at Baltimore, Md. Andrew states that he has been quite ill with Spanish Influenza, having been in quarantine for two weeks, but that he has been discharged from the hospital, and was on the road to recovery. Some 1500 cases were in quarantine at one time, many deaths occurring. Andrew says it was a rather “spooky” experience as the doctors and nurses were covered from head to foot in white robes, the face concealed behind white masks, and breathing through disinfected gauze.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Grangeville Globe. October 10, 1918, page 5

School Notes

The Sophomore Party has been postponed to a future date on account of the notice by the Health Department, stating that all social gatherings and amusements should be stopped on account of the Influenza.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Lincoln County Times., October 10, 1918, page 1

19181010LCT1-headline

Owing to the prevalence of Spanish influenza in this state the State Board of Health has ordered all public meeting places closed until further orders. This order includes all indoor gatherings, and is to take effect today, October 10th.

The local Red Cross chapter has a committee of the doctors and nurses to assist the State Board in checking the epidemic.

A few cases have appeared in Jerome, and as a result the local health officers have ordered the schools to be. closed. From the United States Public Health Service, Rupert Blue, Surgeon General, we are in receipt of a bulletin on Spanish Influenza, a few extracts from which we give below:

How can “Spanish Influenza” Be Recognized

There is as yet no certain way in which a single case of “Spanish influenza” can he recognized; on the other hand, recognition is easy where there is a group of cases. In contrast to the outbreaks of ordinary coughs and colds, which usually occur in the cold months, epidemics of influenza may occur at any season of the year, thus the present epidemic raged most intensely in Europe in May, June and July. Moreover, in the case of ordinary colds, the general symptoms. (fever. pain, depression) are by no means as severe or as sudden in their onset as they are in influenza. Finally, ordinary colds do not spread through the community so rapidly or so extensively as does influenza.

In most cases a person taken sick with influenza feels sick rather suddenly. He feels weak, has pains in the eyes, ears, head or back, and may be sore all over. Many patients feel dizzy, some vomit. Most of the patients complain of feeling chilly, and with this comes a fever in which the temperature rises to 100 to 104. In most eases the pulse remains relatively slow.

In appearance one is struck by the fact that the patient looks sick. His eyes and the inner side of his eyelids may be slightly “bloodshot,” or “congested,” as the doctors say. There may be running from the nose, or there may be some cough. These signs of a cold may not be marked; nevertheless the patient looks and feels very sick.

What Causes the Disease and How it Is Spread?

No matter what particular kind of germ causes the epidemic, it is now believed that influenza is always spread from person to person, the germs being carried with the air along with the very small droplets of mucus, expelled by coughing or by sneezing, forceful talking, and the like, by one who already has the germs of the disease. They may also be carried about in the air in the form of dust coming from dried mucus, from coughing and sneezing, or from careless people who spit on the floor and on the sidewalk. As in most other catching diseases, a person who has only a mild attack of the disease himself may give a very severe attack to others.

What Should Be Done by Those Who Catch the Disease

It in very important that every person who becomes sick with influenza should go home at once and go to bed. This will help keep away dangerous complications and will, at the same time, keep the patient from scattering the disease far and wide. It is highly desirable that no one be allowed to sleep In the same room with the patient. In fact, no one but the nurse should he allowed in the room.

If there is cough and sputum or running of the eyes and nose, care should be taken that all such discharges are collected on bits of gauze or rag or paper napkins and burned. If the patient complains of fever and headache, he should be given water to drink. a cold compress to the forehead and a light sponge. Only such medicine should be given as Is prescribed by the doctor.
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Reception Postponed

The Civic Club meeting and the reception for the teachers will not be held until the danger from the Spanish influenza epidemic has passed and it becomes safe to hold public meetings or gatherings.

source: Lincoln County Times. (Jerome, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Lincoln County Times., October 10, 1918, page 4

Notice

On account of the suspicious cases of Spanish influenza having appeared in this community, and in co-operation with the State Board of Health, all public schools in Jerome district will be closed until October 21st, 1918.

In order to make this quarantine effective we must have the intelligent co-operation of the public.

Dated, Jerome, Idaho, October 9th, 1918.
J. F. Schmershall, M. D., Health officer

source: Lincoln County Times. (Jerome, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Lincoln County Times., October 10, 1918, page 5

Word received from John A. Thomas is to the effect that this gentleman is held under quarantine in Chicago, being ill with Spanish influenza.
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19181010LCT2-headline

The annual election of officers will take place Monday, October 14th, at a meeting to be held at 3 p. m. in the Methodist church. After the business meeting the Junior Red Cross girls will serve tea in the Red Cross room below. All Red Cross members are urged to be present.

Owing to the present influenza epidemic, the Red Cross department of Nursing desires to get in touch with every graduate nurse, every woman who has had any training, every practical nurse and every woman who has taken the training to be nurses’ aid. The Red Cross offers to graduates $75.00 and expenses, and to undergraduates and aids from $30.00 to $50.00, according to qualifications, with expenses. If there are any in this locality who can serve, please communicate at once with Mrs. Maude Piper.

The linen shower was very successful; more than quota of each article asked for being received, except the hand towels, of which we need eighty more.

Two more boxes of second-hand clothing were packed and sent the last of the week, making twenty-one boxes in all.

We are still behind with the little girls’ dresses and pinafores. Will those who have these little garments out please finish them and bring them in at once, so that the box can be dispatched? We are sorry for this delay, as this is the first allotment on which we have fallen behind.

source: Lincoln County times. (Jerome, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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1918Atlantic3-a
Combating influenza in Seattle in 1918, workers wearing masks on their faces in a Red Cross room. National Archives

source: Alan Taylor April 10, 2018 “30 Photos of the 1918 Flu Pandemic” The Atlantic
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The Emmett Index. October 10, 1918, page 1

19181010EI1-headline

The state board of health took a drastic but precautionary action late Tuesday, to control the spread of Spanish influenza, for it directed that on and after Thursday all churches, places of public assemblage, opera houses and places of amusement close down and remain closed for an indefinite period. Public and private schools are not included in the order. They will remain open. Acting upon this order, Mayor Rose this morning issued a proclamation calling upon all prohibited public meeting places in Emmett to close and remain closed until the ban is lifted. The order includes pool and billiard halls, lodges dance halls and church social activities well as theaters, churches and public meetings of all kinds. As no official notice was received by county and city officials until this morning, the order will not be put into effect until tomorrow morning.

Additional cases of influenza were reported from Twin Falls and Lincoln counties, but the number was not given. Physicians of the state have been notified to report all cases promptly to county health officers.

“Some objection has been raised to exemption of schools while other public assemblies are banned. On this point, Dr. Biwer said: “We have not deemed it necessary to close the schools yet, because the children are now under close observation, and the disease seems to be most prevalent among robust, young adults. While no age is exempt, our attitude is to encourage the people to refrain from gathering in considerable assemblages, especially in crowded, poorly ventilated quarters.”
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19181010EI2-headline

On account of the scourge of Spanish Influenza, which is causing the death of so many of our people throughout the Nation, and in order to prevent its spread in the state and to isolate the few cases that are at present in the state, the State Board of Health has issued the following order:

“State Board of Health directs you to inform Mayors and Chairmen of Village Trustees in your county that because of Spanish influenza, all public assemblages and places of amusement, excepting private and public schools, be prohibited from operation on and after Thursday, October 10, 1918, until further orders.”

I am further directed by the State Board of Health to say that this order includes pool halls, but that the soda fountains are to be allowed to run, also that open air meetings will be allowed.

Now, therefore, I, R. E. Rose, Mayor Emmett, Idaho, direct that all the provisions of the order of the State Board of Health be observed and that all public assemblages, other than the ones specially excepted above, be prohibited until further notice.

Given at the office of the City Mayor this 10th day of October, 1918.
R. E. Rore, Mayor.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Emmett Index. October 10, 1918, page 2

Tales of Town

Old Bill Misgivens thinks it is a good joke about people in this country thinking they have Spanish influenza. “Here the paper says, “says he, “that an Italian doctor has had the influenza isolated away over there in Italy all the time.”

Health authorities urge everybody to combat Spanish influenza by refraining from sneezing, coughing, spitting or kissing. One may stop coughing and spitting by proper exercise of will power, bu the other two offenses are more or less involuntary.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Idaho County Free Press. October 10, 1918, page 1

19181010ICFP1-headline

Body Taken to Colfax, Wn., for Funeral Services and Burial — Has Sister Living Here

Grangeville is mourning the death of another of her soldier boys. William Shields, formerly clerk at the Imperial hotel, died Monday at Camp Lewis, of Spanish influenza. His body was taken to his home at Colfax, Wn., where funeral services will be held probably Friday.

Mr. Shields, who was aged 27 years, left Grangeville on July 7, for a visit with his parents at Colfax, before going into the army. He had been in the army almost three months, when he died.

Sister Advised of Illness.

Word that Mr. Shields was critically ill from Spanish influenza, was received Sunday by his sister, Mrs. Thomas Heath, in a telegram. Word came Monday that he had died. Mr. and Mrs. Heath left at once for Colfax, to be present at the funeral.

William Shields first came to Grangeville last fall. He was for a short time employed at the Camas Prairie railroad station, and then became night clerk at the Imperial hotel. His promotion at the hotel was rapid, and before he bad been there long, he was made day clerk. Mr. Shields was an accomplished musician. He had traveled with a carnival band, before coming to Grangeville.

Well Liked in Grangeville.

During the period he spent in Grangeville, Mr. Shields enjoyed a wide acquaintance with local persons, as well as with the traveling public, which he met in the capacity of clerk at the hotel. The impression that he made while here was most favorable, and everywhere, on the street, Monday, when the Free Press posted a bulletin that he had died, were heard expressions of profound regret and sorrow in his early passing.

Besides his sister, Mrs. Heath, Mr. Shields is survived by his parents, at Colfax, a brother, in the army in France and other relatives.
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19181010ICFP2-headline

Churches, Theaters and Lodges in Idaho Are Closed — Schools Remain Open

All places of public gathering in the state of Idaho, with the lone exception of the public schools, were on Wednesday ordered closed by the state board of health, in order to prevent spread of Spanish influenza. The closing is to be enforced on and after today, until such time as danger from an influenza epidemic has passed.

Affected by the order are theaters of every sort, including motion picture theaters, churches, lodges, dances, and every public assemblage. It will mean a halt in Liberty loan rallies, political meetings, and every line where the public gathers.

Although the epidemic has been discovered in only a few places in Idaho, the closing order was issued by the state board of health to prevent spread of the disease, which has claimed thousands of lives, mainly in the cantonments in the United States.

The closing order was received in Grangeville Wednesday by Dr. G. S. Stockton, county health officer, and was by him transmitted to all parts of the county.

The epidemic first was discovered on the Atlantic seaboard, and spread rapidly throughout the United States, until it reached the Pacific coast, taking a heavy toll in lives of both soldiers, sailors and civilians. Influenza soon develops into pneumonia, which is followed by death.

Influenza cases up to Monday, reported from all camps since the disease became epidemic, September 13, now total 167,000; pneumonia eases 17,102, and deaths 4,910. Camp Dodge, Ia., reported the largest number of new influenza cases during the 48-hour period to Monday noon, with 3092 cases; Camp Funston, Kas., the next largest, 2070.

No case of Spanish influenza has been reported in Grangeville or Idaho county. The closing order, so far as this part of the state is concerned, is merely precautionary.
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Institute Postponed.

The teachers’ institute, which was to have been held next week in Lewiston, and which was to have been attended by many Idaho county school teachers, has been indefinitely postponed because of the closing order as a precaution against spread of Spanish influenza.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho Territory), 10 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Idaho County Free Press. October 10, 1918, page 8

Influenza at Nezperce.

Seventy cases of Spanish influenza were reported in Nezperce by traveling salesmen who have just arrived in Grangeville. Great alarm is felt in the Lewis county capital, they say, and the disease is spreading rapidly.

source: Idaho County free press. (Grangeville, Idaho Territory), 10 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., October 10, 1918, page 1

19181010DSM1-headline

A meeting was held last night in the Red Cross rooms for the purpose of taking measures to combat the Spanish influenza.

Chairman Neidig of the Red Cross presided, and those in attendance were Lieut. Kotalik of the U. S. army; Drs. Rae, Clarke, Adair, Stevenson, and the committee on nursing survey ; Mrs. Baker, Mrs. Livingston, Mrs. C. J. Orland, Mrs. Nisbet and Mrs. MacCaughey.

After a spirited discussion of the present serious condition, a resolution was unanimously adopted to the effect that Moscow appoint immediately a city health physician and a city and school nurse.

By the supervision of a school nurse in promptly detecting and reporting all suspicious cases of disease to the city physician, epidemics might be held in check without closing schools.

With hundreds of young men in training at the S. A. T. C., Moscow should take every precaution as her part in safeguarding her soldiers as well as the civilian population.

The following rules are issued by the surgeon-general for army use, and applies to everyone:

1. Avoid needless crowding — influenza is a crowd disease.
2. Smother your coughs and sneezes — others do not want the germs which you would throw away.
3. Your nose, not your mouth. was made to breathe through — get the habit.
4. Remember the three C’s — a clean mouth, clean skin and clean clothes.
5. Try to keep cool when you walk and warm when you ride and sleep.
6. Open the windows — always at home at night; at the office when practicable.
7. Food will win the war if you give it a chance — help by choosing and chewing your food well.
8. Your fate may be in your own hands — wash your hands before eating.
9. Don’t let waste products of digestion accumulate — drink a glass or two of water upon getting up.
10. Don’t use a napkin, towel, spoon, fork, glass or cup which has been used by another person and not washed.
11. Avoid tight clothes, tight shoes, tight gloves — seek to make nature your ally, not your prison.
12. When the air is pure breathe all of it you can — breathe deeply.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., October 10, 1918, page 2

Dr. Adair Health Officer.

Mayor Warren Truitt appointed Dr. W. A. Adair city health officer this afternoon and Dr. Adair has accepted the appointment. So far as known there are no cases of influenza in Moscow. The order of the state board of health will be observed here. Schools will not be closed at present, but no other public meetings will be permitted. Even women’s sewing circles, when engaged in Red Cross work, are not omitted from the order and will not be permitted to meet until the embargo is lifted.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Rathdrum Tribune., October 11, 1918, page 1

19181011TRT1-headline

A telegram was received Wednesday morning by County Physician Drennan from the state board of health at Boise authorizing him to notify public officials throughout the county that all public meetings, with the exception of public and private schools, are ordered closed, the order becoming effect Thursday morning, Oct. 10.

The action is taken in an effort to head off an epidemic of influenza, which has already begun to appear in various parts of Idaho.

It is understood the order cancels all patriotic meetings that had been planned in the state; also, church services, lodge sessions and shows.

Members of the state board of health authorizing the closing order are: Attorney General Walters, State Engineer Wilkie, Dr. W. R. Hamilton, Dr. Floyd Wendell and Dr. E. T. Biwer.

source: The Rathdrum tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 11 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Oakley Herald. October 11, 1918, page 1

Locals and Personals.

On account of the State Board of Health order prohibiting public assemblages, during the Spanish influenza epidemic, the splendid Liberty Day program arranged for Oakley on Saturday, has been cancelled.

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 11 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Oakley Herald. October 11, 1918, page 5

Four hundred and eighty-seven men called to entrain from the state beginning October 7 for Camp Lewis were released from the call until further notice by Provost Marshal General Crowder last week in a telegram that this was necessary because of the epidemic of Spanish influenza.

An Idahoan back from France after six months’ service, says: “The Americans ridicule the French potatoes, which are really tiny tubers about the size of marbles, which are harvested before the tops have died down. But the Americans have not contented themselves with ridicule. They have constructed an irrigation system and are growing big crops of spuds that make the eyes of our allies pop out.”

On Monday the master numbers in the new draft were drawn, President Wilson taking the first from the box. The classification of the men is progressing well, but the sending of those selected to the training camps may be delayed by the serious spread of the epidemic of influenza. Rigorous measures are being adopted to check the disease, with the prospects of success. Considering its nature, the number of deaths is not extraordinary.

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 11 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Oakley Herald. October 11, 1918, page 6

The Oakley council is meeting today to pass measures to enforce the State Board of Health order that all public indoor meetings, except public and private schools, be prohibited during the Spanish influenza epidemic.

CoughsandSneezesSpreadDiseases1918-a

1918OctUncleSamAdvice1-headline

Uncle Sam’s Advice on Flu

U. S. Public Health Service Issues Official Health Bulletin on Influenza.
Latest Word on Subject.

Epidemic Probably Not Spanish In Origin – Germ Still Unknown – People Should Guard Against “Droplet Infection” – Surgeon General Blue Makes Authoritative Statement.

Washington, D. C. — (Special.) — Although King Alfonso of Spain was one of the victims of the influenza epidemic in 1893 and again this summer, Spanish authorities repudiate any claim to influenza as a “Spanish” disease. If the people of this country do not take care the epidemic will become so widespread throughout the United States that soon we shall hear the disease called “American” influenza.

In response to a request for definite information concerning Spanish influenza, Surgeon General Rupert Blue of the U. S. Public Health Service has authorized the following official interview:

What Is Spanish Influenza? is It something new? Does it come from Spain?

“The disease now occurring in this country and called ‘Spanish influenza’ resembles a very contagious kind, of ‘cold,’ accompanied by fever, pains in the head, eyes, ears, back or other parts of the body and a feeling of severe sickness. In most of the cases the symptoms disappear after three or four days, the patient then rapidly recovering. Some of the patients, however, develop pneumonia, or inflammation of the ear or meningitis, and many of these complicated cases die. Whether this so-called ‘Spanish’ influenza is identical with the epidemics of influenza of earlier years is not yet known.

“Epidemics of influenza have visited this country since 1647. It is interesting to know that this first epidemic was brought here from Valencia, Spain. Since that time there have been numerous epidemics of the disease. In 1889 and 1890 an epidemic of influenza, starting somewhere in the Orient, spread first to Russia and thence over practically the entire civilized world. Three years later there was another flare-up of the disease. Both times the epidemic spread widely over the United States.

“Although the present epidemic is called `Spanish influenza,’ there is no reason to believe that It originated in Spain. Some writers who have studied the question believe that the epidemic came from the Orient and they call attention to the fact that the Germans mention the disease as occurring along the eastern front in the summer and fall of 1917.”

How can “Spanish Influenza” be recognized?

“There is as yet no certain way in which a single case of ‘Spanish influenza’ can be recognized. On the other hand, recognition is easy where there is a group of cases. In contrast to the outbreaks of ordinary coughs and colds, which usually occur in the cold months, epidemics of influenza may occur at any season of the year. Thus the present epidemic raged most intensely in Europe in May, June and July. Moreover, in the case of ordinary colds, the general symptoms (fever, pain, depression) are by no means as severe or as sudden in their onset as they are in influenza. Finally, ordinary colds do not spread through the community so rapidly or so extensively as does influenza.

“In most cases a person taken sick with influenza feels sick rather suddenly. He feels weak, has pains in the eyes, ears, head or back, and may be sore all over. Many patients feel dizzy, some vomit. Most of the patients complain of feeling chilly, and with this comes a fever in which the temperature rises to 100 to 104. In most cases the pulse remains relatively slow.

“In appearance one is struck by the fact that the patient looks sick. His eyes and the inner side of his eyelids may be slightly ‘bloodshot,’ or `congested,’ as the doctors say. There may be running from the nose, or there may be some cough. These signs of a cold may not be marked; nevertheless the patient looks and feels very sick.

“In addition to the appearance and the symptoms as already described, examination of the patient’s blood may aid the physician in recognizing ‘Spanish influenza,’ for It has been found that in this disease the number of white corpuscles shows little or no increase above the normal. It is possible that the laboratory investigations now being made through the National Research Council and the United States Hygienic Laboratory will furnish a more certain way In which individual cases of this disease can he recognized.”

What Is the course of the disease? Do people die of it?

“Ordinarily, the fever lasts from three to four days and the patient recovers. But while the proportion of deaths in the present epidemic has generally been low, in some places the outbreak has been severe and deaths have been numerous. When death occurs it is usually the result of a complication.”

What causes the disease and how is It spread?

“Bacteriologists who have studied Influenza epidemics in the past have found in many of the cases a very small rod-shaped germ called, after its discoverer, Pfeiffer’s bacillus. In other cases of apparently the same kind of disease there were found pneumococci, the germs of lobar pneumonia. Still others have been caused by streptococci, and by others germs with long names.

“No matter what particular kind of germ causes the epidemic, It is now believed that influenza is always spread from person to person, the germs being carried with the air along with the very small droplets of mucus, expelled by coughing or sneezing, forceful talking, and the like by one who already has the germs of the disease. They may also be carried about in the air in the form of dust coming from dried mucus, from coughing and sneezing, or from careless people who spit on the floor and on the sidewalk. As in most other catching diseases, a person who has only a mild attack of the disease himself may give a very, severe attack to others.”

What should be done by those who catch the disease?

“It Is very important that every person who becomes sick with influenza should go home at once and go to bed. This will help keep away dangerous complications and will, at the same time, keep the patient from scattering the disease far and wide. It is highly desirable that no one be allowed to sleep in the same room with the patient. In fact, no one but the nurse should be allowed in the room.

“If there is cough and sputum or running of the eyes and nose, care should be taken that all such discharges are collected on bits of gauze or rag or paper napkins and burned. If the patient complains of fever and headache, he should be given water to drink, a cold compress to the forehead and a light sponge. Only such medicine should be given as is prescribed by the doctor. It is foolish to ask the druggist to prescribe and may be dangerous to take the so-called ‘safe, sure and harmless’ remedies advertised by patent medicine manufacturers.

“If the patient is so situated that he can be attended only by some one who must also look after others in the family, it is advisable that such attendant wear a wrapper, apron or gown over the ordinary house clothes while in the sick room and slip this off when leaving to look after the others.

“Nurses and attendants will do well to guard against breathing in dangerous disease germs by wearing a simple fold of gauze or mask while near the patient.”

Will a person who has had Influenza before catch the disease again?

“It is well known that an attack of measles or scarlet fever or smallpox usually protects a person against another attack of the same disease. This appears not to be true of ‘Spanish influenza.’ According to newspaper reports the King of Spain suffered an attack of influenza during the epidemic thirty years ago, and was again stricken during the recent outbreak in Spain.”

How can one guard against Influenza?

“In guarding against disease of all kinds, it is important that the body be kept strong and able to fight off disease germs. This can be done by having a proper proportion of work, play and rest, by keeping the body well clothed, and by eating sufficient wholesome and properly selected food. In connection with diet, it is well to remember that milk is one of the best all-around foods obtainable for adults as well as children. So far as a disease like influenza is concerned, health authorities everywhere recognize the very close relation between its spread and overcrowded homes. While it is not always possible, especially in times like the present, to avoid such overcrowding, people should consider the health danger and make every effort to reduce the home overcrowding to a minimum. The value of fresh air through open windows cannot be over emphasized.

“When crowding is unavoidable, as in street cars, care should be taken to keep the face so turned as not to inhale directly the air breathed out by another person.

“It is especially important to beware of the person who coughs or sneezes without covering his mouth and nose. It also follows that one should keep out of crowds and stuffy places as much as possible, keep homes, offices and workshops well aired, spend some time out of doors each day, walk to work if at all practicable — in short, make every possible effort to breathe as much pure air as possible.

“In all health matters follow the advice of your doctor and obey the regulations of your local and state health officers.”

“Cover up each cough and sneeze, If you don’t you’ll spread disease.”

Note: this article was posted in: The Oakley Herald, also The Daily Star-Mirror, The Idaho Republican, The Challis Messenger, Lincoln County Times, Payette Enterprise, Idaho County Free Press, The Nezperce Herald, The Rathdrum Tribune, The Kendrick Gazette, Shoshone Journal between Oct 11 and Oct 18, 1918

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 11 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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American Falls Press. October 11, 1918, page 1

19181011APF1-headline

The State Board of Health. Wednesday, issued orders suspending all public assemblages and closing all places of amusement where people congregate. Churches, lodges, picture shows, theatres, patriotic and political meetings, are all under the ban. Public schools are the only exceptions, and they will be closed if influenza breaks out in them. Pool halls and Red Cross meetings were added in a supplementary statement issued yesterday by the secretary of the state board of health.

The purpose of the drastic order is to prevent the spread of influenza in Idaho if possible. It exists now in six counties, Twin Falls, Gooding, Canyon, Ada. Nez Perce and Bonner. So far as known there are only thirty cases but the disease spreads rapidly and owing to its severity in some localities the state board deemed it wise to take every precaution.

In a statement yesterday, Dr. Biwer, secretary of the state board of health, said the reason schools were excluded from the order was because it was believed the children could be watched better if they were kept together than if mingling with other people in the streets, or playing with each other without supervision. But that if the disease broke out In the schools they would be promptly closed along with other places.

It was reported yesterday that there were three cases in Power county, two at Neeley and one at American Falls, but the rumor proved to be untrue.

The greatest watchfulness should be kept, however, as it is likely to appear in unexpected places. For the benefit of the public the suggestions of Surgeon General Blue, of the U. S. Health department, are printed elsewhere in this issue. They are a little lengthy. but it will be time well spent to read them.

The epidemic, runs its course in about three months, according to the secretary of the state board of health, and this will be the maximum limit of time in which the closing order may be in effect. In all probability it will be in effect a much shorter time.
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One hundred and thirty-six deaths from pneumonia occurred at Camp Sherman, Ohio, between noon and 3 o’clock Tuesday afternoon. The total deaths since the outbreak of influenza at the camp are 576.
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The order regarding the closing of picture shows, churches, etc., on account of Spanish influenza, does not apply to Red Cross rooms. Rather, we are asked to redouble our efforts and be ready to render every possible assistance, should this epidemic strike our vicinity.

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 11 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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1918Atlantic5-a
Influenza victims crowd into an emergency hospital near Fort Riley, Kansas in 1918. National Museum of Health / AP

source: Alan Taylor April 10, 2018 “30 Photos of the 1918 Flu Pandemic” The Atlantic
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American Falls Press. October 11, 1918, page 3

Owing to the influenza epidemic the Ladies Aid of the St. John’s Lutheran church will not serve the chicken supper advertised for Saturday, October 12th.

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 11 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Clearwater Republican. October 11, 1918, page 1

Public Assemblages Are Strictly Forbidden.

Boise, Idaho, Oct. 9, 1918
County Health Officer, Orofino, Idaho:

State Board of Health directs you to inform mayors of cities and chairmen boards of village trustees in your county that because of Spanish influenza all public assemblages and places of public amusement, excepting private and public schools, be prohibited from operation on and after Thursday, October 10, 1918, until further notice. Letter of verification follows. You are directed to secure compliance with this order.

Biwer, Secretary.

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 11 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Kendrick Gazette. October 11, 1918, page 1

Will Not Lecture Tonight

On account of the ruling by the State Board of Health the lecture by Dean Eldredge, scheduled to take place tonight, will have to be postponed. There will be no more public gatherings until the Spanish Influenza epidemic has been checked.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 11 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier Examiner. October 11, 1918, page 1

19181011ME1-headline

At a meeting of the state board of health, held in Boise last Tuesday, drastic closing regulations were passed owing to the Spanish influenza epidemic that has besieged the country. The order of the board called for the closing of all theatres, churches and public assembly halls on and after October 10. County health officers were notified that they would be expected to enforce the order, which was contained in the following telegram:

State board of health directs you to inform mayors of cities and chairman board of village trustees in your county that because of Spanish influenza, all public assemblages and places of public amusements excepting private and public schools be prohibited from operation on and after Thursday, October 10, 1918, until further orders. Letter of verification follows. You are directed to secure compliance with this order.

The city board of health met with the council Wednesday night and the local situation was discussed. While it was admitted that the disease had not made its appearance in Montpelier, the health board decided to rigidly enforce the order of the state board, and went a step further by adopting a motion ordering the public schools closed, and directing that all parsons coming from places where the disease is prevalent be detained in temporary quarantine for a period of ten days.

County Physician King was present and after learning the action taken by the Montpelier public board of health stated that he would direct the trustees in every district in the county to close their schools and would see that the order of the state board, prohibiting the holding of public gatherings, was strictly enforced.

There Is no occasion for the public to become excited over the situation. Just use ordinary precaution and common sense and the quarantine can soon be raised. The Salt Lake Herald, in discussing the situation there, very aptly remarks:

“Remain composed and keep confidence. It Is unpleasant to be sick and Salt Lake may be In for a share of this sickness, but do not invite it by dire imaginations and worry. The thought should make all people cautious but it should not destroy ordinary horse sense.”

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 11 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier Examiner. October 11, 1918, page 4

Species of Frightfulness

As the spread of the scourge called the Spanish influenza goes on with its alarming rapidity one’s memory goes back to the summer of 1916 when infantile paralysis swept especially the lower districts of New York city and from there spread throughout the entire country. And when it was finally whispered about that the epidemic was another demonstration of German hate, the product of a military autocracy that could look far enough into the future to desire to bring harm to future generations in the United States, the people could scarcely believe that Prussian soldiers hacked Belgian babies to pieces.

After thousands of children had died American secret service agents learned that the germs of infantile paralysis had been isolated in Germany. They knew that if it was possible to isolate the germ, then it also was possible to spread the disease by artificial means. If it was possible to do such a terrible thing the secret service knew that Germany at least must be trying to do it.

Then began a series of investigations, and it was learned that a certain physician had come to America from Germany and that he was receiving money from the German government. It was also discovered that blue-bottle flies were placed in bits of germ culture and then turned loose in the crowded tenement districts of New York. The blue-bottle flies did the rest – the plague was spreading at a terrible rate. But before the secret service could round up its facts, Fate intervened. The German doctor became inoculated with the germ and died in the frightful agony that he had brought upon countless innocent children. Then the plague began to die down, proving conclusively that the physician was the sole cause of it.

And even now it is more than a suspicion that the Spanish influenza that is sweeping the United States, that is killing thousands of the brave boys in the cantonments, is not the Spanish influenza, but another German scourge, made in Germany and especially distributed throughout the United States in an attempt to murder and destroy our soldiers and our morale before our men get on the other side. This germ also has been isolated in Germany and can be produced whenever they desire, and that it is really, to use an unscientific word, a composite germ, produced by the grippe germ and pneumonia germ. Almost unerringly pneumonia is created by the pneumonia qualities of this composite germ. Another species of Hun frightfulness which no doubt would burn at the stake every man, woman and child in the world, if that would enable them to win this war.

Isn’t it awful even to believe that such inhuman monsters can exist In the form of human beings as these Germans are showing themselves to be?
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To Prevent Contagious Disease

Is alike the duty of the citizens and the health authorities. Neither can succeed without the co-operation of the other. By their combined faithful discharge of the obligations resting upon them, many lives may be saved and much suffering prevented. No fact is better established than that contagious diseases may be positively prevented by means of the restriction and destruction of the germs, which are the solo cause, and the practical methods by which this may be accomplished are quarantine and disinfection.

Owing to the numerous cases of Spanish influenza throughout our state, the Board of Health have closed the city schools, churches, Sunday schools, theatres, moving picture houses, ward meetings, dance halls, private dances, pool halls, card rooms, social gatherings of all kinds, and all public gatherings of any kind or nature.

A strict quarantine will be enforced and the Board of Health ask the support and co-operation of all citizens until this epidemic Is stamped out.

Dated this 9th day of Oct. 1918.
By order of Board of Health City of Montpelier.
Geo. F. Ashley, Chairman.
C. H. Toomer.
J. G. Merrill.
M. B. Cherry.
Approved by City Council October 9th, 1918.
R. N. Sneddon, Mayor.

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 11 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Meridian Times., October 11, 1918, page 1

All public Places Closed For A Time

By an order from the state board of health, in effect to-day (Friday) all public places are closed, as a health measure, as a result of the appearance of the Spanish influenza.

Dr. E. T. Biwer, secretary of the state board says:

“The closing order applies to all public gatherings for whatsoever purpose – all theatres, dace halls, churches, Natatorium, Liberty Loan rallies, political rallies – in fact all indoor meetings, public and private schools alone excepted.”

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 11 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. October 11, 1918, Page 5, page 5

Notice By Health Officer

Dr. C. A. Hoover, the county physician, received the following telegram Monday from the state board of health at Boise, Idaho:

“The state board of health directs you to inform mayors of cities and the chairmen of boards of village trustees in the county that because of Spanish influenza, all public assemblies and places of public amusement, excepting public and private schools be prohibited from operation on and after October 10, 1918. Letter of instructions follows. You are directed to secure compliance with this order until further instructions.

Biwer, Secretary.”
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The following instructions were received later:

“It is ruled this order includes theatres, moving picture shows, dance halls, lodges, pool and billiard halls, public swimming pools, public meetings of any character political, patriotic church socials etc. Health officers to report each Monday number of cases of influenza in county. Physicians required to report cases to county health officer.”

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 11 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., October 11, 1918, page 1

19181011DST1-headline
Moscow has no cases of Spanish influenza, so far as known, and the most rigid enforcement of regulations to prevent the disease from becoming established here have been ordered by the authorities. Even funerals must be private and no assemblages of people except in the schools, will be permitted. The proclamation by the city health officer, Dr. W. A. Adair, elsewhere in this issue tells what must be done in Moscow.

This city is fortunate in escaping the disease so far. Spokane has more than 100 cases and has had several deaths. Colfax has 14 cases, it is reported and has had one death. The county fair at Colfax was not held this week although everything was in readiness for it, but the influenza caused the closing of the fair, a great event for Whitman county.

Pullman has 25 cases and the churches, schools, pool halls, lodges, and Washington State College has been closed. All classes have been dismissed. The question of holding open air drills and training for the men of the S. A. T. C. at Pullman was left to the discretion of the army officers. It is to avoid such a situation here that the rigid enforcement of the rules forbidding meetings in Moscow are being urged.

Endicott, west of Colfax, has many cases and has had two deaths from the disease. Spokane closes all public places including the schools and is fighting a spread of the disease with all available means.

Mayor Truitt says that the schools will be permitted to continue as long as it is not regarded as dangerous for them to do so, but if it becomes necessary to close the schools this will be done.
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Official Notice

Notice is hereby given to all persons concerned that because of a epidemic form of Spanish influenza having made its appearance in localities near Moscow, if not in the city, therefore, for civic and military reasons, and also in compliance with the official order of the state board of health; it is hereby ordered that all public assemblages and places of amusement, except private and public schools, are prohibited from meeting, or operating, on and after Friday October 11, 1918, until further order.

Dated at Moscow, Idaho, October 11, 1918
W. A. Adair – City Health Officer

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 11 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Daily Star-Mirror., October 11, 1918, page 2

Moscow is fortunate in not having any cases of Spanish influenza. With the great crowd of students at the university and epidemic of that disease now would be a calamity.
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Red Cross Rooms Closed.

The Red Cross rooms in the government building will be closed during the quarantine.

Those contributing new sheets, pillow cases, towels and napkins to the Red Cross, may leave them at the home of Mrs. T. A. Meeker on Third street.

The hospital linen has not been coming in as expected. Since none has been shipped from the Moscow chapter since April, more is desired for our soldier boys much be cared for.

source: The Daily Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 11 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., October 14, 1918, page 1

No Cases of Influenza Discovered in Potlatch

Potlatch. – There have been false rumors circulated throughout the surrounding country that Potlatch has a number of influenza cases and Mr. A. A. McDonald, manager of the Potlatch Mercantile company has been kept busy at the telephone denying the report. As yet Potlatch is absolutely free from the epidemic which prevails and there has not been a single case of it reported thus far.

However, as a precautionary measure the state board of health has seen fit to close up theatres, etc., and has abandoned public meetings for the time being and this also applies to the Peoples Theatre of this city, which will be closed until further notice. As yet the public schools are still open and will continue as long as it is free from any cases of influenza.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 14 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., October 14, 1918, page 3

City News

Mayor Edmundson and wife, from Grangeville, were visiting friends in Moscow Friday and Saturday. He reports no cases of influenza so far in Grangeville.

Miss Frances Wiley, Delta Gamma, was called to her home at Waterville, Wash., by a telegram announcing the death of her brother-in-law, Sherman Gregory, a graduate of the university and a member of the Kappa Sigma fraternity. Mrs. Gregory was formerly Miss Marion Wiley. Mr. Gregory was first lieutenant, located at Elpaso [sic], Texas, and his death was caused by influenza and pneumonia.
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19181014DSM-headlineSchool Board Hires Nurse For Moscow

At a special meeting of the school board, held Saturday afternoon, the board authorized H. D. Martin, the president of the board, to employ a trained nurse during the period of danger from Spanish influenza, to supervise the health of the pupils and prevent as far as possible, an outbreak of the disease in our schools.

The patrons of the school are asked to refrain from sending their children to school if they show any suspicious symptoms of the disease, or if there be any possibility of any members of their family being inflicted.

It is the desire of the board that the schools be keep open if possible. If the patrons will use the necessary care they will lend material assistance to that end.

source: The Daily star-mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 14 Oct. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)