Idaho History Sept 20, 2020

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 23

Idaho Newspaper clippings January 3-7, 1919

School photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho

January 3

Montpelier Examiner. January 03, 1919, Page 1



Miss Henrietta Hart Succumbs to Influenza

Influenza claimed its first victim from the Raymond ward when Miss Henrietta Hart passed away at the L. D. S. Hospital in Salt Lake Thursday morning, Dec. 26.

Miss Hart had left her home Dec. 16, in the company with Mr. and Mrs. Wyley Call, to go by auto to Castle Dale, U., where she intended to stay for the winter. In some manner not known she contacted the dread malady on the way and was taken to the hospital for treatment. Her condition continued to grow worse until the end came.

Henrietta was the daughter of Bishop A. W. and Martha Hart of Raymond, and was 26 years old last May. …

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 03 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier Examiner. January 03, 1919, Page 5

Flu About Had Its Run in Montpelier

The flu situation in Montpelier is better this morning than it has been at any time in the past two months. Officer Hillier informs us that only eight homes are under quarantine, but several of them will be released tomorrow. If no new cases develop there will not be a home under quarantine by the middle of next week.

The situation in the county, however, is not as good as it was a week ago, as the disease has made its appearance in Geneva, Lanark and Wardboro, but the cases are all mild ones.
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Local News

A son registered at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Jesse Law last Sunday. The mother is now ill with the flu but she and the babe are getting along nicely.

Miss Helen Gray returned to Salt Lake last Monday to renew her studies at Rowland Hall, which had been closed for some time on account of the influenza.

Rev. J. G. A. Martin left yesterday for Boise on receipt of news that Mrs. Martin was ill. He will return the first of the week if the condition of Mrs. Martin will permit.

Miss Jesse Perkins, who has been ill at the Montpelier hospital for the past three weeks, is now convalescing and will be able to return to her home the first of the week. Following the influenza, she had a severe hemorrhage of the lungs and her condition was quite serious for a few days.

Owing to the presence of influenza at Albion, the state normal school will not re-open until Jan. 13. Students returning to school will be required to present a health certificate signed by their family physician before they will be permitted to enter classes.

Dave Parker phoned in from Bennington yesterday to tell us that he and his family are now convalescing from a siege with flu. Mrs. Parker, had the most severe attack, of any of them, and is still quite weak but doing nicely. The two nurses leave today. Dave said he feels that they all owe their recovery to the good nursing that they received and he advises anyone who gets the flu to secure, if possible, Miss Laker or Miss Soreusen, as they will pull them through if any nurses can.

The Kemmerer Camera of this week reports that there are 200 cases of influenza in Jackson Hole. Dr. C. W. Huff, the only physician in that section, is ill with the disease and the conditions there are said to be very bad.
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S. W. Brammer is Victim of Pneumonia

At four o’clock last Saturday afternoon Stanley W. Brammer, the agent of the Oregon Short Line Railroad Company, died at the L. D. M. hospital, death being caused by pneumonia. Mr. Brammer had suffered with a severe cold for several days and was obliged to take to his bed on the morning of December 24th, and at 10:30 in the evening of the same day he was taken to the hospital with symptoms of pneumonia.

His condition at once became critical and the next day it was the opinion of the attending physicians that he could not live. He became gradually worse until the end came Saturday afternoon.

Mr. Brammer is survived by his wife and four children, Kenneth aged 13 years, Hazel, aged 12 years, Ruth four years of age, and Mary aged six months, and also by two sisters, Mrs. E. W. Bourne, and Miss Netta Brammer, both of Montpelier, Idaho. – Kemmerer Camera.
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At 3 o’clock Tuesday morning the thermometer at the railroad shops registered 25 degrees below zero, the lowest of the season so far.

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 03 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Meridian Times., January 03, 1919, Page 1


Death Last Saturday of Logan Grice.

Logan J. Grice, son of Joseph and Nettie J. Grice, was born in Sutton, Neb, February 1, 1891, and died at his home near Meridian, Saturday, December 28th, 1918, age 27 years, 10 months and 27 days. …

He was an honest upright young man and his many friends are grieved to learn of his death, which was the result of the prevailing influenza. It is sad to think that a strong young man, just in his prime, with a bright future before him, and everything to live for should thus be taken. …
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Editorial Mention

Oh you should not worry! Suppose the water pipes in your house had bursted – or suppose you were business manager just now of a Lyceum or winter Chautauqua bureau. Some things are pretty near as bad as the flu.
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When the boys come home – happy day – let’s not spend much time on receptions and fol-de-rols. The first thing he needs – to keep from getting the flu – is a few nights of good sleep at home, to quiet his nerves, and then you can – in your own way – help him to plan for work. A soldier boy has made the days count while away – fighting for you and I – and he does not want a job of loafing when he comes home.
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In the language of Guy Fienner – Happy flu year.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 03 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Meridian Times., January 03, 1919, Page 8

Meridian News Notes

It is planned for both the rural high school and the grade school to open next Monday in Meridian, if the influenza situation shows no change for the worse.

V. Richardson, the painter, is laid up with Spanish influenza.

Ira Voorhees is at home quarantined with influenza.

Will Ulmer, living south of Meridian, is reported in a critical condition with the influenza.

Charlie Harris, the auto hustler, is quite ill with influenza at the home of his parents in Meridian.

Charles Ayers and family, residing near Victory, are on the road to recovery after a siege with the influenza. Three of the children and Mrs. Ayers were ill at one time.

Word has been received from Ontario that Mrs. Aker and son (who were here visiting with her sister, Mrs. Harry Tolleth during the holidays) have the Spanish influenza, but in a light form.

C. H. White, the popular president of the Ellison-White Chautaugua was in Meridian Wednesday evening, at a meeting held at G. A. Remington’s office. He suggested to the committee that a winter Chautauqua festival be put on in Meridian the latter part of the winter. The whole program, however, is “up in the air” awaiting the development of the flu plague.
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Death at Nampa Wednesday of Max Milner

Max Milner, age 25 years, manager of the local office of the Gem State Lumber company, at Nampa, and until recently manager of the yard at this place, died Wednesday Jan. 1, 1919, at 2:30 p.m. at his home at Nampa, of leakage of the heart, the condition being brought on by a serious case of influenza. …
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Services Sunday At The Methodist Church.

Sunday school at 10. Public worship at 11, Epworth League at 6:45, public worship at 7:30, and prayer meeting Thursday evening at 7:30.

The clocks were turned back one hour January 1st. so the church will hold all services on the new time. Please bear this in mind.

While there are a good many cases of influenza in the community, yet we feel that we should not let fear control us to the neglect of attending the appointed means of grace, as far as possible. Please read Psalm 91.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 03 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., January 03, 1919, Page 1


Linden District Has Influenza Epidemic

Word has been received that the influenza is raging around Linden on Cedar Creek ridge above Kendrick. All winter there had been no cases in that immediate vicinity, and following the Christmas entertainment at the school house and epidemic ensured. Cases of the disease developed in almost every family in the neighborhood and in some instances entire families are stricken.

The call has come to Moscow for nurses, and Mrs. Newhall, a former resident of the ridge, has gone to assist.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 03 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., January 03, 1919, Page 2

City News

Mrs. W. L. Rambo went to Troy today to nurse influenza cases.

Mrs. A. Desnoyer went to Southwick today to nurse some influenza cases.

Mrs. P. W. Cooper has received the sad news that her son, Harry, died of influenza at Enterprise, Oregon. Rev. P. W. Cooper is a minister of the Church of God and is now in Enterprise.
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Clinton Precinct …

Mr. and Mrs. C. M. Haynes and children have recovered from illness of influenza.
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One benefit of the new year is that residents of Idaho and Washington will save vast sums that would have been spent in traveling expenses to Montana, had not that state “signed the pledge.”

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 03 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Shoshone Journal. January 03, 1919, Page 5


Local and Personal News

The school board held a special meeting last Friday evening.

Miss Tress McMahon, 1st and 2nd Grade teacher on the North Side has been on the sick list this week.

Mrs. Hail Horne has been on the sick list for the past week.

Dr. Zeller was in town Monday.

The J. W. Lundin family are recovering from the “flu.”

Miss Evelyn Wheeler is recovering from the flu.

Mrs. Price Newman is recovering from pneumonia.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 03 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Voorhees Hall, College of Idaho, Caldwell, Idaho (1)


courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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January 4

The Daily Star-Mirror., January 04, 1919, Page 1


19190104DSM2To Continue Quarantine – Say Churches Will Rebel

The quarantine which has been in effect the past week is to be continued for another week, according to the health officers. Open rebellion to the order is threatened by some of the ministers and other interests affected. A “war to the knife and the knife to the hilt” is threatened unless someone backs down.

Last night a meeting of the board of health was held in the office of L. F. Parsons, chairman of the council of defense, chairman of the school board and federal labor agent. Dr. Rae county health officer; Dr. Adair, city health officer; Dr. Boyd, representing the city council, he being a member of the council committee on “public health and sanitation.” Mr. Parsons and H. D. Martin of the school board and several others were present. After much discussion it was decided to continue the quarantine and not permit churches to open tomorrow, as they had expected to do, and to not allow pool rooms or shows to reopen. A statement prepared by the board setting forth its reasons was prepared and is given herewith.

The new order will cause much dissatisfaction if not open rebellion in Moscow. Rev. W. H. Bridge, rector of St. Marks Episcopal church, brought the usual church notice of Sunday services to The Star-Mirror office for publication. When told that the board of health would refuse to permit church services to be held, Rev. Mr. Bridge said: “We will hold services anyway and they can arrest the bunch of us.” As Rev. Mr. Bridge left the office of The Star-Mirror he met Rev. J. Quincy Biggs, pastor of the Christian church, and the two ministers held a conference on the street. The Star-Mirror editor asked Rev. Mr. Biggs what action he planned to take and he replied: “We will go ahead. This town has been too quiet. We will have some life in it and you can have some real live, interesting news.”

Mr. Kenworthy of the Kenworthy theatre, will be hurt financially and a large number of people in Moscow and other towns will be greatly disappointed if the order is enforced. The Kenworthy theatre has booked one of the best plays on the roads – not a picture, but a real live play with 30 first class people right from New York, for Wednesday evening. The play is “Daddy Long Legs” a play that has been produced from one of the most interesting books of recent years. Scores of people from other towns would probably be here to see this great play. Mr. Kenworthy is consulting an attorney and if others interested will agree to “stand by” him he will probably open the theatre and take the matter into court. It appears, from the division of sentiment heard on the street, that it would be very difficult to secure a jury that would convict if an arrest of a minister or business man for violation of the order were made. Mr. Kenworthy has many sympathizers who have urged him to give this show that has been advertised and offer to assist him in fighting the case in court.

Those affected by the order feel some resentment against the health officers and have been “looking up the law” and discovered that there is a penalty consisting of a fine not to exceed $300 and imprisonment for any officer failing to quarantine a contagious disease by placarding the house and they claim that this has not been done in Moscow and that if arrests are made for violation of the health officer’s orders other arrests will be made for violation of this statute. The situation here is fast assuming that of Russia with its revolution, counter-revolutions and “bargain-counter” revolutions. The statement issued by the board of health follows:

At a meeting held last evening the school board, upon recommendation of health officers, Adair and Rae, and the committee on public health and hygiene of the city council, decided to not open the grade schools for another week.

Up to yesterday afternoon but two families had been reported as having the influenza, but late in the afternoon four new families were reported as being inflicted.

A student at the Creekmur Business College came down with the disease in school, and it is presumed that some thirty students therein have been exposed. Health Officer Adair is taking immediate steps today to keep the situation in this school under surveillance. The students therein will be watched very closely and be quarantined at once if they show any symptoms of the disease.

The return of the university students to Moscow was another contributing factor; making it in the opinion of the health officers desirable to not open the schools further at this time, and to also to keep on the quarantine which has been in effect during the past week. They feel that there is a great danger of Moscow, being reinfested by the return of the college students owing to the fact that they are coming back from all parts of this state, some of which are badly infected. The health officers are proving, in cooperation with the university authorities, quarantine …

(continued on page 8)

regulations to be observed by the student body of the university with the hope of minimizing this risk.

The health officers also decided not to permit the opening of the churches, picture shows, billiard halls and card rooms, and to maintain a strict house quarantine and keep in force the other rules and regulations that were laid down a week go.

Some of the merchants have advertised sale for the coming week. These cannot be stopped without closing of the stores, The merchants will be permitted to hold their sales under quarantine regulations with the police supervision appointed by the mayor, which will prevent any crowding or conjesting [sic] in the stores.

Dr. Adair in speaking of the situation in Moscow said that is had come to his attention there was considerable breaking on the part of the people of the quarantine rules; that some people were not recognizing in the proper spirit the house quarantine, and there were others holding parties of various kinds and description which is a great risk to themselves and their guests that some people seemed to consider that the quarantine regulations were made for the observance of others and not for themselves; that he had appealed to the people to cooperate with the health officers to the first interest of the community, but that a considerable number were failing to do this, and that there only remains one thing for him to do and that was to use the policing power of the city to enforce the quarantine regulations that he has asked for the appointment of a special policeman to enforce the health regulations, and from this time on any person willfully violating the same would be prosecuted to the full extent of the law.

Superintendent Rich of the high school reported that no cases had developed from the opening of the high school, and that all the students were under a close observation of the school nurse.

Creekmar Makes Statement.

T. N. Creekmur, proprietor of the business college, feels that an injustice has been done him and his school by the report of the board and issued the following statement in regard to the case under discussion:

A young man who was in attendance at the business college left school at noon (Friday) and did not return in the afternoon. He went to the doctor who told him that he had the influenza.

The students in the business college have been instructed that in case of any symptoms of illness to remain out of school. Where upon this young man acting under my instructions, consulted a physician and is now under quarantine.

Our college is now running under the direct inspection of the health officers, and an examining physician will examine the students each day.

T. N. Creekmur, President Creekmur’s Business College.
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Whereas, a state of sickness caused by contagious disease is now prevalent in the City of Moscow, Idaho, and

Whereas, such sickness is a dangerous menace to the general public health and welfare, and the medical health department of Latah county, Idaho, and the City of Moscow, Idaho deem that the holding of public or quasi public meetings, gatherings or assemblage of people or persons is fruitful to the spreading of the existing disease and sickness, and

Whereas, an emergency exists, therefore, in my opinion;

Now Therefore, I, Warren Truitt, mayor of the City of Moscow, Idaho, under and by virtue of the power and authority in me vested by the laws of the state of Idaho, do hereby proclaim and declare that until the further proclamation by me made and announced, there shall not be held within the corporate limits of the City of Moscow, Idaho, nor within one mile of the corporate limits of the City of Moscow, Idaho, any public or quasi public meetings, assembly, or gatherings of people or persons; (provided that this proclamation shall not apply to or include any school or schools, meetings or assembly of people, that are permitted to be conducted under the quarantine regulations of Latah county, and the City of Moscow, Idaho, health officers.)

Dated and done at Moscow, Idaho, this 4th day of January, A. D. 1919.

Warren Truitt, Mayor of the City of Moscow, Idaho.
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Mild Quarantine At The University
The Big School Will Cooperate With The Health Officer of Moscow

School opens at the University of Idaho Monday after a short vacation for the holidays. There will be several short courses open at the same time and it is hoped that there will be a large attendance. Every train from southern Idaho brings returning students. The O. W. R. and N. train yesterday evening brought a number from the south part of the state. The indications are that the attendance will be good and the university authorities desire to protect the health of the students and that of the citizens of Moscow. In consequence the following regulations have been made for the governing of the students until all danger of contagion is past. The statement issued by Dean Thompson, secretary, follows:


In view of the diversity of exposure undergone by members of the university during the vacation, and in recognition of the strenuous efforts of the city of Moscow to rid itself of influenza through the imposition of a rigid quarantine, closing of all meetings and the like it has been thought best that for the first few days of the new quarter all students should remain away from town and from contact with town people. This step it is felt will commend itself to the good judgement of all sensible persons, and the slight inconvenience entailed they will be recognized as a contribution to the general health of the entire community, town and university alike.

Specifically, the request is that until Saturday noon, January 11th, no students of the university, with the exceptions noted below, go down town, or through town for any purpose whatever.

Exceptions, (1) Persons residing in town may continue to attend the university as usual with the proviso, that they are to go direct from their residence to the university and back again, avoiding all visiting, shopping and loitering during the time specified.

(2) Each organization-house may designate one of their number preferably an upper-class student, to serve as a messenger for necessary errands down town. The name of the person so designated to be promptly reported to the president’s office, such person to serve throughout the week. Attention is also called to the fact that practically all shopping, ordering of books, etc., may be done by telephone if necessary.

The compliance of all in obedience to this request is of course taken for granted.

Advisory Committee to the President.

Francis A. Thomson, Secretary.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 04 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., January 04, 1919, Page 3

Potlatch Has Some Influenza.

W. A. Fiscus, postmaster at Potlatch, was in Palouse yesterday on business. He states that while Potlatch has up to the present had comparatively little influenza, a considerable number of cases have developed during the past few days – a greater number than at any previous time since the epidemic first made its appearance. So far as known there are no serious cases. There is said to be a number of cases [at] Onaway, and also a considerable number in the Cora neighborhood. – Palouse Republlic.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 04 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., January 04, 1919, Page 6

The Influenza Muddle.

Pullman, Palouse, Colfax, Garfield, Feardon and many other towns across the line in Washington, will lift the influenza ban and open their schools, churches and other places that have been closed, tomorrow and Monday. Spokane reopened her schools this week and the ban is to be lifted in that city at once and announcements are being sent out that large conventions (the live stock and the Farmers Union) which were to have been held in December, will be held soon.

Yet it is said that none of these towns are as free from influenza as is Moscow, where everything is to be closed tighter than ever next week, if the health board’s orders are followed. We have had one week of the high school open with 83 per cent of the highest enrollment without a single case of influenza and the report of the health officer shows fewer new cases of the disease in Moscow than at any time since the disease appeared here. A total of six cases are reported for the week as compared with eight for the last week and 24 for the previous week, 26 for the week before that and 39 for the week proceeding that one.

The clamping down of the lid at this time, when the people have been so patient and a great majority of them have obeyed the rules without complaint, is causing much ill feeling and there is strong talk of open rebellion against the order and taking the case into the courts. This is to be regretted, for a feud would undoubtedly result and the town, which has been working harmoniously for many months, would again divided into factions. “In union there is strength” applies to towns as well as to nations and individuals.
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Palouse Boy Had Unusual Experience.

Wade Siler, son of Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Siler, arrived at home the latter part of last week from Vancouver, having received his discharge. He entered the service in the spruce division, about four months ago, but because of a severe attack of influenza, had not been put to work. He had an experience with the influenza which is somewhat out of the ordinary, and which would not be sought. He contracted pneumonia with the disease and was so low at one time that those in attendance thought him dead and he was “laid out,” covered with a sheet. Even with this handicap, his strong constitution brought him through, and he is now in excellent health. – Palouse Republic.
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Contribution Box

Dear Sir: I cannot withhold an expression of indignation at the treatment of the churches by the power that govern our city. I don’t know who is responsible. As a minister of the gospel I feel intensely the insult offered Sunday by Sunday to Almighty God in that while gathering for all business and educational purposes are allowed, a ban is placed upon the worship of God. Because six cases of flu are registered in a week we are forbidden, what is to us, a necessary privilege, the worship of Almighty God. We have in all things hitherto been loyal cooperators in all efforts for the good of the community. We are still, but we intend to bear witness to the energy of our conviction.

I want to lay these following facts before the public: First, the numbers attending the church services in the several churches are fewer than the numbers present in stores during the week. For instance, our Holy Communion (an intensive act of devotion) is attended by six or eight people, all of them personally known to us, in a building seating 200. Our average congregation for many months has been below 30. We have met in a well ventilated building, with the atmosphere saturated with benetol, for a period of one and a half hours in a week.

During the period of the epidemic we willingly closed. Now we come to a situation in which six cases are registered in one week, in which the stores feel safe in holding sales, where there are gathering, for hours in the day, and every day, more people than gather in our church once a week. Furthermore no intimation of the ban is vouchsafed until all our work for Sunday is prepared, viz., 9:45am on Saturday. Is this either sane or courteous treatment? Is this attitude towards the Christian church compatible with the constant appeal made for cooperation in the war activities?

All I ask for, is that the authorities take the trouble to investigate what numbers gather in the churches and under what conditions, and to act accordingly. I am not asking the privilege of indiscriminate gatherings of large crowds, but of small gatherings of definitely known people, under inspected conditions. This is a far safer activity than the every day activities of the store […?] cannot secularize my mind […?] to believe that we can […?] cutting out God!

W. H. [Bridge?]
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Another Speed Record.

The United States beat every other nation engaged in the general world war in preparing and organizing an army and sending it across 3000 miles of submarine infested waters. The United States made greater progress in the first six months after it entered the war than England made in the first two years. The speed of the United States surprised our allies and paralyzed our enemies.

And now another speed record has been made. On November 1 soldiers were being sent across the ocean at the rate of 300,000 per month, despite the influenza epidemic. On November 11 the armistice as signed, after a number of transports had been loaded with soldiers to be sent to Europe. These were unloaded and the return movement started. Yesterday Secretary Baker announced that 700,000 soldiers have been discharged from the army since November 11 and that in five weeks 1,000,000 soldiers will be discharged. America is setting anew speed record in getting back to normal conditions.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 04 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., January 04, 1919, Page 7

19190104DSM3Bacteriologist Explains How Influenza Is Spread

The rules and regulations recently laid down by the health officer to stamp out the influenza which is now prevalent are causing considerable discussion, and there are a number of people that object thereto. It is believed that these objections are largely due to the lack of understanding as to the reasons therefore, and inasmuch as these reasons are of a scientific nature, based upon bacteriological knowledge, the Star-Mirror has had prepared an article, which is published herewith, with the hope that it will be of service to its patrons in giving them a better understanding of the reasons for the quarantine and assist them in protecting themselves and other members of the community from the spread of this disease which has caused more deaths than the recent war and all other epidemics that have prevailed in our country for many years past.

The Whyfore of Quarantine Rules.

During the past year the disease known as influenza had become the pandemic throughout the world. It has developed and spread to such an extend that it is now considered a plague. The death rate in some localities has been enormous. The mortality among our soldier boys has been greater than that caused by bullets and other diseases combined. The disease developed and spread so rapidly that is caused chaos to prevail in the minds of the health officers and the public at large. The specific organism causing the disease is not known to scientists, therefore, the medical professionals and health officers have been unable to develop a specific preventative or curative agent for the same. Until such time as the organism producing the disease can be isolated and its life habits specifically determined no specific way of combating can be provided.

While the organism that produces influenza is not known, it has been determined that influenza is an infectious disease, a disease caused by a living organism, which can undoubtedly be classed as a bacteria, this, until more specific knowledge is had, the medical professions and health officers can only use those precautions that have been found effective in the combating of other bacterial diseases. This they are endeavoring to do by the utilization of quarantine rules that have been found effective in the control of smallpox, scarlet fever measles, mumps, etc. The quarantine rules for these various diseases are modified in accordance with the severity and degree of the contagion possessed by each, they are also modified in accordance with the mode of infection and transmission of the disease.

It is not the purpose of this article to deal with the various modifications of these quarantine rules as laid down for the several diseases, but to deal more especially with the general principles of the quarantine regulations that have been found effective in preventing bacterial infection and to show the reasons therefore.

A knowledge of what bacteria are, how they produce diseases and how they are transmitted from one individual to another is essential to understand the reasons for the quarantine regulations.

Bacteria are the smallest form of life known to scientists. It is commonly said that one thousand of them can dance upon the point of a pin without inconvenience. They are found everywhere, in the air, in the soil, in streams, lakes and oceans and they are carried about from one place to another by the winds, by the movement of all articles of commerce, the movement of people and other animals, birds and reptiles from one place to another. But relative few of the known bacteria produce disease. Each of these have a specific method of entering the human form, and produce certain reactions therein. No one can have diphtheria without the diphtheria germ present. The smallpox germ will produce smallpox only, the organism of measles will produce measles and not mumps. The bacteria that produce diseases in the human body are those that find in the human body the necessary nutriment and conditions favorable for their growth and multiplication, in the same sense that a wheat kernel finds the proper nourishment in the soil for its growth. The wheat kernel will not germinate or grow in an unfavorable soil or under improper climatic conditions. The same is true of bacteria. This explains why some persons do not have the influenza. Their bodies do not provide the proper soil.

In the process and growth and multiplication in the body, these little organisms excrete substances which are poisonous, and they destroy or impair some vital functions. No symptoms of the disease are apparent until sufficient time has elapsed after the entrance of the infecting germ. Enough time has to elapse for the bacteria to multiply and produce sufficient poison or otherwise impaired and functioning of the body to produce discernible symptoms. This time that elapsed between the entrance of the germ and the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease is known as the incubation period.

The incubation period of influenza is from two to four days. This means that it takes the germ from two to four days to produce sufficient poison in the body to cause a headache, backache or dizziness. It also means that before these symptoms appear that the few invading germs multiply, producing thousand upon thousand of their kind before we become aware of their presence. The germs continue to multiply during the course of the disease. The infected person is a host and producer of the germs causing the disease from the moment of his infection until his complete recovery. By his movements from place to place during any part of that time he may scatter this disease broad cast. To prevent this, the quarantine rules provide for the isolation of the infected person, and thus confine as far as possible the germs to the source of production.

The quarantine of the individual has been found very effective in the combating of some diseases. In the case of influenza and others it has not been found sufficient. The germs of the influenza are believed to grow and multiply in the air passages and inasmuch as they are there multiplying during the incubating period of two to four days, an infected person can and does spread the disease during that period. This was very forcibly illustrated in a small town not far from Moscow. Two soldier boys returned home from an infected training camp apparently in good health. Their circulated about the town visiting their many friends. Shortly they took their their beds. Their many friends soon did the same. In the course of two weeks 50 per cent of the people of the town were down with the disease.

To prevent the spread of the disease during the incubating period, health laws provide for not only the quarantine of the afflicted individual, but also all persons residents of the same building who have come in contact with him and have been exposed. Thus we have the reasons for the quarantine of the homes, permitting no one to leave or enter.

It has been demonstrated and proven by bacteriological science that bacteria can live a considerable length of time without growth or multiplication, in the same sense that the spark of life in a kernel of wheat can live a considerable length of time out of its natural habitat, and will grow again when placed in the soil under favorable conditions.

It has been found the disease producing bacteria are carried upon the clothes and other articles that may come in contact with a person suffering with an infectious disease, and who by chance contaminates that article. This was very forcibly demonstrated in a district also not far from Moscow, where two rural families came down with the disease practically upon the same day. The members of these two families had not been away from their homes for a considerable time, and had not come in contact with anyone having the disease prior thereto. The question at once arose how did those two families become infected. In tracing the matter it was found that the rural mail carrier on that route had come down with the disease two or three days prior to the time that these two families showed symptoms of the disease; that prior to the time that the mail carrier came down, (during the incubation period) he delivered to each of the two families a weekly paper, and that on that day the mail carrier had coughed and sneezed several times, and that the papers delivered had thus become the carriers of the germs of the disease to the two families, thus we have another reason for the “house quarantine.” The individuals therein together with their clothing and any article leaving the infected homes may be the source of spreading the disease.

Individual and house quarantines prove sufficient in most instances for the prevention of the spread of an infectious disease. Occasionally carelessness ignorance, willful covering up of the presence of the disease and other violations of health laws causes a disease to become so prevalent and the disease germs so scattered, that additional quarantine measures become necessary.

Who has and who has not been exposed in the disease cannot be determined. It is recognized that a great many persons may be in the incubation stage of the disease and are capable of spreading disease germs. Articles of commerce become carriers of the disease. When this condition arises community quarantine becomes necessary. This is put in force by the health officers immediately taking steps to stop the going and coming of all individuals; to request all people to stay at home as far as possible; to stop the unnecessary movement of articles from one place to another. They prohibit all public gatherings and close all non-essential industries, and restrict as far as possible general business. It is impossible to stop all commerce. It is necessary that the people have the necessities of life, irrespective of the fact that there is a risk of the transmission and spread of the disease.

Community quarantine is difficult to enforce. It can be made effective only by unanimity of action on the part of all. Ignorance, carelessness and willful violation on the part of a few can jeopardize the interest of a community. Selfishness on the part of various interests that are restricted is an inhibiting factor. Every pressure is placed upon the health officers to cause them to lift the ban. Very frequently the pressure brought to bear is sufficient to cause the lifting of the community quarantine too early, and a recurrence of the disease follows. Bacteriological and good health technic [sic] requires the holding of the community quarantine until such times as the number of infected homes becomes comparatively few. The community quarantine is then gradually lifted, and strict house quarantine maintained thereafter.

For a time in this city, the picture shows and billiard halls were allowed to remain open, while the schools were closed. This condition was reversed by the recent rulings, the schools opened and the other places closed. To those ignorant of the modes of transmission of disease, this would appear inconsistent, some would say that is conditions are such that it makes it necessary for the closing of churches, picture shows, and billiard halls and other places, why would it permit the opening of the schools? The recent actions of the school authorities of forbidding the students, who broke the quarantine rules by attending dances and other gatherings, to attend school indicates the answer to that question.

The churches, billiard halls and picture shows are public places to which persons from all parts of the city and from out of town gather; they are placed where there is a great risk of coming in contact with a person having the disease in the incubative stage or the germ upon his clothing; they are places from which the disease may be brought into the schools. The closing of these places by the health officer is based upon good bacteriological and public health technic [sic].

A great deal of stress has been laid upon the matter of dancing by the health officers and physicians in preventing the spread of the influenza. This is also based on a good bacteriological reason. The germs of the influenza are supposed to grow and multiply in the air passages and they are thrown off from the person by violent breathing, sneezing and coughing. The position taken in dancing brings the air passages of the two individuals in comparatively close proximity and makes it easy for the transmission of the bacteria that are thrown off in breathing from one to another. The danger of dancing was forcibly illustrated in a nearby town where eighteen young people gathered for a home dance. Every one of the eighteen came down with the disease, and it is said that no one attending the dance had symptoms prior thereto. (This also shows that it is not essential to come in contact with an individual who is down with the disease to take the same.) Dancing is conducive to the transmission of all infectious disease, inasmuch as it produces fatigue and reduces the resistance that the human body has to infection.

Moscow is to be congratulated for the success it has had in managing the spread of the epidemic. Her record for the number of persons having the influenza and the death rate therefrom has been the lowest of any community of like size in this region. Her ability to maintain this record depends on her people recognizing individually and collectively that all danger is not past and to bear in mind:

1st. That the organism causing influenza is scattered broad cast and that every individual is liable to infection.

2nd. That every infected person is a source of production of the cause of the disease and menace of the community.

3rd. That the quarantine rules are made for the purpose of lowering the number of persons infected, the number of germs produced, and the ultimate destruction of those now in existence.

4th. The quarantine regulations can only be made effective by a conscious observance by all.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 04 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., January 04, 1919, Page 8

Kamiah Schools Closed Again.

Superintendent Reberg was taken with the influenza last Friday and two other teachers, Mrs. Omans and Miss Mae McLeod, were ill also, so the school was closed at once and will probably remain closed until the flu is entirely wiped out of Kamiah. There has been considerable discussion about closing thru the week, but the illness of the superintendent and so many of the teachers settled the matter without action of the board. Miss Richmond is also sick at Orofino, having gone home the first of the week. – Progress.
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Mrs. Knepper Returns

Mrs. R. B. Knepper, county school superintendent, returned last night from Boise, where she attended the annual meeting of county school superintendents and principals. She reports a very satisfactory and instructive session of the states’ educators. …

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 04 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Moscow High School, Moscow, Idaho ca. 1911


courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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January 6

The Daily Star-Mirror., January 06, 1919, Page 1


19190106DSM2Health Officer Defends His Quarantine Measures

If the public were better informed as to the peculiar character of the deadly influenza germ, there would be less opposition to the orders of the health department and fewer difficulties would be put in the way of protecting the general public. This is the opinion of City Health Officer, Dr. W. A. Adair, who, following the discussion which arose last week, makes a statement to the citizens of Moscow The statement is as follows:

“Up to 5 o’clock Friday evening, January 3, every condition was decided favorable to the lifting of the community quarantine restriction, and it was my intention to advise lifting then. Before 7 o’clock, seven new cases were reported in five different families for the one day (Friday) and five additional ones for Saturday. This rate is much higher than that of any other two days during the last two weeks.

“The total number of new cases for the week from December 29 to January 5, is 17 cases. These cases are found in eight new families and one old one carried over from the preceding week, in which two new cases developed, in comparison to the number of cases last week being found in four families with six cases.

“Hereafter if anyone wishes to base their article of complaint base upon the number of cases during the week, kindly get your information up to date.

“Would state that those that are placing their faith in a strict house quarantine and contending for opening up the places now close are ignorant of the known facts concerning the modus operandi of the flu.

“While there is much the profession does not know about influenza we do know a few facts, namely that it is very infectious or contagious in its first stages. There are many well authenticated instances where whole gatherings have been infected and all came down by some one being present who had not yet realized that they had the disease.

“We recognize the truthfulness of the statement of U. S. Surgeon General Blue, who states that influenza is a crowd disease and should be handled as such. Because of these facts we can not quarantine as successfully against it as we do in smallpox and scarlet fever, for these diseases are not so infectious in their first stages and gradually develop to this stage as the eruptions and desquamations appear, and we have a chance to quarantine the patient before they have a chance to infect a crowd like they do with influenza. Hence the quarantining the individual will not suffice, but the crowds where people are likely to go much be prevented as much as possible if we are to further prevent and control the flu.”

W. A. Adair, City Health Officer
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Judge Adjourns Court Sin Die
Attorneys and Judge Agree to Uphold Health Officers

In accordance with an order issued some several weeks ago, Judge Steele convened court this morning, but owing to the influenza quarantine, adjourned it immediately for an indefinite period.

The judge called the attention of the attorneys to the fact that the health officers had forbidden public meetings, and he stated that nothing further would be done in court at the present time.

No jury has been ordered, and none will be called for at least two weeks, and not then unless the contagious disease is under control.

Judge Steele desires to go on record as being in entire sympathy with every effort to stamp out the influenza, and the members of the bar expressed their opinion that everything possible should be done to aid the health officers in bringing about a return of a healthy condition to the community. The bar was in perfect harmony in deciding that during the next two weeks no business should be transacted which would bring together a congregation of people.
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Ministers Will Convene
Methodist Church Holds District Meeting in Lewiston.

Rev. H. O Perry left today for Lewiston to attend the Moscow district meeting of the Methodist church. Other ministers who are passing through Moscow to attend the same meeting, are Rev. Chas. Creesy of Palouse, Rev. R. Thompson of Albion, Mrs. M. Newall of Thorton, and rev. F. R. Spaulding of Oakesdale.
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Young Matron Dies; Husband In France

A particularly sad case of death by pneumonia following influenza is that of Mrs. Joseph T. Perry, the news of whose passing away in Coeur d’Alene yesterday has just been received by relatives in Moscow. Mrs. Perry’s husband is in France and has been expecting recently to be ordered home at almost any time. He is a Moscow boy and enlisted as a volunteer in the Idaho National Guard company F. …

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 06 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., January 06, 1919, Page 2

The Quarantine

In a situation which so vitally affects the activities of every person in the community as does the influenza quarantine, there is bound to be a great diversity of opinion as to the proper procedure in respect to handling the disease.

There are those who sincerely believe that the schools, churches, moving picture shows, and other public gathering places could be opened and operated without incurring a general risk to public health. They feel that by the observance of certain precautions, school children and adults could be so protected as to eliminate all risk, and they consider that the curtailment of normal life of the community works an unnecessary hardship.

Some parents whose children have already suffered an attack of the epidemic and have recovered feel [?] the children who have perhaps thus established immunity from the plague should be allowed to attend school, at least.

It is natural that a man whose business prosperity, perhaps whose very business existence may depend upon the lifting of the quarantine should resent continued restrictions if he honestly does not consider those restrictions necessary to public safety.

There may be a great deal of right and justice in the conviction of this large group of people that the epidemic will not be spread by judicious opening of public places to be attended by grown-ups and children alike. The influenza is a baffling disease and appears to have characteristics which are not common to the more familiar contagious diseases, so far as the period of infection and the mode of infection are concerned. Until more is known of the germ and science has clearly proved the method and time of contagion, it would be unwise to form any very obstinate opinion as to the one and only system of combating a plague which has cost this country many more lives than the war has taken.

The Star-Mirror, although recognizing the sincerity and merit of the contentions of those who oppose the quarantine, nevertheless is strongly and unqualifiedly on the side of the authorities.

In the first place it is reasonable to assume that those who have come in close contact for many weeks past with this virulent disease are more competent to pronounce upon its deadly habits that are those who are less familiar with its manifestations.

In the second place, authority is vested by law in the men who are handling the situation, and the Star-Mirror believes that right-thinking citizens should always throw their force toward the support of the law and thereby uphold American ideas of government.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 06 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., January 06, 1919, Page 3

City News

Hallie Reitze, son of Mr. and Mrs. F. Reitze on South Adams is ill of influenza. Their two daughters are also victims of the disease, but all are making satisfactory progress toward recovery.

Jay Carithers, who is employed at Wallace’s jewelry store, returned yesterday from Pomeroy, leaving his wife on the road to recovery from an attack of the influenza. Mr. Carithers states the quarantine has been put on tighter than ever in Pomeroy. No one is allowed to enter or leave the city without a certificate of health signed by a physician.

Max Ebel, left this morning for Genesee, to manage the large farm for his mother, his brother George having died two weeks ago of influenza.

Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Nessly left Moscow Sunday forenoon for Seattle, called there by a telegram announcing the very serious illness of Mr. Nessly’s son, F. Leonard Nessly, who is sick with influenza at Seattle. The length of their absence will depend upon the result of his illness.

Miss Meta Schroeder, who teaches at Cornwall, spent the week end in Moscow visiting friends.

Miss Olive Zimmerman of Portland arrived yesterday to take up college work at the university.

Prof. and Mrs. H. H. Conwell returned Saturday evening from Spokane.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 06 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The East School, Weiser, Idaho


courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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January 7

The Idaho Republican. January 07, 1919, Page 1


Grazing Association Postpone Annual Meeting

The annual meeting of the Eastern Idaho Grazing association will be postponed indefinitely on account of influenza.

M. M. Farmer, Secretary.
— —

Idaho Newspapers Seem Failing Fast

The American Falls press, published semi-weekly for the past year or more, announces that it will hereafter be published on Thursday only, and that the Tuesday issue has been given up.

The two papers that have been published at Hailey, Idaho, have been consolidated and are now coming out as The Wood River Times Crews Miner, the name being long enough to provoke a fracture.

The twin Falls Chronicle has sent out the S. O. S. call for 500 subscribers for its weekly publication at 50 cents a year to put with what they already have at $2.00 a year. …

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. January 07, 1919, Page 3


The school board has decided not to reopen school at Wicks until a later date owing to the sickness in this district.

Hester Thompson is a victim of the flu at the present time, but is getting along nicely under the care of Dr. Mitchell.

Miss Jennie Sims was on the sick list the last of the week and unable to resume her duties as assistant at the county abstract office.
— —


The people of Thomas have donated liberally toward a new Pipeless furnace which is being installed in the meeting house. All are hoping that the epidemic will soon subside so that the people can mingle together again in the church and enjoy the new comfort.

It is reported that Joe Peterson is very ill with pneumonia at the present writing.

Leo Murdock and family are all recovering from an attack of influenza.

The family of Alaf Larsen are all suffering from influenza.

Mrs. Higgins will give a family party in the near future for her son Edward who is soon to return home from the training camps. The entertainment will be given in the large room in the basement in the school house.
— —

Returned To School

Lewis Stevens left Friday for Moscow, where he will resume his studies at the university.

He has been spending the holidays at the home of his parents Mayor and Mrs. A. B. Stevens.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. January 07, 1919, Page 4

Another Victim of “Flu”

Frank Vernon Ellis of Gooding, Idaho and grandson of Mrs. C. H. Ellis of Blackfoot, Idaho died of influenza in the camp hospital at Ft. Rosencranz the first of December.

He is twenty-one years of age and has been in the services since October. He was given a military funeral at San Diego and buried there, his parents attending the ceremonies, in view of the fact that they expect to move to that part of California soon, they decided interment should be made there.

He is survived by his parents, two brothers and three sisters and his grandmother Mrs. Ellis of this place.
— —

Wool Growers’ Meeting Postponed

The National Wool Growers’ association were planning on holding a monstrous meeting at Salt Lake city on January 16, 17, and 18 for wool growers from all parts and divisions of the west, but on account of the influenza epidemic the meeting has been postponed indefinitely and proper notice will be given when the next date is set.
— —

In The Gem State

More than 10,000 men were furnished under the draft from Idaho during 1918.

In 1918 war efforts of the state coupled with those of 1917, brought the number of men from Idaho who donned Uncle Sam’s uniform to more than 25,000.

Fifteen golden stars shine on the Bonneville county service flag, indicating fifteen brave sons of that county who have given their lives in defense of their country.

Sixteen cases of whisky was poured into the river at Boise last week, the liquor having been taken from bootleggers at different times.

Last week a quarantine was put on at Moscow by which all churches, picture shows, lodge meetings and every other gathering was forbidden in an effort to rid the town of flu cases.

Managers or proprietors of five local pool halls at Nampa and the manager of the Majestic theatre were arrested last week for alleged violation of the resolution passed by the county board of health recently which ordered all public places, including pool halls and theatres, closed until January 6.

With his pardon papers dated December 24, and all his plans made to spend a happy Christmas with his wife and two children in Pocatello, Fritz Schmidt, 36 years of age, died at the Idaho penitentiary before he could be released.

Inland Northwest

The meeting of the Lemhi Woolgrowers’ association, scheduled for January 6, at Salmon, Idaho, has been indefinitely postponed on account of the “flu” epidemic.

Chief Moiese of the Flathead reservation in Montana, the one remaining link on the reservation between the old invasion of Chief Joseph of Nez Perce and the present, died of influenza last week.

Influenza caused 571 deaths in Seattle during the first eleven months of 1918, according to the annual report of the city health commissioner. Since the epidemic started 200,000 doses of vaccine have been given out by the city health department, the report showed.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. January 07, 1919, Page 5

Local News

Miss Blamche King returned to Ogden Friday, after several weeks here nursing influenza patients.

Mrs. Ernest Nugent is much improved and is in the hospital at Pocatello.

Mrs. P. L. Kreft went to Pocatello Friday to visit with her sister Mrs. Nugent, who is in the hospital there.

Ernest Nugent returned from Pocatello Thursday, where he spent a few days with his wife who is in the St. Anthony hospital.

The family of H. Andrew Benson have been ill with the influenza and are on the high road to recovery.

A number of young folks enjoyed an evening of dancing at the K. P. hall Friday night. Music was furnished by a four piece orchestra.

Miss Jennie Sims, employed at the county abstract office, is ill and unable to attend to her duties at the present time.

Dr. Whitwell, one of the prominent citizens of Salmon City and former member of the legislature, died of influenza recently.

Miss Ester Belgum, who has been nursing at the home of Mrs. Emma Nelson of [Lakeside?] is now the guest of Mrs. James Mackie of this city.

Miss Hester Thompson, daughter of J. C. Thompson of Wicks, is quite ill with influenza at the present writing.

Jake Mulville returned home Thursday night, after receiving an honorable discharge, but it ill and confined to his room in the Cottage Hotel at the present time.

Bryce, the little son of Fred Goff, who was very ill at the time of his mother’s death and who is now in California with his grandparents, is reported to be well again.

Fred Goff writes from Long Beach, Cal. that both he and his little son Bryce arrived there quite safely and that Bryce is now entirely recovered from influenza and its effects.

Mrs. A. P. Friar and family are ill with influenza. Mr. Friar, who is mail clerk on the Mackay branch is nursing them and reports that all are doing quite well.

Mrs. Fred Potter of Fort Hall is employed as nurse at the home of Fred Kleinschmidt of Blackfoot. Both Mr. Kleinschmidt and his wife are ill with influenza.

Mrs. Bernice Queen, teacher of Flagton school of Moreland district is quite ill with influenza at the home of her father John H. Murphy of this city. Her husband was called to her bedside from Aberdeen, Wash. where he was employed ass a carpenter in the government ship yards.

Superintendent James A. Langton of the Shelley schools was calling on friends and business acquaintances here Friday. Mr. Langton reports that he is quite pleased with the opening attendance of the schools there saying that it far exceeded expectations.
— —

Schools Will Condense Work

Mrs. Faulconer, county superintendent of schools, on her return from the meeting of the state teachers’ association at Boise, said it was considered best to have the school work for the rest of the year deal with the most essential things and try to do the full year’s work in them. Nearly all the schools have had teachers on salary and subject to call at time time, for this the full pay is allowed, so that the funds will be exhausted nearly as early as if school were in session.

The legislative committee will not ask for much in the way of legislation this year, but an effort will be made to have a separate reform school built for girls.
— —

Miss Hennaby Returns

Miss Mary L. Hennaby returned to Blackfoot Sunday from Granger, Wash., where she spent the past month with her parents. She resumed her work at the U. S. Land office Tuesday morning.

Shortly after Miss Hennaby arrived at her home she was taken very ill with the influenza, but has fully recovered now.
— —

Eastern Star Will Meet

The members of the eastern Star lodge will hold their next meeting at their lodge rooms Wednesday, Jan. 15.

This will be the first meeting since the influenza epidemic and a good attendance is desired.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. January 07, 1919, Page 6


Bishop Taylor has been on the sick list, having had a light case of influenza. He is much improved now.

Moroni Mecham’s family is suffering with the influenza.

M. Jensen has been staying out at Presto for a few days on account of his son’s family having the influenza.
— —


Mrs. Joe Tressel who has been on the sick list the past few days is very much improved.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. January 07, 1919, Page 7

Commissioners’ Proceedings

December 23, 1918

… In the matter of waiving the collection of billiard and pool licenses for the last quarter of the year 1918. In the above entitled matter it appearing to the board that the County Board of Health of Bingham County having heretofore made an order closing all amusement halls within the confines of Bingham County, owing to the influenza epidemic, and that by reason of this closing the owners of the various pool and billiard halls were compelled to suspend business, and thereby were deprived of their revenue, it is ordered that the sheriff be, and he is hereby authorized not to demand a state and county license from the various pool and billiard hall manager and proprietors of Bingham County for the quarter ending December 31st, 1918.

Ordered that this Board do now adjourn sine die.

F. T. Halverson, Chairman.
Attest: Fm. M. fisher, Secretary.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. January 07, 1919, Page 8

19190107TIR2Influenza patients Recovering by Degrees
Is Still Raging Where Quarantine is Maintained; Broke out at Places Where Ban Was Lifted

The epidemic has taken a new start in Boise and St. Anthony, where they lifted the ban. It has taken a new start also in places where they kept the lid down tight. Mackay kept up a quarantine and Mackay is full of flu.

At the Brown-Hart company, Thomas Dahman is back at work, but is very weak. Mrs. Dahman is past the critical stage. Miss Mabel Molden is back on the job after having the flu.

J. H. Early is in the office part of the time, after having acted as cook, nurse, chamber-maid and janitor at the Early home for a fortnight. Mrs. Early and their daughter, Mrs. Conlin had a hard siege of the flu, but are about well now.

The Henry Dunn family have completely recovered from the flu.

Miss Milbery Pew went to Pocatello to visit with her parents and has contracted the disease the second time. she is now suffering severely but is it hoped she will soon be able to resume her duties at the Blackfoot Racket store.

Julius H. Jacobson has almost fully recovered from the flu and will resume his work at his office Tuesday.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. January 07, 1919, Page 1


No More Saturday School

At the meeting of the school board of Independent School District No. 4 which was held last night, it was decided that the holding of school on Saturdays should be discontinued after this week and that instead of the Saturday school, the term would end a week later. This will bring the close of the public schools on June 13th, adding five instead of four extra weeks to the usual term. The lengthened term was necessitated on account of the schools being closed so long at the time of the Spanish influenza epidemic.
— —

Soldier Boys in France Anxious to Come Home

The following letter was received this week by Dr. E. E. Fry from John H. Johnson, No. 3130846, 334 Butchery Company, A. E. F., France, Dated December 5th:


“The influenza was sure bad here for a while. There was as many as 40 to 50 who died from it in one day. Lots of American soldiers had it but not many died from it. They would get over it in about ten days if they had a chance to be take care of, but some of them couldn’t get to a hospital as soon as they became sick and they were the ones who had a hard time of it.”

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. January 07, 1919, Page 2

Idaho News Paragraphs
Recent Happenings is This State Given in Brief Items for Busy Readers.

Spanish influenza, which was practically eradicated at Wallace, has shown a decided increase.

Moscow is threatened with open rebellion to the quarantine regulation. The board of health announces that the quarantine will be continued for another week.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. January 07, 1919, Page 4

Local News

The students of the Bonners Ferry schools who bring lunches are being served with hot soup at the noon hour, the innovation being in charge of Miss Spurling, head of the domestic science department. It is planned to serve hot chocolate occasionally.

Mrs. J. F. McGlocklin returned home Friday from Coeur d’Alene where she had been nursing Spanish influenza cases in the home of her son, James McGlocklin.

“Casey” Schweigert, formerly a partner of J. R. Meeker in the blacksmith business in this city, and now following the same business at Gleichen, Alberta, arrived here this week to spend a few days visiting with old friends. He is recovering from an attack of the influenza.

The children of the Naples school recently gave an entertainment which netted $30.50 door receipts, the money to be used in the buying of a new United States flag.

A number of Bonners Ferry people went to Meadow Creek Saturday night to attend the dance at the Meadow Creek hall. All report a dandy time.

The dance given Tuesday night by the “You and I” club was well attended and all enjoyed a delightful time tripping the “light fantastic” to music rendered by Mrs. Emery at the piano and Alva Bush at the drums.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. January 07, 1919, Page 5

Local Pick-ups

There are 350 pupils enrolled in the Bonners Ferry schools but owing to the fact that there is influenza and whooping cough in some families of the district, the attendance has fallen off about 15 percent the past few weeks.

W. C. Cundell, of the Kootenai Valley Produce Company, is confined to his home with an attack of Spanish influenza.

George Younie, a miner who had been employed at Klockmann, was adjudged insane in Probate Judge Henderson’s court Thursday and ordered committed to the insane asylum at Orofino. Younie has the hallucination that someone is trying to kill him. Sheriff Dunning received word yesterday that the insane asylum at Orofino is in quarantine and no patients can be received. He will endeavor to have Younie sent to the Blackfoot asylum.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. January 07, 1919, Page 7

Flu Has Caused 111,688 Deaths
Record in Forty-Six of the Largest Cities of the United States.
Total Figures Not Available
Baltimore and Nashville Had Highest Death Rate – Grand Rapids the Smallest – Total Deaths from All Causes, 442,374

Washington, D. C. – The influenza epidemic which swept the country during the latter part of the last year caused 111,688 deaths in the 46 largest cities and increased the combined death rate for those communities in 1918 to 19.6 per 1000, according to statistics made public Monday by the census bureau. Total figures for the country were not available.

Baltimore, with 26.8 per 1000, and Nashville with 26.4 had the highest rates of the registered cities, while St. Paul, with 13.9 and Minneapolis and Grand Rapids with 14 each had the lowest. Grand Rapids showed the smallest increase, the death rate for 1917 having been 13.1.

There were 442,374 deaths in the 46 cities, the estimated population of 42 of which aggregated to 20,514,520. There was no estimate of the population for the other four. Deaths from influenza totaled 69,439, with 42,149 deaths from pneumonia.

The years’ total death rate in New York city was 18.8 per thousand, compared with 15.2 for 1917. In Chicago it was 17.1 against 14.9 the year before, and in Philadelphia, where the influenza epidemic was very severe, it was 24.2, compared with 17.1 in 1917; Los Angeles 16.4 and 12.5; and San Francisco 20.5 and 15.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., January 07, 1919, Page 1


F. Leonard Nessly Influenza Victim
Son of Star-Mirror Editor Dies in Seattle of Influenza

It will be learned with deep regret by the entire community that J. E. Nessly, editor of The Star-Mirror, did not reach his son in time to see him alive, for death had occurred several hours prior to Mr. Nessly’s arrival in Seattle, at his son’s bedside. Mr. and Mrs. Nessly left Moscow on Sunday, and although they had been informed that the young man was desperately ill, they had no reason to believe that the crisis would occur so soon as it did. The young man died of heart failure following influenza.

… Besides his parents he leaves a brother, Will, who is in the army, and a sister, Mrs. T. A. Ball, of Pullman.

The funeral of the young man will be held in Seattle on Wednesday. Mr. and Mrs. Nessly will return to Moscow the latter part of the week.
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19190107DSM4— —


source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., January 07, 1919, Page 2

Mayor Granted Greater Power
Ordinance Provides For Promulgating, Issuing, and Enforcing Quarantine

In order that increased power might be given to city authorities in respect to protecting the public from contagious disease, Mayor Truitt and the city council last night passed an ordinance conferring such powers to promulgate and enforce a quarantine as were not already provided for in previous legislation. The situation with reference to Spanish influenza is such that the city fathers deemed it wise to go on record officially in a very definite manner so that the health officers and other responsible persons might proceed to fulfill their duties to the public.

The text of the ordinance appears on another page of this issue. It specifically gives the mayor power to enforce a quarantine upon persons, places of business, private or public dwellings, boarding or lodging houses, public resorts, including schools, theaters, moving picture shows, churches, dance halls, lodges, pool halls, lodges, restaurants, and other public places.
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Ordinance No. 485.

An Ordinance authorizing and empowering the Mayor of the City of Moscow, Idaho, to promulgate, issue and enforce a Health quarantine, as well, rules and regulations connected with or concerning said proclamation, within the City of Moscow, Idaho, and for a distance of five miles of the City Limits of City of Moscow, Ida. Fixing a penalty for the violation of said Proclamation or rules; Prescribing the Court that shall have jurisdiction of offenses that are committed against the provisions of this ordinance. Providing that if any one of the Sections of the Ordinance shall be held unconstitutional, that the holding of such section unconstitutional shall not effect the remaining provisions or sections hereof, and repealing all ordinances in conflict with this ordinance; Providing when this ordinance shall take effect.

Be It Ordained By The Mayor And City Council Of The City Of Moscow, Idaho:

Section 1. Whenever small-pox, cholera, yellow fever, typhus fever, diphtheria, membranous croup, scarlet fever, Spanish Influenza or any other disease dangerous to the public health shall be found or discovered to exist within the Corporate Limits of the City of Moscow, Idaho, or within five miles of the Corporate Limits of the said City of Moscow, Idaho, the Mayor of said City of Moscow, Idaho, is hereby authorized and empowered, by his written proclamation to establish and maintain a strict Health Quarantine upon or over any or all persons, places of business, business, private or public dwellings, boarding or lodging houses or hotels, public resorts or meeting places of people, including schools, theaters, moving picture shows, churches, dances or dance halls, concerts, shows or exhibitions, Lodge or Fraternal Societies or Organizations, or meeting thereof; Billiard or Pool Halls, Lunch Counters, Restaurants or eating houses; Card playing halls or places or any other public or private assemblies or meeting of persons of every kind or nature whatsoever, within said City Limits of the City of Moscow, Idaho, or within five miles of the City Limits of said City of Moscow, Idaho, and said Mayor is hereby further authorized and empowered to maintain such quarantine until his further order and proclamation.

Section 2. That upon the Mayor issuing such Proclamation of Quarantine, and the publication thereof one time in the official newspaper of the City of Moscow, Idaho, and filing the same with the City Clerk of the City of Moscow, Idaho, said Proclamation shall be in full force and effect and thereupon the said Mayor shall and is hereby given the power to thereupon make and proclaim such further rule or rules or regulations from time to time for the enforcement and carrying on or conducting such quarantine as in his judgement may seem proper and which he may deep proper to preserve the public health of the people of the City of Moscow, Idaho.

Section 3. The Mayor of said City shall have jurisdiction within five miles of the corporate limits of the City of Moscow, Idaho, for the enforcement of any health quarantine proclamation or rules or regulations made by him in pursuance of the provision of this Ordinance.

Section 4. That any person or persons violating the provisions of any such proclamation so made, issued and filed by the said Mayor, or any of the rules or regulations promulgated or issued by said Mayor for the enforcement, or pertaining to the carrying into full force and effect of such Proclamation, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof in a court of competent jurisdiction, shall be fined not less than Twenty-five dollars nor more than One Hundred dollars, together with the costs of prosecution, and upon his failure to pay such fine and costs shall be imprisoned in the City Jail of the City of Moscow, Idaho, one day for each one and 50-100 dollars of such fine or costs, and during such imprisonment shall be put to work on the streets of the City of Moscow, Idaho, or elsewhere within the Corporate Limits of said City, for the benefit of the said City.

Section 5. That the Police Court of the City of Moscow, Idaho, shall have and is hereby given jurisdiction to hear, try and determine any and all offenses tried for any offense made a misdemeanor and punishable by this Ordinance.

Section 6. That should any one of the provisions or sections of this Ordinance be declared unconstitutional the declaration of such section as being unconstitutional shall not effect the remaining provisions or sections of this Ordinance.

Section 7. That all ordinances or parts of ordinances in conflict with this ordinance are hereby repealed.

Section 8. This Ordinance shall take effect and be in force from and after its passage, approval and first publication.

Warren Truitt, Mayor of the City of Moscow, Idaho.
Read a first time, January 6, 1919.
Read a second time, January 6, 1919.
Read a third time and passed, January 7, 1919.
Approved by the Mayor, January 7, 1919.
Attested by the clerk January 7, 1919
J. R. Strong, City Clerk
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19190107DSM7Potlatch Schools Not Yet Free From “Flu”
Number of New Cases Developed Among Students – Graduate Nurse Employed.

Potlatch. – The “flu” situation in Potlatch is now worse than it has been at any time during the epidemic, there being about twenty-five cases reported. A quarantine has again been placed on the picture show house and although there are a number of cases among the high school students, all effort will be made to keep the schools going. The Red Cross is maintaining Mrs. Viola Nelson, a graduate nurse of St. Luke’s hospital to act as a visiting nurse along the lines of educational work and home care of the sick. In most instances the cases have been light.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., January 07, 1919, Page 3

Reprieve Granted Prisoner
David Hand Wins Mercy Through Valuable Services

David Hand, former Moscow minister, who was convicted on a statutory charge, was granted a reprieve Friday afternoon by Governor Alexander in order that Hand may support his aged parents. During the epidemic at the penitentiary Hand has been acting as a nurse, and the reprieve was said to have been influenced by his good work. He was granted a parole several months ago, but violated it by leaving the territory to which he was limited. It was claimed that the violation was unintentional. – Boise Statesman.
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Girls Orphans in Demand.

Los Angeles, Cal. – That orphan girl babies find homes more easily than boy babies is evidenced by a report issued here by the Children’s Home society of California. One hundred and thirty-seven families have applied to the society recently to adopt girl babies, while only 50 families want to adopt boy babies.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., January 07, 1919, Page 4

Young Women Are Registering Today
Dean of Women States That Many New Students Here From South Idaho

According to statistics gathered by Permeal French, dean of women at the university, 110 girls have already registered for work for the second semester. The number will reach 200 before the week is over. Among these are thirty new girls students, a remarkable increase. Five are from Spokane and seven are from south Idaho. …

Many young women are also registering for commercial courses and intent to fit themselves for business life.

The university has accomplished more than any other state institution during the past three months in the way of academic work, in the judgement of Miss French. She attributes this happy condition to the fact that rigid regulations have protected the students from the influenza and comparatively few cases have been known. She believes that other institutions with less regard for the strict quarantine have had their work interrupted much more seriously and have not made anything like the progress in studies which Idaho has made.
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19190107DSM8Epidemic Still Prevalent
Warning Issued Against Any Relaxation of Vigilance.

The impression that influenza attacks only those in the prime of life seems to be wholly without foundation if the experience and testimony of most communities are worth anything, for it now appears that infants and the aged are equally susceptible.

In a report issued December 20 of last year, by the United States Public health Service, a warning is issued emphasizing the danger of relaxing precautions against the epidemic, “The epidemic is not ended and such recrudescences of cases and deaths as are now occurring in many localities may be expected to become more or less general.”

Surgeon General Blue says, “I may have been misunderstood but I thought I had emphasized the fact that not only was the epidemic still present in many parts of the country, but in a number of places it is even more prevalent than it was in the early part of the epidemic.”
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19190107DSM9Policemen On Duty
Famous Fashion Shop Sale Draws Bargain Hunters.

There was quite a demonstration this morning in front of the Fashion Shop, when before the doors were opened, a crowd of bargain hunters were waiting for the sale to begin. Officer Stillinger, assisted by Special Policemen H. D. Hayes, dispersed the crowd, and permitted no assembling at the counters. Soon each had her bundle and one by one disappeared.
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source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 07 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)