Idaho History Feb 7, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 43

Idaho Newspaper clippings March 21, 1919

Photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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March 21

Evening Capital News., March 21, 1919, Page 2

19190321ECN1

19190321ECN2
Flu Gets Fresh Hold In Twin Falls Region
Situation Assumes Proportions of Epidemic, Health Officer Reports; 60 cases, Though of Milder Variety Than usual

Twin Falls, Ida., March 21. — The Spanish influenza situation in Twin Falls, developing within the past 10 days, has assumed the proportions of an epidemic, according to the statement made Wednesday by Dr. C. Q. McGinnis, county health officer, at a meeting here of the county commissioners sitting as the board of health.

The board decided to enforce a rigid quarantine as to individual patients with a view to controlling the epidemic by this means if possible without resorting to issuance of any closing order.

According to the statement of Dr. McGinnis 60 cases of influenza in Twin Falls had been reported up to Wednesday afternoon. In addition to this number, Dr. McGinnis said there are numerous cases of such mild type that they haven’t been reported.

Generally, Dr. McGinnis said, the influenza in the present epidemic is of milder type than that of the first epidemic here, and a minimum of serious results is anticipated, provided proper precautions are taken by both the community and the individual suffer.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 21 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Evening Capital News., March 21, 1919, Page 3

George Atwater Comes Out With Clever Verses On His Business Cards

Girl Named Idaho

For her I’d leave Virginia,
I’d leave my Mary Land.
I’d part with Mrs. Sippi,
The widow fair and bland.
I’d leave my Lousa Ana,
And other Anna, too.
I’d bid farewell to Georgia,
Though Georgia would be true.
I’d part with Minnie Sota,
I’d part with Della Ware.
I’d leave brunette Miss Souri
The Carolina pair.
All I’ve named are lovely,
True hearted, too, I know.
But I would pass them all up
And cleave to Ida Ho.
I like her breezy manners,
I like her honest ways.
I like her in the moonlight,
I like her in the days.
Good bye, my own Virginia;
And others that I know —
I’m hanging round the gate post
Of sunny Ida Ho.

(ibid, page 3)
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Evening Capital News., March 21, 1919, Page 9

Around Boise Valley Loop

Lester Lovejoy Funeral

Nampa, March 21 — Funeral services were held from the Robinson chapel yesterday afternoon for Lester Lovejoy who died Monday from a complication of diseases. The deceased who was a highly respected citizen of Middleton had come here but a few days before for medical treatment. Interment was in the Kohlerlawn cemetery.
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Star

Tuilla, the little daughter of Rev. and Mrs. DePartee, is on the sick list.

Mrs. Lon Bass is reported ill.
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M’Dermott

Paulina, the little daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Lon Robinson, is recovering from influenza.

Miss Ella Hudson has been quite ill for a few days.

(ibid, page 9)
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American Falls Press. March 21, 1919, Page 1

19190321AFP1

Former American Falls Boy Clears Up Brest Situation
Controversy Over French Embarkation Port Intelligently Discussed by Young Soldier – Whether Port Was Good or Bad Depends Upon When It Was Visited.

Laverne R. Collier, son of J. J. Collier, homesteader of Igo, has written for the Boise Statesman the most illuminating statement of the conditions at Brest France, that has appeared. A heated controversy has been raging over Brest for some time. It started in this country on the arrival of some of the first American troops to return through that port. The conditions as described by them were so harrowing as to raise a nation-wide protest. A little later Senator Owen and other members of congress came home, and Senator Owen declared that whoever was responsible for the conditions there should be prosecuted. The war department then got busy and ordered an investigation, and an army officer reported that the conditions were good. The controversy has not ceased, and the public has been in doubt as to what the conditions really were. Young Collier, who was a reporter on the Pocatello Tribune at the time of entering the service, says it all depends upon when the camp was inspected as to the conditions that would be reported. His most interesting article follows:

“I am not a general, nor was I on a senate investigating committee when I was in Brest, but as a doughboy sergeant, who was in Brest three times on duty with troops, I can give you some straight information which will allow you to form an opinion which as you said in your editorial on March 11, it difficult for the people at home who read conflicting reports from those in authority who have seen Brest.

What Officer Confided

“On January 27, this year, my battalion of the 163rd unloaded from our ‘hommes 40, cheveaurx8’ cars at Brest and after getting a feed of ‘slum,’ which was good and was appreciated by us, our battalion commander formed his command and to us he said these words:

“‘The commanding general of Brest camp evidently is an autocrat for our orders for marching are far more tyrannical than ever I have seen after [?] year in the lines, but regardless of this condition we (the whole battalion) will march from the docks (where we detrained) up to Pontaizen barracks at attention.”

“I enjoin you to comply to the man. Seventy pounds on your back, hiking up a two per cent grade with sweating bodies does not excuse us from marching at rigid attention. Our chances of embarking for America depend upon the report of a private military policeman. You have your orders. Comply!”

It Was Some Hike

We slung our packs and began the ascent. Four kilometers we marched at attention, sweating, the suspenders fairly tearing at our shoulders, never looking to the right or left, always all eyes on the back of the neck of the man preceding you in the column of squads. It was “some hike.” At the top of the hill we then stood motionless for two hours waiting to have our heated bodies fanned by a chill wind with the only physical result until we were assigned a certain sea of mud covered by tentage.

“Half of the floor space of each tent was boarded with duck boards, the remainder just mud, soft, and so deep a man without waders was handicapped – needless to say there were no boots.

“Immediately the companies were ordered to turn out all available privates for detail. One week previous all ranks were issued new home-going uniforms only to besmirch them with the dirt always incident to a fatigue party.

Plenty of Good Food

The food was wholesome and plentiful. One month previous just the opposite could be truthfully said and the food itself was by far a lesser problem than the work of lining up. On December 20 I fell out for breakfast at 7 o’clock, and at 11:30 o’clock, after four and one half hours standing in mud in a mess line I got my slum and was then glad to get it. Many men could not stand the mess line gaff. They were the ones who soon contracted the influenza and died. However, that problem had been solved in January and we praise the messing administration for its development.

“We were at Brest the last time for a period of eight days, awaiting shipping, and the discipline was so absolute and crushing we (in order to get home) literally stood on our heads until the day came for our embarkation.

Great Seas of Mud

“Everywhere there was mud – great seas of mud. There was mud on the roads, inside the tents, beneath and around the bunks in the corrugated iron barracks; in fact, you were standing in four inches of soft muik [sic] while eating meals. Here and there signs of attempted drainage would appear, but all ranks will instantly agree that with all America behind them, money, men and material, the commanders of the camp long ago should have rendered the camp fit for an animal to live, because, where a horse or a cow could thrive in the interior, we always made out and thrived. There is no doubt in my mind but what a great mistake was made in not planning ahead for the reception of the A. E. F., which eventually, if the war had gone on a year more, would come to the best port on the Bay of Biscay for the return – Brest. … [story continues at link below.]

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 21 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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American Falls Press. March 21, 1919, Page 7

People and Events

A telegram was received from Miss Virginia Nunnelly at Logan, Utah, Saturday, stating that the flu was epidemic there again.

H. N. Hager returned from Salt Lake City, Friday, where he had been getting hold of the new things in undertaking.

(ibid, page 7)
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American Falls Press. March 21, 1919, Page 11

19190321AFP2“Flu” Serum Useless
19190321AFP3
Physicians Are Still Hunting for a Preventive.
U. S. Laboratory Director Says No Cure for Baffling Disease Is Known.

New York — Considering that the insurance companies of the United States lost about $130,000,000 during the three months last year when the influenza epidemic was at its height, it was but natural that when the Association of Life Insurance medical Directors met in the annual convention in Newark the physicians and public health authorities should concern themselves almost exclusively to the search for some preventive measure which would preclude another outbreak of the plague.

And yet, although it was shown that about 6,000,000 people in the world perished from it, 400,000 of whom were Americans, all the medical experts admitted that the disease was completely baffling. Said Dr. G. W. McCoy, director of the hygienic laboratory of the public health service in Washington:

“There is no serum that I know of which is of the slightest value in preventing influenza, nor is there a serum that is of any use whatever in the treatment of the disease.” He made this statement after carefully experimenting with serums and vaccines in all parts of the country where the disease had broken out, and particularly in Pelham Bay and the army camps where the mortality was great.

(ibid, page 11)
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Main Street, Culdesac, Idaho ca. 1914

Culdesac1914Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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The Rathdrum Tribune., March 21, 1919, Page 1

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From Over The County

Post Falls

Mrs. Wm. Venters died at McGuires March 13, of pneumonia following influenza.
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Harrison

On account of the records having been destroyed by fire, it is necessary for all who are eligible to vote at the city election to register before April 19.

Wm. Losa, better known as Uncle Billy, celebrated his 100th birthday March 4, in his usual good health. Dr. Drennan says he thinks Mr. Losa’s chances are good for living quite a few years yet.
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Idaho State News Items

No apprehension need be felt regarding persistent press reports from large population centers relating to the appearance of a disease reputed by some to be a sequel of influenza and by others to be a form of “sleeping sickness,” in the opinion of Dr. Edward T. Biwer, secretary of the state board of health.

Vocational training of disabled soldiers already has commenced at the University of Idaho. Two maimed veterans have just begun an intensive course in animal husbandry and arrangement have been made to extend the work of rehabilitation to a variety of agricultural subjects, mining and forestry as soon as additional disabled fighting men are sent to the university campus.

source: The Rathdrum Tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 21 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Rathdrum Tribune., March 21, 1919, Page 2

19190321RT2

(ibid, page 2)
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The Rathdrum Tribune., March 21, 1919, Page 3

Personal Mention

Mrs. Julia Poleson, who was at Athol Wednesday, reports a number of cases of influenza in that locality.

Miss Marian Laird was in Spokane when word arrived here stating that the Ione schools had reopened, and requesting her to resume her duties as teacher there. It is said Ione recently had 100 cases of flu.

Mrs. Williams, telephone operator, was called home by the illness of her father.

Howard Brabury is home from Ione where he clerked in the drug store during the illness of the proprietor.

Mrs. L. O. Swenson has been teaching the third and fourth grades during the absence of Miss Berdena Robertson, who went to Spokane for a minor operation.
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Local Paragraphs

The invitation dance given last Saturday night at Fraternal hall under permit from the town board, restricting it to persons from districts where the flu is not prevalent, was enjoyed by a considerable crowd.

Autos are appearing again on the streets of Rathdrum.

The snow is disappearing rapidly, most of the prairie south of town is bare and sleighs from the north have been coming into town this week under difficulty.

The school board has reelected all the present teachers at increased salaries.
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Died In Arizona

Jay Purington received a telegram yesterday, announcing that his youngest brother, Irving Purington, mining engineer at Clarkdale, Arizona, had died with influenza. He was employed at the big United Verde mine, and visited his brother here last year.

(ibid, page 3)
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Clearwater Republican. March 21, 1919, Page 6

19190321CR1

Summary Of The World’s Events…

Belief that at least half of New York’s 40 cases of sleeping sickness are sequels of the Spanish influenza is expressed.
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Slept for Four Weeks

Fort Worth, Texas. — Lieutenant Clark Wright of the 345th field artillery is awake after a four weeks’ sleep. Physicians who had failed to arouse him agree that either an attack of influenza or too close study in the army caused the lonk [sic] sleep. He appears to be in fairly good health.

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 21 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Oakley Herald. March 21, 1919, Page 1

19190321OH1

Boulder

H. P. Nelson, who has been quite sick, is feeling somewhat better.

There is so much snow here that it is almost impossible to get around with a team.
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Marion

The plowing season has begun.
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Idaho Budget

Tentative plans, estimates and recommendations relative to the construction in Twin Falls of two new grade schools, a junior high school, or both, will be submitted at a special meeting of the board of education.

Precautions are being taken by the authorities at Payette to prevent the spread of rabies in the community from the dogs bitten by an affected dog.

A trunkload of corn whiskey, enroute from Chicago to Emmett, was grabbed at Nampa by the police and will be turned over to the federal authorities as it was an interstate shipment.
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Idaho Industrial Review

Nampa – Bids called for on new $60,000 Mercy hospital.

In all the western states the sugar industry has been made safe for 1919 by a largely increased acreage.

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 21 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Oakley Herald. March 21, 1919, Page 3

Locals and Personals

Oscar Brskine, of Island, died at his home near Island, Wednesday, March 12, after a brief illness with pneumonia. The funeral was conducted at Burley by the Rev. Mr. Calloway of the Methodist Episcopal church. The deceased is survived by his wife and three children. …

(ibid, page 3)
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The Oakley Herald. March 21, 1919, Page 8

Sleeping Sickness Result of Flu

New York. — Belief that at least half of New York’s forty cases of “sleeping sickness” are sequels of Spanish influenza, is expressed by Dr. Copeland, city health commissioner.

(ibid, page 8)
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Cuprum, Idaho (2)

CuprumFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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Cottonwood Chronicle. March 21, 1919, Page 1

19190321CC1

19190321CC2Triple Funeral Held in Cottonwood Monday Morning
Mrs. B. C. Albers And New Born Baby Both Died Saturday
Sister of Mrs. Albers, Miss Margaret Lies Died March 11 – Funeral is Largely Attended

Perhaps one of the saddest and most heartbreaking scene that was ever witnessed in Cottonwood took place at the Catholic church Monday, of this week, when the triple funeral of Mrs. Ben C. Albers, her two day old baby, and her sister Miss Margaret Lies was conducted by the Rev. Father Willibrord.

Mrs. Ben C. Albers, who was taken down with influenza some ten days ago, and which within two days developed into a severe case of pneumonia, died at her home Saturday afternoon, and her two day old baby, which was born on Thursday of last week, died two hours before the mother breathed her last. Her sister, Margaret, died March 12, also due to pneumonia, contracted from her sister while trying to nurse her back to health.

Mrs. Albers, like her sister was born in Oklahoma, Feb. 14, 1891, being 28 years old and came to Idaho seven years ago making her home in the Fenn section up to the time of her marriage.

She was married to Ben C. Albers January 12, 1915 and to this happy union one daughter was born.

Besides her sorrowing husband she leaves a little daughter about three years old, her mother, Mrs. Rosa Lies, three sisters, Mrs. Jacob Lorentz, Mrs. Peter Bieren and Miss Josephine Lies; one brother, Joe Lies besides other relatives and countless friends. …

The bereaved husband and daughter, mother, sisters and brother have the sympathy of the entire community.

The funeral was largely attended by friends who wished to pay their last respects to the deceased. The seating capacity of the church was taxed to its capacity and well shows the esteem in which the young sisters were held in Cottonwood and vicinity. …
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Card of Thanks

We wish to thank all our kind neighbors and friends who assisted us so nobly in the recent death of our beloved daughters, and wife, as their many acts of kindness are beyond words to express.

Mrs. Rosa Lies and family.
B. C. Albers and family.
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Public School Notes

By Wm. A. Lustie

Owing to the illness of Miss Miller we have not yet recorded all of the high school grades.

After a three week’s siege of the flu, Miss Miller is back on the job again. Freshmen, your vacation is over.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 21 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Cottonwood Chronicle. March 21, 1919, Page 8

Cottonwood And Vicinity
Personal Mentions and Local Happenings of the Week

The flu epidemic, which hit Cottonwood for the second time has practically been annihilated again by local physicians and but a few mild cases are reported at this writing.

In a letter recently received by Lewis Jones from his brother, Julian, now stationed a Norfolk, Virginia, he stated that he had been very ill with a severe attack of pneumonia but was now well on his way to good health again.

Max and William Lies returned Saturday evening from California where they went some two weeks ago to spend the winter. They were called back by the sudden death of their nieces, Mrs. B. C. Albers and Miss Margaret Lies.

Mrs. Ray Nims and children were Nezperce visitors last Saturday returning home on Monday evening’s train. They were delayed at Nezperce on account of a snow blockade on the Camas Prairie line and also because of traffic troubles on the Nezperce road.

(ibid, page 8)
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The Kendrick Gazette. March 21, 1919, Page 1

19190321KG1

[Local News]

L. J. Herres went to Moscow Wednesday to take charge of the prescription department of Bolles’ drug store for a period of three weeks. He is substituting on account of the illness of the regular druggist at that place.
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Clothing Badly Needed

The third collection of used and surplus clothing for the distressed and suffering people of Europe will be made by the American Red Cross during the week of March 24 to 29. Ten thousand tons are wanted and the quota for the Western Division is 600 tons.

Garments of all kinds, for all ages and both sexes are wanted, also piece goods, ticking, sheeting, blankets and woolens, light canton flannels to make garments for new born babes, and shoes of every size.

Please don’t bring in miscellaneous articles of flimsy material. This clothing will be subject to the hardest kind of wear and must be strong and durable. It is not necessary to mend the articles as there are thousands of women in Europe who will be glad of an opportunity to make a small wage by making over the garments.

Leave all bundles at the barber shop. Mr. Rogers has kindly consented to look after the donations for the Red Cross.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 21 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Kendrick Gazette. March 21, 1919, Page 8

Gleanings

Kendrick has ceased to be a village and is now in the small city class – the ladies have organized a Bridge Club.

Lamont Stevens of Peck arrived Tuesday to attend the funeral of his brother, Dan Stevens.

The Red Cross headquarters sent out a call to Kendrick to furnish 22 convalescent gowns. There are still 6 of these gowns to be made and anyone who is willing to help the Kendrick Red Cross furnish them is requested to call upon Mr. Dammarell, chairman of the local Red Cross.

General Pershing has asked for 150,000 pounds of chewing tobacco for the soldiers boys in France. A million dollars worth of cigars are also asked for.

The clocks will be turned forward one hour, Sunday March 30. Congress failed to repeal the daylight saving law.
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Big Bear Ridge

Steele school is well attended with Miss Delcia White of Knoxville, Tenn., as teacher.
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Daily Thought

When men speak ill of thee, live so that nobody will believe it. — Plato.

(ibid, page 8)
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Custer, Idaho, 1904

Custer1904Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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The Idaho Recorder. March 21, 1919, Page 1

19190321TIR1

School Superintendent On Rounds

The county superintendent, Mrs. Watkins, spent the better part of the week visiting schools near by, including the Hank school, Geertson, Fourth of July and Boyle creek. She reports all of them doing very satisfactory work in spite of the interruptions incident to the epidemic and overcoming the lost time resulting.

The superintendent announces the state 8th grade examinations for April 9, 10 and 11.
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A Charge Dismissed

William Fagergren, superintendent of the Sunset mine, was brought before the probate court on a charge brought by the county attorney for alleged pollution of the waters of Canyon Creek. Judge Padgham entered a demurrer to the charge, which the court promptly allowed to go his way.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 21 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Recorder. March 21, 1919, Page 2

19190321TIR2British Naval Officer Honored For Gallantry

19190321TIR3Awarded the Distinguished Service Medal by President Wilson.
Saves 600 Yank Soldiers
Goes to Assistance of Transport Otranto When She Was sunk in Collision Off Irish Coast With American Troops on Board.

By E. W. Barrett
Editor Birmingham Age-Herald

If ever a man were entitled to the distinguished service medal, it was that young British Lieutenant, Francis W. Craven of the destroyer Mounsey.

A dispatch from London announced that President Wilson had awarded him this medal and that Maj. Gen. Biddle, commander of the American forces in the United Kingdom, had presented it to him.

The medal was awarded, in the words of the London cable, “to Lieut. Francis W. Craven, who commanded the British destroyer Mounsey, which saved 600 American soldiers from the British transport Otranto, when she was sunk in a collision off the Irish coast on Oct. 6, 1918, with the loss of 357 American soldiers.”

Though the British government conferred no honor upon Lieut. Craven for his work, because it was not an act of valor in war combat, no man in any navy ever showed more courage nor demonstrated more perfect seamanship than did Lieut. craven on this occasion.

The full story is worth telling, now that the censorship is off and no further obligation rests upon the newspaper man who was in the offing, so to speak, when this horror of the sea occurred.

Flagship of Convoy

The Otranto, which went down, was the flagship of a convoy of fourteen troop laden, influenza infected ships which sailed from New York on Sept. 26 last. She was a British-Australian liner, with something like a thousand American soldier boys aboard. On her sister ship, the Orontes, a nasty old plague infected refrigerator freighter with limited and dirty passenger accommodations, eighteen hundred soldier boys, the writer and about fifty other passengers were crowded together like cattle.

We were accompanied from New York by a battleship, a cruiser and a destroyer. The route was to be around the north of Ireland and down the Irish channel to Liverpool. All sorts of hard luck hit the convoy and particularly the Otranto. She first ran into a fishing fleet and cut down two boats, but saved the crews. In doing so she fell behind, but caught up when we ran into a fearful storm and continued battling against it for several days.

Scattered in Storm.

Before reaching British waters north of Ireland, the American naval vessels turned back or were scattered in the storm. Our old ship was struggling and our captain was begging in wireless messages to Capt. Davidson of the Otranto for more sea room. He feared going on the rocky shores of North Ireland. Capt. Davidson made no answer to repeated calls. Then our wireless went down, our boats were crushed, the smoking room doors and ports were smashed in, the galleys, dining saloon and many staterooms were flooded. Only cold foods were obtainable. To make matters worse, 400 soldier boys were down with pneumonia. They were dying like cattle in the public rooms and on mattresses strewn about wherever there was enclosed room. Medicines were exhausted, and dead and dying were all about.

In the meantime every ship put about to save its own, heading into the storm. The Otranto and other ships not heeding our captain’s warning were almost upon the rocks of Ireland. A veritable hurricane was blowing. Waves broke entirely over the ships.

The Otranto, in trying to get out of its predicament, turned across the bow of the Kashmere, another enormous old freighter crowded with troops. The Kashmere’s bow cut through her sides and deep into her engine room, stopping her engines and cutting out her lighting system. She became a broken log and was dashed upon the rocky cliffs. No other ship dared attempt assistance. Each was struggling to save itself.

Mounsey to the Rescue

Then came the little destroyer Mounsey, plowing through the waves like a submarine. She managed to run in beside the foundering ship. Lifeboats had been lowered, but were smashed in, and the little Mounsey was pounding against the hull of the big ship, first jammed against the side and then knocked far off. In the meantime the soldier boys jumped for their lives toward the dick of the little destroyer. Many would land and be rushed into the hatches. Others would miss the distance, jump and drop into the sea. Still others would strike each other in the log jump from the high deck of the Otranto to the swash deck of the Mounsey; some would land on the deck of the Mounsey with broken limbs and be washed overboard.

The reports to Gen. Biddle, while I was in London, told of the horrors of the scene.

Stuck to the Job

The Mounsey was veered off several times by powerful blows from the steel sides of the pounding Otranto. One side near the stern was battered in like an old tin can. Her engineer signaled to Lieut. Craven that the destroyer could stand no more; she would go down if another effort was made to run alongside the big ship. But Craven took the chances. He manipulated the little ship with great skill and got another hundred American soldier boys. In all he saved about 500, leaving only 357 to perish, and nearly all these were lost in the effort to jump from the big ship to the little destroyer.

Craven landed the 600 in Belfast. It is true many of them died there from the exposure and wounds, but the 600 were put ashore from the badly battered destroyer. How he stored away the 600 in the little fighting craft is difficult for naval officers to explain, but it was done.

A British admiral in discussing the matter with me in London just after it occurred said few destroyers could have stood the strain. He could only account for her standing the pounding against the sides of the Otranto by the fact that her hull was cold riveted and that she bent without the giving away of the rivet heads.

I saw her afterward tied up in Belfast. She was fearfully bent in, like a battered tin thing, but not torn open. The heads of the rivets held.

It was different with the Kashmere, which I afterward saw in Glasgow. Her bow was crushed in. The rivet heads had given away and the plates opened up. She had been hot riveted.

English naval officers are giving study to this rivet question, and are preparing a report to the admiralty for future consideration in the building of destroyers.

In the meantime all America owes a debt of gratitude to Lieut. Craven. But for his pluck and seamanship not a man from the Otranto would have lived to tell the tale.

(ibid, page 2)
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LtCraven
Lieutenant Commander Francis Worthington Craven DSO

source: w/more info
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see also:

World War I Troopship HMS Otranto Sank After Collision

HMSOtranto
British Armed Merchant Cruiser HMS Otranto.
link: story by Ken Spratlin
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The Idaho Recorder. March 21, 1919, Page 4

Custom Had Origin Long Ago

The almost universal habit of turning aside the head and suppressing the sneeze of cough has an interesting origin. It is derived from human experience. In the middle ages (and probably much earlier), when frequent plagues of various diseases swept away whole populations in Europe, it was suspected and even believed that infection was conveyed by coughing and sneezing. Hence the adoption of the precaution.

(ibid, page 4)
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The Idaho Recorder. March 21, 1919, Page 5

Salmon Locals

Mrs. C. W. Cockrell continues to be critically ill at her home east of the city.

Dr. Hanmer was called to the Harmony mine on Wednesday by a case of illness there.

Mrs. A. C. Cherry is recovering from a serious attack of appendicitis.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Idaho Recorder. March 21, 1919, Page 7

Northwest Notes

Another wave of influenza has struck Bozeman, Mont., and vicinity, the Gallatin county high school being the center of the present wave. It is believed to have resulted from the visit of high school students in Helena last week to the district basketball tournament.

After 10 years of experiments the state of Idaho has given up the direct primary system of nominations and returned to the convention plan. Governor Davis has signed the amended new election law, which repeals the direct primary.

Despite precautions being taken by the federal government, elk in the Jackson Hole country near the Yellowstone national forest are decreasing, according to Smith Riley of the game preservation department of the forest service.

A plan to attract ducks and migratory game birds to eastern Washington by planting wild rice on the shores of lakes in that section has been started by the Spokane game commission.

(ibid, page 7)
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Main Street, East Council, Idaho

CouncilFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 21, 1919, Page 5

19190321CT1

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Lake Lowell

Florence Gibbens, who has been quite ill, is somewhat improved this week.

Ethel and Clara Belle Wright are out of school this week on account of pink eye.

The Red Cross held their regular meeting at Mrs. White’s Thursday. Considerable sewing is being done for the refugees. The yarn for knitting can be had of Mrs. Frank Weeks who now has charge of the knitting.
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Middleton

Miss Helen Garrison, formally [sic] of Middleton, who is attending Reed College this year, is in a Portland hospital suffering with influenza.

Mrs. Nellie Personette and little son returned Sunday from Hill City, Kansas, after visiting for several months. Mr. and Mrs. Personette went there for a visit in December and while there Mr. Personette contracted influenza and died within a few days.

Miss Marie Kline has been compelled to give up her work at Caldwell because of ill health.

Miss Gertrude Garber, 13 year old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Weldan Garber, died at their home Friday morning of typhoid fever. She has several sisters, a brother, besides many other relatives to mourn her loss. The funeral was held at the Church of God chapel Sunday at 2 p.m. Interment was in the Star cemetery.

Mrs. Joe Cave was taken to the Caldwell hospital Monday for treatment.
— —

Brier Rose

We are glad to report that Mr. Shaw is better and able to be in his office again.
— —

Marble Front

Mrs. Walter Thomas is quite ill with pneumonia. Miss Mary Flynn is staying at the George Milliner home during her illness.

Mrs. Henry Harshman is on the sick list this week. We hope for her speedy recovery.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 21 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 21, 1919, Page 6

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Ten Davis News

The Flu has broken out quite badly in Ten Davis again. Nearly everyone in the neighborhood has had a slight attack. The Newport family, Mrs. Gulham, and Anna McLaughlin have been the sickest. They are all improving now.

Mrs. Roy Pope died at their home near Notus, Friday evening from pneumonia following influenza. Funeral services were held in Caldwell Sunday. The rest of the Pope family have all been quite ill with the Flu, but are improving slowly.

The Red Cross meeting which was to be held at the Grange hall, Wednesday, was postponed on account of the sickness in the neighborhood. The sewing which was to be done at the hall has been distributed throughout the neighborhood. Mrs. Gulliksen took the sewing that was finished to Caldwell Saturday and got some yarn for refugee sweaters.

Orville E. Hartman is working for S. G. Tucker. Orville is just getting over an attack of the mumps. Members of the Tucker family have been ill with the Flu and mumps together.
— —

Roswell

Mrs. George Camp is ill with influenza.

Mrs. M. T. Taylor is nursing at George Russell’s.

Joseph Dilley of the College of Idaho was ill several days last week at the home of his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Dilley.

(ibid, page 6)
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 21, 1919, Page 7

City and County Intelligence

Miss Edna Askey is quite sick with the influenza.

Those, in all parts of the county, having in charge the weighing and measuring tests for children are asked to finish this work as soon as possible and send cards to Mrs. P. D. Baden at Nampa or direct to the Bureau at Washington.
— —

Notice to Chicken Owners

Owners must keep their chickens penned up on and after this date in accordance with the ordinances of the city of Caldwell.

Dated March 20th, 1919. John A. Baker, Chief of Police.

(ibid, page 7)
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Montpelier Examiner. March 21, 1919, Page 1

19190321ME1

19190321ME2
Clarence Shepherd Succumbs to Influenza

Deep sorrow was brought to every home in Paris shortly after 11 o’clock yesterday morning, by the death of Clarence Shepherd, who succumbed to the ravages of the influenza after an illness of about a week. Last Saturday Mr. Shepherd returned from a short pleasure trip to California. He was ill at the time and immediately took to his bed, from which he never arose.

Deceased was the son of President and Mrs. J. R. Shepherd. He was a native of Paris and was about 30 years of age. He was a member of the Shepherd Mercantile Co., having charge of the hardware department.

He is survived by his parents, five brothers, four sisters, wife and five children.

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 21 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier Examiner. March 21, 1919, Page 3

Idaho and Idahoans

Vocational training of disabled soldiers already has commenced at the University of Idaho.

After being closed for more than two months the Caldwell hospital has been taken over and opened by Mrs. A. J. Steensland of Gooding.

Tuberculosis is quite prevalent among southern Idaho poultry flocks, according to Pren Moore, state poultry expert.

Idaho has a school said to be unique in that is is conducted at the 1400-foot level beneath the surface. It is one of the Smith-Hughes vocational schools in mining, being conducted at Kellogg.

(ibid, page 3)
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Montpelier Examiner. March 21, 1919, Page 5

Local News

Miss Ada Nelson died at her home in Ovid last Tuesday at noon, aged 18 years. She had been ill with the influenza at Logan but returned home before she was fully recovered, and immediately suffered a relapse. Deceased is survived by her father, three brothers and two sisters. … (page torn.)

(ibid, page 5)
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Montpelier Examiner. March 21, 1919, Page 8

19190321ME3Victim Of Flu Leaves Bride Of Twelve Days

Last Saturday the many Kemmerer friends of Charles McDonald of Cokeville were greatly shocked to hear of his sudden and untimely death from influenza.

The case is a particularly sad one from the fact that Mr. McDonald leaves a bride of less than two weeks who was not able to be with him when the end came.

Mr. McDonald was married in Kemmerer on March 3rd at the home of County Assessor Tanner to Miss Lora J. Peterson of Bloomington, Idaho. The ceremony was performed by Elder N. W. Peterson of the L. D. S. church and the bride was a sister of Mrs. Tanner.

The couple left for the bride’s home for a brief stay after which it was their intention to settle in Cokeville, where Mr. McDonald was employed on the P. W., Olson ranch.

It was during a brief trip to the ranch, where he was called on business, leaving Mrs. McDonald at Bloomington, that he was taken ill.

Death occurred last Saturday at the ranch and the body was brought to town and immediately relatives notified, among them Assessor Tanner who left at once for Cokeville and took charge of the funeral arrangements.

The funeral was held on Monday and was well attended by many sorrowing friends and relatives and the body was interred in the Cokeville cemetery. — Kemmerer Camera.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

Shoshone Journal. March 21, 1919, Page 1

19190321SJ1

Big Wood River News

Health on lower Big Wood river is very much improved.

Seven of the children who have been absent from school since the flu started have begun their school work again.

Dr. Fields, of Shoshone, was called to see Mrs. A. L. Horn, Monday and on account of the bad roads was compelled to stay over night.

Some of the small children on our mail route have been very much afraid of the new mail man, but on close examination it proved to be the same carrier, only he had shaved his moustash [sic] off.
— —

Dietrich

Mrs. J. D. Turner is reported to have joined the great majority of the precinct, and is suffering with a delayed case of the flu.

The grand welcoming reception which Dietrich precinct is preparing for the returning soldiers, post-poned once on account of flu, is now set for Friday evening April 4th. At that time if no providences prevent the high school auditorium will be filled with patriotic men and women honoring the boys who have been in the army.

Frank Rinhart is on the sick list this week making it necessary for Mrs. Rinhart to take his place operating the school wagon.

Ira Towne was recently stricken with a severe stomach and bowel trouble, necessitating his removal to Dr. Field’s Hospital in Shoshone.

Our lady teachers, Mrs. F. C. Smith, and Misses Patterson, Woods and Harris were Shoshone visitors Sat.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 21 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Shoshone Journal. March 21, 1919, Page 5

Locals and Personal News

Miss Styles was called to Twin Falls last week on account of the sickness of her brother.

Montana Murray is attending school again after a brief illness.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Meridian Times., March 21, 1919, Page 1

19190321MT1

19190321MT2
Death Saturday of Mrs. Anna L. Mills

The Times regrets to record the death of Mrs. Anna L. Millis, at the family home 2 1/4 miles southwest of Meridian, Saturday, March 15, 1919, from complications following influenza, one of the symptoms being sleeping sickness, a form of meningitis.

Anna L. Sutherland was born in Calhoun county, Michigan, Feb. 21, 1866, and June 24, 1896, she was married to John Millis, at Manastee, Michigan. The family moved to Oregon and then to Buhl, Idaho, and last September located on a farm near Meridian. The have two children, a daughter Mrs. Eva Power, who came from Hanna, Alberta, Canada, to attend the funeral, also a son Phillip who is at home.

The funeral was held at a Nampa chapel Tuesday, and interment was at Kohlerlawn. The family, who are strangers in the Meridian community have the sympathy of our people.
— —

Card of Thanks

We wish to express our sincere thanks to those who so kindly gave their sympathy and help to us at the time of the death and burial of our wife and mother.

John Millis, Mrs. Eva L. Power, P. H. Millis

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 21 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Meridian Times., March 21, 1919, Page 4

19190321MT3

(ibid, page 4)
——————

Further Reading

Vaccines (Serums)

Many vaccines were developed and used during the 1918–1919 pandemic. The medical literature was full of contradictory claims of their success; there was apparently no consensus on how to judge the reported results of these vaccine trials. … The most widely used, and historically the most interesting, was the vaccine produced by Edward C. Rosenow of the Mayo Clinic’s Division of Experimental Bacteriology. Rosenow argued that the exact composition of a vaccine intended to prevent pneumonia had to match the distribution of the lung-infecting microbes then in circulation. For that reason, he insisted that the composition of his vaccine had to be frequently readjusted. His initial vaccine consisted of killed bacteria … The Mayo Clinic distributed Rosenow’s vaccine widely to physicians in the upper Midwest. … McCoy arranged his own trial of the Rosenow vaccine produced by the Laboratories of the Chicago Health Department. He and his associates worked in a mental asylum in California where they could keep all subjects under close observation. They immunized alternate patients younger than age 41 on every ward, completing the last immunization 11 days before the local outbreak began. Under these more controlled conditions, Rosenow’s vaccine offered no protection whatsoever. McCoy’s article appeared as a one-column report in the December 14, 1918, edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)

excerpted from: The State of Science, Microbiology, and Vaccines Circa 1918
— — — — — — — — — —

Understanding the Role of Medical Experts during a Public Health Crisis

Digital Tools and Library Resources for Research on the 1918 Spanish Influenza

Introduction

On August 17, 1918, Royal S. Copeland, Health Commissioner for New York City, responded with the following reassuring statement to reports that a ship had arrived from Europe with numerous cases of the “Spanish Flu”: “We have not felt and do not feel any anxiety about what people call ‘Spanish Influenza,’ and we considered it so unimportant that it did not seem necessary to make a public discussion of the situation.” This statement, and others issued during the next several weeks that were equally reassuring and optimistic, proved to underestimate the severity of this disease, which would, by year’s end, result in the death of more than 20,000 New Yorkers due just to influenza, with many more deaths caused by related diseases such as pneumonia. During the worst period, as shown in Chart 1, the daily death rate for New York City from influenza and pneumonia doubled in the first week, and then quadrupled by the third week.

This paper addresses a central question for any humanities scholarship: what is the role of the individual in shaping broader historical processes? In this case, how did a municipal medical official in the largest city in the United States make assessments of the danger of the influenza, issue recommendations about health policies, and more generally shape perceptions of this disease? …

Copeland’s Role: Contrasting Viewpoints

Historians engaged in traditional, close reading of Copeland’s role in guiding the public health responses to the Spanish flu in America’s largest city have produced strikingly opposite evaluations. For his critics, the reassuring statements issued at the start of the epidemic proved false and misleading in ways that potentially undermined more proactive and extensive public health measures. Historian Alfred Crosby cited an early statement by Copeland as an example of the “pollyanna attitude toward the looming pandemic” characteristic of many city health commissioners, while his declarations in December that the influenza would not return were cited as evidence that he was “still indefatigably optimistic: despite the number of cases and deaths in the intervening months.” John Barry, in his popular history, The Great Influenza, was even more sharply critical of Copeland, describing him as “a man with no belief in modern scientific medicine,” who “took no action whatsoever to prevent the spread of infection” when the first cases arrived by ship in August, and that he “did nothing” after the first death occurred on September 15. It was only when the people of New York City “could see disease all about them” that Copeland took steps to enforce a quarantine on victims, according to Barry, even as he “also reassured all concerned” that the number of cases was decreasing, not increasing. Charging that Copeland “continued to downplay the danger and overstate the authorities’ ability to control the disease,” historian Nancy Bristow quotes several “reassuring” statements published in newspapers in early October, to illustrate how he “continued to mouth reassurances” and “continued to deny the seriousness of the situation,” leading to this summary judgment of public health responses to the epidemic: “Though Copeland was clearly an extreme case in his efforts to reassure the public, this commitment to keeping the public calm was widespread.” Arguing that newspapers followed the Health Commissioner’s lead in attempting to “calm the public,” Bristow concludes that this effort to provide “reassurance” actually produced “indifference” which in turn led to “resistance” to “emergency measures” in many other locations.

Copeland’s defenders, by contrast, seek to explain and justify his efforts in terms of the broader context of the American public health. In their 2007 article published in Journal of the American Medical Association, historian Howard Markel and colleagues concluded that the New York City health department reacted “earliest to the gathering influenza crisis,” by imposing compulsory quarantine and isolation procedures, mandatory case reporting, and other public health measures, leading to the conclusion that the city’s “early and sustained response to the epidemic” contributed to the fact that the city “experienced the lowest death rate” among major East Coast cities. Historian Nancy Tomes lists the significant measures, such as staggered openings for theatres and businesses, classifying influenza and pneumonia as reportable diseases, rigorous inspection of schoolchildren, enforcement of anti-spitting and anti-crowding measures in public spaces, and expanded availability of hospitals and nurses, while still avoiding the danger of “panicking a large urban population.” In their study of urban school systems during the epidemic, Alexandra Minna Stern and co-authors concluded that New York City “functioned fairly smoothly during the pandemic” in part due to “Copeland’s leadership abilities,” as his “deft touch” with other officials meant that in the face of controversies and criticism, his “public demeanor always projected a sense of calm, reasonable assurance.” Francesco Aimone praises Copeland’s role in shaping a “proactive approach” to the influenza epidemic through such efforts as quarantining the sick, monitoring case numbers, educating the public, and regulating personal behavior; leading to the conclusion that Copeland drew upon an appropriate combination of “regulatory and voluntary techniques” when “confronted with the overwhelming task of controlling influenza.” Finally, the Influenza Encyclopedia case study of New York City describes how the Health Department quickly implemented its program of disease surveillance, isolation, and quarantine upon the arrival of the first flu cases. While citing Copeland’s reassurances that there was no cause for alarm and his “sanguine” attitude, this study identifies his simultaneous efforts to tighten disease control measures, including reporting cases, quarantining homes, public education, and expanded medical facilities. Despite the remarkable increase in the number of cases and deaths and mounting criticism of Copeland’s measures, the eventual decline in the disease and the relatively low numbers in this city led the authors to this very positive conclusion: “Through the tireless actions of Copeland and his staff at the health department, and through the amazing volunteer work of the city’s relief organizations, New York was able to weather its epidemic with a significantly lower morbidity and mortality rate than other nearby cities…Copeland could be proud of his city of the work he did.”

excerpted from: paper at NIH
— — — — — — — — — —

“Sleeping Disease”

Encephalitis lethargica

Wikipedia:
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)