Idaho History Mar 14, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 48

Idaho Newspaper clippings April 11-14, 1919

Photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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April 11 (continued)

The Kendrick Gazette. April 11, 1919, Page 1

19190411KG1

School Notes

Monday the seventh of April began a week of monthly tests for the high school Only seven more weeks of school remain to complete the term.

Miss Payne resumed her school duties on Monday, after an absence of two weeks on account of the influenza. Also several students returned: Arthur Wegner, Minnie Torgerson, Ruby Sloane and Mary Burger.
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Linden Items

School is closed this week on account of the absence of the teacher.
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Big Bear Ridge

Dr. W. A. Rothwell was called on the ridge Tuesday by the illness of Mrs. Hans Sneeve.

Mr. and Mrs. Oscar Huffman’s infant baby was buried at the Wild Rose Cemetery Sunday.

Several from here are taking the eighth grade exams in Deary this week.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 11 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Kendrick Gazette. April 11, 1919, Page 6

19190411KG2
Look Out You Don’t Get “Sleeping Sickness”

Washington. — Although 183 cases of lethargic encephalitis, or “sleeping sickness,” with 14 deaths, were reported to the United States public health service up to March 29, officials of the bureau still are undecided whether the disease of the type prevalent in Europe has reached the United States.
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Typhoid Fever Cured

Washington. — General March says the purpose of the circular of instructions issued by the chief medical officer of the expeditionary force ordering greater precautions against typhoid fever did not mean that the army had failed to curb the disease. The circular charged that many officers had been guilty of negligence and carelessness.

(ibid, page 6)
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The Kendrick Gazette. April 11, 1919, Page 8

Gleanings

Dr. Rothwell reports a number of cases of flu in Juliaetta this week. At this writing, so far as known, Kendrick is free from the disease.

Donald Miller, son of Mrs. H. T. Brammer, was called to Warsaw, Indiana the first of the week on account of the serious illness of his father.
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Stoney Point Items

Mrs. Wm. Schetzle spent Saturday evening with Mrs. Fred Johnson who is ill.

(ibid, page 8)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., April 11, 1919, Page 5

19190411DSM1

19190411DSM2Crazed Yank Seeks Wife
Soldier Returning From War Finds His Family Dead – Brain is Affected.

Philadelphia. — From factory to factory and from plant to plant, for the last ten weeks, Roy W. Miller, former soldier in the United States army, has been seeking for news of his wife, who was formerly Miss Romaine Hummel of Lancaster, PA., and his year-old-son, Roy Weitzel Miller.

He has been unable to find them for the reason that both are dead. The nineteen-year-old mother and the child perished together in the influenza epidemic, when Miller was almost on his way home from Europe.

When Miller heard the news he was unable to believe it, and he does not believe it now. Physicians say his brain has been affected. There is a dark spot in his consciousness, which apparently may never be filled.

He is harmless, friendly, honest and able to make a living. But when he gets together a few days’ pay, he begins his hopeless round among the factories and the mills.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 11 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Recorder. April 11, 1919, Page 2

19190411IR1

19190411IR2President Wilson Confined To Bed
Nothing Grave, However, Is Noted In His Condition By Attending Physicians
Treaty Is Almost Ready

Paris, April 5. — Reassuring news from President Wilson’s bedside was sent to the peace delegates last evening, although the news indicated that the president’s condition was such as to make it advisable that he remain in his room at least for today.

Study of the case has caused Rear Admiral Grayson, the president’s personal physician, to reach the conclusion that the president is not suffering from influenza, but that the severity of the cold is such that the patient will require careful watching.
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Idaho State News

Spanish influenza has broken [out at] the state industrial training school [at] St. Anthony, about ninety cases [have] developed.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 11 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Recorder. April 11, 1919, Page 4

May

James Quinn, who is at the O’Neil ranch, is very ill.

The Big creek masquerade given a week ago was not largely attended.

(ibid, page 4)
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The Idaho Recorder. April 11, 1919, Page 5

Salmon Locals

A child of Lew Wells is reported seriously ill at the Salmon river home of the family. Dr. Stratton was called to see the patient on Wednesday.

Ed Williams of the Pioneer store has been kept at home this week because of a severe attack of illness, being now out and around again.

Word has been received by Mrs. Watkins, county superintendent, that there will be a six weeks’ session of [?] beginning in June, the exact date to be announced later.

A big dance marked the closing of the Boyle creek school April 5. All the patrons of the school came to the dance as a neighborhood gathering in the social center. Miss Winifred Niemann is the popular teacher. Schools also at Sandy creek, Iron creek, and Carmen have closed for the season.

Dr. and Mrs. Hanmer are at Seattle.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Idaho Recorder. April 11, 1919, Page 7

Northwest Notes

William Oglesby, former lightweight champion of the northwest, died at Helena of influenza. He was 44 years old and a native of Missouri.

Starting with April 1st, the farmers served by the rural mail route out of Ryegate, Mont., will have daily services.

(ibid, page 7)
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Main Street, Fairfield, Idaho

FairfieldFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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The Idaho Republican. April 11, 1919, Page 1

19190411TIR1

19190411TIR2
Edwin Watson Recovering

Edwin Watson, who has been confined to his home most of the time for nearly a year is well enough to be around some now.

Mr. Watson had influenza and it affected his lungs, so that he has been confined to his bed for months.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 11 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. April 11, 1919, Page 2

Cerro Grande

A number of new pupils are expected to enroll in the school soon and surely will be welcome.
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Moreland

Mr. and Mrs. Vernal Leavitt and family are suffering with influenza.

Miss Lillie Belnap is visiting at the home of her sister Hazel Lindsay. She has been employed at the Lindsay-Welker store, but had to discontinue her work for a few days on account of illness.
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Sterling

Miss Adeline Nelson is still very ill with influenza-pneumonia, tho it is considered she has passed the crisis. Mrs. A. D. Nelson and Lilian White have also contracted the disease now.

Glenn Varley is ill with an attack of influenza.

Harley Ward is ill with an attack of the mumps.

Mrs. Gladys Chappell, who left here soon after her husband’s death for her home in Wyoming is now post mistress at a small town near Evanston, Wyo. She will not return here as she had formerly intended doing. Her household goods were shipped to her last week.

(ibid, page 2)
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The Idaho Republican. April 11, 1919, Page 3

Sterling

Quite a scare over the flu situation has become prevalent in this vicinity again, but as far as known there is only one case.

Miss Adeline Nelson is still very ill with influenza-pneumonia.

Mrs. Oscar Rice Jr. is ill with an attack of asthma.

John the small son of Mrs. Von Lostawicka has been very sick the past week with the mumps.

Esther Parr is ill with an attack of the mumps.

Lorraine, the small daughter of Mrs. J. Zeigler was ill with a severe cold and mumps last week.

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Ben Atkins are ill with the mumps.
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Grandview

Mrs. James Shaw returned home Sunday, after caring for Mrs. Issac Pierce for the past two weeks at Aberdeen.

Anna, the little daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Horace Garter, was very ill Friday, but is somewhat improved at this writing.
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Kimball

The Albert Anthony family have been suffering with the flu, but are able to be around again.

(ibid, page 3)
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The Idaho Republican. April 11, 1919, Page 4

Upper Presto

Ward conference that was to have been conducted at Goshen Sunday has been postponed on account of the flu.

Quite a few families in Goshen are suffering with the flu.

Ivan, the son of Orson Landon, has been ill for the past few days.

The little infant of Mr. and Mrs. R. P. Hansen is not very well.

Rafael Larsen is on the sick list this week.
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Lavaside

A warm lunch at noon is now being served to the school children each day.
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Sterling

Mr. Reese of Aberdeen died at the home of his brother A. Reese from influenza-pneumonia at 6 o’clock Sunday morning. Deceased was a son-in-law of G. W. Parsons, who lately died. When the Parsons and Reese families here became ill with influenza, he came up from Aberdeen to help care for the others and succumbed to the disease himself. The funeral was conducted from the cemetery Monday at 2 o’clock under the auspices of the L. D. S. church. Deceased leaves a wife and four small children besides a number of brothers and sisters. Interment was made in the Sterling-Yuma cemetery. The sympathy of the community goes out to the bereaved ones.

Miss Dolly Reese is very low with influenza-pneumonia and is not expected to live.

Mrs. P. P. Parsons received the sad news of the death of her father from influenza at some place in Montana.

George Andrews was on the sick list the last of the week.

Clyde Furniss has been ill this week with the mumps.

(ibid, page 4)
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The Idaho Republican. April 11, 1919, Page 5

Local News

C. F. Hendrie left Tuesday afternoon for Berkley, Cal., where he will spend some time regaining his strength, after a very severe attack of the flu in the early spring.

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Eichelberger and their children are all down with influenza, and also two teachers who are with them, Miss Hay and Miss Larson.

Judge Cowen leaves for Challis Friday to conduct the regular term of court at that place.
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19190411TIR3
County Schools, Flu and Red Cross Pillows

The county schools will mostly stay open until the first of June. The Aberdeen school re-opened Monday, after a vacation of three weeks on account of the flu epidemic, with only 60 percent present. Several of the teachers, who have been ill are at their desks, but not yet well and strong. Several schools in the county are forced to close early this spring on account of lack of funds.

Feathers Feathers, Everywhere

The county school children have been having a delightful time gathering feathers and giving them to be used in forty-six pillows for army hospitals. There are feathers of all kinds, from the plebeian barn-yard hen and from the downy goose. Some of the kiddies fell into the spirit of the game so thoroly [sic] that they would not pass a feather on the street without stopping to pick it up for the Junior Red Cross. The collection of pillows is now taking up about two-thirds of the available space in the county superintendent’s office at the court house, but will soon be on the way.

A Premature Farewell

The parents of the Moreland district contributing children to what is called the Flagtown school, in the fullness of their appreciation gave a farewell surprise supper party in honor of the teacher, Mrs. John Queen. After the affair was all planned it was found that school would not be closed up for more than a month yet; nevertheless, the parents felt that they owed Mrs. Queen a party anyway, and a splendid feast was served Friday evening at 6 o’clock. Everything good to eat in the calendar was there, according to reliable reports, and likewise just about every parent in the district, which is a compliment to the excellence of Mrs. Queen’s work, since it has won her such support and encouragement.

A special school program had been the occasion of the gathering and it followed the supper.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Idaho Republican. April 11, 1919, Page 6

Springfield

Mr. and Mrs. Rasmussen arrived last week to visit with the C. F. Sommercorn family. Mrs. Rasmussen was formerly Miss Edna Sommercorn. As soon as they reached their destination the family took down with the flu, but are all now recovering nicely.

Doctor McKinnon has been visiting patients in Springfield twice during the week.

Marvetta and Byron Thurston are recovering from an attack of influenza.

Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Wells are both reported ill.

Miss Oral Blackburn is ill with the flu.

Mrs. Fred Peterson has been quite ill recently.

Edwin Christiansen arrived in Springfield Tuesday from Salt Lake. Several of his family are recovering from the flu.

H. V. Chandler is out again after an attack of the flu.

The Hungatt family are all recovering after a serious attack of influenza.

(ibid, page 6)
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The Idaho Republican. April 11, 1919, Page 7

Goshen

People never miss the water until the well goes dry and that is like Goshen now, because the town well is on the blink.

(ibid, page 7)
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Shoshone Journal. April 11, 1919, Page 5

19190411SJ1

Local and Personal News

Mrs. Aaron Fuller is seriously ill this week.

Mrs. Wm. Newman is ill at her home this week.

Miss Mary McMahon is seriously ill from the effects of a bad cold which proves very obstinate.

County Supt. Mrs. Leah M. Burnside, is holding in her office this week, final examinations in the eighth grade for those pupils in school that will close with the present month.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 11 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street Looking East, Ferdinand, Idaho

FerdinandFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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The Caldwell Tribune. April 11, 1919, Page 3

19190411CT1

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Roswell

Edgar Huett has been ill with influenza.

Homer Allen, son of Mr. and Mrs. Clinton Allen, is ill with influenza.

Mary Dickerson, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. F. L. Dickerson who has been very ill with influenza is somewhat better.

Mrs. Wilson, who has been caring for her mother, Mrs. Fredwell, who is ill at the home of her son, William, returned Wednesday to her home at Middleton.

Mr. and Mrs. Bed Paine, Mr. and Mrs. Ed Stempter, Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Paine, Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Allen were among the relatives who attended the funeral of Frank Soper Wednesday in Caldwell.

Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Rockwood, Mrs. Edgar Dilley, Mrs. F. Crowe, A. J. McCormick and Wm. Sharpe attended the funeral of Frank Soper in Caldwell Wednesday.

Lake Lowell

Mr. Ben Taylor’s baby has been sick the past week.

Florence Gibbens is improving slowly from her recent illness.

Evart Coon’s baby has been sick with pneumonia.

Cloro Belle Wright has been ill the past week.

Dr. Gue was called to the C. C. Gillen home Sunday afternoon.

Charlie Martin of the Gov. camp has been ill the past few days.

Evart and Almeda Gibbens have the scarlet fever.

Fairview

Mrs. Graves is in Caldwell for medical treatment.

S. W. Sails family are having the mumps.

Mrs. Bertha Foley left for her home in Norton, Kansas the past week, after recovering from her illness at the home of her parents, Mr. and Mrs. John Greer. Mrs. John Greer has been suffering from a bad cold and rheumatism for some time past.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 11 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. April 11, 1919, Page 9

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Marble Front

The baby daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Ole Larson, who has been quite ill, is reported much improved.

Mrs. G. H. Fuller is on the sick list this week.

Briar Rose

Stirling Brown is on the sick list.

The two Livingston children are in Boise taking treatment for having been bitten by a mad dog.
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Dies of Pneumonia

John Henry Thompson, the 19 months old son of Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Thompson of Wilder, who died Wednesday, March 26, 1919, of pneumonia was buried Thursday afternoon, April 10, from the Peckham-Case chapel at 4 o’clock. The services were in charge of the church of Christ and conducted by Rev. Z. E. Lundy.

(ibid, page 9)
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The Meridian Times., April 11, 1919, Page 2

19190411MT1

President Has Close Call
Wilson Threatened With Serious Attack of influenza

Paris. — “The president has come very near having a serious attack of influenza, but by going to bed at once by my direction, he has apparently escaped, but still is necessarily confined to his bed,” said a statement issued Saturday afternoon by Rear Admiral Grayson, the president’s physician.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 11 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Meridian Times., April 11, 1919, Page 4

Neighborhood News

Items from Fairview Neighborhood

Mrs. Jennie Brower was on the sick list last week.

The Eighth grade students are taking their final examinations.
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19190411MT2

(ibid page 4)
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Yakima Avenue, Filer, Idaho (1)

FilerFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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April 12

Evening Capital News., April 12, 1919, Page 5

19190412ECN1

Around Boise Valley Loop

Middleton

Miss Lonella Mason, who has been unable to teach the past month, has improved and returned to her work Friday morning.

Mrs. Roy McConnell went to Boise Wednesday to see Mr. McConnell, who is in a Boise hospital.

Maple Grove

Eleven children were examined by the Home Defense nurse Thursday. There are 22 under school age in the district.

Miss Sydna Pfost who is attending high school at Meridian is at home with a severe case of tonsillitis.
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Find Dog That Bit Girl Had Rabies; Treat Victim

Caldwell, April 12. — The 16-year-old daughter of D. B. Morrison, who reside on Avon street, has been sent to Boise to be treated, following the report of the state bacteriologist that the black spitz pup which bit her the first o the week was afflicted with rabies. The conclusion of the state official was reached after a microscopic examination of the dog’s head, which was killed and sent to him.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 12 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Evening Capital News., April 12, 1919, Page 8

Little News of Boise

New Dumping Ground

The low ground in the Julia Davis park, which has been used for a city dump for several years, is now all filled and no more trash can be dumped there. Councilman Stevens says in the future all trash must be hauled across the river and dumped on the low ground on the right hand side of the bridge.
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Deaths – Funerals

Royer — Alda Royer, aged 33 years, died in a Boise hospital Friday evening of a complication of diseases. She is survived by her husband, Robert R. Royer, and three children, Eldredge, Louisa and Genevieve of Mayfield, also her mother, Mrs. Louisa Anderson of Gothenburg, Neb. She was a member of the Eastern Star of North Platte, Neb. The funeral will be held at the Schreiber & Sidenfaden chapel Sunday afternoon at 3:30. Rev. G. A. Herbert of the Immanuel Lutheran church will officiate. Burial will be in Morris Hill cemetery. The funeral will be by automobile.
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19190412ECN2

(ibid, page 8)
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Freedom, Idaho ca. 1900 (1)

Freedom1900Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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April 13

Evening Capital News., April 13, 1919, Page 9

19190413ECN1

Around Boise Valley Loop

Star

The infant son of Mr. and Mrs. Earl Croter is very ill with pneumonia.

Dr. Spencer of Boise was here Saturday.

Caldwell

Mrs. A. W. Duncan is reported quite ill.

Hugh Ackley is reported ill with the mumps.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 13 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Evening Capital News., April 13, 1919, Page 2 (Magazine Section)

Pierce Park – Collister

Miss Violet Marquis, who has been a victim of influenza, has recovered and is in school again.

John V. Wilson, who homesteaded his farm near the Soldiers’ Home in 1864, died Sunday morning after a brief illness. He is survived by four daughters, one son and a brother. One daughter, Mrs. George Nibler, lives on an adjoining farm.

(ibid, page 2 Magazine Section, Image 26)
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Frisco, Idaho

FriscoFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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April 14

Evening Capital News., April 14, 1919, Page 1

19190414ECN1

19190414ECN2
Mrs. Phoebe Hearst Dies; Was Mother of Hearst The Publisher

Oakland, Calif., April 14. — (United Press) — Private funeral services for Mrs. Phoebe Hearst, who died yesterday afternoon at her home in Pleasonton, will be held at the home Wednesday morning. A public service will be held in the afternoon.

Mrs. Hearst died at the age of 76, following an attack of influenza, which developed pneumonia. She had been in poor health for three years. At her bedside was Wm. Randolph Hearst, her only son.

Mrs. Hearst’s live was devoted to charitable acts. Among the institutions owing much to her is the University of California.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 14 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Evening Capital News., April 14, 1919, Page 6

Health Notes

By M. S. Parker

The proprietor of a public eating place who will not observe reasonable health rules and regulations is a dangerous person in any community and will not be patronized by any person who is at all mindful of his health. Every dirty caterer should be made to get right in the matter of sanitation or be forced out of the business through which he seriously endangers the health and lives of his unwary patrons. …

Every community in this state should proceed without delay in the matter of a general clean up, for this is the time of year for extra efforts to be made along this line. If we want the health conditions of Idaho to be increasingly good this season, we must get busy and not stop until they are materially changed. The health of the people of this state should be held above every other consideration and we can have right conditions only by working along right lines. Let’s make Idaho one of the cleanest and most healthful states in the west.
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19190414ECN3
Debs Given Post As Penitentiary Nurse; Likes Surroundings
Promises to Scrupulously Obey Prison Rules and Not Preach Radical Doctrines; Has 60 Flu Cases in Charge.

Moundsville, W. Vn., April 14. — (United Press) — Its a long way from campaigning for the presidency of the United States to nurse in a penitentiary.

Eugene V. Debs, many times Socialist candidate for president, sentenced to ten years in the federal prison for violation of the espionage act, spent his first morning in the prison here in the tailor shop, being fitted with the prison gray uniform. This afternoon Debs was assigned as nurse in the prison hospital where he will have a number of “flu” victims under his care.

At the present time influenza is gaining headway in the penitentiary, over 60 cases being recorded.

Debs thanked the prison authorities for the assignment.

Warden Terrell instructed the prisoner he would not be permitted to preach the doctrines of Socialism or Bolshevism among the inmates.

Debs promised scrupulously to observe this order. He will have the freedom of the institution.

Debs said he liked the atmosphere of the prison much better than many hotels he had seen.

(ibid, page 6)
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Evening Capital News., April 14, 1919, Page 7

Little News of Boise

Visiting Father

Charles A. Jones, who joined the service last fall and shortly afterwards was stricken with influenza, followed by pneumonia and other complications, has returned to Idaho from Fort Rosencrans, Calif., and is visiting his father, Le Roy Jones, United States Marshal. The younger Mr. Jones was recently discharged from the hospital. While weak, he is recuperating nicely.

Supt. For Hospital

Anna H. Smith has been appointed by Bishop Page as superintendent of St. Luke’s hospital to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mrs. Lucy Emery. Miss Smith has had charge of the nurses at Camp Lewis and is regarded as extremely well qualified for the position. She will take the position either in June or July 1. Miss Mabel Berg will continue in charge of the hospital until her arrival.
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Deaths – Funerals

Harvey — Mrs. Elizabeth E. Harvey died this morning at the home of her son, Richard J. Harvey, 1704 North Twelfth street. A complication of diseases caused her demise. She was 68 years of age. She had been a resident of Boise for five years. Two sons survive her, Richard J. of Boise and Arthur of California. The funeral will be held Tuesday afternoon at 3:30 at the home of her son. Rev. H. J. Reynolds will officiate and burial will be in Morris Hill cemetery. The funeral will be by automobile.

Richter – The funeral of William Richter, who died Thursday, will be held at the Fry and Summers Chapel at 11 o’clock Tuesday morning. Rev. D. H. Jones will officiate. Burial will be in Morris Hill cemetery. The funeral will be by automobile.

(ibid, page 7)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., April 14, 1919, Page 1

19190414DSM1

Mrs. May Called By Sudden Death

Mrs. Warney May of American ridge died Saturday evening at 8:30 o’clock. Mrs. May had been ill many years of Bright’s disease, but her death came as a shock to her friends, as she seemed in better health than usual, the past week.

Mrs. May, who was 37 years of age leaves one son 10 years old. Her mother, Mrs. W. W. Wilcox lives in Kendrick.

Mrs. May is the niece of A. B. McIntire and Mrs. Costigan of Moscow. Her husband, Warney May and his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Frank May, have been for the past month on the coast, near Portland, convalescing from the influenza, from which they suffered last winter. They returned to Moscow, called home by the death of Mrs. May.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 14 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., April 14, 1919, Page 5

City News

If the person who took my umbrella, Sunday forenoon from the Third street entrance to the postoffice building, and whose identity is known, will return it to the porch of my residence, 310 Third street, no questions will be asked. – W. J. McConnell

(ibid, page 5)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., April 14, 1919, Page 2

19190414DSM2

(ibid, page 2)
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Further Reading

Rabies: Still with us

L Nicolle, MD FRCPC National Institutes of Health

Rabies is an important historical infectious disease. The frightening presentation and clinical course, with certain mortality from encephalitis, have excited attention and fear since the beginning of recorded history. Transmissibility of rabies from animals to humans was recognized long before the germ theory was entertained. Pasteur’s dramatic experiment in 1885 is a legendary milestone in the treatment of infectious diseases. The use of postexposure prophylaxis with dried virus grown in rabbit spinal cords prevented rabies in a 12-year-old boy who was bitten by a rabid dog. Postexposure prophylaxis progressed subsequently to phenol- inactivated rabies virus in 1919, which, while effective, was neurotoxic for one in 200 patients. This preparation was used for 50 years in North America, and continues to be used in some parts of the world.

from: NIH
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Louis Pasteur

LouisPasteurExperiment-aPasteur experimenting in his laboratory.
Public Domain

Louis Pasteur December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist, and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation, and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases, and his discoveries have saved many lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax.

His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, and has been called a “father of bacteriology” and the “father of microbiology”, though the latter appelation has also been applied to Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.

Pasteur was responsible for disproving the doctrine of spontaneous generation. He performed experiments that showed that, without contamination, microorganisms could not develop. Under the auspices of the French Academy of Sciences, he demonstrated that in sterilized and sealed flasks, nothing ever developed; and, conversely, in sterilized but open flasks, microorganisms could grow. Although Pasteur was not the first to propose the germ theory, his experiments indicated its correctness and convinced most of Europe that it was true.

Today, he is often regarded as one of the fathers of germ theory. Pasteur made significant discoveries in chemistry, most notably on the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals and racemization. Early in his career, his investigation of tartaric acid resulted in the first resolution of what is now called optical isomers. His work led the way to the current understanding of a fundamental principle in the structure of organic compounds.

He was the director of the Pasteur Institute, established in 1887, until his death, and his body was interred in a vault beneath the institute. Although Pasteur made groundbreaking experiments, his reputation became associated with various controversies. Historical reassessment of his notebook revealed that he practiced deception to overcome his rivals.

Rabies

Pasteur produced the first vaccine for rabies by growing the virus in rabbits, and then weakening it by drying the affected nerve tissue. The rabies vaccine was initially created by Emile Roux, a French doctor and a colleague of Pasteur, who had produced a killed vaccine using this method. The vaccine had been tested in 50 dogs before its first human trial. This vaccine was used on 9-year-old Joseph Meister, on July 6, 1885, after the boy was badly mauled by a rabid dog. This was done at some personal risk for Pasteur, since he was not a licensed physician and could have faced prosecution for treating the boy, After consulting with physicians, he decided to go ahead with the treatment. Over 11 days, Meister received 13 inoculations, each inoculation using viruses that had been weakened for a shorter period of time. Three months later he examined Meister and found that he was in good health. Pasteur was hailed as a hero and the legal matter was not pursued. Analysis of his laboratory notebooks shows that Pasteur had treated two people before his vaccination of Meister. One survived but may not actually have had rabies, and the other died of rabies. Pasteur began treatment of Jean-Baptiste Jupille on October 20, 1885, and the treatment was successful. Later in 1885, people, including four children from the United States, went to Pasteur’s laboratory to be inoculated. In 1886, he treated 350 people, of which only one developed rabies. The treatment’s success laid the foundations for the manufacture of many other vaccines. The first of the Pasteur Institutes was also built on the basis of this achievement.

In The Story of San Michele, Axel Munthe writes of some risks Pasteur undertook in the rabies vaccine research:

Pasteur himself was absolutely fearless. Anxious to secure a sample of saliva straight from the jaws of a rabid dog, I once saw him with the glass tube held between his lips draw a few drops of the deadly saliva from the mouth of a rabid bull-dog, held on the table by two assistants, their hands protected by leather gloves.

Because of his study in germs, Pasteur encouraged doctors to sanitize their hands and equipment before surgery. Prior to this, few doctors or their assistants practiced these procedures.

excerpts: Wikipedia
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Phoebe Hearst

PhoebeHearst-a
Phoebe Apperson Hearst
By Hinman, Ida – The Washington sketch book; a society souvenir, Public Domain

Phoebe Elizabeth Apperson Hearst (December 3, 1842 – April 13, 1919) was an American philanthropist, feminist and suffragist. She was the mother of William Randolph Hearst and wife of George Hearst.

She died at her home, Hacienda del Pozo de Verona, in Pleasanton, California, aged 76, on April 13, 1919, during the worldwide influenza epidemic of 1918-1919, and was buried at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park in Colma, California.

from: Wikipedia
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Eugene V. Debs

Eugenedebs1921-aDebs leaving the White House the day after being released from prison in 1921. United States Library of Congress

Eugene Victor “Gene” Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American socialist, political activist, trade unionist, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) (“Wobblies”) and five times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States. Through his presidential candidacies as well as his work with labor movements, Debs eventually became one of the best-known socialists living in the United States.

Early in his political career, Debs was a member of the Democratic Party. He was elected as a Democrat to the Indiana General Assembly in 1884. After working with several smaller unions, including the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, Debs led his union in a major ten-month strike against the CB&Q Railroad in 1888. Debs was instrumental in the founding of the American Railway Union (ARU), one of the nation’s first industrial unions. After workers at the Pullman Palace Car Company organized a wildcat strike over pay cuts in the summer of 1894, Debs signed many into the ARU. He led a boycott by the ARU against handling trains with Pullman cars in what became the nationwide Pullman Strike, affecting most lines west of Detroit and more than 250,000 workers in 27 states. Purportedly to keep the mail running, President Grover Cleveland used the United States Army to break the strike. As a leader of the ARU, Debs was convicted of federal charges for defying a court injunction against the strike and served six months in prison.

In prison, Debs read various works of socialist theory and emerged six months later as a committed adherent of the international socialist movement. Debs was a founding member of the Social Democracy of America (1897), the Social Democratic Party of America (1898) and the Socialist Party of America (1901). Debs ran as a Socialist candidate for President of the United States five times, including 1900 (earning 0.6% of the popular vote), 1904 (3.0%), 1908 (2.8%), 1912 (6.0%) and 1920 (3.4%), the last time from a prison cell. He was also a candidate for United States Congress from his native state Indiana in 1916.

Debs was noted for his oratory skills, and his speech denouncing American participation in World War I led to his second arrest in 1918. He was convicted under the Sedition Act of 1918 and sentenced to a term of 10 years. President Warren G. Harding commuted his sentence in December 1921. Debs died in 1926, not long after being admitted to a sanatorium due to cardiovascular problems that developed during his time in prison.

continued: Wikipedia
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