Idaho History Apr 25, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 54

Idaho Newspaper clippings May 13-31, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 13

The Idaho Republican. May 13, 1919, Page 6

19190513TIR1

Taber

Word was received here Wednesday of the death of Mrs. Bert Evans of American Falls from Influenza.

George Patrie was in town Tuesday, getting fixtures for his well and reported some cases of flu out their way.

School will be dismissed here on May 23.
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Inland Northwest

The epidemic of sickness raging in Tonopah, Silver Peak and Blair is said by Goldfield physicians not to be influenza, but plain grippe, and they explain the number of deaths recently by stating that the number is not unusual for this season of the year when the present large population is considered.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 13 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Post Office, Hansen, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 15

Idaho County Free Press. May 15, 1919, Page 4

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Clearwater

Miss Jennette Hanners, who taught the intermediate room here this year, closed her school Friday and has gone to Spokane. Miss Bechannan and Miss Heater are making up time in their rooms lost during the influenza epidemic.

Rain fell here Sunday evening and did much good to the crops and gardens in this vicinity.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 15 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Nezperce Herald., May 15, 1919, Page 1

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Farmers Union Convention June 6-7

The regular tri-annual convention of the Farmers Union, of Nez Perce, Lewis and Clearwater counties, will be held at Melrose on Friday and Saturday, June 6th and 7th. This will be the first one of these meetings since last summer – the regular fall and winter gatherings having been annulled because of the influenza epidemic – and it is anticipated that a large turnout will result. Especially so since the annual election of officers will take place at this time and much other important business is to be disposed of. …

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 15 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Harvard, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 16

Cottonwood Chronicle. May 16, 1919, Page 1

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News Around The State
Items of Interest From Various Sections Reproduced for Benefit of Our Readers

The spring term of the federal court opened at Moscow last Monday. There are many sedition cases carried over from the fall term. These are a number of “bootlegging” cases and two cases of food hoarding that have been postponed twice. Judge Dietrich and the other court officers will reach Moscow Sunday. The last term of the court was adjourned hastily on account of the influenza situation, as a number of jurors and witnesses were taken sick while attending court.

The capitol building improvement bonds carried last Saturday at Boise by a 99 per cent vote, 2929 for to 41 against. The capitol building wings, which will cost approximately $900,000 are to be built during the next two years, are assured to Boise. The state is prepared to start building operations immediately. The city will take quick action to have the approach property vacated. The bond was for the purpose of raising money to purchase two blocks by the city of Boise adjacent to the state capitol building.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 16 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Cottonwood Chronicle. May 16, 1919, Page 5

County Seat News Items

Dr. R. J. Alcorn of Ferdinand has located in Grangeville for the practice of his profession of physician and surgeon. Dr. Alcorn has taken office rooms upstairs in the Grangeville Savings & Trust block. His wife, Dr. Cora Alcorn, will continue to practice medicine in Ferdinand.

John Phillips of Stites was in Grangeville Wednesday carrying his arm in a sling. Mr. Phillips, Wednesday morning, while enroute to Grangeville, fractured a bone of his left wrist while cranking his automobile.
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Salmon River Ripplings

Mrs. Steve Farthing of Rocky canyon who has been ill is improving nicely.

Mrs. and Mrs. Arlie Gentry of Rocky canyon have returned home from Clarkston. The latter going there for treatment and is greatly improved in health.

Mrs. Eva Lancaster who was very ill is improving and is able to be about again.

The Salmon river country was visited by a good rain Sunday.

(ibid, page 5)
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Cottonwood Chronicle. May 16, 1919, Page 7

[Local News]

Dr. Orr and Dr. Stockton of Grangeville departed Monday morning for Boise in Dr. Stockton’s car.

Miss Edna McDonald finished her school term at the Crea school last week and is visiting at the Stevenson home in Cottonwood this week.

Marie Schueman closed her school near Keuterville last week and is visiting at the Jenny home before returning to her home at Clarkston.

(ibid, page 7)
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American Falls Press. May 16, 1919, Page 1

19190516AFP1

Mrs. Geo. S. Butler Passes Away

Early Wednesday morning Mrs. Madge J. Butler, wife of Geo. S. Butler, passed away at the family home. She had been ill since last October when she had had an attack of the flu which left her in a weakened condition and which finally developed into heart trouble which was the cause of her death. Mrs. Butler was born in Kansas and at the time of her death had reached the age of 45 years, 9 months and 7 days,.

Funeral services were held Thursday afternoon at 3 o’clock in the Methodist church at American Falls, the Rev. Mr. Richards officiating.

Besides her husband she leaves three children.

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 16 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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American Falls Press. May 16, 1919, Page 9

Boy Scout Doings

The New Orleans Red Cross has been working on the reclamation of soldiers’ garments. Boy scouts assisted by adjusting the button on the military blouses.

Among “good turns” reported by a Freeland (Pa.) troop of boys scouts are: Assisted the doctors and nurses in the Spanish influenza epidemic; donated ten baskets of provisions to the widows and orphans; assisted in picking 11 bushels of berries for I. O. O. F. orphanage at Sunbury, Pa.

(ibid, page 9)
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The Idaho Recorder. May 16, 1919, Page 1

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19190516IR2
Belated Flu Attack

The entire family of Ludwig Mogg is afflicted with a belated attack of flu, according to reports that comes from the home two miles south of Salmon this morning. Mrs. Murphey of the Red Cross is looking for a nurse for the family.
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Red Cross Work Is To Be Maintained After The War

Miss Van Wormer, field representative of the Red Cross, has been visiting Salmon this week, the guest of the Misses Shoup at the family home. The Lemhi chapter, of which Miss Laura Shoup is the head, was called together at Odd Fellows hall last night to hear Miss Van Wormer outline the post war work for the organization, which is to be kept up, both as to the junior Red Cross and parent body.

The principal undertakings still in hand are to look after child welfare in the devastated states of Europe, to help those made destitute who cannot help themselves, and finally to bring home to our own land the benefits of county nurses. To this end the organization is to be kept alive everywhere throughout the land, with the call for annual renewals of membership. Miss Shoup has announced, however, that the Salmon Red Cross rooms will not be maintained during the summer months after closing June 1.
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Strange Case Of Walking Typhoid

A strange case of a man in Montana carrying typhoid germs in his hands and infecting milk taken by him from cows has come to light at Helena, Montana. From this cause it is stated, there have arisen 17 cases of the dread disease with five deaths resulting.

The man [was] employed at the Sleeping Child Springs, a small resort in the Bitter Root valley. Shortly after he came there an epidemic of typhoid broke out at the place and spread, resulting in deaths in Missoula, Hamilton and Wallace, Ida. Five deaths in all were traced to the typhoid contagion contracted at the Sleeping Child Springs, and seventeen cases of the disease.

Health authorities investigated the resort. They found everything clean it is said. The water used there was analyzed and found pure and wholesome. Dr. John J. Sippy, state epidemiologist, and Dr. A. H. McGray, state bacteriologist, were called upon by Dr. G. Gordon, health officer of Ravalli county. All other clues as to the source of the disease proving fruitless, search for a typhoid carrier was begun.

An investigation disclosed that in every case of typhoid contracted at Sleeping Child Springs the patient was fond of milk and had partaken freely of the beverage at the springs. The ranch hand who did the milking was examined and it was found he carried positive typhoid germs, but to make absolutely sure the officials concluded to bring him to Helena to conduct more exhaustive tests.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 16 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Recorder. May 16, 1919, Page 4

Automobile Manners

The people who write etiquette books have not so far got out any code of automobile manners. But perhaps in these hurried times people do not read etiquette books any more. But anyway there are certain basic principles of good manners that should be applied to new developments of modern life.

The use of the automobile has had the effect to upset certain people’s ideas of what constitutes mannerly conduct. In ordinary life these people may be very courteous. But when they get on the road, they seem obsessed with the fear that someone will get ahead of them, or get away from them some precedence to which they are entitled.

If they seem a shade closer to a corner than a car coming from the entering street, they will rush ahead to claim the right to go ahead first. Frequently they misjudge the distance or speed and an accident results.

In their home life these same people would probably be very scrupulous to rise when a lady enters the room, and they would always insist on passing through a door last. But that spirit seems gone when they get out at a steering wheel. They blow their horn violently when approaching a crossing, as a notice to everyone to wait until they get by. It is of course easier for the pedestrian to stop and start than a big motor. Yet drivers who come down through a street slowly do not have to ask everyone to yield for them.

These remarks do not apply to the majority of drivers, who carry out on the road the same spirit of courtesy that they exercise in their homes. But it does fit a lot of people who ought to know better, and who do not realize how boorish an appearance they are making. If they could understand how objectionable they are made by their bad manners, their pride would compel an instant change of attitude.

(ibid, page 4)
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The Idaho Recorder. May 16, 1919, Page 5

Salmon Locals

The young returned soldier, Wesley Perkins, is recovering nicely from the attack of pneumonia that gave alarm last week.

Mrs. George A Martin, wife of the Salmon-Armstead stage man, has been ill for the past two weeks under hospital treatment at Butte. Mrs. Hunter is assisting Mrs. Martin in the management of her growing hotel and restaurant business at Armstead.

W. A. Brown, prominent livestock man of the Mayfield company, who has been through a siege attack of typhoid fever, is reported safely over the crisis and will soon be able to be out and about. His home is in Salmon.

W. F. Stipe has installed new counter show cases in the Salmon bakery to improve appearances and secure the more perfect sanitary handling of products. The interior is to have new linoleum also.
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19190516IR3
Filters Don’t Stop Influenza

Recent researches conducted by M. Nicolle and Lebailly of the Pasteur institute of Tunish have proven that the microbe of influenza is what is known as a “filter passer” – that is, it is so small as to pass through any filter, no matter how minute the interstices may be.

(ibid, page 5)
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Montpelier Examiner. May 16, 1919, Page 4

19190516ME1

[Deaths]

Funeral services for A. M. Hill of Pegram, were held in Salt Lake last Friday. Abe, as he was familiarly known to many local people, died last Tuesday at the home of his sister at Murray, Utah. He was down with influenza three months ago, which developed into tuberculosis. In addition to his widow he is survived by sons Stanley, Guy and Hood, and daughter Marvel of Pegram, and a sister, Amanda, of Salt Lake.

Mr. and Mrs. Andy Evans desire to thank the people of Raymond and Montpelier for their kindly acts on the occasion of the death of their infant son.
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Salt Lake Sheepman Died Here Last Night

Will Covey, the Salt Lake sheepman who has been ill with the flu at the Montpelier hospital, died last night at 1:55. Mr. Covey was 51 years old, and was born and raised in Salt Lake. He has been in the sheep business around Montpelier for the past fourteen years and is well known to many residents of this county.

Mr. Covey is survived by his wife, a son, Wallace, and a daughter, Grace, of Salt Lake. Mrs. Covey, a brother, and Mr. Stephen Covey, a brother, were at his bedside when he passed away. Dr. Claude Shields of Salt Lake and Miss Fife, a trained nurse, were called into consultation by Dr. Ashley, but Mr. Covey’s condition for several days has been slowly growing worse. The funeral will be held in Salt Lake, but arrangements have not yet been announced.
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Montpelier Now Has Modern Auto Hearse

Frank Williams drove his new auto hearse up from Ogden Tuesday on his return from the Golden Spike celebration there. The hearse is a beautiful pearl-colored auto, electrically fitted both inside and out and finished on the inside in mahogany.

It is a combination design after Mr. Williams’ own ideas, being constructed by the Sidney Stevens Implement Co. of Ogden to specifications, and can be used as an ambulance as well as a hearse.

Mr. Williams announces that he will now answer calls to any part of the county without extra charge for mileage, and is to be complimented for his initiative in providing this city with a first class mortuary and auto hearse.

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 16 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier Examiner. May 16, 1919, Page 5

Local News

Peter Black, an employee of Mumford’s sheep camp, was brought into the city Tuesday with a severe case of influenza, and died the same day. Funeral services were held at the city cemetery Wednesday. Nothing is known of any of Black’s relatives, or his home.

Funeral services were held at St. Charles last Thursday for the six-weeks old infant of Daniel Laker of Camp Lifton, which died of pneumonia.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Caldwell Tribune. May 16, 1919, Page 3

19190516CT1

Ten Davis

After four months of splendid success in its work the Ten Davis school closed Thursday evening. The pupils all made their semesters credit, passing with good grades. Since our new set of teachers came out school has improved wonderfully. Mr. Bay made a splendid principal and teacher. He being able to teach the children to sing was very helpful and each student enjoyed the forty minute period of singing which they had every day. Mr. Jewell was a favorite with the boys as he enjoyed being out doors playing baseball and any other games the boys played. Mr. Jewel [sic] was also an excellent teacher. The rest of the teachers were very successful as teachers also. Miss Ruth Miller and Mrs. Conners will teach here again next year. We all hope that the three teachers yet to be hired will be as successful teachers as their predecessors have been.

Misses Ruth Miller and Ruth Mead and Mrs. Margaret Conners left Friday evening for their respective homes where they will spend the vacation.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 16 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. May 16, 1919, Page 4

Camp Fire Gleams

The Camp Fire Girls are beginning to think with more or less patience of their summer vacation. The school year being a strenuous one, crowding each one of their greatest efforts, trying for both teacher and pupil.

Now the peaceful voice of the pine tree, the symbol of rest and strength, is calling.

“Again and again shall thou sit at my feet and listen until thou too shall find rest and peace, and shall become steadfast and true. Tho self and truth fulfilling the law. The sky is not far. Osoah the pine tree has spoken and hath pointed the great sky trail.”

No wonder they turn from their books to listen to the message and think with longing of the dusk of the pine forest, of its sheltering safety and the untasted joys of the unknown trail beyond. Where misunderstandings, mistakes and troubles are forgotten and we find in the sound of the pines some signs of the eternal language.

(ibid, page 4)
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The Caldwell Tribune. May 16, 1919, Page 6

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Marble Front

The Marble Front school will have a picnic in the Walter Thomas grove Friday, which is the last day of school.

Roswell

John Steele, who has been quite ill, is recovering.

Midway

Friday, Miss Martha Nicholas received word of the death of her cousin, Miss Lydia Morgan, of Malad, which occurred that day, from the flu. Miss Morgan was well known to the older residents of Midway as she taught the intermediate grade in the school six years ago, and for the past four years was country treasurer of Oneida county.

Miss Sina Williams is quite sick this week.

Mrs. E. R. Bennett, nurse specialist of the extension department, and Miss Louise Riddle of the County Farm bureau, met with several ladies at the school house, and Mrs. Bennett gave a fine talk on “home nursing.” Those who did not hear her missed a treat, as she gave many facts and suggestions that everyone should know. It is to be regretted there was not a larger representation of the district present.

Clyde Dorv is assisting in the People’s Cash Grocery this week, as Mr. Hostettler is on the sick list.

David Kauffman is suffering from the grippe.

(ibid, page 6)
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The Caldwell Tribune. May 16, 1919, Page 10

Brier Rose

Mr. W. C. Postlethwaite was sick the first of the week, but is better and able to be at work again.

Mary Shaw is out of school this week with a sore throat.

Mrs. C. L. Crew is on the sick list and under the doctor’s care.

It is reported a number of persons are ill with the influenza on the Pons ranch.

Mr. E. L. Shaw, who was home two days last week on account of illness, is better and back in his office.

Greenleaf

Miss Glennie Dines is on the sick list.

The Nordyke family, who has had influenza the past few days, is reported better.

Lake Lowell

The Lake Lowell Red Cross met with Mrs. S. H. Peters Thursday afternoon of last week. There was a large attendance and the work was all finished up and sent in. At the close of the meeting it was decided to meet once a month during the summer just for a social good time.

(ibid, page 10)
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Post Office, Helmer, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 19

The Daily Star-Mirror., May 19, 1919, Page 2

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Soldiers Should Keep Insurance
War Risk Department Issues Appeal To Men To Hang On To Policies

That the soldier, sailor or marine who took out an insurance policy with the government during the war makes a serious mistake when he relinquishes his insurance is the statement sent out by the war risk department, which it asks the newspapers to publish and to impress upon the minds of the men who served their country so faithfully that they should keep this insurance in force. The appeal follows:

Think it Over

Soldiers, sailors and marines —

Stop a minute while we tell you something for your own good.

Suppose “abandon ship” had been sounded and one of your pals was without a life belt. You would say to him – “Here, Jim, you get into this life belt and get into it quick! You will need it and you will need it badly. It’s a great protection – it’s a good thing – hang on to it.”

Your government insurance is a good thing. Hang on to it.

You say – “the war is over. What’s the use?” The government says, we say, every thinking person says – “Insurance protection is needed, war or peace.”

Influenza alone killed more young, healthy and vigorous persons in the world than were killed by bullets and disease four and one-half years of war.

And YOU say – “what’s the use?”

Isn’t it worth while protecting your mother, wife or other dependents – don’t you want to protect YOURSELF against disability?

During the period of the war the government issued a temporary type of insurance known as war risk, or term insurance. It was designed primarily for protection purposes only, simply to tide the service men over the danger period of the war at the lowest possible price.

This term insurance was the best possible TEMPORARY insurance the government could arrange. But the government realized that it lacked the elements which would make permanency in life insurance desirable.

The cost of this old style of war risk insurance increases as the years go by.

The cost of the new insurance does not increase once you convert.

The government will announce shortly a plan for changing this war risk, or term insurance to permanent life, or endowment insurance. It will introduce features highly desirable in any form of insurance but particularly in this new government insurance at its low cost.

Some of you men after being mustered out, are allowing your war risk insurance policies to lapse by nonpayment of premiums.

At the time when the government is about to make a “good thing” a “better thing” you men are letting this privilege slip thru your fingers.

Boys – don’t let your policies lapse. If you have done so thru misunderstanding, or lack of information, you have six months from the date of lapse in which to re-instate the policy.

If you want information regarding the re-instatement of your policy, or regarding the new government plan for converting policies, white to the insurance officer, Thirteenth Naval District, Navy Yard, Puget Sound, Wash. He will be glad to answer your questions regarding insurance.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 19 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Herrick, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 20

The Daily Star-Mirror., May 20, 1919, Page 1

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Crime And Divorce Afflicts Spokane
Wave of Insanity, Juvenile Delinquency and Drunkenness Prevailing

Spokane. — Divorce, juvenile crime and insanity waves have been rampant here of late, and all are traceable to a condition of ‘social unrest.”

This is the opinion of Judge R. M. Webster, who as presiding judge of the Spokane county superior court, is charged with the adjudication of all cases of these three types.

Even the rapid rate of growth of divorce cases in the past 20 years has been exceeded recently. Juvenile crime has been rampant, and the police declare it their greatest problem.

“The divorce and insanity waves are traceable directly to a condition of social unrest,” Judge Webster said recently. “There is undoubtedly some connection between divorces and juvenile crime. A divorce, as rule means that a home has broken up and broken homes lead to juvenile troubles.

“Recently we have had from four to eight divorce hearings on every Tuesday and Thursday. “The run of insanity cases seems to have abated. Until recently I had a commitment almost every day. This week I had only one.”

Judge Webster asserts that the closing of schools during the influenza period had a detrimental effect upon juvenile morals, removing, as it did, the necessary “something to do,” which children crave.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 20 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., May 20, 1919, Page 4

19190520DSM2
“Flu” Claims Five Million in India

London. — Almost 5,000,000 persons have died in British India from Spanish influenza and fully a million others are believed to have died in the native states from the same cause, according to a report of the Indian government made public here. The area affected contained a population of 238,026,240 and the number of deaths was 4,899,725, or 20.6 deaths per thousand. In a few months, it is observed, influenza claimed half as many victims.

The influenza, which made its appearance in India early last autumn was particularly fatal in the central, northern and western portions, while in Burma it was not so severe. No part of the Punjab escaped. The hospitals were so choked it was impossible to quickly remove the dead and make room for the dying. Streets and lanes of the cities were littered with dead and dying people and the postal and telegraph services were completely demoralized.

The burning ghats and burial grounds were literally swamped with corpses, while an even greater number awaited removal from houses and hospitals. The depleted medical service, itself sorely stricken by the epidemic, was incapable of dealing with more than a minute fraction of sickness requiring attention.

(ibid, page 4)
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Oregon Short Line Depot, Homedale, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 22

The Daily Star-Mirror., May 22, 1919, Page 4

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Harvard Happenings
School Closed Friday

Harvard school closed a successful term Friday, May 16, under the able management of Miss Margaret Terry, in charge of the advanced grades and Miss Manilla Hanson, of the intermediate grades and Miss Jo Guy of the primary. …

The young people handled their work in a way that would do credit to older students in the city schools and shows what talent and practice can be made to produce. …

Despite the fact that ten weeks were lost during the influenza quarantine, eleven of the twelve applicants to write the examinations passed successfully, which speaks very highly, not only for the hard work of the pupils but for the teachers as well.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 22 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Horse Shoe Bend, Idaho ca. 1909

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 23

Clearwater Republican. May 23, 1919, Page 1

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Schools Close Friday

Next Friday, May 30, the public schools will close for the year. In spite of the long vacation, caused by the influenza, the pupils will be able to finish their work in fairly good shape. Of course, the work has not been as thorough as in ordinary years, but by following the “cramming” process, the teachers have been able to get most of the pupils ready for promotion.

There are ten graduates this year. Nellie Chase, Blanche Simpson, Mary O’Hara, Ruby Wahl, Beatrice Rogers, Winnifred Wellman, Mary Biegart, Dorothy Gallaher, Mavis Aiken and Julia Brown. …
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Miss Roberts Gets Good Position

The Misses Nell Roberts and Agness Gillespie made the round trip to Ahsahka, Sunday. Miss Roberts has accepted the principalship of the Ahsahka school, for the next term, and her sister, Miss Veda will be her assistant. After the school house had been inspected by the two young lady visitors, they camped on the banks of the beautiful North Fork and partook of a bountiful lunch, in true Weary Willie and Dusty Roads style – coffee a la tomato can and wienies a la pointed stick.
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Notice

On account of the illness of Mr. C. H. Ede, School Trustee of District No. 22, opening of bids for gymnasium, auditorium and assembly room, at Orofino, which was advertised for May 19, was postponed until Monday, May 26th.

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 23 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Clearwater Republican. May 23, 1919, Page 5

What your Friends and Neighbors Are Doing

The Republican is pleased to advise that Miss Mavis Aiken is rapidly recovering from a serious attack of pneumonia.

(ibid, page 5)
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American Falls Press. May 23, 1919, Page 2

19190523AFP1

19190523AFP2
Nurses Rescued From Quicksand
Three Girls Dug Out by Athlete Recuperating From Influenza

Chicago. — Three pretty nurses at the North Shore Health resort at Winnetka are deeply grateful for the fact that Harold Rubin, University of Chicago athlete, had the “flu” recently.19190523AFP3

If he hadn’t, he in all probability would not have been at the resort, convalescing from his recent illness, and the three young nurses might have perished in quicksand.

Misses Grace Williams, Helen Conrad and Clara Babroth went out along the lake shore to the bluff at Willow street. Dangerous quicksands about there.

Rubin and his cousin, Miss Fal Rubin, walking near by, heard the the girls scream. The athlete started on a sprint when he saw the girls sinking in quicksand. One of the young women was up to her waist.

Efforts to extricate the nurses were unsuccessful. Rubin sprinted back to the health resort. Despite his weakened condition, he probably never did the distance in better time.

With the help of a resort attaché and a couple of shovels, the girls were dug out. As soon as he ascertained they were safe, Rubin dashed off blushing furiously.

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 23 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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American Falls Press. May 23, 1919, Page 4

Roy and Vicinity

Mrs. C. M. Confer of Landing returned to her home Tuesday of last week from the hospital at American Falls where she has been three weeks. Mrs. Confer is well on the way to complete recovery and has words of praise only for Miss Lehman and the other nurses of the Bethany Deaconess hospital.

Lawrence Roy’s little boy who is staying with his grandmother, Mrs. H. C. Roy was quite sick with croup one day last week. Dr. Logan was sent for and gave the little one relief.

(ibid, page 4)
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American Falls Press. May 23, 1919, Page 5

Local Briefs

Miss Gellette who is teaching in the Washington school is ill and will be unable to finish her term.

Mrs. Pete Helsler of Spokane, Wash., sister of S. E. Kramlich, died Tuesday morning. She had been ill for some time.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Minnihaha Homestead, Happy Creek, Idaho (1)

HappyCreekFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 28

The Challis Messenger., May 28, 1919, Page 6

19190528CM1

19190528CM2Australians Wear Flu Masks

Melbourne. — Because of prevalence of influenza, the government of Victoria has ordered every person appearing on the streets or in public gatherings to wear a mask.
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Typhus Epidemic in Russia

Copenhagen. — A typhus epidemic has broken out in several of the larger Russian towns. Thousands are reported dead.

source: The Challis Messenger. (Challis, Idaho), 28 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Challis Messenger., May 28, 1919, Page 3

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19190528CM4

(ibid, page 3)
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Headquarters, Idaho (5)

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 30

The Caldwell Tribune. May 30, 1919, Page 1

19190530CT1

Children Need Medical Attention is Report
Examined 302 Pupils in Rural Schools – Startling Revelations Made Public

Canyon county is supposed to be as healthful a community as any in the state. The general health of the people of the county is thought to be above the average. Investigations made by Miss Ebba Djupe of the State Anti-Tuberculosis association and Miss Mertis Riddle, county home demonstration agent, indicates that medical supervision in the rural communities of this county is demanded.

In the Roswell, Midway, Lone Star and Franklin school districts 302 children were examined. Sanitary conditions in some districts are said to be bad. At Roswell the conditions are exceptionally good.

Particularly noticeable among the children examined was the prevalence of dental disorders, badly infected tonsils and the prevalence of ringworm. The latter was found to be almost universal among the children of all of the schools except Roswell. Miss Djupe attributed this to the use of common drinking cups or the type of fountains used in some institutions.

Girl Almost Blind

Among the most startling cases revealed through the examinations were those of a 12-year-old girl who was found to be almost totally blind, both parents and teachers being wholly ignorant of the fact; another girl with such a badly infected throat that Miss Djupe was of the opinion that she had diphtheria; and the case of a 6-year-old boy whose tonsils were extremely bad. This fact brought consternation to the child’s parents, who had but recently had a faulty operation performed upon the boy’s tonsils and, without an examination, would never have considered the possibility of them causing further trouble.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 30 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. May 30, 1919, Page 3

Lake Lowell

Almeda Gibbons is reported as improving.

Florence Gibbons is much improved at this writing.

Elsie Gibbons made a business trip to Boise Saturday.

(ibid, page 3)
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The Caldwell Tribune. May 30, 1919, Page 7

Midway

School closed this week, after a very successful year, despite the influenza and smallpox.

The Parent-Teachers Association gave the school children their annual picnic and treat of ice cream and cake at the school house Friday afternoon. There were about 100 children and about 75 parents and visitors present. The children gave a fine program of sports, and everyone seemed to have a very pleasant afternoon.

Mrs. T. F. Fry was ill several days last week.

Mr. and Mrs. A. Sebree and family visited Mrs. Sebree’s mother, Mrs. W. L. Gibbons who is seriously ill at her home near Deer Flat reservoir, last week.

(ibid, page 7)
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The Caldwell Tribune. May 30, 1919, Page 9

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Roswell

The children of the public schools were given a physical examination Wednesday under the direction of Miss Ebba Djupe, a nurse of the anti-tuberculosis society and Mrs. A. A. Steel, country health chairman. Although defects were found the results were very satisfactory.

Miss Swatman’s grades were closed Monday as she was in New Plymouth to see her brother who has just returned from service in Germany

Ten Davis

After a lingering illness of several months Bessie Bartles passed away in a Boise hospital Sunday afternoon. She has been suffering with diabetes. On Friday of last week she had her tonsils and adenoids removed. Up to Saturday evening she was feeling quite well, when she suddenly grew worse and died Sunday afternoon. Last winter she had to quit school on account of her poor health. She was a junior in high school when she quit. Bessie was a favorite among the young folks in the community and they will all miss her very much. She was 18 years old at the time of her death.

(ibid, page 9)
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The Meridian Times., May 30, 1919, Page 1

19190530MT1

Editorial Mention

Vera Ruth, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Fowler, died at the family home south of Meridian, May 26th, at the age of 8 years, 8 months and 14 days. Throat trouble, resembling diphtheria, was the cause of death. A brief service was conducted on the lawn at the home by Carman E. Mell, of the Christian church. Only the family were present. Interment was in Morris Hill cemetery.

J. H. McSparran, having closed the term of school at Montour, came to Meridian Wednesday with his household goods. …

The members of the Meridian high school board and the grade school board have mutually agreed on the “6 and 6” plan as before mentioned in the Times, and which means that 6 grades will be taught in the grade school and six in the high school. The appointment of the teachers for the high school and the selection of grades will be made by the newly appointed superintendent, Prof. Powers, and announced in a few days. The list has already been announced of the grade teachers, but the high school force awaits the action of the board and the new superintendent.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 30 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Meridian Times., May 30, 1919, Page 2

News Of A Week In Condensed Form
Records Of The Important Events Told In Briefest Manner Possible

Domestic

Unable to pay death claims of $580,000 as a result of influenza epidemic, the Catholic Mutual Benefit association will notify members that extra assessments must be levied until the deficit is wiped out, it was announced at Buffalo, N. Y., last week.

Washington

Passage by the house, on May 21, of a deficiency bill providing urgent appropriations of $45,044,500 for war risk allowances to soldiers and sailors’ families and civil war pensioners, made another speed record for the new house.

National suffrage for women was introduced by the house of representatives for the second time when the Susan B. Anthony amendment resolution was adopted on May 21 by a vote of 304 to 89.

Sending bombs and other explosives through the mails would be made a capital offense under a bill introduced by Senator King of Utah and referred to the judiciary committee. The Utah senator was one of those to whom infernal machines were addressed in the May day bomb plot

Foreign

The total damage in the north of France, including buildings, agriculture, furniture and public works, is estimated at 64,600,000,000 francs, or about $13,000,000,000.

(ibid, page 2)
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The Meridian Times., May 30, 1919, Page 5

19190530MT2

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

Ice Crew at Humphrey, Idaho

HumphreyFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 31

The Daily Star-Mirror., May 31, 1919, Page 1

19190531DSM1

Parents of Heroes Guests of “U”

Some of the parents of the Idaho students who died in the service were guests of the University yesterday. These are Mrs. Emma A. Paterka of Republic, the mother of Frank Paterka a member of the S. A. T. C. who died of influenza at Moscow, and Mrs. G. W. Sylvester of Rathdrum, the mother of Clarence Sylvester who was killed in action in the battle of Argonne Forest.

Dean French has received a number of communications from parents and relatives of other boys who died in the service indicating their appreciation of the exercises held and of the Memorial bulletin which will be sent them.
— —

Must Clean the Alleys

Dr. Leitch, city health officer, wants to call the attention of Moscow people to the ordinance providing for keeping the alleys clean. Dr. Leitch says the people are either ignorant of the law or do not care to obey it. The ordinance provided that if manure is thrown in the alleys at all it must be in a fly-tight box, and that the box must not protrude more than four feet into the alley, that is, must not extend more than four feet from the building or fence. He calls attention to the fact that manure is piled in alleys in Moscow, and that the ordinance is not obeyed by a great many persons who keep cows or horses in town. Rigid enforcement of the provisions of this ordinance will be made in the future. This warning is given in order that people may know the law and henceforth they will be required to obey it strictly.
— —

Autos Interfere With The Fire Department

Complains is made of the way automobiles crowd the streets when the fire bell rings. It is claimed that when the last alarm was found, Wednesday evening, so many automobiles blocked the streets that had there been a fire instead of a false alarm, the department could not have reached the hydrant. Warning is given that automobile or vehicle drivers who block the streets when the fire alarm sounds, will be arrested. Our efficient fire department has made an enviable record because it gets to the scene of the fire promptly. Idle curiosity will not be permitted to mar this splendid record.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 31 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
—————–

Further Reading

1918 flu pandemic in India

1918 flu pandemic in India was the outbreak of an unusually deadly influenza pandemic in India between 1918–1920 as a part of the worldwide Spanish flu pandemic. Also referred to as the Bombay Influenza or the Bombay Fever in India, the pandemic is believed to have killed up to 17 – 18 million people in the country, the most among all countries. David Arnold (2019) estimates at least 12 million dead, about 5% of the population. The decade between 1911 and 1921 was the only census period in which India’s population fell, mostly due to devastation of the Spanish flu pandemic. The death toll in India’s British-ruled districts was 13.88 million.

In India, the pandemic broke out in Bombay in June 1918, with one of the possible routes being via ships carrying troops returning from the First World War in Europe. The outbreak then spread across the country from west and south to east and north, reaching the whole of the country by August. It hit different parts of the country in three waves with the second wave being the highest in mortality rate. The death rate peaked in the last week of September 1918 in Bombay, in the middle of October in Madras, and in the middle of November in Calcutta.

The outbreak most severely affected younger people in the age group of 20–40, with women suffering disproportionately. According to the Sanitary Commissioner’s report for 1918, the maximum death toll in a week exceeded 200 deaths in both Bombay and Madras. The spread of the disease was exacerbated by a failed monsoon and the resultant famine-like conditions, that had left people underfed and weak, and forced them to move into densely populated cities. As a result of the severity of the outbreak, the year 1919 saw a reduction of births by around 30 percent. The population growth of India during the decade from 1911–1921 was 1.2%, the lowest among all decades under the British Raj. In his memoirs the Hindi poet, Suryakant Tripathi, wrote “Ganga was swollen with dead bodies.” The sanitary commissioner’s report for 1918 also noted that all rivers across India were clogged up with bodies, because of a shortage of firewood for cremation.

Mahatma Gandhi, the leader of India’s independence struggle, was also infected by the virus. The pandemic had a significant influence in the freedom movement in the country. The healthcare system in the country was unable to meet the sudden increase in demands for medical attention. The consequent toll of death and misery, and economic fallout brought about by the pandemic led to an increase in emotion against colonial rule.

from: Wikipedia
— — — —

The Virus That Killed 18 Million Indians

Exactly a 100 years ago, a ship returning with World War I soldiers unleashed the Spanish Flu in India. The worst pandemic in human history is strangely unremembered

Madhavankutty Pillai 06 Sep, 2018

On the 10th of November, 1918, Mahadev Desai, the personal secretary of Mahatma Gandhi, began his diary entry with, ‘Influenza raging in the Ashram’. He then went on to quote verbatim a letter that Gandhi, in a disease- stricken weakened state, wrote to one Gangabehn —

‘I could read only today your card telling me that you, Kiki and others had fallen ill. I was glad to learn, however, that by the grace of God you are all progressing. The body of the person who has chosen to follow the dharma of service must become as strong as steel as a result of his holy work. Our ancestors could build such tough bodies in the past. But today we are reduced to a state of miserable weakness and are easily infected by noxious germs moving about in the air. There is one and only one really effective way by which we can save ourselves from them even in our present broken state of health. That way is the way of self-restraint or of imposing a limit on our acts. The doctors say, and they are right, that in influenza our body is safest from any risk to life if we attend to two things. Even after we feel that we have recovered, we must continue to take complete rest in bed and have only an easily digestible liquid food. So early as on the third day after the fever has subsided many persons resume their work and their usual diet. The result is a relapse and quite often a fatal relapse. I request you all, therefore, to keep to your beds for some days still. And I wish you kept me informed about the health of you all. I am myself confined to bed still. It appears I shall have to keep to it for many days more, but it can be said that I am getting better. The doctors have forbidden me even to dictate letters, but how could I have the heart to desist from writing to you?… Vande Mataram, Mohandas Gandhi.’

The disease that Gandhi alludes to and almost forgotten in India’s cultural memory was the Spanish Flu, one of the biggest killers that mankind had ever seen in recorded history. Around the world, it is estimated to have claimed between 50 to 100 million lives. And in India, which was the worst affected, within the space of just a couple of months, it could have killed as many as 18 million or 7 per cent of the total population. The flu came in three waves. The first, which arrived in summer, wasn’t very markedly different from a seasonal variant. But exactly a 100 years ago, in September 1918, after a ship of soldiers returning from World War I landed in Mumbai, the second lethal wave began. From Mumbai it radiated to the rest of the country and the bodies kept piling on.

continued: Open Magazine
— — — — — — — — — —

Spanish Influenza in Australia

1918Atlantic16-a
People arrive at a quarantine camp in Wallangarra, Australia, during the influenza epidemic of 1919. State Library of Queensland

source: Alan Taylor April 10, 2018 “30 Photos of the 1918 Flu Pandemic” The Atlantic
— — — — —

The ‘Spanish’ Influenza Pandemic in Australia, 1912-19

Humphrey McQueen

(Originally published in Social Policy in Australia – Some Perspectives 1901-1975. Edited by Jill Roe. Cassell Australia 1976)

Six months before the Armistice ended the Great War a new and more deadly scourge was unleashed upon the world. Popularly known as ‘Spanish’ flu it killed twenty million people within twelve months. Australia remained free of infection for much of that time, but by the end of 1919 all Australian States shared a death toll of 12,000. No one knew precisely what the disease was, or how to cure or prevent it. Was the Australian version simply a more virulent strain of the influenza which recurred every year, as claimed by the Director of Quarantine? The Federal structure of Australian government was ignored as States closed their borders: was Victoria responsible for allowing infection to spread to the rest of Australia as many New South Welshmen alleged? Or was the Pandemic a continuation of God’s punishments, the fulfilment of Apocalyptic prophecy?

In discussing the Pandemic’s Australian career four areas will be examined. Firstly, the origins of the disease and the quarantine regulations designed to prevent its penetration into and spread throughout Australia; some implications for Federalism and nationalism are pointed to. Secondly, the medical professions’ responses will be considered. Thirdly, the public health activities of State governments will be detailed. Fourthly, the psychological impact of the Pandemic will be located in its total environment to evaluate its contribution to any Australian ‘loss of certainty’ consequent upon the Great War.

`Spanish’ influenza earned its geographic epithet because the king of Spain was amongst its earliest victims; one of the few things known for certain is that the disease did not originate in his realm. The most likely explanation is that a milder form of influenza carried to Europe by American troops in April 1918 was transformed into the Pandemic type which, by October, spread throughout Europe and into Africa, Asia and the Americas; Australia remained free from infection until the following January. Before the Pandemic abated nearly thirty millions died, mostly in Asia.

Outbreaks in Britain were marked by three peaks of intensity between July 1918 and February 1919 during which Australian troops in Britain suffered approximately a 10 per cent infection rate; 209 cases were fatal. Returning troop ships were often badly hit. Half the complement of the Barambah were affected and twenty-three deaths occurred during the voyage. In contrast, another transport lost only one member, a sergeant, who ‘in a delirious condition’ and ‘fascinated by the cool depths of the moonlit sea. . .dropped overboard’ leaving ‘behind him the aroma of a gracious disposition’; however, twenty-four soldiers and four nurses from this vessel subsequently died in quarantine at Fremantle.

Outbreaks in Britain were marked by three peaks of intensity between July 1918 and February 1919 during which Australian troops in Britain suffered approximately a 10 per cent infection rate; 209 cases were fatal.2 Returning troop ships were often badly hit. Half the complement of the Barambah were affected and twenty-three deaths occurred during the voyage. In contrast, another transport lost only one member, a sergeant, who ‘in a delirious condition’ and ‘fascinated by the cool depths of the moonlit sea. . .dropped overboard’ leaving ‘behind him the aroma of a gracious disposition’3; however, twenty-four soldiers and four nurses from this vessel subsequently died in quarantine at Fremantle.

Outbreaks in Britain were marked by three peaks of intensity between July 1918 and February 1919 during which Australian troops in Britain suffered approximately a 10 per cent infection rate; 209 cases were fatal.2 Returning troop ships were often badly hit. Half the complement of the Barambah were affected and twenty-three deaths occurred during the voyage. In contrast, another transport lost only one member, a sergeant, who ‘in a delirious condition’ and ‘fascinated by the cool depths of the moonlit sea. . .dropped overboard’ leaving ‘behind him the aroma of a gracious disposition’3; however, twenty-four soldiers and four nurses from this vessel subsequently died in quarantine at Fremantle.

Once the disease was established in the resident population there were several instances of troops breaking quarantine.

continued: Social Policy in Australia (excellent long article)
— — — — —

How Australia’s response to the Spanish flu of 1919 sounds warnings on dealing with coronavirus

1919AustraliaMedicalStaff-aMedical staff in Surry Hills, NSW, 1919. NSW State Archives

The Spanish flu came in waves and was extraordinarily virulent. There were reports of people seeming perfectly health at breakfast and dead by evening.

An illness lasting ten or so days, followed by weeks of debility, was more common. An early sign was a chill or shivering, followed by headache and back pain. Eventually, an acute muscle pain would overcome the sufferer, accompanied by some combination of vomiting, diarrhoea, watering eyes, a running or bleeding nose, a sore throat and a dry cough. The skin might acquire a strange blue or plum colour. …

Almost a third of deaths in Australia were of adults between 25 and 34. The Spanish flu probably infected 2 million Australians in a population of about 5 million. In Sydney alone, 40% of residents caught it. …

There were too few doctors and nurses to deal with the crisis – many were still with the armed forces overseas, and others caught the flu. Health facilities were overrun. In Melbourne, the Exhibition Building was turned into a large hospital, as were some schools. Schools shut down at various times in different states during 1919, but widespread disruption was caused either by government decisions to close or the illness of teachers.

excerpted from: March 22, 2020 The Conversation
— — — — —

1919: Influenza pandemic reaches Australia

1919AustraliaMasks-aWomen wearing surgical masks during influenza epidemic, Brisbane 1919

The Spanish flu pandemic emerged at the end of the First World War, killing more than 50 million people worldwide.

Despite a swift quarantine response in October 1918, cases of Spanish flu began to appear in Australia in early 1919. About 40 per cent of the population fell ill and around 15,000 died as the virus spread through Australia.

What is influenza?

Influenza, or the flu, is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus.

In 15th-century Italy an upper respiratory infection was considered to be ‘influenced’ by the stars, thereby giving the disease its name.

continued: National Museum of Australia
— — — — —

An Australian Perspective of the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic

Peter Curson and Kevin McCracken
Department of Human Geography Macquarie University

Abstract

The 1918–1919 influenza pandemic stands as one of the greatest natural disasters of all time. In a little over a year the disease affected hundreds of millions of people and killed between 50 and 100 million. When the disease finally reached Australia in 1919 it caused more than 12,000 deaths. While the death rate was lower than in many other countries, the pandemic was a major demographic and social tragedy, affecting the lives of millions of Australians.

This paper briefly assesses the impact of the pandemic on Australia and NSW with particular reference to the demographic and social impact and the measures advanced to contain it.

continued: NSW Public Health Bulletin Vol. 17 No. 7–8
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)