Idaho History May 16, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 57

Idaho Newspaper clippings July 1-30, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 1

The Idaho Republican. July 01, 1919, Page 1


C. F. Hendrie Coming Home

C. F. Hendrie and his brother Ben, will arrive in Blackfoot this Monday evening from Amity, Oregon, where Mr. Hendrie has been for several weeks. Mr. Hendrie left Blackfoot about three months ago for Berkley, Cal., to recover from a severe attack of influenza and we are glad to report that he has regained much of his strength during this three months’ sojourn.

Mrs. Hendrie and son Charles motored to Pocatello to meet them.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 01 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. July 01, 1919, Page 4


Little Mary Idella Miller is on the sick list.

All mail boxes are erected along our route; mail delivery seems to be delayed tho.


Bishop John R. Williams is around again after suffering for some time with a severe attack of phneumonia [sic] and bronchial trouble.

P. Tony Peterson, choir and band leader of Thomas passed to the great beyond on June 6, after suffering for some weeks with leakage of the heart. … He married since coming here Mrs. Almena Furniss Parsons and leaves besides his wife three living children, the issue of this latter marriage and eight children by his former marriage. Mrs. Peterson expresses deep gratitude to thos [sic] neighbors who came and planted the crops and assisted in caring for them thru the long weeks of his illness and death.

(ibid, page 4)
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Bird’s-eye View of Kamiah, Idaho ca. 1915


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 4

The Idaho Republican. July 04, 1919, Page 3


Seeking A Business Opening

Mrs. Gwen Roe and Miss Nora Smart of Preston, Idaho, visited Blackfoot this week in quest of a location where they could open a millinery business and add ladies’ ready to wear after they became acquainted with the place and the needs of its people

Mrs. Roe is the wife of Watkin L. Roe, who died of influenza last fall when he was planning to move to Blackfoot to accept a position with the Idaho Republican. Mr. Roe was a writer and solicitor of such ability and but for his untimely death would probably have become a fixture on the office force of this paper.
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The eighth grade graduates of the Sterling schools went to Blackfoot Saturday to have their pictures taken. …
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Inland Northwest

That drought throughout northern Utah, Idaho and eastern Oregon is ruining crops was the word received last week.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 04 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. July 04, 1919, Page 6

Twenty-Six Reason Why Men Get Drunk

Somerville, Mass. — Twenty-six reasons answering the eternal question, “Why do men get drunk?” have been promulgated by William Preble Jones, probation officer of the Somerville police court, who has studied the problem intimately for many years. Here are the underlying reasons:

1. They want liquor and they will have it. But it is an acquired taste. After taking the first drink of whiskey in his life nobody ever hankered for the second, altho he learned afterward to like it.

2. They need their beer or ale to relieve thirst, so they say. Very often this is true.

3. The doctor ordered whiskey for them once upon a time, and that prescriptions lasts forever and for all things. Whether it is chilblains or toothache, cramps or pain, stomachache – as some men tell the judge – influenza or ruptures, of “pleuisy” [sic] way down in their abdomen, whiskey is their panacea. …

(ibid, page 6)
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The Caldwell Tribune. July 04, 1919, Page 3


Government Provides For The Future

A great many men who come to us seem to think that when the war ended it eliminated every chance of their dying. To these men we say – “The possibility of death or permanent disability is ever present; there is just as much need for insurance protection now as there was during the war.”

Influenza alone killed more young, healthy and vigorous persons in the world generally than were killed by the bullets and disease during four and one-half years of war. Yet these men come to us and say , “I don’t need any insurance.”

True enough, influenza epidemics are not likely to occur every year, not even frequently. But don’t think that because you are healthy and strong, with a bright future before you, that you don’t need insurance. …
— —


Rose L. Spencer, wife of Bert Spencer, died of acute indigestion Friday, June 27, at her home on South Kimbrel. … She leaves to mourn her early departure her mother, three sisters, husband and two little children. …

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 04 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. July 04, 1919, Page 8

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Marble Front

Mrs. W. C. Fugate was quite ill a few days this week, but is slowly improving.

Miss Mary Fugate is improving very slowly.

(ibid, page 8)
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Bird’s Eye View, Kellogg, Idaho ca. 1917 (1)


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 8

The Daily Star-Mirror., July 08, 1919, Page 2


The Newspapers Did It


… This [use of newspapers to inform the public] has been so often illustrated that it seems needless to repeat it. In the campaign of 1918 the influenza epidemic prevented the holding of public meetings in Idaho and the newspapers were used by political parties and all were well satisfied with the results. the campaign managers bought page, half page and quarter page advertising space in the newspapers and sent their messages to the people in that way. A prominent politician who has had much experience in Idaho politics, said, after the election last fall:

“I foresee the end of political speech making campaigns and that newspapers will be used instead. It has cost my party managers less to reach the people through the newspapers than by holding public meetings and it has brought better results. The people read the statements sent out through the press in the quiet of their homes, away from the excitement and noise and they form pretty accurate opinions. I predict that future campaigns will be carried on through the newspapers. The people who are really worth reaching are the people who read the newspapers.”

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 08 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., July 08, 1919, Page 3

City News

Dr. Stevenson and family are now settled in their newly acquired home at 318 south Jefferson street. The doctor’s office will remain as formerly in the “New Creightob block,” Main and Third streets.

Miss Alice Johnson, who recently graduated as a nurse in Spokane, has been visiting her parents, Mr. and Mrs. S. J. Johnson, for a few days. Miss Johnson left today for Seattle to continue her work in a hospital.

Mrs. E. O. Catheart of Harrison, who has been in Moscow for medical treatment, left Sunday for her home, much improved in health.

Edgar Hunter, who has been visiting his father, Wm. Hunter, left Saturday for his home at Kansas City. Mrs. Edgar Hunter is still detained in Moscow on account of one of the children undergoing an attack of the measles.

President Lindley’s lecture, “Scientific Substitute for Mind and Faith Cures,” will be delivered tomorrow afternoon at 3 o’clock in the auditorium at the university.
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Loss of Appetite

As a general rule there is nothing serious about a loss of appetite, and if you skip a meal or only eat two meals a day for a few days you will soon have a relish for your meals when meal time comes. Bear in mind that at least five hours should always elapse between meals so as to give the food ample time to digest and the stomach a period of rest before a second meal is taken. Then if you eat no more than you crave and take a reasonable amount of outdoor exercise every day you will not need to worry about your appetite. When the loss of appetite is caused by constipation as is often the case, that should be corrected at once. A dose of Chamberlain’s tablets will do it.


(ibid, page 3)
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Birds Eye View, Kendrick, Idaho ca. 1916


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 10

The Grangeville Globe. July 10, 1919, Page 2


Local And Personal Mention

Mr. and Mrs. Chris Keefer of Juliaetta, former residents of this place, arrived here last week and are making an extended visit with relatives. Mr. Keefer is not enjoying good health at the present time. Last winter he had the influenza and when partially recovered went out to wait on other sufferers and later went through another attack from which he has been unable to find relief.

John Coram made a trip to Kooskia Tuesday to visit his old time friend Jim Buchanan, who is in very poor health.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 10 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Ketchum, Idaho (1)


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 11

The Idaho Republican. July 11, 1919, Page 3



Mrs. Carl Hutchinson is on the sick list this week.

The people of Riverside mourn the loss of Mrs. Mary Sohm, who died at her home Saturday afternoon. She was an active member of the community and a good neighbor.


The little daughter of Mr. and Mrs. D. W. Stalhworthy is on the sick list this week.

The dance given for the returned soldiers was well attended.

Library Notes

The library was closed nine weeks on account of the influenza quarantine, this reduced the circulation, but the attendance registered more than the previous year.

The library is re-registering borrowers and assigning new numbers. This has to be done every two years to get rid of inactive names.

The average circulation for the month [of June] was more than twenty-five books a day. Miss Gillespie repaired thirty-seven books. …

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 11 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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American Falls Press. July 11, 1919, Page 3


What Editors Say About Drugless Methods

(Health Talk No. 6)

Bernarr McFadden, editor of the Physical Culture, the monthly magazine, and the editor of the Rocky Mountain News, both deal some sledge hammer blows for the drugless methods.

McFadden says in a statement about the comparative statistics of the medical and the drugless treatment of Spanish Influenza cases, “If these figures are correct, and they are put forward as correct by honorable men, what appalling conclusions one would be forced to draw! Think what it would mean! It would mean that most of the 400,000 who died would be alive today, that they were actually, though unintentionally killed.”

The Rocky Mountain News says: “These statistics mean (if true) that the old school treatment of at least two diseases (the flu and pneumonia) is in many cases more deadly than the diseases themselves. Death caused by malpractice, whether thru ignorance or otherwise, should be prevented.”

Chiropractic is a new science resulting from the discovery that bad alignment of the twenty-four movable vertebrae or joints of the back bone interferes with spinal nerve force and weakens and diseases the body. No other discovery ever explained so sensibly why one man’s disease differs from another. Call today and learn for yourself what Chiropractic can do for your case. …


source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 11 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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American Falls Press. July 11, 1919, Page 5

Local Briefs

Miss Bernice Kriss of Roy as been under the care of Dr. Murdock since Monday. She is staying with Mrs. Huls.

Mr. Paul, owner of Paul’s cafe, is back at work in his restaurant after being disabled several days with a severe attack of inflammatory rheumatism.
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Children Go To Boise Home

Marie Wanke, Bert Wanke and Ethel Babcock of American Falls and Hazel Frodsham of Rockland left Thursday noon for the Boise Children’s Home in charge of Mrs. Bennett, matron at the home.

(ibid, page 5)
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Birds Eye View, Kimberly, Idaho


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 15

The Idaho Republican. July 15, 1919, Page 6



Mr. and Mrs. P. A. Stevens and daughter Goldie of Butte, Mont. are spending a few days at the Powell home. They are enroute to Phoenix, Ari. for the benefit of Mr. Steven’s health, he having had a severe attack of influenza last winter from which he has never fully recovered. Mr. Stevens is a well known mining man of Butte and has many friends here who hope that the change of climate will make him well and strong again.


Mrs. O. F. Rice, who has been ill for some time is now somewhat improved and able to be up and around.

Upper Presto

Mrs. John Smith departed this life at her home Wednesday, July 2 at 1 o’clock, after suffering for some time with heart trouble. All that skilled physicians and loving care could do for her was done, but of no avail. Mrs. Smith is survived by a husband and one brother, Mr. Trenouth. Funeral services were held at Goshen meeting house and the remains were laid in the Goshen cemetery. The entire community send their sympathy to the bereaved husband and brother.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 15 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. July 15, 1919, Page 5


Local Pick-ups

Mr. and Mrs. Gorge McGlocklin arrived here yesterday morning, accompanied by their little daughter, Ella Mae. Mr. McGlocklin will return to his work in Tacoma, today while his wife will remain here to take treatment at the Bonners Ferry hospital as she has never recovered her health since she was sick with the Spanish influenza last fall. The McGlocklins are former residents here, Mr. McGlocklin being the son of Mr. and Mrs. J. F. McGlocklin.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 15 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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King Hill, Idaho ca. 1931


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 17

The Daily Star-Mirror., July 17, 1919, Page 4


Influenza Took A Terrible Toll
Native Population Almost Wiped Out By Terrible Plague Last Winter

Gone are all but the memories of the Spanish Influenza epidemic in the States, but up in the north of Seward peninsula the struggle with the disease still continues; its memories will ever be vivid. Like the typhus of Europe, the disease did its work silently and thoroughly, leaving its heroes and heroines and a toll of dead that perhaps will never be known.

In the vicinity of Teller, Mrs. Bertha Gehrman, postmistress, writes, scarcely a dozen adult natives remain alive. Across the bay from Teller a Mrs. Fosso took care of the entire native mission, her husband also being seriously will with the influenza. Some twenty five native children fell to her tender hands and most of them were saved. This heroic white woman, Mrs. Gehrman relates, went to the river for ice, brought wood and coal for the fires, and when three adult natives died in her home, was compelled to drag the bodies out by herself. In spite of her efforts, however, seventy-two of the natives succumbed and were buried at the mission in a long trench.

From Teller, the storekeeper, a man by the name of Winfield, with one other assistant, both still unrecovered, started out to visit native villages and bring what aid they could. On the American river they found a woman and five children in a cabin with seven dead bodies, same of which had been dead for a week. At Agiapuk, twenty-five miles from Teller, only three little children survived the influenza. They were in bed with their dead mother. In this village twenty-three bodies were buried.

At. Cape Prince of Wales 186 natives died, and so on throughout the vast districts whose white silences were made all the more grim by the stalking terror of unseen death, more terrible because aid was miles and miles distant and pitifully insufficient at that.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 17 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bird’s Eye view of Kooskia, Idaho ca. 1914 (1)


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 18

Shoshone Journal. July 18, 1919, Page 1


Commissioners Authorize County Nurse
Nurse Will Examine School Children Report on County Charges, Hold Classes
State Will Pay $300 of Yearly Salary

The County Commissioners in session Monday, made all necessary arrangements to secure for Lincoln County, a county nurse. The duties of the new county official will be to examine the school children of all city and country schools, examine all sick cases where aid is being requested of the county, hold classes of instruction in home nursing and feeding the sick, and give demonstrations and lectures to the adults of the county.

The proposition was presented to the County Commissioners by Mrs. E. G. Gooding on behalf of the local chapter of the American red Cross assisted by Mrs. Frank Millsaps. Miss Irwin of the Extension dept. University of Ida., was present and explained the operation and supervision of the county nurse system as worked out by the State Extension Bureau.

The communities of Shoshone, Richfield and Dietrich who had community nurses last year during the influenza epidemic have demonstrated the great aid which a nurse can give to prevent and control the various community diseases which annually visit every neighborhood. The salary of the county nurse is $1500 a year, $300 of which will be paid by the State.

The county nurse is the most necessary agent to the community for the coming year. Many noted physicians over the United States have prophesied a continuation of the influenza epidemic for the next year and the county nurse means that the children and parents of Lincoln County will receive close attention and care which will prevent illness in the large majority of cases. By taking proper preventative measures, a reoccurrence of the epidemic will have very little effect on the community.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 18 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Kuna, Idaho


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 22

The Idaho Republican. July 22, 1919, Page 2



Mrs. Don Shelman of Springfield and mother Mrs. E. N. Wells motored to Aberdeen Wednesday to take Loven Wells, who was ill, to a physician.


Some of the young folks of Moreland attended the overall and apron dance in Groveland last Friday night.


Miss Lizzie Ahrens, who has been nursing in a Chicago hospital, is at her home here for the summer vacation.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 22 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. July 22, 1919, Page 3


Joe Tressl was ill the first of last week, but recovered in a few days.


Genevieve, the little daughter of Mr. and Mrs. A. C Anderson, was on the sick last all last week.

(ibid, page 3)
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The Idaho Republican. July 22, 1919, Page 5

Glenn Hammond Still Unimproved

Glenn, the son of Mr. and Mrs. M. J. Hammond is still very low with complications arising from appendicitis. He has been lingering along for some time trying to get strong enough for an operation, but in the time he has developed something which they have about concluded is influenza. On Sunday his temperatures went from fever to chills and it was a hard day for him.

Friends of the family are cautioned about running in, owing to the danger of spreading the flu or whatever it is. It has been a hard siege for the family and the case still calls for the utmost care.
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Halt Hospital Buying

Washington, — July 21. — Further construction and purchase of certain proposed public health service hospitals will probably be suspended by the treasury department as the result of a letter from Chairman Good, of the house committee on appropriations, who states that congress wishes to inquire into alleged extravagances in this connection. Chairman Good believes that such an inquiry would show that a number of hospitals were built or purchased when those already in the government’s possession had many empty beds.
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French War Orphans Die of Malnutrition

The children of France have not yet emerged from the shadow of the war. With peace assured, and a happier future opening before them, it becomes increasingly evident that the child life of France has suffered a shock from which it is difficult to rally; while the birth rate has dropped to 8 to each 1000 population.

The fatherless children of France, an American organization co-operating with a similar one in Paris of which Marshal Joffre is the head, reports that of the children receiving American aid to the extent of 10 cents a day under its plan of securing American god-mothers for the little French war waifs, its records show an average of 700 children’s deaths per month since the armistice. The help of the American god-mothers came too late to save these undernourished nerve-shocked little ones.

Mrs. Walter S. Brewster of Chicago, vice-chairman of the fatherless children of France, has been appointed chairman of a campaign to secure American aid for the 60,000 little war orphans whose names were on the lists of the organization as “unadopted” before the signing of the armistice. Ten cents will care for a child for an entire day; $3.00 for a month; while for $36.50 a year the donor may select a child from the lists at the organization’s headquarters and be placed in correspondence with it. To adopt a child or make a donation write for information to Mrs. Walter S. Brewster, Room 634, 410 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Idaho Republican. July 22, 1919, Page 7

In The Gem State

A $200,000 addition is to be added to St. Luke’s hospital at Boise, Idaho.

(ibid, page 7)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., July 22, 1919, Page 1


Serbians Stricken With Dread Diseases

Belgrade, Allied relief organizations operating in Serbia are preparing for united combat against influenza and tuberculosis, which have made alarming inroads among the Serbians during their seven years of war. A site for a model hospital, where cases requiring special care may be attended, has been selected 30 milometers [sic] from Belgrade. One of its main services will be the care of disabled Serbian soldiers among whom tuberculosis is most prevalent.
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People Starving in Rich Oil Field
Terrible Conditions In Rumania Told By American Red Cross Workers

Buzeu, Rumania. — Here in the midst of one of the world’s richest oil fields, people have been actually starving.

Before the war this part of Rumania produced big fortunes in oil, being one of the greatest sources of European supply. Today its wells are in ruins and the people are destitute. The invading armies requisitioned everything that could be pried loose and transported, paralyzing one of the wealthiest industries in the Balkans.

Workers for the American Red Cross, which is distributing relief in the form of foods and medicines throughout the country, have found people eating bread made of leaves, twigs and bark from trees. People were bartering the coats off their backs for small portions of corn and coarse bran. In one place the relief workers found a small local hospital in which the patients slept on boards with no mattress and little covering. At one home they found five fatherless children, the oldest nine years of age, cooking a meal of tree bark and bran, while the mother was out at work in the fields.

“Typhus is prevalent and there is an increasing amount of small pox,” says one American woman’s report. “There is no doctor nor medicines in this village and absolutely no way of taking care of the sick. In another village which I visited the entire population of 500 persons was ill with some obscure form of contagious disease.”

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 22 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., July 22, 1919, Page 5

City News

Dr. H. J. Smith has been ill at a hospital in the city and is now convalescent at his home.

Mrs. S. P. Justus of Whitehall, Mont., arrived today to make a short visit with her brother, Dr. H. J. Smith.

Miss Edna Clark left today for Minneapolis to continue her training as a nurse.
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7,450,200 War’s Toll
Estimated Total Battle Deaths for All Belligerents
Total Cost to United States $21,850,000,000 – 50,000 Fall in Battle

Washington. — American casualties during the 47-day Meuse-Argonne offensive aggregated 120,000 men, or 10 percent of the total of 1,200,000 engaged, according to a statistical summary of the war with Germany, prepared by Col. Leonard P. Ares, chief of the statistical branch of the general staff, and published by the war department.

“Of every 100 American soldiers and sailors who took part in the war with Germany,” the report said, “two were killed or died of disease during the period of hostilities. In the northern army during the Civil war the number was about ten.

“Among the other great nations in this war, between 20 and 25 in each 100 called to the colors were killed or died.”

Best information obtainable by the general staff places the total battle deaths for all belligerents at 7,450,200, divided as follow:


American participation is summarized in the report in the following table:


Under the head of “Sources of the Army,” the report shows that 13 per cent came from the regular army, 10 percent from the National guard, and 77 per cent from the draft.

A concise history of the military operations in which American troops took part is given in a chapter headed “Two hundred days of battle.” Attention was called to the fact that “two of every three American soldiers who reached France took part in battle.”
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Saved From Lightning Strike

Alliance, O. — Mrs. Rose Werner owes her life to the fact she left the windows of her father’s house open at Homeworth the other day. A heavy thunderstorm broke and she quit milking a cow to close the windows at the house. While she was gone lightning stuck the barn and killed the cow she had been milking.

(ibid, page 5)
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Laclede, Idaho (5)


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 24

Payette Enterprise., July 24, 1919, Page 1


Forest Fires

The camping season is on. The greatest possible care should be taken by campers and not to build large fires and to see that any they do build are thoroughly extinguished before they leave them. Also to avoid throwing cigar or cigarette ends about. Fire is a very dangerous thing in the forest. A big bonfire in front of the camp at night is a pretty sight but a little twig red hot and carried on the wind may start a forest fire.

source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 24 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Payette Enterprise., July 24, 1919, Page 6

19190724PE2Flu Again Ravages London

Influenza has broken out again in London, making a third wave in less than a year. The cases that are complicated by pneumonia tend to follow the usual course common in the years before the war. This in contrast with the rapidly fatal type characterizing the summer and autumn epidemics, and suggests a distinct decrease in virulence. Of those attacked previously very few have been again infected. Some immunity seems to have been established, for in most cases of reinfection there are only vague rheumatic pains and malaise lasting a few days.
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19190724PE3Asia Great Danger Point
Is Today, and Has Been for All Time, the Home of Plague and Pestilence

Asia is the home of plague and many other pests. The facilities for travel have brought Asia and our Pacific coast together, while the possession of the Philippines has multiplied the occasions for intercourse with the far east. Thus, says the Journal of the American Medical Association, the diseases of Asia threaten the lives and health of the American population, and the situation has been aggravated by the conditions of war. With the unvarying persistence of bubonic plague in Asia, it seems timely to lay further stress on these points.

The obstacles in the way of successfully grappling with the plague problem in Asia are almost insurmountable. The natives object to whole-sale inoculation and rat destruction, hence the only effective mode of procedure is most difficult to carry out. Religious scruples against the slaughter of animals, even vermin, are prevalent throughout India. Consequently it may be taken for granted that plague will continue to persist in Asia, and as it is extremely rife in the two great ports of that continent, Hong Kong and Bombay, it is not an impossibility that it will be conveyed thence to American ports on the Pacific coast. While there is no doubt that our health authorities are awake to the danger, it is well to know that the danger exists in Asia.

(ibid, page 6)
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The Emmett Index. July 24, 1919, Page 2


Tales of Town

How renowned do you suppose the name of King Solomon would be now if all those wives of his had had suffrage privileges?

“Pa wants to know if you can loan him a corkscrew?” asked the neighbor’s boy. “Loan him one!” exclaimed Old Bill Misgivens, “Son, I’ll go with you and show him how to use it.”

“Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs,” said to be the shortest sentence that contains al the letters of the English alphabet. It is likely to make very much longer sentences – if obeyed.

The uproar in the cities about the shutting off of the booze supply is not surprising. Old Isaiah foresaw all this 2800 years ago when he said: “There is a crying for wine in the streets; all joy is darkened, the mirth of the land is gone.”

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 24 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Emmett Index. July 24, 1919, Page 4

Emmett News

Morris Haylor, one of The Index’s mailing force, is able to be about town again after a sick spell of several weeks. He was threatened with typhoid fever.

Mrs. Roy Keithley and the baby and Miss Susie Keithley went to Caldwell last week to visit friends. They ran into an epidemic of the mumps and Miss Keithley took the disease.

(ibid, page 4)
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The Emmett Index. July 24, 1919, Page 5

Emmett News

Brigadier General Frank Breshears head of the state constabulary forces, was in town a short time yesterday on his way to the timber in the upper country to assist in curbing forest fires. He will keep an eagle eye on the careless campers who fail to extinguish their camp fires, and woe be unto them if he gets his hands on them. He says that of 13 fires in the Payette forest, 12 of them were started by campers.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Emmett Index. July 24, 1919, Page 6

News of Gem County
By The Index’s Correspondents


Mr. and Mrs. Spaulding drove to Boise, on Saturday, where Mrs. Spaulding consulted her physician. They returned home the same evening. We are glad to note that Mrs. Spaulding is recovering, though slowly, from her recent illness.

Central Mesa

Mr. and Mrs. Thos. Larkin returned Monday from Boise. Mr. Larkin was there in the hospital for two weeks.

(ibid, page 6)
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The Emmett Index. July 24, 1919, Page 8

19190724EI2Little Girl’s Hard Life
She Has Had Influenza, Pneumonia and Abscesses on Her Lung

Ill luck seems to be the portion of little Marie Davis, not yet six years of age, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Bert Davis, who live in the country near Fostoria, Ohio. Influenza, pneumonia, abscessed lungs, necessitating an operation, is the record of the little girls within the past two weeks.

But that is not all. Marie is known throughout this section of the country for her sad experience with burglars when she was still a baby. Burglars visited the Davis home at midnight several years ago, and the father hearing them, arose and surprised them at their work. Mr. Davis lit a lamp and a burglar shot it out.

During the interchange of shots one bullet grazed the cheek of the sleeping Maria, cutting a gash three inches long, which has left a disfiguring scar.

(ibid, page 8)
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Lakeview, Idaho (6)


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 25

Clearwater Republican. July 25, 1919, Page 3


Sugar and Prohibition

An article by Dr. Frederick. W. Murphy, chief chemist, service bureau, in American Sugar Bulletin:

Alcoholic beverages have always been referred to as stimulants. A stimulant is anything the produces rapid transient increase of vital energy in the organism or some part of it. From this one can readily see the multitudinous number of commodities which can be called stimulants. We have the drugs, some of which stimulate certain organs of the body; some energize a muscle; others affect the brain; but in general it can be said that the administration must be through the digestive system.

Foods are stimulants, some to a greater degree than others. Food performs various functions, two of which are the rebuilding of exhausted tissue and the furnishing of heat, which is a form of energy, to the body. To perform these functions the digestive system – which man as a rule treats with utmost discourtesy – just perform a certain amount of work.

Sugar is one of the most easily digested of foods. The acids of the stomach change the cane sugar to two sugars, levulose and dextrose. Voila! You have almost instant increased energy.

Sugar is a perfect stimulant and a necessary food. It satisfied a sensory desire – sweetness – one of the true tastes, of which there are but four: acid, bitter, salt, sweet. The activity and endurance of the armies have long been recognized to be increased by the plentiful ration of sugar and sweetened foods.

The prohibition mandate will make it compulsory for everyone to use some other form of stimulant than alcohol. There are five stimulating commodities which unquestionably will be chosen to take the place of alcoholic beverages. .I refer to the commodities which owe their universal consumption to sugar. i.e., tea, coffee, candy and non-alcoholic drinks.

It is remarkable that sugar is closely allied to these stimulating commodities. Sugar is the basis of the product or it exerts a controlling influence on its consumption. Inter-dependence is very marked in the latter case. It is apparent that space will not permit a lengthy treatise on the association with and dependency of tea, coffee and cocoa upon sugar. It is sufficient to say that but for tea, coffee and cocoa, sugar in the early centuries would not have increased in consumption so rapidly, and likewise, but for sugar, the tremendous consumption of tea, coffee and cocoa would not have grown to such a remarkable volume. …

In comparing sugar with alcohol, it is a most remarkable thing that alcohol in alcoholic beverages must be made from some member of the sugar family. The point has been made by some writers that in the stomach the digestive action on sugar produces alcohol. It has been stated above what this digestive action really is. As soon as this chemical action is complete the levulose and dextrose produced are burned up. Were it true that alcohol was produced it would indicate a most unnatural and unhealthy condition which should receive medical attention at once. It has always been an open question whether the stimulating effect of the sugar in wines was not of greater dietetic value than that of the alcohol it contained. Unfermented grape juice is given to patients when no other food can be retained. The sugar gives the energy, and therein is the value of the juice. The same is true of oranges, and in this last epidemic of influenza oranges were at a premium because the energy due to the instant availability of the sugar in them made the demand greater than the supply.

The unfermented beverages are rapid energizers due to the sugar contained. If these beverages were made of water, flavoring and an artificial sweetener, their popularity would not have lasted, but it is the renewed vitality which one perhaps unconsciously gets which makes these products more valuable.

Candy is another stimulant. The tons upon tons of chocolate consumed by the armies “over there” bear testimony to the efficiency of sugar as a stimulant. Statistics show that candy has always replaced alcoholic beverages in those sections which have “gone dry,” and the consumption has gone up in leaps and bounds.

The question will be asked: Why sugar is such a great stimulant. The answer is: Sugar is one of the most easily digested foods. It produces heat – 1810 calories per pound. Heat is a form of energy.

The five commodities I have mentioned will be the most popular stimulants when prohibition is in force. But the basic stimulant will be the sugar they contain and any product which contains sugar will be popular.

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 25 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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View from Cliffs, Lava Hot Springs, Idaho


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 30

The Daily Star-Mirror., July 30, 1919, Page 5


19190730DSM2Labrador Coast Swept By Death
Smallpox and Spanish Influenza Play Havoc With Eskimos
Bodies Devoured By Dogs
Moravian Missionary Tells Almost Unbelievable Story of Suffering in Northern Labrador – Mode of Living is Fatal

St. John’s, N. F. — Spanish “flu,” smallpox and measles wiped out more than one-third of the Eskimo population of Labrador during the months of November and December of last year. The Rev. W. W., Perrett of the Moravian mission at Hopedale, where he has spent 27 yours, reached the Newfoundland shores a few days ago. He told an almost unbelievable story of the sufferings of the Eskimos of northern Labrador.

Shortly after the mission ship Harmony had left the coast at the beginning of November “flu” broke out at Hebron and spread rapidly among the inhabitants. That the disease was contagious was unknown to the Eskimo, who were living in small huts, and whole families were affected and died off. Bishop Martin and those at the mission did what was possible under the circumstances, but they, too, were stricken, and when the epidemic had passed its course only eight children, five women and one man of the native population of 100 were living.

Mad Dogs Eat Human Flesh

At the outbreak the dead were buried almost as soon as they passed away, but when the entire settlement became ill, the victims were left where they died, those who had recovered in the meantime being too weak to lay them under the ground. Households who had succumbed one by one were left unburied, and the dogs, who were unable to procure food because the hunters had been all ill, became mad and entered the cabins, consuming the flesh from the bodies of the dead.

When it became known that the epidemic was raging, some outside assistance arrived, and an effort was made to give the dead Christian burial. The dogs, however, after consuming the human flesh, became wild, and it was impossible to undertake putting the corpses in the frozen ground. The next best thing was to bury the corpses at sea. Before even this could be attempted the few remaining at Hebron were compelled to shoot the dogs, as even the living were not safe from them.

While this horror of death and suffering was going on at Hebron, a like epidemic was raging at Okak. The Eskimos, as in Hebron, huddled together in their small huts, quickly became affected, until the whole population was either stricken or dead. The daily death rate was appalling, whole families dying within a few hours. The mission all the while was unceasing in its work for the afflicted, but they also fell victims to the disease, which meant that the Eskimos were left helpless. When the new year dawned only a few emaciated Eskimos were found to be alive.

Mode of Living is Fatal

Mr. Perrett said that when the Eskimos were stricken, their mode of living and environment was against their surviving. As soon as the illness fell upon them they were obliged to take shelter in the small, stuffy huts, where there was neither fresh air nor sunshine, and here they remained until they died. They were also without seal meat and fats, which are necessary for sustenance in cold climes, having been overtaken by the epidemic just as the hunting season opened, and, their constitutions thus weakened, they became easy prey to the scourge. Many who had recovered from their illness died later for want of nourishment.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 30 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

Further Reading

Edzard Ernst Tackles Chiropractic

Review Oct 25, 2020 Harriet A. Hall, MD

Edzard Ernst’s new book is a handy, comprehensive reference for all things chiropractic.

Edzard Ernst’s prolific output continues. In his latest book Chiropractic: “Not All That It’s Cracked Up to Be” he takes on one of the most popular SCAMS (So-Called Alternative Medicines). It is an even-handed review of the history and claims of chiropractic, examining the totality of the published evidence. He addresses what he sees as “a scandalous amount of misinformation”, and tries to set the record straight. Rather than advising against chiropractic, he asks readers to make up their own minds and make reasonable decisions based on the evidence.

The book begins with this quotation from Fontanarosa and Lundberg:

“There is no alternative medicine. There is only scientifically proven, evidence-based medicine supported by solid data or unproven medicine, for which scientific evidence is lacking.”

He starts by describing the origin and early history of chiropractic, providing many details that were new to me.

D. D. Palmer claimed to have invented it on September 18, 1895, when he adjusted the spine of deaf janitor Harvey Lillard and allegedly restored his hearing. He then extrapolated to conclude that 95% of illness was a result of displaced spinal vertebrae interfering with nerve function (the other 5% was due to subluxations of other bones). Elsewhere he claimed to have obtained his chiropractic knowledge during a séance from the ghost of a doctor. He later tried to claim that chiropractic was a religion, in an attempt to evade charges of practicing medicine without a license.

Palmer was anti-science. He claimed that smallpox was not a contagious disease but was caused by subluxations that could be corrected. …

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Spanish Flu in Alaska


Native orphans who survived the 1919 flu pandemic pose for a photograph in Nushagak, Alaska. (Photo courtesy Alaska Packers Association/used with permission from Alaska State Library Photo Collection, Nushagak-People-4)
source: KNBA
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1918 Spanish Influenza Epidemic [Alaska]

In late August 1918, a naval ship left Boston and spread the flu to Philadelphia, where another ship was departing for Washington state by way of the Panama Canal. On Sept. 17, it docked at the Puget Sound Naval Station near Seattle and delivered the epidemic to the Pacific Northwest. As the flu spread to Seattle, longshoremen loaded steamships bound for Alaska. Doctors examined boarding passengers and crew members. Those with flu symptoms were turned away and the steamers headed north.

Although the Spanish flu had reached most communities in the United States by late September, 1918 the disease did not hit Alaska until late in the fall. This delay allowed public officials to create an influenza policy before the pandemic hit. The territorial governor, Thomas Riggs Jr., imposed a maritime quarantine in an attempt to prevent the spread of the disease. US Marshals were stationed at all ports, trail heads and the mouths of the region’s rivers to ensure that travelers did not bring the disease into any of the territory’s widely dispersed communities. Schools, churches, theaters and pool halls were also closed within these communities.

When the ships docked in Juneau and other towns in Southeast Alaska, only slight coughing was heard, the kind that could be mistaken for a common cold. In mid-October, as Juneau doctors confirmed Alaska’s first influenza cases, other steamers continued their rounds. Travelers left Cordova, Anchorage and other coastal settlements feeling fine, only to later infect Fairbanks and other inland towns.

When one ship arrived on October 20, Nome’s doctor examined about three dozen passengers and crewmen, then placed them under quarantine at Holy Cross Hospital. After five days, one person had fallen sick, but the doctor dismissed it as no more than an attack of tonsillitis. He lifted the quarantine. Four days later, a hospital worker died. Two days passed before town leaders quarantined all of Nome. People were ordered not to leave the city limits, but by then it made little difference.

When the ships docked in Juneau and other towns in Southeast Alaska, only slight coughing was heard, the kind that could be mistaken for a common cold. In mid-October, as Juneau doctors confirmed Alaska’s first influenza cases, other steamers continued their rounds. Travelers left Cordova, Anchorage and other coastal settlements feeling fine, only to later infect Fairbanks and other inland towns.

When one ship arrived on October 20, Nome’s doctor examined about three dozen passengers and crewmen, then placed them under quarantine at Holy Cross Hospital. After five days, one person had fallen sick, but the doctor dismissed it as no more than an attack of tonsillitis. He lifted the quarantine. Four days later, a hospital worker died. Two days passed before town leaders quarantined all of Nome. People were ordered not to leave the city limits, but by then it made little difference.

A week into the epidemic, Nome’s chief doctor and Walter Shields, superintendent of the region’s Eskimo population for the U.S. Bureau of Education, were both sick. When Shields died a week later, Ebenezer Evans, a 37-year-old teacher in Nome, was charged with containing the epidemic. He wrote in a report:

As one walked the streets of Nome, it seemed a city of the dead. A panic had struck the Natives, and their feverish conditions suggested the need of colder air. . . . They would leave their beds of sickness and go into the cold air, which, inducing pneumonia, carried them away rapidly. . . . From ten to twenty Natives were dying each day on average in Nome, and the dead wagon was in use constantly. . . . Many were frozen to death during the night, their fires having gone out.

Local leaders and doctors across Alaska ordered the closure of churches, schools and theatres. Traveling was prohibited between villages. Native potlatches were banned. Armed guards took up positions outside some communities. Some were ordered to shoot anybody who defied the ban.

On November 12 the collier Brutus, a coal-carrying ship, is scheduled to bring doctors and nurses to Juneau to care for flu cases among the Tlingit people.

Seventy-two of the eighty residents of Teller, Alaska died from November 15 to November 20th, 1918.

On November 16 longshoremen refuse to work at Snug Harbor for fear of catching the Spanish flu.

Thirty-one people die of flu on the SS Victoria on November 25th during her voyage south from Nome.

Back in Nome, Ebenezer Evans, now sick himself, had not heard from the villages across the Seward Peninsula. He ordered miners and their dog teams to inspect the backcountry. The temperature had sunk to 50-below, but little snow had fallen, leaving vast stretches of trail rocky and barren. As they travelled, they passed frozen bodies huddled together and packs of dogs fighting over human limbs. Dazed children wandered in search of their families. At a village north of Nome, a man froze with his arms around a stove. He was buried, still crouching, in a square box.

One relief team moved ahead of the flu and reached Shishmaref, 60 miles northeast of Wales, in time to warn villagers. The village posted armed guards eight miles south of town with orders not to let anyone pass. No one in Shishmaref got the flu.

When a team traveled up the coast to the villages of Teller and Brevig Mission, they found that the epidemic had struck at about the same time it had hit Nome. Evans wrote, “The flu killed almost everybody at a small settlement just north of Teller, a few adults and children being saved. They had arrived too late.”

In early November, a mailman and a boy rode a dog team up the frozen coast. When they got to a small settlement six miles south of Wales, they were too sick to push on. The boy’s father met them to bring his son home. The boy probably suffered as most 1918 flu victims did: feverish, perhaps wrapped in reindeer skins, and coughing up blood.

Arthur Nagozruk, the Inupiat teacher who had led his village to success until fall 1918, had told the father not to come to the village if his son was still sick. Perhaps the father was overcome with grief or did not realize that he himself was infected, but later that evening he rode into Wales with his boy, who was no longer ill, but dead.

In the little town of Brevig Mission, the virus struck quickly and brutally. It killed 90 percent of the town’s Inuit population in five days, leaving scores of corpses that few survivors were willing to touch. The Alaskan territorial government hired gold miners from Nome to travel to flu-ravaged towns and bury the dead. The miners arrived in Brevig Mission shortly after the medical calamity, and shot steam into the permafrost on a hillside, melting an area 6 feet deep, 12 feet wide, and 25 feet long for the mass grave.

In some immunologically isolated Alaska villages, half the population is lost to the disease. Yandeistukeh, a deep-water port on the Chilkat River, loses its last two inhabitants, Sayeet and his wife. Tanani.

In the Haines area, about 95 percent of its 150 inhabitants are wiped out.

In Juneau, citizens were instructed to “keep as much to yourself as possible.”

Fairbanks established quarantine stations, also guarded by marshals. Citizens were checked periodically for flu and given armbands reading “OK Fairbanks Health Department.” An experimental vaccine was imported from Seattle and distributed throughout the area in the hopes that it would prevent the spread of the disease. It did not. In Eskimo villages, shamans resorted to more traditional practices: the planting of “medicine trees” was widely believed to protect people against influenza.

Despite these precautions, influenza spread rapidly throughout the region in the late fall. Half of Nome’s white population fell ill. … Nome’s Eskimos who lived in their own village also suffered tremendously: more than half of the village died from influenza.

Because subsistence living was common throughout the territory, influenza killed Alaskans both directly and indirectly. When a family became ill with influenza, no one was left to feed the fires. Many people simply froze to death in their own homes. Suffering from influenza, many Eskimos and Native Americans found themselves unable to harvest moose or feed their traps and, in the wake of the pandemic, many people died of starvation. In some areas, the situation was especially acute as Eskimos did the unthinkable and ate their sled dogs. In other villages, hungry sled dogs turned on the dead and dying and ate them to survive.

A clash between western medicine and traditional Eskimos practices further complicated the situation. When western doctors attempted to move Eskimos to makeshift hospitals, many Eskimos reacted with alarm, viewing these as death houses. Patients often responded to their removal to a hospital by committing suicide. The situation worsened when the governor issued a special directive to all Alaskan Natives on November 7th. The directive urged Eskimos to stay at home and avoid public gatherings. The communal nature of traditional Alaskan life made this directive unacceptable to many Eskimos. Many people continued to gather in public and the disease spread quickly throughout many Native Alaskan communities.

In some areas, influenza decimated whole villages. A schoolteacher reported that in her immediate area “three [villages were] wiped out entirely, others average 85% deaths…Total number of deaths reported 750, probably 25% [of] this number froze to death before help arrived.”

Rescuers from Nome finally reached Wales three weeks after the flu struck the village. They found orphaned babies suckling their dead mothers and a shivering girl keeping tins of milk warm between her legs to feed her siblings. The rest of the survivors were holed up in the schoolhouse, living on reindeer broth. Evans documented this in 1919:

On entering Native igloos, in some cases, bodies were found in an advanced state of decomposition, where the adults had died and the children or women had attempted to keep the fires going. In many cases were found living children between their dead parents, huddling close to the bodies for warmth; and it was found in Wales that live dogs, taken into the house for comfort, had managed to reach the bodies of the Natives and had eaten them, only a mass of bones and blood evidence of their having been people.

Nagozruk kept records of who died and who survived the flu. The disease carried off most of the Wales village council, two Eskimo teachers, most of the whaling crews, and the owner of the largest reindeer herd. Seventeen people lost spouses. Three families were entirely wiped out. Nagozruk himself lost his wife and two sons. Five babies born around the time of the epidemic died. The flu orphaned more than 40 children.

About 120 people survived. Wales was no longer, and never would be again, one of the largest Eskimo villages.

The flu killed too many people to bury on the mountain. Rescuers dynamited two holes in the sand dunes and stacked 172 bodies one atop another. They dumped limbs and other body parts from an untold number of victims into the pits. There were no funerals. The rescuers rounded up some 45 dogs that had chewed on bodies or were going hungry. They killed them and buried them in the dunes, too.

The Bureau of Education discussed relocating the Wales orphans to other Eskimo villages or to faraway orphanages. Families in the villages of Kotzebue, Noorvik and Kivalina pledged to adopt the children. In the spring of 1919, the government wrote a tally of how many children each village would accept, but the orphans never left Wales. Instead, it appears that families were frantically reorganized.

Henry Greist, a Presbyterian medical missionary from Indiana, came to Wales a year and a half after the epidemic. In an unpublished manuscript (the one I read in my anthropology course), he described what happened to the orphans, based on a story he heard from the acting government superintendent of northwest Alaska. Greist didn’t name the official, but it was probably Ebenezer Evans, who visited Wales in the spring of 1919.

According to Greist, the superintendent came to Wales a couple of months after the epidemic and called a meeting in the town’s one-room schoolhouse:

Informing the widowers, widows, and others of marriageable age that since the disaster had left so many children without parents, he, representing the government, would have to take the homeless children and place them in an orphanage far away at which point they would be irretrievably lost not only to the village but to the surviving loved ones as well.

There was, however, one alternative which if chosen, had to be implemented immediately. It entailed the complete reorganizing of the decimated households. All widowers ‘here and now’ were to choose from among the widows new wives, and marriageable youths were to select spouses as well. The acting superintendent, utilizing the authority of his office, would then marry all at the same time.

Without further discussion, widowers and young unmarried men were told to take a position on one side of the large room, and the widows and young unmarried girls on the other. Each man was then asked to select a wife from the facing line. If they did so, the couple would then stand aside and give their names to the secretary who would write them on the marriage certificate. If any hesitated, a spouse was selected for that person. After the licenses were duly filled out, a mass ceremony was held in which the substitute district superintendent formally pronounced each couple ‘man and wife’ . . .

Unhappiness hung over the village for years.

Harold Napoleon, a longtime Alaska Native leader, grew up in the village of Hooper Bay, where the 1918 influenza and other epidemics killed dozens of people. He believes Alaska’s villages never got over the epidemic.

The 1918 flu and other diseases killed the leaders and the best hunters of many villages, and destroyed Alaska Natives’ beliefs, paving the way for missionaries and teachers to impress their ways on local populations.

Influenza slowly declined in Alaska during the late spring of 1919.

excerpted from: Copyright 2014 Alaska Trails to the Past All Rights Reserved
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Third wave of 1919

In January 1919, a third wave of the Spanish Flu hit Australia, where it killed 12,000 following the lifting of a maritime quarantine, and then spread quickly through Europe and the United States, where it lingered through the Spring and until June 1919. It primarily affected Spain, Serbia, Mexico and Great Britain, resulting in hundreds of thousands of deaths. It was less severe than the second wave but still much more deadly than the initial first wave. In the United States, isolated outbreaks occurred in some cities including Los Angeles, New York City, Memphis, Nashville, San Francisco and St. Louis. Overall American mortality rates were in the tens of thousands during the first six months of 1919.

from: Wikipedia
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San Francisco plague of 1900–1904

The San Francisco plague of 1900–1904 was an epidemic of bubonic plague centered on San Francisco’s Chinatown. It was the first plague epidemic in the continental United States. The epidemic was recognized by medical authorities in March 1900, but its existence was denied for more than two years by California’s Governor Henry Gage. His denial was based on business reasons, to protect the reputations of San Francisco and California and to prevent the loss of revenue due to quarantine. The failure to act quickly may have allowed the disease to establish itself among local animal populations. Federal authorities worked to prove that there was a major health problem, and they isolated the affected area; this undermined the credibility of Gage, and he lost the governorship in the 1902 elections. The new Governor George Pardee implemented a medical solution and the epidemic was stopped in 1904. There were 121 cases identified, including 119 deaths.

Much of urban San Francisco was destroyed by a fire in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, including all of the Chinatown district. The process of rebuilding began immediately but took several years. While reconstruction was in full swing, a second plague epidemic hit San Francisco in May and August 1907 but it was not centered in Chinatown. Cases occurred randomly throughout the city, including cases identified across the bay in Oakland. San Francisco’s politicians and press reacted very differently this time, wanting the problem to be solved speedily. Health authorities worked quickly to assess and eradicate the disease. Approximately $2 million was spent between 1907 and 1911 to kill as many rats as possible in the city in order to control one of the disease’s vectors.

In June 1908, 160 more cases had been identified, including 78 deaths, a much lower mortality rate than 1900–1904. All of the infected people were European, and the California ground squirrel was identified as another vector of the disease. The initial denial of the 1900 infection may have allowed the pathogen to gain its first toehold in America, from which it spread sporadically to other states in the form of sylvatic plague (rural plague). However, it is possible that the ground squirrel infection predated 1900.

excerpted from: Wikipedia

Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)