Idaho History May 23, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 58

Idaho Newspaper clippings August 1-28, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 1

The Idaho Republican. August 01, 1919, Page 1

19190801TIR1

George Hertert Died in Spain

Word was received by Mrs. Eugenia Spanbauer of the death of her only brother, George Hertert, of U. S. N., who died in Spain, at the age of twenty-one years. Death came to the young man after an operation for appendicitis.

Mr. Hertert enlisted in the navy in 1914 and was in a training school at San Francisco four months. He was then transferred to the U. S. S. New Orleans, which with five other battleships, started on a tour around the world. In 1916 he was again transferred to the U. S. S. Pittsburgh, where he remained until he was removed to a hospital in Spain. The Pittsburgh was in the dangerous waters all during the war and about a month ago she came from the Brazilian waters to the United States and at once started for two years’ work in Germany. In a letter to home folks about a month ago, Mr. Hertert said, “I am going to help in Germany for two years and then I think I’ve done my duty.”

The young man is mourned by an aged father living in Spokane, Wash. and eight sisters. One sister Mrs. V. A. Bidinger of Blackfoot preceded her brother to the grave eight months, having been a victim of the influenza last fall.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 01 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. August 01, 1919, Page 2

Taber

Quietness reigns in our locality since the lady sheriff made the arrest of young Patterson here last week.

A certain party who passed thru Taber Sunday evening and left half a dozen fires burning behind him, should not forget the extreme dryness of everything and should consider his neighbors’ property. H. F. Siesser and H. Killian worked hard for an hour to put out one of the fires which endangered fences and some wheat crops

The desert will be almost deserted this winter, as so many of the settlers failed to raise a crop and winter’s employment will be necessary. Winter feed will be very scarce thru this locality.

(ibid, page 2)
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The Idaho Republican. August 01, 1919, Page 3

Firth

Mrs. John Jolley is critically ill at her home on the dry farm. Dr. Quick is in attendance.

Rose

Mrs. S. A. Judd is improving after her long illness.

Mrs. Jay Langley was called to Rigby Tuesday on account of the sudden death of her sister Miss Josephine Raimey, who has been working in that city. Mrs. Langley accompanied the body to Richmond, Utah for burial.

Centerville

Several members of the Kirk family are on the sick list this week.

Centerville was very patriotic during the war, having sent eight of the best young men into the service and we are thankful that the eight have returned in safety, Ivan being the last one to return. He is looking fine and says he is very glad to be home among relatives and friends.

Goshen

Kenneth, the little son of Mr. and Mrs. Irvin Jolley, was on the sick list last week.

Silas, the little son of Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Young, is on the sick list this week.

(ibid, page 3)
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The Idaho Republican. August 01, 1919, Page 8

Aberdeen

The dry farm crops are a severe disappointment to the farmers this summer. The grasshoppers and gophers ruined the promising wheat which yielded by one bushel per acre in places. Most of the farmers are leaving for Oregon.

J. W. Unruh sold his dry farm to a party in Minnesota and intends to move to California.

Moreland

The shower Monday night was greatly appreciated here, for crops under the People’s canal are in a pitiful condition, and the rain will help to save them until, it is hoped, some water can be obtained. Much of the grain will be shrunken; the second crop of hay an almost total failure, most of the beets doomed, and even the trees in danger of death. Some of the farmers will be in danger of losing their homes; hay will be hard to buy at any price and cattle will have to be sold before winter, by many who have little or no feed for them and cannot afford to buy it.

It is the opinion of some, that the people under this canal have not received justice and a few believe that the gates should have been opened regardless of consequences.

W. T. England and C. J. Christiansen returned Saturday from a trip to the reservoir on water matters. They report but little water left in the reservoir and little water coming into it from the mountain streams.

The Danskin Ditch company has agreed to let the Peoples’ Canal company have their water for three days, commencing Thursday.

Sterling

G. L. Andrews and J. P. Hutchison vaccinated their cattle Sunday.
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The Children Win Equality With Stock

Dr. Raphael S. Olsen, child specialist and lecturer in pediatrics of the school of medicine of the University of Utah, is in Idaho again this week under the farm bureau auspices. In each town he visits, he conducts a demonstration each forenoon and afternoon, at which children are examined and their mothers are advised how to care for them, thus giving the mothers some of the same sort of expert aid in caring for their children that the farmers already have been receiving in caring for their stock. This week’s engagements are for Idaho Falls Wednesday, St. Anthony Friday and Rexburg Saturday.

(ibid, page 8)
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Landore, Idaho ca. 1920

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 8

The Oakley Herald. August 08, 1919, Page 1

19190808OH1

Locals and Personals

Mrs. B. F. Cowles is recovering after an attack of lagrippe.

It is reported that the wheat crop on the east side of the valley in Basin will average from 15 to 25 bushels per acre.

Churchill News

The hail storm which visited Churchill was a disastrous one to some who were not fortunate enough to be insured. The crops were poor at the best after such a drought and extremely bad year. To have it hit by hail makes it doubly bad.
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The Idaho State Health Department is campaigning to banish cats from the households of this state on the ground that they are disseminators of disease and therefore dangerous to have around where there are children.

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 08 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Oakley Herald. August 08, 1919, Page 8

19190808OH2Wedded At Grave’s Edge
Remarkable Ceremony by Which Philadelphia Jews Hoped to Stop Ravages of Influenza

With the hope of protecting the orthodox Russian Jews in Philadelphia from further ravages of the influenza epidemic two Hebrews were married at the first line of graves in the Jewish cemetery a few months ago. More than 1,200 Russian Jews watched the rabbi perform the wedding ceremony.

When the couple were pronounced man and wife, the orthodox among the spectators filed solemnly past the couple and made them presents of money in sums ranging from ten cents to a hundred dollars, according to the means and circumstances of the donor until more than $1,000 had been given.

After the last offering the bride and bridegroom walked to the greensward farther from the graves, where a wedding feast was quickly spread from the two truckloads of food that other of the faithful had provided.

The marriage in a cemetery, with the idea of warding off the ravages of an epidemic, is a revival of a custom that has prevailed for hundreds of years among the Jews in the heart of Russia. When Russia was swept by cholera several centuries ago Jews died by the hundreds. Panic seized them, and they called a council of elders and rabbis, who decided that the attention of God should be called to the affliction of their fellows if the most humble man and woman among them should join in marriage in the presence of the dead.

So they asked a young man and a woman, who were unknown to each other and who were without wealth to marry in order to save their fellows from the cholera scourge. The young people agreed, and the ceremony was performed. According to the tradition the ravages of the cholera subsided within three days. — Youth’s Companion.

(ibid, page 8)
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Main Street, Lapwai, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 12

Bonners Ferry Herald. August 12, 1919, Page 1

19190812BFH1

Mrs. Callahan Passes Away
Died From Pneumonia In Seattle Hospital On Saturday Morning
Funeral Held This Morning
Large Crowds Pay Last Honors To a Respected Matron

Relatives and friends of Mrs. P. H. Callahan were greatly shocked and grieved when the news came on Saturday of her death at the Providence hospital in Seattle, at six o’clock that morning, death resulting from pneumonia.

Mrs. Callahan had been taking treatments of a specialist in Seattle for several months and seemed to be improving and her friends here had no idea that she was so near death’s door. Only her daughter, Mrs. C. L. Collins, and her sister, Mrs. Ed Miller, were with her at the time of her death for her condition was not realized until the day before she died and then there was not time in which to get word to the members of her family. Mr. Callahan received word of his wife’s illness but was not able to reach her bedside before her death.

The body was shipped here, arriving Monday morning, in charge of Mr. Callahan who was accompanied by Mrs. Collins and Mrs. Miller.

The funeral services were held at ten o’clock this morning at the Catholic church, Rev. Fr. Kelly, of Sandpoint, conducting the services. …

The services were attended by a crowd that filled the church to overflowing and there were several dozen bouquets and floral designs banked on and about the coffin which had been brought by local friends of the deceased or had been sent by friends in many towns of the surrounding country.

Mary Geary Callahan was born at Fort Dodge, Iowa, January 6, 1865. She was married at Fort Dodge on February 18, 1887, to P. H. Callahan and at that time moved to North Dakota, where she lived until 1901 when with her husband and children she came to Bonners Ferry.

The deceased is survived by her husband and five children, two children T. J. Callahan and Nellie Forsythe having died several years ago. … She is also survived by five grandchildren and five sisters and one brother …
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John Murphy Passes Away
Funeral Held Here Yesterday Afternoon – Lived at Sandpoint

John Morphy, well known in this district and in Bonner county, died Friday evening of pneumonia. A private funeral was held yesterday afternoon, mass for the dead being conducted by the Rev. Fr. Kelly.

The deceased was 57 years old and, so far as known, had no relatives in this district.

Last Wednesday Murphy was thrown from a wagon at the camp of Inland Paper Co., in a runaway accident. No bones were broken but he suffered a scalp wound. He was brought to the hospital and was treated by Dr. Fry. It is believed that he was sick at the time of the accident and because of his weakened condition resulting from a severe attack of Spanish influenza a few months ago, his system was not able to resist the attack of pneumonia.

The deceased was formerly in business in Sandpoint and conducted a saloon there about 12 or 13 years ago.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 12 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. August 12, 1919, Page 7

He Walks Around Island
New Jersey Man Takes Stroll Around Porto Rico and is Glad He Did

San Juan, P. R. — M. K. McCosh of East Orange, N. J., strolled into San Juan a few days ago after a tramp around the entire island, which took him three weeks, feeling fine and declaring that the well-meaning friends who had warned him he would not find any food fit to eat in the small hotels had been sadly misinformed., He found the hostelries in the small places clean and the food good, and he said the object of his trip, to recuperate from the effects of an attack of ptomaine poisoning and a siege of the influenza, had been realized. He came here intending to make the return trip on the same steamer, but he found the sea voyage had not helped him as much as he had hoped and he decided to stay over and make his long tramp. Now he is glad he did it.

(ibid, page 7)
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Leadore, Idaho ca. 1912

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 15

Clearwater Republican. August 15, 1919, Page 10

19190815CR1

Commissioners’ Proceedings Clearwater County, Idaho.

Orofino, Idaho, July 22, 1919

Board of County Commissioners convened in regular session pursuant to adjournment of yesterday, all members being present the following business was transacted, to-wit:

Minutes of last meeting read and approved.

Officers Quarterly Reports Examined and Approved for quarter ending July 12th, 1919.

County Auditor.
County Treasurer.
County Sheriff.

Ordered that the Clerk of this board with the assistance of the County Physician take steps to collect from those persons who required medical attention and care at the Red Cross Hospital during the influenza epidemic.

Board adjourns until July 23 1919, at 9 o’clock a.m. …

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 15 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bird’s Eye View of Part of Lewiston, Idaho ca. 1907

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 19

The Idaho Republican. August 19, 1919, Page 5

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Local News

C. V. Evans, who has been critically ill at his home for the past several weeks, was taken to his brother’s hospital at Omaha Friday morning, where his brother, who is a skilled doctor will treat him.
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Care for Sick Soldiers

Uncle Sam will provide sanatorium and hospital care for all the boys discharged from army or naval service, so far as their sickness or disability was contracted in the service of their country. The United public health service has already undertaken this stupendous task and is busily engaged in enlarging its hospital facilities all over the country.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 19 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. August 19, 1919, Page 6

Idaho Budget

Criminal complaints were filed in the probate court at Caldwell by Dr. Ernest E. Laubaugh of the state health department against Mayor H. H. Keim of Nampa and Ira Beam, charged with violating health regulations.

Disease of a most insidious nature is threatening elm trees of Boise, according to H. P Ashby, city park supervisor. This disease is the European elm scale, which first appeared in this country in 1894, attacking all varieties of elk trees, especially Scotch elms.

(ibid, page 6)
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The Idaho Republican. August 19, 1919, Page 7

Firth

Mrs. William Johnson died at her home Friday afternoon, Aug. 15. She leaves a husband and four small children to mourn her loss. The remains will be shipped to Rockford, Ill. for burial.

(ibid, page 7)
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The Idaho Republican. August 19, 1919, Page 8

19190819TIR21,068,932 Died In U.S. In 1917
Heart Disease, Pneumonia, Tuberculosis, Chief Causes
Influenza Heads Epidemics
Census Bureau’s Compilation of Mortality Statistics Made Public – Death Rate From Heart Disease Shows Noticeable Decrease as Compared With 1916 – Next to Influenza Highest Death Rate From Epidemic Disease Was Diphtheria

The census bureau’s annual compilation of mortality statistics for the death-registration area in continental United States shows 1,068,932 deaths as having occurred in this area in 1917, representing a rate of 14.2 per 1,000 of population.

Of deaths, nearly one-third were due to three causes – heart disease, pneumonia and tuberculosis – and nearly another third resulted from the following nine causes: Bright’s disease and nephritis, apoplexy, cancer, diarrhoea [sic] and enteritis, arterial diseases, influenza, diabetes, diphtheria and bronchitis. The death-registration area of the United States in 1917 comprised 27 states, the district of Columbia and 46 cities in non-registration states, with a total estimated population of 75,000,000, or about 73 per cent of the estimated population of the United States.

Fewer Die of Heart Disease

The deaths from heart disease (organic diseases of the heart and endocarditis) number 115,376, or 153.2 per 100,000 population. The death rate from this cause shows a noticeable decrease as compared with 1916, when it was 159.4 per 100,000. There have been fluctuations from year to year, but in general there has been a marked increase since 1900, the earliest year for which the annual mortality statistics were published, when the rate for heart disease was only 123.1 per 100,000.

Pneumonia (including broncho-pneumonia) was responsible for 112,881 deaths, or 149.8 per 100,000. This rate, although much lower than that for 1900 (180.5) or for several succeeding years, is higher than that for any year during the period 1908-1916. The lowest recorded rate for pneumonia was 127 per 100,000 in 1914. The mortality from this disease has fluctuated considerably from year to year since 1900, the general tendency having been downward until 1914 and upward from 1914 to 1917.

Tuberculosis in its various forms caused 110,285 deaths, of which 97,047 were due to tuberculosis of the lungs. The death rate from all forms of tuberculosis was 146.4 per 100,000, and from tuberculosis of the lungs 128.9. The rate from tuberculosis of all forms declined continuously from 200.7 per 100,000 in 1904 to 141.6 per 100,000 in 1916, the decrease amounting to nearly 30 per cent; but for 1917 an increase is shown. Until 1912 more deaths were due to tuberculosis than to any other single cause but in that year and during the period 1914-1917 the mortality from tuberculosis was less than that from heart diseases, and in 1917 it fell below that from pneumonia also.

Cancer Fatalities Greater

Cancer and other malignant tumors caused 61,452 deaths, of which number 28,413, or 38 per cent, resulted from cancer of the stomach and liver. The rate for cancer has risen from 63 per 100,000 in 1900 to 81.6 in 1917. The increase has not been continuous, there having been three years – 1906, 1911 and 1917 – which showed declines as compared with the years immediately preceding. The decrease in 1917, as compared with 1916, however, was very slight – from 81.8 to 81.6. It should be borne in mind that at least part of the increase in the death rate from cancer may be apparent rather than real, being due to a greater degrees of accuracy in diagnosis and to greater care on the part of physicians in making reports to registration officials.

Influenza was responsible for 12,974 deaths, or 17.2 per 100,000. This rate is the highest shown for any epidemic disease in 1917, but is much lower than the corresponding one for the preceding year, 26.5 per 100,000. The influenza rate, which fluctuates greatly, was highest in 1901, when it stood at 32.2, than in any subsequent year prior to the occurrence of the recent epidemic.

Next to that for influenza, the highest rate appearing for any epidemic disease in 1917 was for diphtheria, 14.5 per 100,000, representing 12,458 deaths. The rate from this disease was somewhat higher in 1917 than in the preceding year, when it stood at 14.5 per 100,000.

Bronchitis caused 12,811 deaths, or 16.8 per 100,000. This rate is lower than that for any preceding year except 1916, when it was 16.0. The proportional decline from 1900, for which year the bronchitis rate was 45.7, to 1917, amounting to 64 per cent, was greater than that shown for any other important cause of death.

Typhoid Fever resulted in 10,113 deaths, or 13.4 per 100,000. The mortality rate from this cause also has shown a remarkable reduction since 1900, when it was 35.9, the proportional decrease amounting to 63 per cent. This highly gratifying decline demonstrates in a striking manner the efficiency of improved sanitation and of …

(continued page 5)

the modern method of prevention – the use of the anti-typhoid vaccine.

The greatest number of deaths charged to any one accidental cause = 11,114, or 14.8 per 100,000 – is shown for falls. The rate for this cause varies but slightly from year to year. Next to falls, the greatest number of accidental deaths – 8,649, or 11.5 per 100,000 – resulted from railroad accidents and injuries. …

[chart]

Automobile Death Rate Grows

Deaths from automobile accidents and injuries in 1917 totaled 6,724, or 8.9 per 100,000 population. This rate has risen rapidly from year to year, but not so rapidly as the rate of increase in the number of automobiles in use.

Deaths due to accidental asphyxiation (except in conflagrations) numbered 3,375, or 4.5 per 100,000. This rate is somewhat higher than that for any year during the preceding ten-year period.

Hot weather caused 1,964 deaths, or 2.6 per 100,000. This rate is considerably above those for most of the years covered by the bureau’s records, but is somewhat lower than 2.9 in 1916 and is far below 5.3 in 1911. The rate from this cause naturally varies greatly from year to year.

(ibid, page 8)
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Bonners Ferry Herald. August 19, 1919, Page 1

19190819BFH1

Dr. and Mrs. Faucett Here

Capt. S. T. Faucett, recently discharged from the medical corps of the U. S. army at Camp Russell, Wyo., arrived here Friday with his wife, who while Capt. Faucett was overseas, lived with relatives in Chicago and various parts of Wisconsin.

Capt. and Mrs. Faucett have arranged to reside in the Otto F. Mathiesen home until they can secure a permanent residence or until the return of the Mathiesen family from a several weeks auto touring trip.

Capt. Faucett will be associated with Dr. Fry here in the practice of medicine, having given up this practice just two years ago to volunteer his services to the government. He enlisted as a 1st lieutenant and was advanced to the rank of captain.

Until the armistice was signed he was battalion surgeon for the 359th Infantry, 90th Division and when the peace pact was signed and the 90th Division returned to America he was assigned to duty with the army of occupation in Germany.

Capt. Faucett saw service on the front lines and was a participant in the Argonne and St. Mihiel drives, being slightly gassed in the St. Mihiel engagement. While in France he was also a victim of the Spanish influenza.

Capt. Faucett says that army life is not so bad in war times but at times it is pretty exciting and that he has often thought of Bonners Ferry as being about the finest place in the world.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 19 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. August 19, 1919, Page 4

Local Pick-ups

The four children of Wm. Peters, of Copeland, have been admitted to the children’s home at Lewiston and will be taken there today or tomorrow on the order of Probate Judge Henderson.

E. B. Schlette, forest ranger for the Copeland district, was a business visitor in town Saturday. He states that there have been some very serious fires in his district this year and that it has required hard work and constant effort to keep them under control.

(ibid, page 4)
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Cattle Passing Through Leesburg, Idaho ca. 1908

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 21

The Emmett Index. August 21, 1919, Page 11

19190821EI1

19190821EI2Got Weary Of “Flu” Talk
Visitor to Indianapolis Very Much Fed Up With Conversations Relating to the Epidemic

L. B. Andrus of Grand Rapids, Mich., chief of the Merchants Heat and Light company, is laboring under the impression that some “Hoosier jinx” was trailing him Wednesday evening.

While taking dinner at a hotel he was surrounded by delegates to the casket manufacturer’s convention. After hearing them discuss their business, which discussion naturally had many references to the influenza epidemic, he concluded it was no place for him.

As the evening rolled on, he began debating with himself the question whether the epidemic was going to get him, so he decided to take a Turkish bath. He had only been there a short time when a sick-looking individual came in, and in a conversation with Mr. Andrus said that he had only recently got over a severe case of the influenza, and he had been advised that a Turkish bath would get the poison out of his system and assist him to recover more rapidly.

When he was talking with this man, another man came in sneezing and coughing and inquired of Mr. Andrus whether he thought a Turkish bath would prevent a fellow from getting a bad case of the influenza.

By this time Andrus said to the attendant: “Get me out of here as quickly as possible. I have given about as much time as I care to presiding at the flu conference in Indianapolis.” – Indianapolis News.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 21 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Browning Merchantile, Lorenzo, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 22

Cottonwood Chronicle. August 22, 1919, Page 1

19190822CC1

Will Open September 8
Hope To Have A successful Year – Teachers Have Signed up

The Cottonwood public schools will open their term for 1919-1920 on September 8th. The school board, with the assistance of Superintendent Lustie have selected a very capable force of teachers, all positions having been filled but that of the third and fourth grade teacher. Teachers have been very scarce and hard to obtain and at one time every position was filled but when the contracts were set to be filled in they have declined to accept the positions due perhaps to higher wages paid somewhere else. As one member of the board stated: “We have hired enough teacher to run a school three times the size of Cottonwood.” …

It is the hope of the school board, as well as everyone else that the school year this term will not be interrupted as was the case last year on account of influenza during which time the school was closed for several weeks. After the re-opening of the school after the flu epidemic, school work had to be rushed by both the teachers and pupils and proved to be a great injustice to both.
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News Around The State
Items of Interest From Various sections Reproduced for Benefit of Our Readers

Prompt action on the part of the Nez Perce county farm bureau probably served to check what might have proven a serious epidemic of influenza among the horses of that section of the country. The discovery of the incipient plague did not come about, however, until after two valuable horses belonging to F. Wicks of Gifford had succumbed and others belonging to the same owner were afflicted. It was the Wicks place that the malady was first found.

Grasshoppers from Idaho county have crossed the Lawyer canyon and invaded Nezperce in swarms, causing havoc to gardens.

Such a low state of water has been reached in the Snake river that it has been necessary to make extensions of intake pipes on the fruit ranches along the lower Snake.
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Beyond Control

Forest fires in the Selway National forests are reported to be beyond control. The fire is burning over a front of 35 miles.
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Will Fight Fires

The Camas Prairie passenger train Tuesday evening carried an extra coach to accommodate the 65 fire fighters that were sent from Spokane to the Nezperce National Forest to fight fires.
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Fires Can Be Seen

Forest fires, which have been raging fiercely in the Selway and Nezperce National forests can be clearly seen from almost any point on the prairie. In the day time, large volumes of smoke can be seen rising to the skies, at night the flames can be seen shooting their light towards the heavens. The one, most noticeable, the first of the week, was the fire in the Selway country, which is also one of the largest fires raging in North Idaho at the present time.

Fires could also be seen very plainly in the Joseph country. These fires have to be fought by the homesteaders as the government gives no assistance to land owned by homesteaders. At the present time, the only salvation to save the timber from ruin in the path of the fires seems to be rain.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 22 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Kendrick Gazette. August 22, 1919, Page 1

19190822KG1

School Notes

The Kendrick Public Schools, both high and grades, will open September 8th. A large attendance is reported on account of the light attendance last year due to the influenza. All pupils should enroll early.

All parents intending to start young children for the first time should see that the children enroll the first day. Older pupils can make up a moderate amount of lost time, but beginners can not. There will be but one beginning class during the year as usual. Consequently all beginners should start in September. Children six years of age and those who will be six during the early part of the term may start if they are mature enough. It is not best to start children too young. Parents who have children to enter the beginning class are requested to report the name and age at once to either Harry G. Stanton or D. R. White. It may be well for the parents to understand that half year classes would mean more teachers.

The teaching staff for the coming year is unusually strong. It is unfortunate that many former teachers will not be back, but good teachers have been chosen to take their places. …

A very successful year is anticipated.
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Southwick Items

A forest fire near Cedar Creek and one near Teakean keeps this part of the country well supplied with smoke.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 22 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. August 22, 1919, Page 3

19190822CT1

Last Season Good

“Last season because of the S. A. T. C. work and the influenza, athletic activities were curtailed somewhat but Idaho walloped W. S. C. at Pullman and trimmed Gonzaga two successive games. Practically every man who played last fall will don the padded pants again this fall and many of those who were in the army for a season or two, will be in harness again. …
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Roswell Locals

Miss Lena Fretwell was in Caldwell the first of the week visiting a cousin, Sammy Wilson, who is ill at a hospital there.

Lawrence Wamstad was in Boise Sunday to visit his sister, Mrs. Frank Galyan, who is ill at St. Alphonsus.

Mr. Benj. F. Swan died August 13th at St. Alphonsus hospital in Boise after ten days illness with typhoid. … Mrs. Swan died July 14 from typhoid. … There are seven children, Kenneth who is in the U. S. regulars; Bernard, Donald, Mildred, Paul and Beta. Donald and Paul are in St. Alphonsus hospital now with typhoid. …

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 22 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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View of South Fork River at Lowman, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 27

The Daily Star-Mirror., August 27, 1919, Page 2

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19190827DSM2Influenza Among Horses

There is an influenza epidemic among the horses in the Gifford section. A number of valuable animals have been lost as a result of the ravages of the disease. The farmers are resorting to vaccination as a preventive measure. – Kendrick Gazette

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 27 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., August 27, 1919, Page 3

Jews In Serbia In Bad Plight
Economic Ruin and Epidemics Have Fallen to Their Lot in Balkans
Bulgarian Outlook Better
Investigator Urges Shipments of Food and Clothing to Roumania [sic] – Fund of $35,000,000 Being Sought in United States

New York. – Reports of the condition of Jews in the Balkan countries, as made to the American Jewish Relief committee by its investigators abroad, show that economic ruin, epidemics of typhus, tuberculosis, and other diseases have fallen to the lot of Balkan Jews to an extent equal to that suffered by their co-religionists in other war-torn countries, but that political and religious repressive measures have been lacking.

The first detailed account of the situation in Serbia in many months is from Dr. Isaac Alcalay, chief rabbi of Serbia, with headquarters in Belgrade. He said Belgrade was still without regular communication with the provinces, because the railroads and bridges destroyed by the Austrians have not been restored.

“During the war,” he wrote, “Jews in Belgrade suffered proportionately more than the rest of the population. Most of their habitations were exposed to gunfire throughout the 15 months that the city was under bombardment. Almost all homes are destroyed. The Jewish population of the city, formerly 8,000, now numbers no more than 4,500. The number is being increased daily by returning refugees. Many men are still with the colors. …

(ibid, page 3)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., August 27, 1919, Page 5

City News

P. H. Teare is quite ill at his home five miles east of town.
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New-World Knights Strong Peace Army …

One of the reasons why the Knights of Columbus were able to render such valuable service to the men in the uniform of the United States army, navy an marines was that back of the K. of C. and the public support they received was a thriving fraternal organization, growing rapidly in all parts of the North American continent. William J. McGinley of New York, Supreme Secretary of the K. of C., in his annual report to the Supreme Convention of the K. of C., shows that the Knights have had a magnificent organization with which to put into effect their various movements for the benefit of the nation’s defenders. …

The finances of the Knights of Columbus, Secretary McGinley’s report shows, are in an exceptionally flourishing condition. The present assets of the K. of C., exclusive, of course, of the special war funds, are over $8,500,000. The influenza epidemic cost the Knights the past year in payments to beneficiaries of insurance members $1,149,000. The total death benefits paid during the year amounted to $2,175,394.98 making a total of $13,123,646.76 since the beginning of the order. The total insurance in force this year in the K. of C. amounts to $161,353,565.33.

There were 5,676 deaths in the organization during the year, of which 3,150 were members who had insurance in the order. Despite this, however, there was a gross increase in membership of 121,891. …

(ibid, page 5)
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Leland, Idaho from Elevation at East End of Main Street Looking West ca. 1913 (1)

Leland1913Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 28

The Filer Record., August 28, 1919, Page 1

19190828FR1

19190828FR3Scouts Return Visit of Flu

Cincinnati. — Recurrence of influenza in epidemic form this fall is unlikely, said Health Officer William H. Peters, taking issue with Dr. Royal S. Copeland, New York health commissioner.
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19190828FR2

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 28 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Filer Record., August 28, 1919, Page 2

Samoans Liked Ice Cream Sodas

A member of the United States medical corps, recently returned to Ellinwood, Kas., reports that ice cream sodas have made a profound impression upon the Samoans. The officer was detailed in charge of the soda fountain of the military drug store at the Pago-Pago naval station, and reports that his patients took much more kindly to the sodas than to the anti-influenza serum which he was obliged to dispense.

(ibid, page 2)
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The Filer Record., August 28, 1919, Page 3

Baby Dies

Dale Sealey, age about sixteen months, son of L. A. Sealey, died Tuesday afternoon following an attack of summer diarrhoea [sic]. Funeral services will occur at Kimberly today and interment will be made at Twin Falls cemetery.

Following the death of the child’s mother last November, the baby was adopted by Mr. and Mrs. Ben Train of Kimberly. A short time ago it developed a severe case of summer diarrhoea [sic] and on Sunday last was brought here for treatment. Everything possible was done to save the life of the little one but without avail, and death relieved its suffering. Sympathy is extended to the bereaved ones.

(ibid, page 3)
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The Filer Record., August 28, 1919, Page 8

Glad Horse Kicked Him

Mifflintown, Pa. — “I am thankful that horse kicked me in the face on January 10,” private John A. Allen of Thompsontown announced when he returned home several days ago. He believes the injury he suffered from the horse was responsible for his early return to this country and his discharge. He served for two weeks in the heaviest fighting in the Argonne forest with a unit of engineers, and later was in a Paris hospital for several weeks with influenza and pneumonia.

(ibid, page 8)
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Idaho County Free Press. August 28, 1919, Page 4

19190828ICFP1

Clearwater

(Special Correspondence)

Word of the death of Lester Lytle was received here Tuesday. The boy had not been in good health since having the influenza last spring. His mother, Mrs. Grace Lytle, started with him for Red River Hot Springs in hope he would regain his health, but on arrival in Elk City the boy proved to be so weak that they thought a few days’ rest was best before proceeding to the springs. Instead of gaining, he grew worse. Dr. R. J. Alcorn of Grangeville was called, but too late. The boy died. The body will be brought to Clearwater for burial.

J. W. Yarbrough, former proprietor of the Newsome House, is quite ill with typhoid fever at that place.

Stites

Mrs. O. A. Hammons, who has been very ill, is convalescing.

Funeral services for the infant child of Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Hern were held Wednesday afternoon. Interment was in the I. O. O. F. cemetery.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 28 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Further Reading

Porto Rico

The island’s name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico in 1931 by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila.

excerpted from: Wikipedia
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‘Spanish’ flu and army horses: what historians and biologists can learn from a history of animals with flu during the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic

Floor Haalboom November 2014 Studium (Rotterdam 7(3):124

Abstract

At the time of the 1918–1919 ‘Spanish’ influenza pandemic, influenza researchers did not just relate this disease to the human population, despite the focus of historians of medicine on its human aspects and meanings. In line with the use of historical reports of animals with influenza in present-day microbiological studies on influenza among different animal species, this article investigates understandings of animal influenza in the Netherlands during the 1918–1919 pandemic. The article adds to microbiological uses of the historical record by putting observations of animals with influenza in historical contexts, in particular the context of military dealings with influenza at the end of the First World War, and the social position of veterinary medicine. The case of the Dutch military horse veterinarian Emile Bemelmans, who argued that human and horse influenza were identical, illustrates that knowledge of these contexts is important to critically use historical sources reporting animals with influenza in present-day biological influenza research.

FluArmyHorses-a
Arrival of ill and wounded army horses. Examination for infectious diseases (in this case glanders). Glass negative by the photographer Herman de Ruiter made for: J. Kooiman, De Nederlandsche Strijdmacht en hare Mobilisatie in het jaar 1914 (Purmerend 1915). Collection Nationaal Militair Museum, Soesterberg, nr. 108924.

‘Spanish’ flu and army horses125In August 1918, physician P.H. Kramer, officer of health of the Dutch Militair Geneeskun-dige Dienst (Military Health Service, hereafter MGD), discussed an exceptional event in war-stricken Europe:

a disease of an exceptional epidemic character, which has not honoured the neutral borders of our fatherland, and which has become known to us closely under the name of ‘Spanish flu’ or ‘Spanish illness’.

Whether this flu was really of Spanish origin remains to be seen, as the reports on the epidemic were unreliable due to the circumstances of war. Kramer was writing during the start of what would become known as the 1918–1919 ‘Spanish’ influenza pandemic, which eventually killed tens of millions of people worldwide, a higher number than First World War related deaths.2 In the Netherlands, more than 16,000 people died during the height of the pandemic, in the autumn of 1918. The summer of 1918 and the spring of 1919 saw milder outbreaks, which still added several thousands of victims to the influenza death toll.3 Kramer, however, was still unaware of these figures, and wrote about an epidemic which travelled quickly, but remained relatively mild. Rather, Kramer expressed an interest in the dynamic properties of influenza epidemics in his overview: the symptoms appeared suddenly and were never exactly alike. Moreover, he discussed historical reports of ‘simultaneous outbreaks of infectious diseases among horses, dogs, cats or chickens, which one related to the raging disease among the people’.

Such historical accounts of the (apparent) link between diseases in animals and influenza pandemics among the human population have recently attracted the attention of microbiologists studying influenza. Their interest is driven by questions on the biological cause of the 1918–1919 pandemic, the influenza virus, and its evolution as it multiplies in different animal host species. Microbiologists want to understand the origin of novel influenza pandemics, and what role different animal species play in this. Historical sources promise to offer them an insight into influenza’s evolutionary ecology. As such, they look for observations of animals suffering from influenza in these sources. Some microbiologists give the First World War a special place in this story. They argue that the Great War offered special ecological circumstances for the influenza virus to thrive in, including plenty of opportunities of contact between large numbers of soldiers and animals. These circumstances might have resulted in a new influenza virus of exceptional virulence, which eventually caused the 1918–1919 pandemic.

continued:
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The ‘Influenza’ Vaccine Used during the Samoan Pandemic of 1918

G. Dennis Shanks – NIH

Abstract

In 1918, a crude influenza vaccine made from chemically inactivated, mixed cultures of respiratory bacteria was widely used prior to the understanding that influenza was caused by a virus. Such vaccines contained no viral material and probably consisted largely of bacterial endotoxin. The Australian military used such a vaccine on Samoa in December 1918 and thought it was valuable. Post hoc analyses suggest that the mixed respiratory bacteria vaccine may have actually been of some benefit, but the mechanism of such protection is unknown. Although such a crude vaccine would not be considered in a modern setting, the rapid use of problematic vaccines still remains a risk when new influenza types suddenly appear, as in 1976 and 2009.

continued: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health
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Influenza in Samoa

Chapter 10 The 1918 influenza pandemic

On 7 November 1918, the New Zealand passenger and cargo ship Talune arrived at Apia from Auckland. On board were people suffering from pneumonic influenza, a highly infectious disease already responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths around the world. Although the Talune had been quarantined in Fiji, no such restrictions were imposed in Samoa. Sick passengers were allowed to disembark.

1908talune-a
The steamship Talune at the Napier breakwater in 1908. source link:

The disease spread rapidly through the islands. Samoa’s disorganised local health facilities and traumatised inhabitants were unable to cope with the magnitude of the disaster and the death toll rose with terrifying speed. Grieving families had no time to carry out traditional ceremonies for their loved ones. Bodies were wrapped in mats and collected by trucks for burial in mass graves.

The total number of deaths attributable to influenza was later estimated as 8500, 22% of the population. According to a 1947 United Nations report, it was ‘one of the most disastrous epidemics recorded anywhere in the world during the present century, so far as the proportion of deaths to the population is concerned’.

Survivors blamed the New Zealand Administrator, Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Logan, for failing to quarantine Talune and for rejecting an offer of medical assistance from American Samoa. A Royal Commission called to enquire into the allegations found evidence of administrative neglect and poor judgement.

Logan seemed unable to comprehend the depth of feeling against him and his administration. He left Samoa in early 1919 and did not return. His successor, Colonel R.W. Tate (1920-23), was faced with immense grief and ongoing resentment.

[It is] temporary and, like children, they [Samoans] will get over it provided they are handled with care… They will later on remember all that has been done for them in the previous four years…

Logan’s report on his administration of Western Samoa, 8 August 1919, IT 1/1/1D

The influenza pandemic had a significant impact on New Zealand’s administration of Samoa. Many older matai (chiefs) died, making way for new leaders more familiar with European ways. For survivors, the incident was seared into memory. It became the foundation upon which other grievances against the New Zealand authorities would be built.

source: (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 22-Apr-2020
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Heat and Summer Diarrhea

John Zahorsky, M.D. JAMA Pediatrics

Abstract

The theory that the extreme elevation of the temperature during July, August and September is the direct cause of summer diarrhea was very popular with the early American physicians. Booker has given us an interesting history of the subject. Diarrhea in infancy as a summer disease was not recognized in Europe until recent times, but was accurately described by Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia in 1777. To this physician is also credited the theory that heat is the principal factor in the causation of the disease, but a careful reading of his article shows that he was inclined to view the disease as a modification of malaria. It was really Dr. E. Hornell of Philadelphia in 1823 who first clearly expressed the direct connection between heat and cholera infantum.

source: JAMA
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)