Idaho History May 30, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 59

Idaho Newspaper clippings September 4-30, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 4

Jerome County Times., September 04, 1919, Page 1

19190904JCT1

Death of Mrs. Patterson

The many friends of Mrs. Frank Patterson in this community were saddened Sunday when they learned that she had passed away at eleven o’clock that morning, following an operation in the Shoshone hospital last Friday. …

She was born at Pomeroy, Washington, forty-four years ago, and her maiden name was Melsenie Abel. She was married on December 25th, 1893, and leaves the following children: Mrs. William Clasons, of St. John, Washington; Mrs. Charles O’Brien, of Jerome, and Orville, Olive and Otto Patterson, of Jerome. Another child, Newell, died on January 12th, this year, of influenza. Her husband also survives her. …
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Schools Open Monday

Next Monday, September 8th, the schools in Jerome, all the schools in the district and all the schools in the county will open for another year’s work. The good old school bell will again be heard calling the boys and girls, and every community will assume an activity which is sadly lacking during the summer months.

source: Jerome County Times. (Jerome, Idaho), 04 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., September 04, 1919, Page 6

19190904DSM1

19190904DSM2
Labrador Coast Swept By Death
Smallpox and Spanish Influenza Play Havoc With Eskimos
Bodies Devoured By Dogs
Moravian Missionary Tells Almost Unbelievable Story of Suffering in Northern Labrador – Mode of Living is Fatal

St. John’s, N. F. — Spanish “flu,” smallpox and measles wiped out more than one-third of the Eskimo population of Labrador during the months of November and December of last year. The Rev. W. W., Perrett of the Moravian mission at Hopedale, where he has spent 27 yours, reached the Newfoundland shores a few days ago. He told an almost unbelievable story of the sufferings of the Eskimos of northern Labrador.

Shortly after the mission ship Harmony had left the coast at the beginning of November “flu” broke out at Hebron and spread rapidly among the inhabitants. That the disease was contagious was unknown to the Eskimo, who were living in small huts, and whole families were affected and died off. Bishop Martin and those at the mission did what was possible under the circumstances, but they, too, were stricken, and when the epidemic had passed its course only eight children, five women and one man of the native population of 100 were living.

Mad Dogs Eat Human Flesh

At the outbreak the dead were buried almost as soon as they passed away, but when the entire settlement became ill, the victims were left where they died, those who had recovered in the meantime being too weak to lay them under the ground. Households who had succumbed one by one were left unburied, and the dogs, who were unable to procure food because the hunters had been all ill, became mad and entered the cabins, consuming the flesh from the bodies of the dead.

When it became known that the epidemic was raging, some outside assistance arrived, and an effort was made to give the dead Christian burial. The dogs, however, after consuming the human flesh, became wild, and it was impossible to undertake putting the corpses in the frozen ground. The next best thing was to bury the corpses at sea. Before even this could be attempted the few remaining at Hebron were compelled to shoot the dogs, as even the living were not safe from them.

While this horror of death and suffering was going on at Hebron, a like epidemic was raging at Okak. The Eskimos, as in Hebron, huddled together in their small huts, quickly became affected, until the whole population was either stricken or dead. The daily death rate was appalling, whole families dying within a few hours. The mission all the while was unceasing in its work for the afflicted, but they also fell victims to the disease, which meant that the Eskimos were left helpless. When the new year dawned only a few emaciated Eskimos were found to be alive.

Mode of Living is Fatal

Mr. Perrett said that when the Eskimos were stricken, their mode of living and environment was against their surviving. As soon as the illness fell upon them they were obliged to take shelter in the small, stuffy huts, where there was neither fresh air nor sunshine, and here they remained until they died. They were also without seal meat and fats, which are necessary for sustenance in cold climes, having been overtaken by the epidemic just as the hunting season opened, and, their constitutions thus weakened, they became easy prey to the scourge. Many who had recovered from their illness died later for want of nourishment.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 04 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Mace School, Mace, Idaho (2)

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 5

The Oakley Herald. September 05, 1919, Page 8

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In The Gem State

Prevalence of influenza among the horses of the Gifford section near Lewiston has been reported.

Fires are spreading worse than usual in the vicinity of the Idaho and Payette forests.

Five hundred head of sheep were destroyed by the forest fires in the Rocky Ridge section, according to reports that have been received at Lewiston.

The shooting of valuable cattle on the mountain ranges by careless hunters has resulted in the closing of a large district to hunting near Lewiston.

Lack of water in Snake river to supply power to the municipal plant has forced the people of Idaho Falls to spend the last few nights in darkness, and but little hope of relief is seen.

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 05 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Kendrick Gazette. September 05, 1919, Page 8

19190905KG1

Gleanings

Physicians state that the flu wave is starting again in parts of the United States and that practically every community is almost sure to have another run of the disease as soon as people begin living indoors.

Doc Van Wert says he has inoculated nearly 250 horses in this community to prevent influenza. There are a number of cases of influenza among the horses around Kendrick.

Back close to the old Missouri line there is an old couple who celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary last week. They cut their wedding cake, a fruit cake 50 years old, which they have carefully preserved by wrapping it in cloths soaked in brandy. Not being able to obtain any more brandy they were forced to eat the cake.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 05 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Meridian Times., September 05, 1919, Page 1

19190905MT1

Editorial Mention

Meridian, as well as Boise and Nampa, is experiencing a shortage of houses to rent. Several parties coming to Meridian to locate have lived in tents as a temporary necessity.

This has been another hot dry week, with threatening showers but no rain. The intense sunlight has been partially diminished however, by cloudy days.

The water now running through the Hunter lateral is of the preferred right of the farmers residing under this lateral, according to report. Town people have no right to divert this water for lawns, and to do so is to deprive the farmers below of the necessary water for stock and to keep the vegetation and trees alive. Let’s all help in this emergency.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 05 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Meridian Times., September 05, 1919, Page 2

Scouts Return Visit of Flu

Cincinnati. — Recurrence of influenza in epidemic form this fall is unlikely, said Health Officer William H. Peters, taking issue with Dr. Royal S. Copeland, New York health commissioner.

(ibid, page 2)
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Main Street, Mackay, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 9

The Idaho Republican. September 09, 1919, Page 6

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Sterling

School began here in Sterling September 2. The Grandview schools also commenced on that date.

The Misses Zilpha and Nazzie Bowling arrived here Monday to assume their duties as teachers. Miss Zilpha Bowling will be principal at Grandview, while the other will teach in the Sterling schools.

Moreland

School opened here Wednesday with an enrollment of 201, the largest opening enrollment in the history of the school.

The funeral services for Mrs. Elizabeth Furniss were held in the L. D. S. church hall Tuesday afternoon at 2:30 o’clock. …

Freeman Furniss, who was injured by an explosion of a shell last week, and who was taken to Pocatello, where he was cared for by Drs. Clothier and Howard, came home Wednesday. It is reported that his eyes are not injured seriously altho [sic] he will be under the doctor’s care for some time.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 09 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, J N Ireland Bank, Malad, Idaho

MaladFritz-a

source: Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 10

The Daily Star-Mirror., September 10, 1919, Page 1

19190910DSM1

Big Enrollment In Moscow Schools
First of School Year Sees 805 Enrolled in Three School Buildings

There were 805 pupils enrolled in Moscow schools the first day, which is a new record. The Whitworth led with 419 enrolled; the high school was second with 232 and the Irving school had 154.

The pupils are getting settled down to work and teachers, pupils and parents are looking forward to a good school year, a marked contrast to that of last year when influenza closed the schools several times and interfered with the work in every department. …

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 10 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Street Scene, McCall, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 12

The Kendrick Gazette. September 12, 1919, Page 1

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Local News

The Kendrick school is putting in its winter’s supply of fuel this week. It is much cheaper to buy enough at one time to last all winter and the school board is taking advantage of the opportunity.

Margaret McDowell was quite seriously ill the first of the week but is decidedly better at this writing.

Complaint has been made that automobiles parked in front of the business houses interfere with farmers who wish to drive in front of the stores to load or unload produce. It would be more convenient for all concerned if the cars could be parked at places on Main Street where they would not interfere with business operations.
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Big Bear Ridge

The little son of Mr. and Mrs. R. E. Hughes has been very ill, but is recovering at this writing.

R. R. Skinner was taken seriously ill Tuesday morning, but is some improved at this writing.

The wind storm did considerable damage to the bean crop and fruit in this vicinity Thursday afternoon.
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Linden Items

Dr. Kelley of Kendrick was called for Aletha Isreal Friday who has been quite ill but is slowly improving.

The rain Saturday night was very welcome. It put out the fires that were causing much trouble.
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George Harris Whybark

George Harris Whybark, son of Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Whybark of Big Bear ridge, died Thursday morning. His death was due to cholera infantum. He was three years old at the time of his death.

The funeral will be held at 12 o’clock today, Dr. G. W. H. Smith having charge of the service.

This is the third child that the bereaved family has lost within a year, two having died last winter from influenza. The deepest sympathy is felt for the family in their time of sorrow.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 12 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. September 12, 1919, Page 3

19190912CT1

State Law Invoked To Clean Up County
Fall Campaign Scheduled To Exterminate Pocket Gophers

Legislation passed by the last session of the state legislature will be invoked by the local farm bureau in an effort to exterminate pocket gophers in a county wide campaign to be conducted this fall. Poisoned carrots will be used. R. S. Zimmerman of the U. S. department of biological survey is stationed here at present to supervise the work and give such introductory demonstrations as are deemed necessary.

Influenza Epidemic Interfered

Such an effort was started last year but because of the influenza epidemic the campaign was stopped short of completion. …

Soon a series of lectures and demonstrations will be given throughout the county illustrating the way to effectively poison gophers. Then the actual work will be taken up one community at a time, each farm being thoroughly worked under the direction of Mr. Oman until no gophers are left.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 12 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., September 12, 1919, Page 4

19190912DSM1

19190912DSM2
Benewah County Cattle Have Flu
Strange Disease, Similar to Influenza Reported In Herds At Santa

St. Maries — County Agent Rockwell was called to Fernwood last Monday to investigate several cases of disease in cattle. He found a number of cases of a disease resembling the influenza among humans. The entire herd becomes more or less afflicted with a fever and cough, some cases developing into pneumonia. About 50 per cent of the pneumonia cases are fatal.

Mrs. Lizzie Renfro of Santa has lost two cows, and Ed Wilson one. Stock belonging to Messrs Joe Nixon, B. S. Walkup and Ira McCurdy now seem to have the pneumonia form. It is undoubtedly the same disease which prevailed among Frank Gaskil’s herd the last winter, and which the state veterinarian, Dr. J. D. Adams, investigated and diagnosed as probably hemorrhagic sceptacaemii [sic]. Mr. Rockwell is endeavoring to have the state veterinarian come and investigate the disease further, and see if some method of control by vaccination can not be taken.

Two recent losses of calves from blackleg are also reported, one by C. O. Brown at Ferrell and one by James Morris from the northwest corner of the county near Worley. The county agent has secured a vaccinating outfit and will give demonstrations on the vaccinating of cattle to prevent blackleg at each place in the coming week.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 12 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Street Scene, Meadows, Idaho (1)

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 15

Evening Capital News., September 15, 1919, Page 1

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19190915ECN2
Urges Speedy Action On The Fess Measure

Washington. Sept. 15. — With some cases of influenza reported by the United States health service efforts will be made this week to spur congress into taking the step that will prevent a general recurrence of the disease.

Representative Fess, Ohio, who has introduced a bill providing for government investigations in the hope of finding a cure for the plague is planning to point out to the house this week the great danger of congressional inactivity. His bill has been slumbering in a committee for several months.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 15 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Menan School, Menan, Idaho ca. 1914 (1)

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 16

Evening Capital News., September 16, 1919, Page 4

19190916ECN1

19190916ECN2Influenza Warnings

Commissioner of Public Welfare White has wisely adopted the policy and issuing an early warning to the people of this state to take immediate steps to guard against a recurrence of the influenza epidemic. In doing so he is acting in co-operation with Surgeon General Blue of the United States public health department. Idaho’s experience last fall and winter when death stalked here and there striking at will; when it became necessary to prohibit all public meetings, to close the schools, the churches and all places of amusements, is one this state and its residents desire never to see repeated. It is well, therefore, that we take precautionary steps immediately.

This disease, which has baffled the medical world, has already re-appeared in some of the eastern cities. Physicians have taken prompt action to combat it. The United States bureau of public health is organizing them in every state and Idaho will be no exception to the rule. A wide campaign of education to show how the disease can be prevented and every precaution on the part of the people will reduce the effect of the dread disease to the minimum.
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Shortage of Teachers

The shortage of teachers for public schools of the country is difficult to explain. It exists in Idaho as well as other states. The state superintendent of public instruction informs us, there are 100 rural schools in the state unable to begin their fall terms because there are no teachers to take charge. This is a serious situation and the educational authorities in the state are endeavoring in every way possible to make good the shortage.

It has been pointed out before that the teaching profession is receiving, in these days of high cost of living, less compensation for its services, probably, than any other profession. The salaries of teachers have not advanced in comparison to the cost of the necessities of life. The result has been natural but deplorable. Teachers have gone into other professions more remunerative. Until the salary question is settled to the advantage of the instructor, it is very likely the shortage in teachers will continue. And Idaho today is paying as high salaries as any other state in the Union for its educators.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 16 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., September 16, 1919, Page 1

19190916DSM1

19190916DSM2Flu Reappears in Chicago

Thirty-seven cases of Spanish influenza have been reported to the health department in the past three days. It was during the corresponding period last year that the epidemic first appeared in Chicago.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 16 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Idaho Street, Meridian, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 18

Evening Capital News., September 18, 1919, Page 9

19190918ECN1

Woman To Inspect
New Deputy in Welfare Department Will Control Eating Places

A woman sanitary inspector, whose special field will be soda fountains, restaurants and other public eating and drinking establishments, will probably be appointed by J. K. White, public welfare commissioner, he announced Wednesday afternoon.

This inspector will endeavor to maintain a high standard of cleanliness in the establishments under her jurisdiction with a special view to keeping down conditions contributing to the spread of influenza.

“Evidence collected during last winter’s epidemic points strongly to infected eating and drinking utensils, especially in places where food and drink are sold to the public, as being one of the modes of transmission of this disease, says Surgeon General Blue in a letter to Commissioner White. In some municipalities this matter has already been made the subject of regulation, but the enforcement of the regulations often leaves much to be desired.

“Probably – but by no means certainly – there will be a recurrence of the influenza epidemic this year. Indications are that should it appear it will not be as severe as the epidemic of the previous winter. City officials state and city boards of which should be prepared in the event of a recurrence.

“The fact that a previous attack brings immunity to a certain percentage of cases should allay fear on the part of those afflicted in the previous epidemic.”

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 18 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Corner Orchard Boulevard and Mesa Ave., Mesa, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 19

Evening Capital News., September 19, 1919, Page 3

19190919ECN1

Died Last Winter

Mrs. Larson of 615 South Thirteenth street has just been advised by letter that Mrs. Marie Foley, a former resident of Boise, died of influenza last winter in Canada.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 19 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Evening Capital News., September 19, 1919, Page 8

Joseph W. Sweetman Dies Early Thursday Southern California

Joseph V. [sic] Sweetman, for a number of years manager of the Idanha hotel in Boise, died early Thursday morning at Los Angeles, where he has been under treatment for several months. Mr. Sweetman was about 30 years of age. He is survived by his wife and five brothers, George and Chris of Boise and Thomas, John and Will of San Francisco. He was a member of the Boise lodge of Elks and the Knights of Columbus.

Mr. Sweetman had a severe attack of influenza last winter from which he never recovered and a severe cold, which followed late in the spring, affected his lungs. He went to Arizona and spent several months there for his health and later went to Los Angeles where Mrs. Sweetman joined him and remained with him constantly until the end. It is understood burial will be in San Francisco, his former home and where his parents were laid to rest.

(ibid, page 8)
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Clearwater Republican. September 19, 1919, Page 6

19190919CR1

Boy Scout Doings

The New Orleans Red Cross has been working on the reclamation of soldiers’ garments. Boy scouts assisted by adjusting the buttons on the military blouses.

Among “good turns” reported by a Freeland (Pa.) troop of boy scouts are: Assisted the doctors and nurses in the Spanish influenza epidemic; donated ten baskets of provisions to the widows and orphans; assisted in picking 11 bushels of berries for I. O. O. F. orphanage at Sunbury, Pa.

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 19 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. September 19, 1919, Page 1

19190919CT1

19190919CT2Organize Physicians To Fight Influenza

Boise – An organization of 100 physicians is being perfected by J. K. White, public welfare commissioner, as a precaution against a possible recurrence of influenza in Idaho this winter. So far there has been no indication of the return of the disease, but it has reappeared in eastern cities and United States Surgeon General Rupert Blue instructed Commissioner White to be prepared.
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Many Small Schools Face Teacher Shortage

Boise – More than 100 little schools intending to begin the fall term next month will be unable to do so because of the shortage of teachers in the state, it is shown by reports to Miss Ethel E. Redfield, State superintendent of public instruction. Bonneville county needed 12 teachers last week. The shortage as resulted in higher salaries the prevailing scale now being about $100 per month.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho ), 19 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. September 19, 1919, Page 7

19190919CT3
Big Program To Be Launched This Fall
Farm Bureau Undertakes Health crusade in Schools and Homes

Public health, home sanitation and public welfare among Canyon county homes will be advocated through the farm bureau and 17 community leaders with various committee it was determined at a recent meeting of 12 community representatives at the Commercial club rooms here. Work for the coming year will be conducted through two mediums. One will be the public schools, the second will be through a series of instructional classes and clinics with the mothers of the children in attendance.

Every child in Canyon county schools, according to present plans, will be given a physical examination and most of them will be given a dental examination. Hot lunches for the children during the school terms will be strongly urged and every effort made in Canyon county schools to provide this necessity for the health of the children, at least during the winter months. Health crusade work will form a portion of the training of every child in the first three grades. In many of the schools this work will be continued through the higher grades and where given, this source will be given regular credit.

Prepare for Influenza

Preparations for the possibility of another influenza epidemic will be the first consideration of the work this fall for mothers, special emphasis being laid on precautionary measures to avoid a recurrence of the disease. Free clinics will be given under the direction of capable physicians with instructions classes in first aid, home nursing and sanitation.

In the school work, a women in each community will be appointed to supervise the progress of a particular school room and at the end of the year, comparative reports will be made. At the recent meeting, a report of the work of last year showed much interest and improvements in the sanitary and general health conditions prevailing over the country as a result of last year’s campaign. It must be said that the farm bureau year is considered to end with the close of summer so that reports at the last meeting are regarded as final for the past year.

Mrs. G. L. Karcher of Midway is general county health project chairman. This year’s program is much more comprehensive than has ever before been contemplated and miss Louise Riddle, county home demonstration agent, expects much better results this season than have previously obtained.

Communities Organize

Notus and Parma last Thursday took up the health educational campaign being fostered and promoted for this year by the Canyon county farm bureau. Those appointed as the heads of the various phases of the work in Notus are, Mrs. Harley H. Crook for clothing, Mrs. L. C. Brooks of poultry, Mrs. Bert Robinson of production, and Mrs. Brooks and Mrs. Robertson jointly head of the child welfare work. At Parma the following women will head the farm bureau work, Mrs. F. R. Fouch of organization, Mrs. F. J. Wamsley of clothing, Mrs. W. E. Babcock of poultry, Mrs. Ray Mitchell of production, Mrs. Ben Ross of child welfare and Mrs. A. G. Fisk of home improvement. Fargo was reorganized also last week for the work and other communities will take up the work this year following reorganization meetings held in the near future.

(ibid, page 7)
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Street Scene, Midvale, Idaho ca. 1916

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 23

Evening Capital News., September 23, 1919, Page 7

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Under The Capitol Dome

Return From Fairfield

Dr. E. A. Bryan, state commissioner of education, and Miss Ethel E. Redfield, state superintendent of public instruction, have returned from Fairfield, where they met Saturday with the trustees and teachers of that district, and attended graduation exercises for a number of eighth grade pupils who were put behind in their school work last year because of the influenza epidemic. Fairfield maintains a two-year high school, the only one in the county. The citizens are planning two dormitories, one for boys and one for girls, in connection with a vocational training course. Many young people have been leaving the valley to get school in other towns, and it is planned to provide at home the opportunities they seek in other places.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 23 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. September 23, 1919, Page 2

19190923BFH1

19190923BFH2Butte Reports Influenza

Butte, Mont. — Two cases of Spanish influenza, the first since the epidemic last winter, were reported to the city health office this week.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 23 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Scene on Broadway, Minidoka, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 25

The Grangeville Globe. September 25, 1919, Page 6

19190925GG1

19190925GG2Will Not be One Day Without PE-RU-NA
This Lady Tells Her Friends

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If you have catarrh, whether is be of the nose, throat, stomach, bowels, or other organs, PE-RU-NA is the remedy. It is not new; it is not an experiment. PE-RU-NA has been tried. PE-RU-NA has been used by thousands who once were sick and are now well. To prevent coughs, colds, grip and influenza and to hasten recovery there is nothing better.

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[Adv.]

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 25 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Idaho County Free Press. September 25, 1919, Page 7

19190925ICFP1

19190925ICFP2Is Influenza Coming?

A year ago Idaho county was in the throes of an epidemic of Spanish influenza, which, breaking out on the Atlantic seaboard, rapidly spread throughout the country until it reached the Pacific coast, claiming thousands of lives as it spread. In Idaho county, perhaps twelve persons succumbed to the disease, while countless others who contracted the malady were left in a condition so weakened that many of them have not, a year later, entirely recovered.

Physicians point out that there is no reason to expect a recurrence of of Spanish influenza this fall, yet there is no particular reason to deny that the disease will again make its depressing influences felt. Already reports come from various places that influenza has broken out, but to date no cases have been reported in Idaho county.

Spanish influenza, last fall, was a new disease to most physicians, and fatalities are attributed in part to unfamiliarity of those treating patients with the nature of the disease and methods of treatment.

Influenza is spread by germs, emanating from persons afflicted with the contagion, and methods of preventing spread of the disease are outlined by John K. White, state commissioner of public welfare, in a communication he has just sent out from Boise.

According to Commissioner White, influenza germs lurk in glasses, dishes, and the like, and danger of one contracting the disease is especially manifest at such places as restaurants and public eating houses. The germ can be killed by sterilization of the utensils used, and in this connection Commissioner White has issued instructions that glasses used at soda fountains must be washed in hot water or sterilized, and the same care must be exercised in restaurants and hotels.

Last fall, the commissioner says instructions were issued making mandatory the washing of all glasses and dishes used in public places in hot water. He further states that proprietors of many of these places have become careless, and are using cold water for the washing process, which has the result of spreading the germs, left by one customer, to be picked up by another. A demand for cleanliness at public eating and drinking establishments has been made by the inspector, and the rules will be rigidly enforced. This will have much to do in preventing spread of the influenza germ should it recur.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 25 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., September 25, 1919, Page 1

19190925DSM1

19190925DSM2
University Will Protect Students
Arrangements Are Made To Fight “Flu” Should It Return This School Year

If influenza again appears on the University of Idaho campus or if some other serious epidemic becomes threatening, payment will at once be suspended on individual claims against the university health fund and the entire amount devoted to the equipping of a hospital or to some other purpose consistent with the welfare of the entire student body, according to an announcement made today by Professor Howard T. Lewis.

“Of course we do not anticipate any serious difficulty,” said Professor Lewis, who with Miss Manila Reed of Boise, student body treasurer, directs the disbursement of the health fund, “but we wish to be prepared if some emergency does arise. The good of the student group as a whole will receive first consideration if epidemic threatens.”

Health fund rules recently announced require the student who wishes to call on a physician to obtain from a faculty member a card which is presented by way of payment. Claims for major surgical operations and for chronic diseases will not be paid from the general fund.
— —

19190925DSM3

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 25 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Nezperce Herald., September 25, 1919, Page 2

19190925NH1

Hope Lives Again

The suggestion is abroad that another influenza epidemic is possible this winter. Just by whom, why and how this suggestion was started is not so material as the effect it will have on the race. About everything is started by suggestion. So far as it induces proper care and reasonable preparedness, the suggestion is good, but where it brings about fearful anticipation in the public mind, it is bad.

In going back over the epidemic of last fall and winter, we find extraordinary causes and conditions that do not now exist. Last year, about the time the influenza became prevalent in this country, the hope of the nation was at a low ebb. The inherent disposition to struggle on and win against any odds was less marked in the American people than ever before. The cruel world war had robbed so many homes of their “hope in the world” that the resultant depression permeated the whole land – and nothing but chaos loomed ahead. There was little spirit left to fight the epidemic when it appeared.

The malady had its origin in the necessarily unsanitary conditions obtaining on the several battlefronts, where the heat of the fray prevented hundreds of thousands of men from giving attention to anything but the matter of killing and dodging sudden death from the enemy’s guns. The prevailing system of trench warfare – with its muck and filth – made disease a matter of course.

But now these conditions no longer exist. The war, with all the horrible tragedy, is over. Hope again lives in the world. There is everything to strive for. Life is worth while. The spirit of resistance of evil is near normal; and besides this, the people have the experience of last year’s epidemic with which to fight off its recurrence.

Let reason rule, and go cheerfully about your business. God still reigns.

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 25 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier, Idaho ca. 1911

Montpelier1911Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 26

The Rathdrum Tribune., September 26, 1919, Page 1

19190926RT1

Idaho State News Items

J. K. White, commissioner of public welfare, has announced that he expected to appoint a woman sanitary inspector to chase influenza germs. Her field of operation will be confined to soda fountains, restaurants and other public places where the public eats and drinks.

On Sept. 16 Boise valley received its first considerable rainfall since April 13, breaking a 156 days drouth [sic] in that part of southern Idaho.

The Bruneau project for building a storage reservoir at American Falls is being revived. The cost is up to $50,000,000. The Bruneau tract includes 554 acres.

The contract to construct the wings to the state capitol at Boise was awarded last Saturday to a Salt Lake firm. The wings and furniture, it is estimated, will cost the entire $900,000 appropriated by the last legislature for the purpose.

The Nez Perce county farm bureau has taken the initiative in urging that the burned-over sections of the national forests be re-seeded, in order that these lands be not lost to the livestock industry for the period of years necessary for volunteer re-seeding.
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From Over The County

Harrison

Several cases of typhoid fever, brought in from outside points, are reported at the local hospital.

Coeur D’Alene

Superintendent of Schools R. C. Egbers needs eleven rural school teachers immediately. He attributes the scarcity of school teachers to the fact that better salaries are being paid in other lines, and that those who can be secured are not competent to pass the state examination – more rigid than last year.

source: The Rathdrum Tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 26 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier Examiner. September 26, 1919, Page 1

19190926ME1

Fielding Academy Will Open Next Monday

The Fielding Academy begins its winter’s work next Monday morning. Everything will be in readiness for the students and all indications point to an exceptional heavy enrollment.

The board of education and faculty have held meetings in the principal towns of the valley, encouraging interest in education wherever possible. They have found that interest is greater than usual. The epidemic of influenza last winter seems to have stirred many young men and women to a realization of the necessity of taking advantage of the opportunities that are before them and that lie at their very doors. They are listening to the call of the country and society for trained men and women.

Some weeks ago the faculty made a canvas of Paris for boarding places and rooms for rent. There was a large list prepared, but so fast have students and families taken them that few are left. Every effort will be made, however, to accommodate those moving in for the school.

The latter part of this week will be occupied by the faculty in discussing such problems as will confront them in preparing their departments for the work ahead. Each instructor is enthusiastic over his work and its prospects.

The student body is already thoroly [sic] organized and will produce some of the best activities ever given by that organization. This will be especially true in the case of operas, recitals and dramatics. The athletic situation is still a little uncertain, but there are several young fellows who showed excellent form last winter that if taken early will develop rapidly. The introduction of football into the church schools will no doubt encourage many young “huskies” to try their skill. The academy has a good gridiron for football.

One of the things that will be done this winter will be to encourage the young people to prepare themselves for teachers and help refill the depleted ranks of the teacher’s profession.

It is hoped that in as much as the school year begins a little late, the purpose of which is to accommodate the boys and girls on the farm, that every effort will be made by pupils to register on the first day of school. This will make it easier for the student and compensate him for any sacrifice he may have to make at home. …

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 26 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. September 26, 1919, Page 5

19190926CT1

New Building Delays School
Opening for Junior-Senior Institution Postponed Until October 13

Because of unavoidable circumstances the High school building will not be completed so that the junior-senior high school may open on September 29th, the date previously set. Delays occasioned on account of the shortage of labor make it certain that the high school building will not be finished before October 13. This will shorten the school year and this loss together with that sustained last year on account of the influenza epidemic, render the educational situation serious. When high school opens every effort will be put forth to overcome the handicap of loss of time. parents and junior-senior high school students should watch the columns of the Tribune for future notices as to the dates for registration and the definite date of opening of school.

Junior-senior high school teachers will arrive in Caldwell the latter part of this week. The junior-senior high school faculty will consist of 24 men and women. Most of them are strangers in Caldwell. The housing proposition is serious and as yet sufficient accommodations have not been reported to the office of the superintendent of schools to provide one-half of the teachers with rooms.

Unless suitable living conditions are furnished by the community to its teachers, some of them will surely resign their positions and enter employment where living conditions are more salutary. Citizens who own homes in Caldwell and who are interested in the success of the schools are earnestly requested to assist in the problem of securing suitable rooms for the high school teachers. Any who might room teachers and will make the sacrifice to do so are asked to notify the office of the superintendent of schools at once.

Enrollment Increases 9 Per Cent

The three ward buildings, which opened school on September 8th, are running with an increased enrollment over last year. The total number of children in the six grades in the ward buildings is 9 per cent greater than it was last year on September 30th. Pupils are entering the different buildings daily. The problem of relieving the congestion is the primary grades in particular has been adjusted by transferring children among the various buildings. This has rendered some slight convenience [sic] to some children who are now required to walk farther than they would have done had they remained in the building where they first entered.

The matter of balancing the grades in the different buildings and giving the teachers an opportunity to succeed in their work and the children the opportunity of better instruction is an educational problem too serious to be set aside except for extraordinary reasons. Splendid co-operation shown by parents whose children it has been necessary to transfer, has made the solution of the problem of congestion possible. …

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 26 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. September 26, 1919, Page 8

Fair At Wilder Pleased Crowd …

Wilder’s first attempt at holding a fair proved an unqualified success, according to local business men who attended the event last Thursday. Attendance at the exhibits and various entertainment features is conservatively estimated at 1500. …

The women’s’ exhibit and three demonstrations which were given attracted an unusual amount of attention and interest. Miss Olive Pearson of Fargo gave a demonstration on proper baby bathing; Mrs. B. A. Cox of Greenleaf demonstrated the sick bath, and Joe Erwin and W. E. Jone, the latter from Riverside, judged the poultry exhibit. Miss Pearson and Mrs. Cox are trained nurses. In connection with this work, a complete exhibit of sick room equipment was presented. Means of preventing and combating the influenza were profusely illustrated.

(ibid, page 8)
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Main Street, Moscow, Idaho (4)

MoscowFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 28

Evening Capital News., September 28, 1919, Page 7

19190928ECN1

19190928ECN2
Take Precautions
Early Observance of Health Rules Will Prevent Influenza Epidemic Here

“It is very important that the board of health have instant knowledge of every case of influenza met with by physicians,” L. P. Pfirman, deputy city health officer, announced Saturday evening.

“One of the practical discoveries last year was the possibility of conveyance of the disease through eating utensils,” he continued. “We call on every citizen to assist us in the enforcement of the anti-spitting laws, and in every possible way to make the city of Boise as clean and sanitary as possible.

“The public is requested to keep all dirt, trash, rubbish, garbage and stagnant water off their premises and thereby eliminate any cause of the spread of disease.”

Special study of influenza treatment and prevention is being made by the city nurses, and all nurses desiring to consult with them may do so without charge, Mr. Pfirman announced.
— —

Probate Judges To Convene At Weiser
Annual Conference Scheduled for Oct. 1 and 2 – Addresses by Prominent Educators and Officials

Programs are out for a conference of probate judges to be held at Weiser, Oct. 1 and 2. Formal organization of probate judges into an annual conference was effected at St. Anthony in 1917, when Superintendent J. Fred Williams and the state board of education invited the judges to be the guests of the Industrial Training schools and to consider problems of common interest. No meeting was held last year on account of the influenza. …

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 28 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., September 28, 1919, Page 11

19190928ECN3Apples Vs. Influenza

The old adage that “an apple a day keeps the doctor away” is to be given a real test during the coming winter at the Nampa Nazarene college. The students there are relying on apples to prevent a repetition of the Spanish influenza epidemic.

It is the suggestion of E. F. Stephens of the Stephens orchards, Nampa, who Saturday backed it up with an outright gift to the students of 100 bushels of Jonathan apples, imposing but the one condition that they should be freely eaten by all the students. Mr. Stephens has been a great fruit eater for years and enthusiastically believes it a specific for nearly all bodily ills.

The apple offer was made on the basis of an announcement that the students’ club “menu” committee of the Nampa college is planning to confer with the University of Idaho extension department and the farm bureau domestic science department on balanced rations as an influenza preventative. But Mr. Stephens did not stop with the gift of 100 bushels of Jonathans. He has also offered the students’ boarding club of the college 600 bushels of apples, with all the curative qualities of the fruit acids contained therein, on the following terms: For each hour of student labor in the Stephens orchard, the club is to receive one bushel of apples.

(ibid, page 11)
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Main Street, Mullan, Idaho

MullanFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 29

Evening Capital News., September 29, 1919, Page 3

19190929ECN1

19190929ECN2
University Plans Hospital In Case of Bad Epidemic

University of Idaho, Moscow, Sept. 29. – If influenza again appears on the University of Idaho campus, or if some other serious epidemic becomes threatening, payment will at once be suspended on individual claims against the university health fund and the entire amount devoted to the equipping of a hospital or to some other purpose consistent with the welfare of the entire student body, according to an announcement made today by Professor Howard T. Lewis.

“Of course, we do not anticipate any serious difficulty,” said Professor Lewis, who with Miss Manila Reed of Boise, student body treasurer, directs the disbursement of the health fund, “but we wish to be prepared if some emergency does arise. The good of the student group as a whole will receive first consideration if an epidemic threatens.”

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 29 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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A Hustling Mining Town, Murray, Idaho ca. 1909

Murray1909Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 30

The Daily Star-Mirror., September 30, 1919, Page 2

19190930DSM1

[Editorial]

The University of Idaho is acting wisely in preparing for a return of the influenza epidemic. While every one hopes there will not be another visit of the dread disease that brought death and sorrow into so many homes, it is wise to prepare to combat it should it return. “In time of peace prepare for war” is an old adage that applies in this case. The action of university authorities is commendable.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 30 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
—————

Further Reading

The 1918 influenza pandemic occurred in three waves and was the most severe pandemic in history.

1918CincinnatiBarber-aA Cincinnati barber wears a mask while giving a customer a shave. Cincinnati barbers and downtown hotel employees were advised to wear a mask to “help in the fight to stamp out influenza.”

During 1918, the U.S. was engaged in WWI. Hundreds and thousands of U.S. soldiers traveled across the Atlantic to deploy for war. The mass troop movement contributed to the global spread of flu.

There were 3 different waves of illness during the pandemic, starting in March 1918 and subsiding by summer of 1919. The pandemic peaked in the U.S. during the second wave, in the fall of 1918. This highly fatal second wave was responsible for most of the U.S. deaths attributed to the pandemic.

In 1918, many health professionals served in the U. S. military during WWI, resulting in shortages of medical personnel around the U.S. The economy suffered as businesses and factories were forced to close due to sickness amongst workers.

First Wave Spring 1918

The first outbreak of flu-like illnesses was detected in the U.S. in March, with more than 100 cases reported at Camp Funston in Fort Riley, Kansas.

Second Wave Fall 1918

In 1918, many health professionals served in the U. S. military during WWI, resulting in shortages of medical personnel around the U.S. The economy suffered as businesses and factories were forced to close due to sickness amongst workers.

Third Wave Fall 1918

A third wave of illness occurred during the winter and spring of 1919, adding to the pandemic death toll. The third wave of the pandemic subsided during the summer of 1919.

More people died during the 1918 pandemic than the total number of military and civilian deaths that resulted from World War I.

An estimated 1/3 of the world’s population was infected with the 1918 flu virus – resulting in at least 50 million deaths worldwide.

excerpted from: CDC
— — — — — — — — — —

Peruna (patent medicine)

From Wikipedia

AdvertisementPERUNA-aAn advertisement for Peruna. The women shown as endorsing Peruna may not have existed.
Wikipedia: Los Angeles Herald Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

Peruna was a well-known patent medicine sold from the late 19th to mid 20th century. The mascot of Southern Methodist University was named after the product. It was patented by Samuel Brubaker Hartman, and endorsed by hundreds of politicians. Hartman began selling the product on July 29, 1885, and advertised it as curing catarrh. At its peak, Hartman was earning $100,000 a day from Peruna sales. The drug was reportedly so popular that babies were named after it. Peruna once released an ad with 50 United States Congressmen endorsing the product.

In a series of 11 articles Samuel Hopkins Adams wrote for Collier’s in 1905, “The Great American Fraud”, Adams exposed many of the false claims made about patent medicines, pointing out that in some cases these medicines were damaging the health of the people using them. On October 20, 1906, Adams published an article in Collier’s, claiming that Peruna and other such patent-medicines were frauds, for instance alleging that Peruna was 28% alcohol. The series had a huge impact and led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. In 1911, the Supreme Court ruled that the prohibition of falsifications referred only to the ingredients of the medicine.

This meant that companies were again free to make false claims about their products. Adams returned to the attack, and in another series of articles in Collier’s Weekly, Adams exposed the misleading advertising that companies were using to sell their products. Linking his knowledge of newspapers with patent medicines, he wrote The Clarion (1914), which was critical of newspaper advertising practices and led to a series of consumer-protection articles in the New York Tribune. When Prohibition came into effect, Americans began using Peruna and other similar products as a way to get drink amounts of alcohol. Peruna had stopped being sold by the mid 1940s.

source: Wikipedia
— — — — — — — — — —

Human tissue preserved since World War I yields new clues about 1918 pandemic

By Kai Kupferschmidt May 17, 2021 Science Magazine

1918fluSweeden-aA gymnasium in Boden, Sweden, is filled with pandemic influenza patients in 1918. Researchers have pieced together a full genetic sequence of the flu virus circulating in Europe at the time. Everett Collection/Newscom

On 27 June 1918, two young German soldiers — one age 18, the other 17 — died in Berlin from a new influenza strain that had emerged earlier that year. Their lungs ended up in the collection of the Berlin Museum of Medical History, where they rested, fixed in formalin, for 100 years. Now, researchers have managed to sequence large parts of the virus that infected the two men, giving a glimpse into the early days of the most devastating pandemic of the 20th century. The partial genomes hold some tantalizing clues that the infamous flu strain may have adapted to humans between the pandemic’s first and second waves.

The researchers also managed to sequence an entire genome of the pathogen from a young woman who died in Munich at an unknown time in 1918. It is only the third full genome of the virus that caused that pandemic and the first from outside North America, the authors write in a preprint posted on bioRxiv.

“It’s absolutely fantastic work,” says Hendrik Poinar, who runs an ancient DNA lab at McMaster University. “The researchers have made reviving RNA viruses from archival material an achievable goal. Not long ago this was, like much ancient DNA work, a fantasy.”

Sequencing viral genomes has become routine. In the ongoing coronavirus pandemic, researchers have amassed a database of more than 1 million genomes of SARS-CoV-2, allowing them to watch variants appear and spread while old ones disappear. But few sequences exist of the H1N1 influenza virus that caused the pandemic of 1918–19. In the early 2000s, scientists in the United States painstakingly pieced together one genome from samples taken from a woman’s body buried and preserved in the frozen ground in Alaska. And in 2013 they presented a second genome from a U.S. flu fatality, teased out from autopsy tissue that had been preserved in formalin at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Both studies were time consuming, costly efforts that few people tried to emulate, says virologist Angela Rasmussen of the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Organization at the University of Saskatchewan. Tracking down archived tissue samples is itself a challenge, says evolutionary biologist Michael Worobey of the University of Arizona, a co-author on the new preprint. “It’s all about finding samples,” Worobey says. “Our group has scoured a lot of different locations, and they’re hard to come by.”

Evolutionary biologist Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer of the Robert Koch Institute and his colleagues have now investigated 13 lung tissue samples from between 1900 and 1931 that were in the medical museum in Berlin and in a collection in Vienna. They found bits of RNA from the flu virus in three of them, all dating to 1918. (Like SARS-CoV-2, the influenza virus’ genome is composed of RNA, not DNA.) Although the RNA was broken down into tiny fragments, there were enough of these to reconstruct the entire genome of the virus from the woman, who was just 17 years old, and close to 90% and 60%, respectively, of the virus that killed the two soldiers. Sequencing genetic material from formalin-fixed tissue is still harder than with other kinds of specimens, Calvignac-Spencer says. “But it’s not the kind of impossible work that we once thought it was.”

The partial genomes from the two soldiers are from the first, milder wave of the pandemic, which was followed by a more severe one that swept the world in the fall of 1918. Scientists have speculated that the virus originated in birds and became better adapted to humans between the first and second waves. One way this could happen is if the gene for haemagglutinin, an important protein on the surface of the virus, underwent an amino acid–swapping mutation that replaced a particular glycine, more often seen in bird flu viruses, with an aspartic acid, which is more characteristic of human viruses. Both German sequences carried an aspartic acid at the position, however, making that scenario unlikely.

The researchers did find an evolutionary clue in the gene for the virus’ nucleoprotein, a structural protein that helps determine what species the virus can infect. The previously reported 1918 flu strains, both from late in the pandemic, carry two mutations in this gene that help influenza avoid the human body’s innate antiviral defenses; the German soldiers’ sequences were more birdlike. “It could be a sign that the virus was evolving to better avoid the human immune response in the first months of the pandemic,” Calvignac-Spencer says. The Munich woman’s flu strain also carried the more birdlike version of the nucleoprotein but given her uncertain date of death, nothing can be concluded about the strain’s evolution.

The full genome from the women yielded other clues, however. The researchers used its genes to resurrect the virus’ polymerase complex, a machinery consisting of three proteins that together copy the pathogen’s genome. In cell culture experiments, they discovered, the complex from the Munich strain was about half as active as the polymerase complex from the Alaska strain. (The study did not pose safety concerns because the team didn’t reconstitute the whole virus.)

Extrapolating from petri dish studies to human infections is difficult, Poinar says. Still, “The fact that you can test, in vitro, the effects of an ‘extinct’ strain has huge implications in understanding evolution of virulence and possible countermeasures should we encounter another flu epidemic.”

The work also shows that pathology archives are “treasure troves” that can still yield more information about the 1918 pandemic, Rasmussen says: “If the last 18 months have demonstrated anything, it’s that we would do well to remember the lessons of past pandemics as we try to prevent future ones.”

source: Science Magazine
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)