Idaho History June 6, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 60

Idaho Newspaper clippings October 1-18, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 1

Evening Capital News., October 01, 1919, Page 3


Horses Stricken By Influenza In M’Cammon Region
State Bureau of Animal Industry Sends Deputy to Vaccinate Stock – Epidemic Said to Be Serious.

Influenza has broken out among the horses in the McCammon section. The epidemic has reached serious proportions, according to information received today by Dr. J. D. Adams, director of the bureau of animal industry in the state department of agriculture.

The McCammon country is one of the principal horse growing sections of the state.

Will Vaccinate

Dr. M. M. McCoy, live stock sanitary inspector, has been ordered to go from Gooding to McCammon to vaccinate all horses in the infected region, and to take any other precautions necessary to control the epidemic.

The influenza affects horses much the same way that humans are affected by it, according to Dr. Adams. It runs into pneumonia and the fatality rate is very high.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 01 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Nampa, Idaho ca. 1917


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 2

Payette Enterprise., October 02, 1919, Page 2


[Editorial Page]

Seattle Oct. 1. — Public recognition of their services in helping to stem the tidal wave of influenza which occurred a year ago has been accorded to two men who devised the prophylactic serum used with great effectiveness throughout the Northwest. Both are physicians who were in the naval service and stationed at Bremerton, Washington, from where they conducted their fight on the flu epidemic.

Dr. D. H. Nickson, who was Lieutenant J. O. Medical Corps, U. S. N., has just been appoint assistant professor of pathology at the University of Washington, the creation of which position is in reality the fore runner of a medical department for this institution, being now the regular academic preparation for medical training. The other medical man with whom Dr. Nickson worked at the Naval Station, is Dr. E. D. Hitchcock, who was Lieutenant M. C. U. S. N., and has just been appointed director of the Hygienic Laboratory of the [? page faded]… Montana State Department of Public Health. These men, working together supplied prophylactic “flu” serum that was used in practically all the northwestern cities, by various state boards of health and in the naval service.

Dr. Nickson, who has specialized in bacteriological study during and since his medical collage course, was bacteriological instructor in 1914 at the University of Washington and for the last four years has been pathologist for the Physicians Clinical Laboratory at Seattle, where scientific diagnosis of diseases is carried on for the medical profession. Dr. Nickson was graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1913. He volunteered for service when the U. S. entered the war and was assigned to duty in the Bacteriological Laboratory of the 13th Naval District, which Laboratory was under direction of Lieut. Hitchcock and where the work was to look after general health, sanitation, food, water supply and the control of epidemics that might arise in the camp. On September 25th, 1918, influenza broke out in the camp. Drs. Hitchcock and Nickson immediately began an investigation, started experiments and made a vaccine that proved entirely satisfactory in controlling the outbreak at Bremerton Navy Yard. This vaccine was then given by the naval authorities to city and state governments, by whom it was used, especially in Seattle, with marked success.

source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 02 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Naples, Idaho ca. 1912


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 3

Evening Capital News., October 03, 1919, Page 9


Nurses Hear Address By Miss Eldredge
Representative of American Association of Nurses Honored Guest at Banquet at Owyhee Hotel

A 52-hour week for student nurses with paid employees on the wards to do a certain amount of the work in which there is no educational advantage was urged as a law for Idaho, in an address to the Idaho State nurses association Thursday night at the Owyhee hotel by Miss Adda Eldridge, interstate secretary of the American Nurses’ association.

Members of the association, student nurses and a number of retired nurses, who followed their profession during the influenza epidemic last winter, dined at the hotel. The attendance was largest in the history of the association and great interest was manifested in the address of the speaker which dealt primarily with the high calling of the profession, its aims and some of the things which it was hoped to accomplish for the betterment of nurses.

Miss Eldredge pointed out that the nurses association was not a union in any sense, that it aimed at standards, not wages. She gave a history of what had been accomplished by nurses since the graduation of the first trained nurses in 1873. Linda Richards, who is still living and a resident of Lowell, Mass. “The first nurses association,” she said, “was organized in 1893 and now there are associations in all but three states of the Union, Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico. In all the states where associations exist there are laws for the registration of nurses setting forth a minimum standard of education.”

The speaker pointed out the value of organization to the profession and especially mentioned the American Nurses association, the National League of Nursing Education and also the publication of the American Journal of Nursing, the official organization of the associations, which she stated, had the largest circulation of any purely technical magazine in the United States.

She spoke on the funds of the American Nurses association, the Robb Memorial Scholarship fund, the relief fund, now over $25,000, and the loan fund to the memory of Isabel McIsaacs, who visited Idaho and helped organize the state association.

This morning Miss Eldredge spoke at St. Margaret’s hall and this afternoon, addressed the nurses at St. Luke’s hospital. She left this evening for Portland and will then go to Arizona to assist in the organization of an association in that state.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 03 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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American Falls Press. October 03, 1919, Page 3


Will The Flu Return

Authoritative statement issued by the U. S. Public health service.

Probably, but by no means certainly, there will be a recurrence of the influenza epidemic this year.

Indications are that should it occur, it will not be as severe as the epidemic of the previous winter.

City officials, state and city boards of health, should be prepared in the event of a recurrence.

The fact that a previous attack brings immunity in a certain percentage of cases should allay fear on the part of those afflicted in the previous epidemic.

Influenza is spread by direct and indirect contact.

It is not yet certain that the germ has been isolated, or discovered, and as a consequence there is yet no positive preventative, except the enforcement of rigid rules of sanitation and the avoidance of personal contact.

A close relation between the influenza epidemic and the constantly increasing pneumonia mortality rate prior to the fall of 1918 is recognized.

It is now believed that the disease was pretty widely disseminated through out the country before it was recognized in its epidemic state. This failure to recognize the early cases appears to have largely been due to the fact that every interest was then centered on the war.

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 03 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Partial View of New Meadows, Idaho ca. 1917


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 5

Evening Capital News., October 05, 1919, Page 11


W. C. T. U. Plans Work For The Coming Year

“More work next year,” is the slogan of the Ada county white ribboners. The report made at the convention, just closed, showed how seriously the influenza had interfered with their plans last year. Twenty departments of work are planned for the year, each under the supervision of a competent superintendent. The election of officers resulted in all the old officers being re-elected. …

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 05 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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New Plymouth Garage, New Plymouth, Idaho


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 7

The Daily Star-Mirror., October 07, 1919, Page 4


Sunday Services In Moscow Churches

Methodist Episcopal Church

Sunday was a big day at this church. It was rally day for the Sunday school and there was the largest attendance since the influenza interrupted the work a year ago. Two new classes were organized. One under prof. Chenowith who teaches “Social Principles of Jesus” and a Teacher Training Class under Dr. W. A. Allen. Both classes promise to be large. …

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 07 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Newsome, Idaho


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 8

Evening Capital News., October 08, 1919, Page 8


Board Of Health Warns Against Flu
Authorities Nervously Await Recurrence of Dreaded Epidemic

Medical authorities seem to be of the opinion that this country will again be visited by the dreaded scourge of influenza, and have already taken steps to warn the public as to the precaution that should be observed.

The Board of Health of the state of Connecticut has had large placards printed and widely distributed containing the following advice, which will be found valuable in any locality, its purpose being to avoid, if possible, a recurrence of this dreaded epidemic.

19191008ECN3How to Avoid the Flu
1. Don’t inhale any person’s breath.
2. Avoid persons who cough and sneeze.
3. Don’t visit close, poorly ventilated places.
4. Keep warm and dry.
5. If you get wet, change your clothes at once.
6. Don’t use drinking cups or towels that others persons have used.
7. For the protection of others, cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze.
8. Clean your teeth and mouth frequently.
9. Don’t spit on the floor.

In addition to the above, the Health Commissioner of New York City, in an interview in the New York Times, predicts a return of influenza, warns everyone to guard their health carefully, and those who are weak, he advises to build up their strength to better be prepared for the attack.

The medical profession practically admit their helplessness, and health authorities are nervously facing the situation. They can only advise that precautionary measures be adopted that will prepare the system for the attack.

They are advising that the system not be permitted to get into a rundown condition, but that it be kept in a healthy, vigorous state so that if will be prepared to better withstand the danger of influenza. The blood is the most vial force of life; therefore, it follows that upon the condition of the blood depends largely the condition of the entire system.

Every organ, nerve, muscle, tissue and sinew of the body is dependent upon the blood supply for nourishment, and as it circulates through the system pure and rich and free from all impurities, it furnishes these different members of the healthful properties needed to preserve them and enable them to perform their various duties.

So long as the blood remains free from infection, we are liable to escape disease, but any impurity in this life-giving stream acts injuriously on the system and affects the general health. Disordered blood comes from various causes, such as a sluggish condition of the circulation, imperfect bowel and kidney action, indigestion, etc., but whatever the cause the blood must be purified before the system is in such a robust condition that it is able to ward off disease. …

S. S. S., the fine old purely vegetable blood remedy, is a valuable agent in building up the system, and giving it that robust and vigorous vitality that is so essential as an aid in resisting influenza, and other dangerous ailments. A course of S. S. S. will prove to you its great efficiency, as it has in so many cases of impaired and impoverished vitality. It is sold by all druggists, and is worth many times its cost in building up and strengthening the system, and giving it a robust vigorous and healthy circulation that is so important in helping to ward off the attacks of disease.

You can obtain without cost free medical advice by writing to Chief Medical Adviser, 151 Swift Laboratory, Atlanta, Ga.

[Advertisement for “S.S.S. vegetable blood remedy.” *Note* this product is still available.]

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 08 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Post Office, Newman, Idaho (1)


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 9

Payette Enterprise., October 09, 1919, Page 4


19191009PE2Her One Precious Memory
It Was Not Dread of Influenza That Led Spinster to Dwell on Kissing Episode

The spinster waited two or three hours to be admitted to the presence of the man who visited their town once a month to retail good advice and his own proprietary medicine to the come-ons.

At last she was admitted.

“Yes, yes,” said the brusque doctor.

“I want to know if influenza can be transmitted by kissing?”

“Beyond a doubt, madam.”

“Well a man with a pronounced case of influenza kissed me.”

“So! How long ago was this?”

“Well – let’s see. I think it was about two months.”

“Why, madam! No harm can come to you now from the exposure. It is quite too late.”

“I knew it,” she sighed, “but I just love to talk about it.”

— Philadelphia Ledger

source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 09 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Newport, Idaho Ferry


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 10

Evening Capital News., October 10, 1919, Page 3


State Department Running Well Within Appropriations Members Of Cabinet Report To Governor Davis
Largest Road Program in State’s History Under Way – Receipts in Game Department Already Exceed Last Year’s Figures by $15,643 – Law Enforcement Department Lists Professional Men in State to Aid in Fighting Influenza – Deposits in State Banks Jump $9,000,000

… “The requirement of the payment of a $2 renewal fee from every professional man and woman in Idaho,” said Commissioner Jones, referring to the work of the bureau of license, “has caused considerable comment, but as the purpose of this particular law has been explained and the good results shown, the attitude has generally become very favorable.

Have Valuable List

“Under this requirement of the law, the department of law enforcement through its bureau of license, has a correct list of every professional man and woman licensed by it practicing in the state. Such a list would have been especially valuable last year in the great epidemic of influenza, and the possible recurrence of such an epidemic or outbreak of some other epidemic as bad, makes the keeping of such a list imperative.” …

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Recorder. October 10, 1919, Page 5


For The Public Welfare

Mrs. R. S. Stringfellow returned last Friday from Boise, where she attended the Northwestern Tuberculosis conference. Of her visit she writes; Delegates were in attendance from the states of Utah, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Washington, Nevada and Wyoming, and a most interesting and helpful session was held. The Idaho state medical association was meeting at the same time and a number of joint sessions were held with the medical experts addressing the delegates on topics related to the care and prevention of the great white plague. Among the doctors who addressed the meetings were Dr. Phillip Jacobs of New York, who is assistant secretary of the National Tuberculosis association; Dr. Orville W. McMichael of Chicago, a physician who has had years of experience in combating the disease; Dr. Mabel Parks, of Seattle, head of the school medical inspection board in that city; and Dr. Raymond Cary of Monrovia, Cal.

All the speakers emphasized the thought that right living is the keynote in the fight against tuberculosis, as well as other communicable diseases, such as influenza, etc. The educational work of the different health agencies is of great importance bringing the facts about healthful habits before the public forcefully. Preventive work is also of the highest value, and the public health nurse is an indispensable factor in this line of work.

Since the influenza epidemic swept this country a year ago, this public has awakened to the necessity of this health agency, and it has been almost impossible for the training schools and other agencies to keep up with the demand for trained public health nurses. A number of counties in Idaho have engaged a county health nurse, as a step in the right direction.

Public health agencies are winning full co-operation from physicians in all parts of the country, as they do not seek to supplant medical attention, bur urge people to secure proper medical advice, whenever needed. One of the slogans of the anti-tuberculosis association, is a physical examination once a year for every person, whether apparently in good health or not. This is in order to head off incipient consumption or other disease, which is likely to get a foothold in the system, unknown to the victim.

The Red Cross Seal sale in December is the means of providing funds for the state and national association to carry on their valuable work in their fight against the spread of tuberculosis. Idaho is in advance of some of the other western states, in that she has made provision, by an act of the last legislature, for the erection of two sanatoriums for the care of tuberculosis. These must be maintained by the state association, the salaries of their public health nurses must be paid, and the educational work carried on by the funds raised through the sale of the gay little Christmas stickers so much in demand at the holiday season.

Mrs. Stringfellow has been a appointed to have charge of the seal sale for Lemhi county, and has already begun the preliminary work of organization, with a view to putting the county at the head, as is usual with Lemhi in all philanthropic enterprises.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier Examiner. October 10, 1919, Page 2


19191010ME2Influenza Breaks Out Among Idaho Horses

Boise, Oct. 6. — Horse growers of Idaho are warned by Dr. J. D. Adams, director of the state animal industry bureau against possible outbreaks of influenza among horses. One such outbreak has been reported from the McCammon section. The disease affects horses much the same as humans running into pneumonia and resulting in a high rate of fatality. Horses in infected regions are being vaccinated by agents of the state department of agriculture.

The entire Hagerman valley and Lewis and Idaho counties have been quarantined for sheep scabies. The disease continues to spread over the state, its distribution being facilitated by the cold damp weather, according to Dr. Adams.

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. October 10, 1919, Page 1


High School Huskies Out
Football Practice Doesn’t Wait For Educational Work To Start

Local high school huskies have been pursuing the elusive pigskin industriously for two weeks in spite of the fact that high school has not officially opened. In order to round the team into shape, Coach French has been putting a good sized squad through their paces every afternoon, the young athletes in many instances sacrificing substantial additions to their summer earnings to devote time to football practice.

Other towns in the Boise valley have opened their high schools and football practice has been under way for at least two weeks. Several games are scheduled for Saturday. Caldwell, of course, cannot have a game until school opens and considerable practice has been given the squad. It was in order to offset as far as possible the earlier organization and practice of neighboring teams which Caldwell will meet this fall that Coach French has undertaken to lead his cohorts through strenuous exercise before school opens. …

Last year, until the influenza epidemic completely obliterated any hope for a successful season and necessitated abandonment before the work was well under way, Caldwell gave promise of cleaning up the other schools of the Boise valley. Nampa was severely drubbed in the season’s opener to the tune of 58-0 and prospects looked bright for a continuation of victories through the season. …

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Shoshone Journal. October 10, 1919, Page 1


19191010SJ2Influenza Reappears In Fourteen States
More Than 300 Cases Reported to Public Health Service; No Signs of Epidemic

More than 300 cases of influenza are reported to the public health service this week by 14 states, but the disease has not yet reached the proportions of an epidemic in any state. The service announced Saturday that the cases reported generally were of a mild type.

States reporting, and the numbers in each follow: Alabama, 20; Arkansas, 14; California, 51; Florida, 22; Georgia, 23; Kansas, 31; Kentucky, 13; Louisiana, 5; Maine, 5; Massachusetts, 62; Montana, 4; New Jersey, 20; New York, 31; Washington, 8.

Surgeon General, Rupert Blue says: “The fact that the cases are of a mild type would seem to be a hopeful sign. However, it is too early to make a forecast with any degree of certainty. The wisest thing to do is for every person to avoid contact with those affected, to keep away from crowds and crowded places, to be on the lookout for the first symptoms and when these appear to go directly to bed and summon a physician.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Marketing Sheep. Newell, Idaho


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 13

The Daily Star-Mirror., October 13, 1919, Page 1


Mexican Peons Are Being Sought
About Two Hundred Escaped From Employers In South Idaho Beet Fields

Federal immigration officers and police, sheriff and labor union men throughout the northwest are looking for about 200 Mexican peons who escaped from their employers in the sugar belt of southern Idaho and are believed to have been scattered throughout the north west. …

This is one of the results of the labor shortage during the war. The shortage of laborers in the sugar belt of southern Idaho and northern Utah was so great that the industry was threatened. Congressmen and senators from northwestern states united in a plea to the government to suspend the literary test, which would bar Mexican peons from entering the United States, in order that a lot of laborers might be brought to relieve the shortage. This was done and several thousands of the poorer class of Mexican laborers were brought to Idaho, Utah, Oregon and Washington, where the Mormon church is heavily interested in sugar production. It was agreed with the employers and the federal government that these imported laborers should be paid the same wages as had been paid for similar work done by American citizens. It was also agreed that the companies employing these Mexicans should pay their railroad fare to the place of employment and after this employment had ended they were to be returned to Mexico without expense to this government. The original contracts with these peons was for one year (1918) but the labor shortage continued and the congressmen and senators united in asking the immigration authorities to permit them to remain this year.

That the Mexicans were much disappointed in conditions is certain. They are said to have been ignorant, knowing absolutely nothing of climatic or other conditions here. They had little clothing. A government inspector, who visited their camps said: “The men had a pair of cotton breeches and a cotton shirt. That was all the clothing they needed in the warm climate of Mexico. They were attracted by what appeared to them to be enormous wages, but did not realize that they would not work more than about half of the year. Many brought all of their relatives, including even the grandparents. The railroad fare and other expenses of these was paid by the companies and it is doubtful if the Mexicans with large families ever got out of debt. A visit to their camps last winter during the influenza epidemic showed pitiable conditions. Families slept on bare floors or perhaps had one blanket and some straw under them. They had not been accustomed to cold weather and were not prepared for it. …

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 13 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Nezperce, Idaho 1911


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 14

The Daily Star-Mirror., October 14, 1919, Page 4


19191014DSM2Maybe the Next Batch of Pets Will Be Skunks

Portchester, N. Y. — It will not be possible to keep goats in tenement houses hereafter if the board of health has its way. After pigs were barred from dwellings during the influenza epidemic last fall, families adopted goats as pets. According to Sanitary Inspector Bitz, the animals are kept on second, third and even fourth floors. He suggests that they be licensed, the same as dogs.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 14 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Store, Hotel and Post Office, North Fork, Idaho (3)


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 15

Evening Capital News., October 15, 1919, Page 2



source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 15 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Haying on the O’ Ransom Ranch at Nicholia, Idaho 1911


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 16

The Grangeville Globe. October 16, 1919, Page 3


Quite Comfortable, Thank You

A comfortable widow is Mrs. Amada Jackson, colored. She is drawing three $57.50 pensions, or $172.50 a month, for the loss of three husbands during the war, and will draw that amount for 20 years. Mrs. Jones’ husband died of spinal meningitis soon after entering the service and taking out a $10,000 insurance policy. The widow married one Smith. He took a maximum life insurance policy in her favor and was killed in action. Then Mrs. Jones-Smith married Private Jackson, a returned soldier, who also named her in a $10,000 policy. Influenza made her a widow a third time in less than two years. The war risk bureau declines to make known her address, doubtless fearing that she would be inundated with offers of marriage.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 16 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., October 16, 1919, Page 7


Young and White Headed

Cheyenne, Wyo. — Sergt. J. W. Roberts, formerly of Des Moines, has white hair today, though he is not out of his twenties. Roberts was recently discharged from the army at Fort Russell. In 18 months overseas he participated in several battles and was wounded in each, receiving five rifle wounds in the legs. On top of all this he came home to find that his father, mother, wife and two children had succumbed to the influenza during the epidemic last winter. Now he is working with the Union Pacific Railroad company here as a crossing switchman.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 16 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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July 4th, Notus, Idaho 1911


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 17

Evening Capital News., October 17, 1919, Page 5


The Little News Of Boise
Brief Items For Busy Readers

Watchman Sick

William H. Stafford, a night watchman at the state capitol, is sick at his home, having collapsed while on duty Wednesday night. He was found unconscious on the floor of a corridor by Paul Davis, head of the law enforcement bureau, who called a doctor and resuscitated the stricken man. Doctor Forney says Mr. Stafford is suffering from the effects of a touch of influenza and that he will be fully recovered in a few days.

Home Service Swamped

The clerical force in the Home Service office of the Boise Red Cross is mowed under. A large share of the service rendered by the office to former soldiers and sailors is in preparing their applications for vocational training or for compensation. In the latter case duplicates of the discharge certificate must be prepared. So many casuals are consulting the office that it is getting behind with the work.Typists who can volunteer their services regularly for an hour or two each day would be a welcome assistance to the work, says Mrs. Olive Thompson, the secretary.

Health Film Shown

“The End of the Road,” a moving picture designed to aid in combating the social evil, was given a private showing at the Pinney theatre Thursday afternoon under the auspices of the state board of public welfare. Members of civic clubs, the W. C. T. U. and the Ministerial association were spectators by invitation. Dr. Ernest E. Laubaugh, head of the health bureau, introduced the film with explanatory remarks.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 17 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. October 17, 1919, Page 7


19191017CT2Influenza Outbreaks Among Horses Feared
Idaho Stock Growers Warned That Possibility Exists – McCammon Section Reports Disease

Boise – (Special) – Stock growers of Idaho are warned by Dr. J. D. Adams, director of the state bureau of animal industry against possible outbreaks of influenza among horses this winter. One such outbreak has been reported from the McCammon section. The disease affects horses much the same as humans, running into pneumonia and resulting in a high rate of fatality. Horses in infected regions are being vaccinated by agents of the state department of agriculture.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 17 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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American Falls Press. October 17, 1919, Page 5


19191017AFP2Physicians To Fight “Flu”

Boise. – An organization of 100 physicians is being perfected by J. K. White, public welfare commissioner, as a precaution against a possible recurrence of influenza in Idaho this winter. so far there has been no indication of the return of the disease, but it has reappeared in eastern cities and United States Surgeon General Rupert Blue instructed Commissioner White to be prepared.

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 17 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Nazarene Hospital, Nampa, Idaho


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 18

Evening Capital News., October 18, 1919, Page 3


19191018ECN2No “Flu” In Boise

While colds are quite prevalent and there are a few mild cases of grip, there is no influenza in Boise, according to Dr. I. J. Pond, city physician. Dr. Pond is of the opinion that there will not be an influenza epidemic this winter as the disease was widely distributed over the country last year in September and hit Boise early in October, whereas this year there have been no reports of influenza as yet.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 18 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

Further Reading

The State of Science, Microbiology, and Vaccines Circa 1918

John M. Eyler, PhD – Public Health Reports 2010 US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health


The influenza pandemic of 1918–1919 dramatically altered biomedical knowledge of the disease. At its onset, the foundation of scientific knowledge was information collected during the previous major pandemic of 1889–1890. The work of Otto Leichtenstern, first published in 1896, described the major epidemiological and pathological features of pandemic influenza and was cited extensively over the next two decades. Richard Pfeiffer announced in 1892 and 1893 that he had discovered influenza’s cause. Pfeiffer’s bacillus (Bacillus influenzae) was a major focus of attention and some controversy between 1892 and 1920. The role this organism or these organisms played in influenza dominated medical discussion during the great pandemic.

Many vaccines were developed and used during the 1918–1919 pandemic. The medical literature was full of contradictory claims of their success; there was apparently no consensus on how to judge the reported results of these vaccine trials. The result of the vaccine controversy was both a further waning of confidence in Pfeiffer’s bacillus as the agent of influenza and the emergence of an early set of criteria for valid vaccine trials.

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W. C. T. U.

Woman’s Christian Temperance Union

see: Wikipedia
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Women’s Suffrage and Temperance in Idaho

By Sarah Rounsville, Brigham Young University

1896WCTUIdaho-aIdaho Suffrage Postcard: This postcard celebrates the adoption of women’s suffrage in Idaho in 1896, making it the fourth state in the United States to do so. ~ Source: National American Woman Suffrage Association, “United Equal Suffrage States of America, Idaho [suffrage postcard] ,” Social Welfare History Image Portal source:

The fight for women’s suffrage was closely tied to the temperance movement. Many women in Idaho supported both temperance and women’s suffrage, and although some suffragettes like Abigail Scott Duniway worried that the association between the two would prompt greater opposition from men, the WCTU helped win the right to vote for women in Idaho in 1896.

In Idaho, like most states in the West, the Women’s Christian Temperance Union played an important role in the women’s suffrage movement. The WCTU advocated a variety of social reforms, such as prohibition of alcohol, for the purpose of creating a moral and clean society. Many Idaho women first became involved in the public sphere through participation in the WCTU, and later became suffragettes. The President of the Idaho Women’s Christian Temperance Union, Henrietta Skelton, encouraged local WCTU chapters in Idaho to incorporate women’s suffrage into their cause. The Idaho WCTU also helped push the territorial government to consider women’s suffrage. During Idaho’s Constitutional Convention in 1889, Henrietta Skelton gave a speech to the legislature requesting the following two clauses in the new state constitution: “No discrimination on account of sex shall be made; but citizens of both sexes, possessing the necessary qualifications, shall be equally eligible as electors;’ and “that manufacture, sale, or keeping of intoxicating liquors for use as a beverage is hereby prohibited.” For temperance activists in Idaho, women’s suffrage and prohibition were inseparable.

However, the connection of women’s suffrage to prohibition of alcohol by the WCTU created some problems. Due to this connection, liquor companies became some of the main opponents of female enfranchisement and some men viewed women’s suffrage in a negative light. When Henrietta Skelton argued for both suffrage and prohibition amendments in Idaho’s new state constitution, some suffragettes feared this would endanger the cause of women’s suffrage. One such suffragette was Abigail Scott Duniway. Abigail Scott Duniway had spent decades working for women’s suffrage in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho as a speaker and newspaperwoman, and previously spoke before Idaho’s legislature in 1887 in favor of women’s right to vote. In her autobiography, she recalled her reaction to the WCTU’s speech to the legislature: “I received a message from my Equal Suffrage co-workers in Boise, urging me to come to them at once. “The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union is spoiling everything,” the letter said. “They have arranged for a hearing before the convention, in advance of ours, asking for a clause in the new Constitution to prohibit the liquor traffic. They won’t get it, of course, but they will prohibit us from getting a Woman Suffrage plank, if you don’t come!” Duniway gave a speech to the legislature right after Skelton in which she attacked the idea that women’s suffrage and prohibition were connected and instead argued for the adoption of an independent women’s suffrage clause. Idaho did not give women the right to vote in the new state constitution, but Skelton and Duniway’s speeches reveal some of the tension in the relationship between women’s suffrage and temperance.

Despite the misgivings of Abigail Scott Duniway and other suffragettes, the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union remained an active part of the women’s suffrage movement in Idaho. The next president of the WCTU in Idaho, Rebecca Mitchell, convinced Lewis E. Workman, a Republican member of the state’s House of Representatives, to introduce another women’s suffrage bill to the legislature in 1893. Although that bill was not successful, the WCTU kept working with Idaho’s Equal Suffrage Association until women’s suffrage was successfully passed in 1896. The WCTU continued its social reform efforts with continued strength after women in Idaho won the right to vote. As public services and symbols of prohibition, they erected temperance water fountains, one of which still stands outside of Boise City Hall. In 1916, the WCTU achieved one of its main goals in Idaho when Governor Moses Alexander approved statewide prohibition.

source: Intermountain Histories

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