Idaho History June 13, 2021

Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic

Part 61

Idaho Newspaper clippings October 20-31, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 20

Evening Capital News., October 20, 1919, Page 2


Viscount Astor Is Dead At Son’s Home

London, Oct. 20. – The body of Viscount Astor, who died of heart disease Saturday was laying today in the home of his son, Waldorf Astor, in St. James Square.

Although the Viscount had been in ill health since an attack of influenza last year, his death was unexpected, it was said. He walked about the grounds as usual Friday. He died in bed Saturday morning.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 20 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main St. Looking West, Oakley, Idaho ca. 1914 (1)


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 21

The Daily Star-Mirror., October 21, 1919, Page 1


Prepare Against Return Of The Flu
Athletic Director of University of Idaho Issues Some Good Rules

“In time of peace prepare for war” is the belief of W. C. Bleamaster, athletic director, and others in charge of the health of the great student body of the University of Idaho. There is no influenza here, nor near here, but they are preparing to combat or rather to prevent it again getting a foot hold in the big school. Athletic Director Bleamaster has issued the following set of rules which people outside the university, as well as those inside, will do well to follow:

“Keeping Fit”

No doubt this winter will bring a recurrence of the Flu, and it will be well for the students and faculty to take every precaution in order to safeguard against this disease.

The study rooms, library and class rooms should be well ventilated. It should be the duty of the faculty member in charge of class rooms to see that this rule is followed. The temperature should not exceed 65 degrees F.

Keep your feed dry and warm.

Dress according to the outside weather and temperature.

Do not sit in class rooms in damp clothing or wet shoes.

Do not wear too heavy clothing indoors. Wearing sweaters indoors is one of the most common causes of “colds” among students.

Sleep with windows open.

High tight collars and neck bands induce congestion and sore throat.

Be regular in your habits; eat slowly; masticate thoroughly; avoid an excess of protein diet; do not eat between meals; avoid an excess of candy.

Do not eat cold lunches during the winter months; get warm food at noon hour, if only a plate of soup.

Practically every cold is preceded by constipated bowels or torpid liver.

Drink plenty of water between meals and breath deeply of fresh air.

Lack of proper physical exercise and over eating create favorable conditions for colds.

Avoid draughts [sic] when fatigued.

Prevent sudden chilling of body after exercise.

Anxiety, worry, dissipation, or excess of any kind lowers the vitality and decreases the resistive power.

All “colds” are more or less contagious.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 21 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., October 21, 1919, Page 3

City News

Mr. and Mrs. G. R. Beckman and Mrs. Roy Holman and son, Royal, returned last evening from a motoring trip to Spokane. Mrs. Holman visited with Mrs. J. Crerar, who with her daughters are living in Spokane since the death of Mr. Crerar last winter in Montana of influenza. Mr. and Mrs. Crerar were former residents of Moscow.

(ibid, page 3)
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Orofino, Idaho


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 23

Evening Capital News., October 23, 1919, Page 1


Legislature Will Lose 13 Members; New Basis Needed
Light Vote at Last Election Works Against Several Counties in Computation House Membership

Reapportionment of the basis of representation in the legislature is being discussed as a probably consideration of a special session of the legislature should Governor Davis call a session for ratification of the national woman suffrage amendment.

Thirteen counties will lose a representative in the house of representatives of the next state legislature as the result of the light vote cast at the last election and failure of the last legislature to make a reapportionment. The representation is based upon the total vote cast for candidates for governor. For each 2,500 or fraction exceeding 1,000 votes a county is allowed one member of the house.

Vote Very Light

Because of the influenza epidemic the vote was extremely light last election and every county that had more than one representative on the basis of the former election will have one …

(Continued on Page Two)

less in the next legislature than at the last session, with the exception of Twin Falls county, which mustered enough votes to maintain its representation of three members.

This will result in a membership of 54 in the next house. The membership of the house at the last session was 64. Three new counties were created, each of which will have a representative. One senator is allowed each county, making a membership in the next senate of 44.

Not Affect Extra Session

Should the special session be called the same members and officials would serve as served last winter.

Counties which will lose a representative unless a new apportionment basis is made and the membership each will have in the house are as follows: Ada, 4; Bannock, 2; Bingham, 1; Bonner, 1; Bonneville, 1; Canyon, 2; Fremont, 1; Idaho, 1; Kootenai, 2; Latah, 2; Nez Perce, 1; Shoshone, 2; Washington, 1. The other counties excepting Twin Falls with 3, and including the new ones – Caribou, Clark and Jerome – will each have one representative.

Failed Reapportion

A bill was introduced in the house and passed at the last session making the basis each 1,500 votes and fraction over 800 to the representative which would have left the membership the same for each of the counties affected by the light vote at the last election, but the measure failed to pass the senate.

It is recognized by all the state officials that should the special session be called the matters to come before it must be narrowed to the smallest possible limit – not more than one item if possible. The members will be asked to come at their own expense. The principal purpose would be to ratify the national woman suffrage amendment. It would take a two-thirds vote to do this.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 23 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Wallace Miner. October 23, 1919, Page 1


19191023WM2Precautions Against Flu

Dr. J. R. Bean, county health officer, speaking for himself and the health officers of Wallace and Kellogg, spoke upon the probable recurrence of influenza and the necessity of taking precautions now to prevent it. He read the suggestions prepared by the health officers covering prevention and treatment of the malady and strongly urged all members of the board of trade to cooperate with the health authorities in their efforts to avoid another flu epidemic. Dr. Bean also stated that the physicians of the county were agreed that vaccination to prevent flu was desirable; that while it did not always prevent contracting the disease it rendered it less virulent, and statistics show that few cases result fatally after vaccination. Physicians of the county are now supplied with the serum. Those who feel unable to pay the expense will be served free by the city and county health officers.

source: The Wallace Miner. (Wallace, Idaho), 23 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Wallace Miner. October 23, 1919, Page 2

[Editorial Page]

Might As Well Die

(Cincinnati Enquirer)

Reading what to do and what not to do in order to escape the influenza and other troubles tends to produce a mental condition of hopeless perplexity. It isn’t much use trying to live any more. What with the biologists the bacteriologists, the chemists, the prohibitionists and the rest of the alleged scientific outfit making their never-ending investigations, we’re hard put to it to know which way and how to dodge our multiplying enemies.

We’ve listened to and heeded the slogans of “swat the fly” and “bust the mosquito”‘ we’ve cut out all the best foods, and have been coerced into cutting out all the best drinks; we’ve learned to drink our water boiled and filtered, and we avoid close physical contact with even our best friends for fear of acquiring influenza or other pestilential microbes.

Now comes a doctor person who insists that even our freshly laundered handkerchiefs are alive, swarming with microbes which are eager and willing to infest us to our lasting injury.

Well, if we have reached the point where we can neither eat nor drink, nor wear our clothing without danger, and must in addition blow our proboscides or sneeze into a piece of absorbent cotton, as the doctor insists we must do, we might as well die.

Use absorbent cotton for such purpose? Perish the thought! Welcome, ye microbes! We’ll never adopt any such unaesthetic common, low-down habit as that. Who’d want to wave a bunch of absorbent cotton at his sweetheart or his wife? Why, the very mashers would refuse to flirt with such an unpoetic substitute for the ancient and sentimental handkerchief.

(ibid, page 2)
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The Filer Record., October 23, 1919, Page 11


Boschees’ Syrup

In these days of unsettled weather look out for colds. Take every precaution against the dreaded influenza and at the first sneeze remember that Boschees’ Syrup has been used for fifty-three years in all parts of the United States for coughs, bronchitis and colds, throat irritation and especially for lung troubles, giving the patient a good night’s rest, free from coughing, with easy expectoration in the morning. Made in America and kept as a household panacea in the homes of thousands of families all over the civilized world. Try one bottle and accept no substitutes.

– Adv.

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 23 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., October 23, 1919, Page 1


Epidemic of Hiccoughs

San Francisco. – San Francisco newspapers have given space recently to a discussion among medical men here as to the cause of a local epidemic of hiccoughs.

Some physicians attributed it to the too emphatic “kick” in substitutes for liquor and others said the paroxysms were caused by an “attenuated influenza germ.”

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 23 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Oreana, Idaho


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 24

Cottonwood Chronicle. October 24, 1919, Page 5


Your Red Cross Calls Roll Armistice Week
Membership Rather Than Money Is Asked to Complete War Relief

19191024CC2Red Cross Chapters, branches and auxiliaries in the Northwestern Division, comprising Alaska, Idaho, Oregon and Washington, will participate in the Third Red Cross Roll Call November 2 to November 11, Armistice Day. The American Red Cross, the greatest relief organization in recorded history, the mobilized heart-action of the American people,” will engage in no more “drives” for huge sums for war relief, but will continue its annual roll-call, which is simply the occasion on which the American people express their belief in the ideals and work of the Red Cross by enrolling as members. “All you need is a heart and a dollar.”

For five reasons, say the leaders of the Red Cross, this Third Red Cross Roll Call should enroll every loyal and public spirited American citizen among the millions of members of the organization that served our boys at home and overseas, saved the morale of France and Italy in our early days in the war, relieved the millions of refugees, fed the starving babies of Europe, saved whole nations from extermination, stood as next friend to those families in America whose dear ones were in the service, threw its tremendous resources into the fight against influenza, dealt with great national disasters of flood and fire, and now carries on to do its part to serve America and to make the war worth having been won.

These five reasons are:

1. The War Task of the Red Cross is Not Yet Fully Performed.

To men still in service, and to their families at home, to discharged soldiers not yet fully adjusted to the routine of civilian life, to 30,000 boys suffering or convalescing in Military or Naval hospitals, the American people still give cheer, comfort and service through their Red Cross.

In certain portions of the Old World the American Red Cross still feeds and clothes the undernourished and ragged babies, cares for the aged and the infirm, and assists the people of these disease-ridden, famine-stricken, war-ravaged countries to organize their own resources. Since the signing of the Armistice, this work has steadily declined but is not by any means fully completed.

2. The Rec Cross is the Disaster Relief Agent of the American People.

The speed and efficiency with which the Red Cross met emergency needs at Corpus Christi illustrated the value of nationwide Red Cross organization. In case of disaster, whether it be forest fire in the Northwest or a great Mississippi Valley flood, the first effective relief will hereafter come from nearby communities, working through their Red Cross Chapters.

3. In Case of Epidemic Local Red Cross Organization is Indispensable.

During the influenza epidemic, Red Cross action and co-operation saved three thousand lives, because the Red Cross was fully organized in every community in the United States. Against a possible recurrence of influenza this winter and against a danger of epidemic in the future, continued universal membership in the Red Cross is essential.

4. Red Cross peace program Calls For Universal Support and Co-operation.

The American Red Cross is still an emergency organization. It must be realized that there is such a thing as a continuing disaster. 300,000 babies under one year of age die every year because of ignorance; thousands of mothers die unnecessarily in child-birth; it is still possible for an epidemic like the influenza to take a toll within a compass of a few weeks five times greater than the losses of our nation in a year and a half of war; hundreds of thousands of people in the prime of life die in the United States every year from wholly preventable diseases. This is nothing short of a disaster which is a continuing one and will be permanent unless the people co-operate with one another to use the knowledge and wealth already in existence to bring the nation into a better day. The Red Cross through its millions of members comprising every element in every community, many of them themselves victims of the foes that cut short human life and rob it of its sweetness, can serve nation and community as can no other agency in supplementing, rein forcing, and supporting well-directed efforts for the conservation of the most precious things in the world, human life and happiness.

5. American Has Set the pace in a World Red Cross Movement

The League of Red Cross Societies of all nations has been formed through the inspiration of the Red Cross achievement of the United States. This League has no executive power whatever over the Red Cross of any nation, but will extend into every nation the benefits of a national, voluntary Red Cross society on the American model, to deal with problems of health and child welfare and to cope with the relief problems that are so pressing over so great a part of the earth’s surface. through these organizations many nations will meet their own problems which would otherwise be appealing to America for relief and assistance. The United States, whose people have shown the world how thus to rise out of despair into hope, must keep the Red Cross banner floating high. The success of failure of this great world movement of practical idealism will depend largely upon the manner in which the American people answer the Third Red Cross Roll Call.

19191024CC3The Red Cross Button is the most widely worn button in the world. Thirty million men and women and children in the United States now wear this emblem of countless good deeds accomplished. For the third year in America comes universal opportunity to wear it.

There are many instances of how this button, bearing upon a white background a tiny cross, has been worn and treasured. One morning in a distant northwest county, a man whose ruddy, optimistic countenance was clothed with ruddy beard, asked the Red Cross chairman if he had another button like the one he wore. The chairman gave him his own. “I have twelve children,” explained the man. “I gave my button to the twelfth, a new arrival, this morning. When I have anything good the whole family must come in on it.”
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19191024CC4— —

Red Cross Girls Feed Thousands of Doughboys

Since the armistice, twenty-five canteens, operated by Red Cross Chapters in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington have dispensed 23,379 gallons of coffee, and 224,236 dozen sandwiches, to soldiers, sailors, and marines en route. The hospitality of these canteens was accepted nine hundred thousand times, often by men who would have gone hungry but for the Red Cross service thus rendered. Figures show that these men, though the courtesy of the Red Cross, drank 8,497 gallons of iced drinks; used 6,663 bars of soap, and 37,713 paper towels; ate 57,491 chocolate bars, 16,629 pounds of candy, 14,754 dozen cookies, 74,913 dozen doughnuts, 9,488 dozen hot rolls; wrote 436,400 post cards furnished and stamped by the Red Cross; and to their own discomfort during a certain period, wore 12,250 influenza masks. All this, to say nothing of 22,956 full meals.

During this time 1847 sick men were aided by the canteen, seventy-nine of them being removed from trains as too sick to travel, and receiving immediate hospital attention.

Canteen work is nearly over, but the Red Cross still has vitally important work to do. Every membership in the Third Red Cross Roll Call will be a vote of confidence in the American Red Cross.
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“It’s a Long Way to Tipperary,” but the Red Cross is there.
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At the present time in the Northwestern Division alone – comprising Alaska, Idaho, Oregon and Washington – there are 750,868 Red Cross members. Alaska has 13,562; Idaho, 103,055; Oregon, 263,614; Washington, 390,637.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 24 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. October 24, 1919, Page 5



source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 24 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Meridian Times., October 24, 1919, Page 3


Inland Northwest

Influenza is showing a slight increase in Montana, according to reports received by Dr. John J. [?]ppy, state epidemiologist, nineteen new cases coming to the attention of his office during the past week, compared with ten the week previous.

The state board of pharmacy and the state board of health are to unite in a campaign against the drug evil in Montana.
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19191024MT219191024MT3Relief Ship Held Up By Arctic Ice
Attempt to Reach Mission in Northernmost Alaska Again Fails.
Reach Within 69 Miles
Dr. Marquis Brings Back Pitiful Tales of the Havoc Wrought by Influenza – Whole Villages Are Wiped Out

Newport. – Turned back by an impenetrable ice-field within 69 miles of his goal, Dr. John A. Marquis, general secretary of the board of home missions of the Presbyterian church of the United States, was forced to return to New York without reaching his destination at Point Barrow, Alaska, the northernmost mission in the world operated by the Presbyterian church.

Dr. Marquis left New York June 23 and sailed from Seattle July 7 to Nome, where he boarded the United States coast guard service steamer Bear, to reach Point Barrow, but for the second time within two years this doughty little craft with its hardy crew was unable to buck the terrific ice jam of the arctic. For eight days the sturdy boat battled, but finally on August 15 it was forced to turn back. The supplies for Point Barrow were unloaded at Point Hope, 350 miles south of that town. From here it is expected that sledges will be able to carry some of them to the needy people at Point Barrow.

“Last year,” says Dr. Marquis, “the Bear was able to get within 25 miles of Point Barrow, but the steady winds this year had forced the ice masses down farther south than they had been for years.

Ice at Latitude 70 1/2

“Massive fields of ice were reached when we were at latitude 70 1/2 degrees, Captain P. H. Uberroth, U. S. N., in charge of the Bear, declared the ice was the worst known since 1826.”

Dr. Marquis went to Alaska to see about the appeal from the people there for the erection of a hospital at Point Barrow and also to study the opportunities for Presbyterian mission and school work generally in Alaska, particularly since the influenza epidemic last year wrought such havoc. He returns with interesting stories of the work and with pitiful tales of the terrible havoc wrought by the “flu,” which in sections wiped out whole villages.

On leaving Seattle July 7, Dr. Marquis took passage to the Aleutian islands and thence to Nome. At Nome passage was taken on the Bear and for six weeks Dr. Marquis was on this government vessel. From Nome Dr. Marquis went to St. Lawrence Islands and thence to Siberia. Leaving Siberia, the next stop was at the Diamede islands, and then to Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point of the American continent, about four hours west of Seattle.

Upon this trip the vessel’s coal supply ran low and the Bear had to put back from Cape Prince of Wales to Nome for recoaling. Leaving Nome the vessel began its journey to Point Barrow. Kotzebue sound was entered and stop was made at the village, where the Society of Friends had excellent missions, and then the Bear went north to Kivalina, where no mission fields are established, but which a few missionaries visit at intervals. From this point Dr. Marquis went to Point Hope, which until recently was one of the most famous whaling stations in the arctic regions. From there the great but futile attempt northward was made toward Point Barrow.

Dr. Marquis on his return trip gave special study to the conditions as left by the influenza epidemic. As a result he bring back with him pitiful stories of the terrible ravages wrought by the epidemic among the Eskimos.

Whole Villages Wiped Out

In Nome alone, says Dr. Marquis, over 50 per cent of the Eskimo population was wiped out almost overnight, and in other sections of the country whole villages of igloos were swept away. In one town of 300 only thirteen adults were left alive, and small villages of twenty igloos or so with all inhabitants frozen stiff. In one case one little girl and a baby were found alive in a village. This child had kept herself from freezing to death by remaining wrapped up in bed with the baby beside her. The condensed milk which sustained her life she also took to bed with her. There had been no fire in the villages for days and the temperature was 50 [?[ degrees below zero.

According to Dr. Marquis, the Eskimos showed practically no resistance to influenza and went down almost without a fight. Among the foreigners the mortality was about the same as in similar communities in the United States.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 24 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Street Scene, Parma, Idaho ca. 1914 (1)


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 28

Evening Capital News., October 28, 1919, Page 8


Chest Colds, Coughs and Sore Throat Go Over Night
Begy’s Mustarine Is Better Than Liniments, Plasters, Poultices or Hot Water Bottles – Does the Work in Half the Time

19191028ECN2Remember the terrible Influenza Epidemic last year.

The demand for Begy’s Mustarine was so enormous, that stocks in retail stores and wholesale warehouses disappeared with amazing speed.

Get a box now – or two boxes, you can’t tell what will happen.

But just as soon as your throat gets sore or you feel that tightening in the chest, Rub on Begy’s Mustarine, for nothing on this earth will subdue inflammation, and prevent congestion, quicker than this great and first improvement on the old fashioned Mustard plaster.

It’s the quickest pain killer known, so be sure when you even suspect pleurisy, bronchitis or tonsillitis, to use it freely.

It won’t blister not even the tenderest skin – it can not blister.

But it’s hot stuff, and contains more concentrated non-blistering heat, than any other counter-irritant in existence.

That’s why it goes right after pains and aches, soreness and swellings, no matter where located and ends all the misery and distress so quickly, that sufferers are joyfully astonished.

Use Begy’s Mustarine always in the yellow box, to ease the pain of rheumatism and gout.

Just rub it on for a lame muscle, sore feet, stiff neck, cramps in the leg, sprains and strains.

Get out the box promptly when you have neuralgia, neuritis, lumbago, backache, headache, earache, toothache, or any ache anywhere.

Be sure it’s Begy’s Mustarine – made of real yellow mustard and other pain-destroying ingredients. Druggists announce return of money if it doesn’t do as advertised. One box equals 50 blistering Mustard plasters.

S. C. Wells & Co., LeRoy, N. Y.


source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 28 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. October 28, 1919, Page 1


May Organize Chapter Here
Red Cross Meeting To Be Held Thursday Evening At The K. P. Hall
Red Cross Workers Interested
Big Membership Drive Scheduled for Week of November 2 to 11

Is the Bonners Ferry auxiliary of the American Red Cross to be disbanded and are the people of Boundary county to no longer participate in Red Cross work except what may be done by the home service branch or shall an independent chapter be organized in this county in which every citizen shall have a membership and a voice in its management?

These questions will be answered once for all at a meeting to be held at the K. P. hall on Thursday night of this week at eight o’clock when Mrs. Burns, of Seattle, Wash., will be present to give a short address and to assist in any organization plans. Mrs. Burns is an excellent speaker and she will tell the people of this county who attend the meeting of the future plans of the American Red Cross organization.

The officers of the Bonners Ferry auxiliary and prominent Red Cross workers are all anxious to see an independent chapter organized in this county but no attempt will be made in this line unless there is assurance that a large majority of citizens will take an active part in the work of the chapter. It is therefore hoped that a large crowd of people interested in Red Cross work will be out Thursday night. A program will be rendered in addition to the speaking and the business session.

Officers of the Red Cross auxiliary have been advised that if a chapter is organized here that all monies that have been paid by the Bonners Ferry auxiliary to the Sandpoint chapter in the way of membership fees will be returned here.

The third annual Red Cross Roll Call drive will be made in this country the week of November 2 to 11 under the direction of Mrs. L. N. Brown, who has been named chairman of the drive. Mrs. Brown will name an executive committee today and will meet with it at once to make appointments of the district chairman and arrange for a thorough canvass of the county for Red Cross memberships. This year only adult memberships will be solicited and the object of the drive in this county will be to secure 1000 members for the Red Cross. Last year the number of members secured was a little below this mark.

Booths will be established at the postoffice and in several of the stores of the city during the drive week and the ladies in charge of these booths will receive renewals and new memberships in the Red Cross.

Headquarters for the drive for the week of November 2 to 11 will be at the Commercial Hotel lobby.

The Red Cross has nothing to give but service in its after-the-war program.

First, the Red Cross is going to complete its war program one hundred per cent. This includes help to soldiers and sailors and their families. In a single month the Red Cross home service has helped 466,031 families of American soldiers and up to July 1st, 1919, the total of 800,000 district families had received service of various kinds.

The Red Cross has assumed responsibilities in Europe which must be carried through. Especially in Eastern Europe the aim of the Red Cross is to aid these peoples to get on their feet and shoulder their own burdens. The Red Cross cannot and will not leave babies and mothers to die when the tragedy can be prevented. This does not mean the pouring of money and supplies into stricken Europe, but the establishment of organizations with the proper training and equipment to meet the needs that exist over there.

Second, the Red Cross is to be the permanent disaster relief agent of the United States. It now has fifty units spread throughout the country ready to give relief at a moment’s notice.

Third, the Red Cross is now making plans for the building up of the vitality of the country. The objective is to prevent and cure disease and stop needless death.

Fourth, the Red Cross is the most effective agency for fighting epidemics like the influenza. A course in home nursing is now prepared and ready to be taught in each community. To a certain extend this will enable the people to take care of themselves, but should the need arise the local and national organizations are ready to step in and do whatever is necessary.

Fifth, to show the world that the Red Cross has not only started the greatest humanitarian movement that the history of civilization has ever seen but that it is going through with it in a one hundred per cent finish.

There is a provision in the League of Nations, assented to by all powers, that the Red Cross organizations of the different nations are the most effective means of building up the health of the world. This means that the consensus of opinion of the great powers is simply this; The Red Cross must not only go on but it should and must become a permanent organization. if the Red Cross is worth while, then it is worth while to become a member and if it is worth while to become a member then join in the Roll Call, November 2 to 11th.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 28 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Paul, Idaho


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 30

The Wallace Miner. October 30, 1919, Page 6


Major Quigley Tells Board Of Influenza In The Army

At the weekly luncheon of the board of trade last Monday …

Major Quigley Talks

Dr. F. I. Quigley, major in the medical corps of the United States army during the great war, gave a brief address narrating his experience and observations in connection with handling the influenza in the army. From the time he completed his training at Fort Oglethorpe, Major Quigley was in command of base hospitals both in this country and in France, and his description of how the medical corps of the American army handled not only the flu, but every other emergency in the service aroused much interest. The hospital equipment and facilities provided for the army in France were a revelation to the allies and were the subject of continuous investigation by representatives of foreign medical army officers. Major Quigley’s address was instructive and interesting both from the standpoint of handling the flu and in giving his hearers an insight to the marvelous provision made by Uncle Sam for the care of sick and wounded. …

source: The Wallace Miner. (Wallace, Idaho), 30 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Emmett Index. October 30, 1919, Page 8

19191030EI119191030EI2Bares Secrets Of Sleep Sickness
Chicago Man Recovers and Tells His Experiences
Symptoms Of The Malady
Persistent Series of Illusions During Periods of Wakefulness One of the Peculiarities of Disease – Beach, Flowers, Castles and Sea Mark Six Months’ Visions of Chicago Legislator – Under Sleep Spell

After hovering under death’s wing for more than six months as a victim of sleeping sickness, former Alderman Theodore K. Long, now a member of the Illinois legislature, returned to Chicago from Battle Creek, Mich., and told for the first time the symptoms of the strange malady.

“Less than 10 per cent of those who contract sleeping sickness live to tell their experience,” he said.

The principal symptom of sleeping sickness he described as a persistent series of illusions during periods of wakefulness.

Beaches – Chimes – Flowers

“I imagined I was at the seaside, and could see hundreds of men and women in bathing,” he continued. “Of course, I had other illusions, but beach scenes predominated.

“Sometimes I could hear the ringing of what seemed a million cathedral chimes.

“Again, I saw wonderful examples of architecture, castles, battlements.

“Sometimes I wondered through fields of flowers, but, curiously, they had no perfume.

“And no matter what I saw, I could always hear the sound of the surf as it broke against the shore, and sooner or later I found myself on the beach again.

“In Springfield about seven months ago, while I was engaged in legislative work, I first noticed my health was not normal.

“I suffered from an intolerable languor.

Under a Spell of Sleep

“Try as I would I could not resist the desire to go to sleep.

“I would be compelled to go to bed at any time of day the spells struck me, and I would sleep from 12 to 14 hours.

“When I awoke I would not be rested, but felt as though I had done a hard day’s work.

“Finally I was compelled to give up my official duties and come to Chicago. I went to St. Luke’s hospital, where my case proved a riddle to attending physicians.

“Finally it was diagnosed as encephalitis, or African sleeping sickness and I was confined to bed for 14 weeks. It is a direct effect of influenza, and I have no doubt the germs spread by the tsetse fly of Africa in some manner have found their way to this country.

“After suffering from influenza, the body is especially subject to attack by the sleeping sickness germ.”

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 30 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Nezperce Herald., October 30, 1919, Page 7


One Year Ago Today

Over Here

The influenza epidemic had just passed its crest. Fifteen citizens of this community had passed into eternity. The hospital had held as many as 57 patients at one time; hundreds of others were sick at their homes. Less than a half dozen families in the community were unaffected by the plague.

In such a time who came to our aid? Who sent doctors and nurses? Who instituted our hospital and furnished equipment? Who saved many lives?


Over There

The great war was drawing to a close. Our boys were driving back the Hun in France and Belgium. The hours of terror and anguish were almost over. Four of Nezperce’s bravest sons had died on the battlefield; many others were lying in hospitals.

Who cared for our boys in hospitals and prison camps? Who supplied the necessities of life to the people of devastated Europe? Who helped millions of war’s victims? Who earned the name of the “Greatest Mother in the World?”

It Is an Honor to Become a Red Cross Member
Is Is the Privilege of Every American
All You Need is $1; You Have a Heart

This Space Contributed by Nezperce Trading Company

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 30 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Payette, Idaho ca. 1916


Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 31

The Idaho Recorder. October 31, 1919, Page 1


Idaho Planning Extra Session

The prospects of the fifteenth Idaho legislature being called in extra session to ratify the woman’s suffrage amendment has stirred great interest in Idaho’s political circles. Under Governor Davis’s plan it would be an inexpensive session to the state, because members would not only pay their own way to Boise to attend, but they would agree not to accept the per diem wage of $5. The only expense that would be attached to the session would be rental of a public building in which the legislators could meet and the hire of such clerical forces as would be necessary.

The pioneer legislative halls of this state, in which many battles were fought, important legislation was passed and exciting scenes enacted, are no more. That building in which they were located has been torn down to make way for the wings of the new capitol. The state is therefore without legislative halls and would have to secure a public auditorium in which to convene the session extraordinary.

Deemed Important

Governor Davis believes that ratification of the Susan B Anthony amendment is of sufficient importance to call the legislators together, if they will agree to come without pay. If they should not agree to this, there will be no special session. There is a general movement under way to get most of the western states to hold sessions extraordinary for one day merely to give formal approval of the amendment.

Governor Stephens of California is really responsible for the plan, although Governor Davis said he has had it under consideration for some time. The proposal to convene the Idaho legislature, while not at all definite, will pave the way for an expression from the people. If there is no serious objection, and there does not appear to be any, the legislature will likely meet here some time in November

So far as Idaho is concerned, woman suffrage ceased to be an issue in this state long ago. Shortly after the state was admitted into the union the right of franchise was given to women for the past twenty or more years they have voted.

During the fight before congress to pass the Susan B. Anthony amendment an attempt was made by national suffrage leaders to divide the women of the state in their support of Senator William E. Borah, whom they bitterly attacked because of his stand that woman suffrage was a state issue and not a national one and that therefore he opposed the amendment.

They succeeded in dividing the women to some extent, but they failed to affect the vote of the senior senator, for he led the Republican ticket at the last election.

Unusual Situation

It is proposed that in the event the legislature is convened in extra session there be incorporated in the call a provision authorizing the members to pass an apportionment bill that will straighten out representation by counties for the legislature that meets in 1920. The last legislature failed to pass an apportionment bill, with the result that the legislature apportionment is left on the same basis that it was two years ago.

This means that representation in the house of representatives will be reduced at least ten votes, giving the lower assembly fifty-four members to forty-four in the senate, whereas in the last session it had sixty-four members.

The reason for this situation is the influenza situation a year ago, which kept thousands of voters away from the polls. The last reapportionment law provides that there hall be one representative in the house for every 2500 votes cast at the preceding general election and one representative for every fraction of 1000 or over. The shrinkage in the vote reduced the fractions, with the result that many counties which had more than 1000 votes but not 2500, find that on the last returns they had less than 1000.

Forgotten in Senate

The house realized that this situation was serious and rafted and passed a reapportionment bill. When it reached the senate, however, it was put away by some committee and forgotten. The legislature adjourned without making the apportionment. This does not affect the present legislature which will be called in extra session, but it does affect the legislature to be elected in 1920.

Counties which lost a representative unless a new apportionment is made and the apportionment they have in the next regular session of the legislature are; Ada, four; Bannock, four; Bingham, one; Bonner, one; Bonneville, one; Canyon, two; Fremont, one; Idaho, one; Kootenia, two; Latah, two; Nez Perce, one; Shoshone, two; Washington, one. The other counties, excepting Twin Falls with three, not including the new ones – Caribou, Clark and Jerome – will each have one representative.

These counties which are credited with four had five, those with two had three and those with one had two, and it is one of the objects of the proposed reapportionment to place them on that basis of representation.

Passes in House

The bill that was introduced in the house and passed during the last session, but failed in the senate, which proposed to give each county one representative for every 2500 votes, and in the event of a fraction of 800 or over, another representative. While the failure to pass the bill will cause the loss of thirteen representatives to as many counties, representation in the house is only reduced ten, because the three new counties created are each entitled to a representative and one senator.

Because of the rapid increase in counties in this state during the past ten years, the senate is almost as large as the house of representatives, in so far as numbers are concerned. Each county under the law is entitled to one senator and there are now forty-four counties.
— —

Call To Duty In Supporting The Red Cross Organization

Frank H. Havemaun, Chairman of Third Red Cross Roll Call, Salmon, Idaho.

Dear Sir: As war time division manager and as chairman of the advisory committee of the northwestern division of the American Red Cross, I wish to express to you personally my appreciation of the work you are doing to make the Third Red Cross Roll Call a success in the Lemhi county chapter.

The United States will lose many of the benefits of winning the war if the American Red Cross does not continue in every community with practically universal membership.

The war revealed conditions seriously affecting the public health and vitality. The Red Cross is the only organization big enough to take the lead in improving these conditions. In case the Influenza epidemic occurs, the cooperation of a fully organized American Red Cross will save hundreds of thousands of lives, some of them in your community, that will otherwise be sacrificed. Remember, the epidemic last year took five times as many lives as we lost in a year and a half of war.

Universal Red Cross membership will continue to save lives and relieve suffering after every great disaster, like the one at Corpus Christi, and will make special collections of funds as such times make necessary.

Other nations, inspired by our example, are organizing Red Cross societies to meet their own problems of relief, disease and disaster, so that they can stand on their own feet without constant appears to Americans. They will be watching the success of the Roll Call to see whether such an organization can endure in times of peace.

Everybody wants to join the Red Cross, the greatest of all welfare organizations and the only one that finances a great peace-time program wholly from the proceeds of membership at one dollar each. The success of the Roll Call in your chapter depends entirely upon the completeness of your organization and your publicity. I wish you the fullest measure of success.

Sincerely yours, C. O. Stimson.
— —

Red Cross Friends Line Up November 4

The Red Cross Roll Call will come along next Tuesday afternoon at 2 o’clock on Main street. Early in the afternoon the bugle call will be sounded to remind all citizens to assemble at the appointed place ready to respond to the call of names. After the enrollment all 1920 members will be admitted free to the Grand theater where a Red Cross film will be shown.
— —

There’s no disaster too big for Red Cross relief.
— —

Carrying Millinery Style Down The River To Lewiston

A young matron of Salmon, who is a leader in fashion particularly with reference to the smart hats she wears, was bereft of her bonnet the other day when her automobile went dashing over the Salmon river bridge. The beautiful hat was lost even before its wearer had worn it two days, but it nodded its plumes over the waves just as proudly as if worn on the pretty head of its owner, the envy of all beholders on the shore all the way down to Lewiston as a missionary of fashion in all the benighted regions below.
— —

Stage on Winter Schedule

The Salmon-Leesburg-Forney stages began the winter schedule on Tuesday last and yesterday’s trip marked the beginning and use of bob-sleds on the Leesburg summit. Manager Ferrill Terry reported Wednesday on the way home he encountered two feet of snow, which indicates the necessity of winter-time means of getting through.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 31 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Cottonwood Chronicle. October 31, 1919, Page 1


Has Membership Of 8769

The annual report of the officers of Lewiston chapter of the American Red Cross shows that the membership of the chapter, comprising Nez Perce, Idaho and Lewis county is no 8769. Idaho county has 2795, Lewis 1795, and Nez Perce county 4179. During the influenza epidemic of a year ago the chapter expended over $8000 in relief work in the three counties. Several hospitals were maintained and trained nurses secured from Coast points to aid the stricken communities. The grand total of articles manufactured by the women of the chapter, including garments, hospital supplies and surgical dressings is 128,429. The canteen department reports that 1265 returned soldiers and sailors were served with lunches at the depot.

The junior Red Cross has 86 auxiliaries and 2664 members in the three counties.

Cottonwood is an auxiliary of the Lewiston Chapter to which all articles made by the Red Cross workers here were sent.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 31 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Meridian Times., October 31, 1919, Page 1


Charley Onwiler Has Serious Accident

Charley Onwiler met with a serious accident Sunday morning at his ranch just east of Meridian. He was nailing a board when a rusty nail hit his left eye with force enough to cut a deep gash in the eye ball, one-fourth of an inch in length. A delicate job of surgery was performed at a Boise hospital in sewing up the injured member, and the doctor has hopes of saving the sight of the eye, although it is doubtful. It may be necessary to remove the eye to save a sympathetic effect on the other, but Charley’s many friends hope that this will not be done. How the wound heals will determine the future action in the matter.

Charley is an optimistic sort of a fellow but his bad luck this year is a little more than his share. He had the appendicitis and the flu, but we know Charley pretty well and think his grit and energy will carry him through all right.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 31 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

Further Reading

Dr. A. Boschee’s Syrup of Tar and Wild Cherry


The indications or uses for this product as provided on its packaging:

For coughs due to colds, soothes throat, promotes expectoration

Physical Description

alcohol 1.75% per fluid oz. (drug active ingredients)
morphine sulp. 24/100 grain per fluid oz. (drug active ingredients)

source: National Museum of American History
— — — — — — — — — —

Smearing the Mustard on the Skin

By Roger M. Grace Thursday, March 3, 2005 Metropolitan News-Enterprise

Etched on a clay tablet in cuneiform (picture writing) is this medical advice from ancient Sumer (now Southern Iraq):

“Sift and knead together, all in one turtle-shell, the sprouting naga plant and mustard; wash the sick spot with quality beer and hot water; scrub the sick spot with all of the kneaded mixture.”

Dated at around 2100 B.C., the tablet is said to contain the world’s oldest known prescription.

Through the succeeding centuries, mustard came to be utilized for medicinal purposes in a variety of forms. Among them were mustard plasters, mustard poultices, and mustard baths, already discussed here. Add to the list mustard-based liniment (liquid or semi-liquid applied to the skin to relieve pain or as a counterirritant), mustard salve (greasy gook applied to sores and wounds) and mustard ointment (salve spread on the skin).

Such mustard-based agents were used by the Greeks and Romans to counteract a variety of maladies. They were employed by American Indians to treat rheumatism. Mustard-based preparations were marketed in Europe and were imported by colonists in the New World.

Makers of mustard-based preparations ascribed versatility to their products. An ad in the Edinburgh (Scotland) Weekly Journal on June 3, 1801, for example, represented that Whitehead’s Essence of Mustard “has frequently succeeded in curing the most desperate Cases of Rheumatism, Rheumatic Gout, Lumbago, Sciatica, Head-ach, Numbness, Palsy, and Complaints of the Stomach, after the best advice and every other Medicine has failed.” …

Bufferin, introduced Nov. 7, 1949, was touted as an advancement over regular aspirin because its buffering agents precluded stomach upset. Likewise, rub-on compounds containing mustard and buffering ingredients were heralded four decades or so earlier as modern replacements for mustard plasters because they eliminated blistering.

Taking major credit for buffered mustard was a New Yorker. Typical of his ads was one in the March 26, 1910 edition of the Newark (N.J.) Advocate which said:

“The man who put mustard plasters out of business had to invent something better, for mustard plasters have been used for aches, pains and other afflictions for scores of years and have given relief to millions.

mustarine-a“But when J. A. Begy, the well known chemist, of Rochester, N.Y. compounded, after years of experiment, a preparation which he named Begy’s Mustarine, he gave to the world something so much quicker in action than mustard plasters, that medical authorities recognized its supremacy at once.” …

Mustard-based products intended for external use are on the market in the U.S. yet today, billed as “natural” remedies.

excerpted from: Copyright 2005, Metropolitan News Company
— — — — — — — — — —

American Red Cross

History and Organization

Clara Barton established American Red Cross in Dansville, NY, on May 21, 1881. She became its first president. Barton organized a meeting on May 12 of that year at the house of Senator Omar D. Conger (R, MI). Fifteen people were at the meeting, including Barton, Conger and Representative William Lawrence (R, OH) (who became the first vice president). The first local chapter was established in 1881 at the English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Dansville.

Jane Delano (1862–1919) founded the American Red Cross Nursing Service on January 20, 1910.

continued: Wikipedia
— — — — — — — — — —

1919 Corpus Christi Hurricane

The hurricane exacted its greatest toll on Corpus Christi and the city’s immediate vicinity. Nearly all of the 284 verified fatalities were residents of Corpus Christi; 57 bodies were recovered in the city proper while 121 were found at nearby White Point, the highest death toll of any locality from the hurricane. The Houston Post reported a “conservative estimate” of $20 million for the total monetary loss from Corpus Christi, approximated by “prominent business men and other trained observers”. Squalls from began to impact the city on September 12, and the Gulf waters continued to rise until the storm passed on September 14. Corpus Christi was positioned within the right-front quadrant of the hurricane as it made landfall, which typically contains the storm’s strongest winds and highest storm surge. Winds ranging between 70–110 mph (110–180 km/h) buffeted the city for roughly 17 hours between September 14–15, accompanied by a 16-foot (4.9 m) storm surge — the highest on record in Corpus Christi’s history. The surge submerged some areas under 15 ft (4.6 m) of water.

The hurricane destroyed over 900 buildings in and around Corpus Christi. The downtown area and North Beach were devastated. All city businesses below the promontory were impacted, with some destroyed. Along the city’s beaches, 900 homes across 23 blocks between Star Street and Dan Reid Street disintegrated, leaving little trace of their former presence aside from sporadic debris. Few structures remained intact on North Beach, with only three structures partially surviving; among these was the Spohn Sanitarium, where four people were killed. Homes were razed along the beach, with their residents carried by the storm surge into Nueces Bay; many drowned in the bay while others survived as the waves carried them to White Point. Beach erosion carved a new coastline 50–200 ft (15–61 m) inland between North Beach and Caroll Street. Bluffs along Corpus Christi Bay near Corpus Christi and Portland recessed as far as 100 ft (30 m). Catastrophic damage occurred in downtown Corpus Christi where flooding reached a maximum depth of 11.5 ft (3.5 m). Industrial and public plants along a six-block stretch of the downtown waterfront were destroyed. Beyond the immediate waterfront, the Houston Post reported that “every commercial establishment’s first floor was wrecked, and in some cases the entire building rendered useless, over a corresponding area two blocks wide.” Floodwaters maintained a depth of 8–9 ft (2.4–2.7 m) in some of the buildings that remained standing. The surge deposited debris en masse in the downtown district, including 1,400 bales of cotton as well as large lumber reserves; piles of debris reached as high as 16 ft (4.9 m).

source: Wikipedia

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Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic Ads (Part 101)
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