Idaho History June 27, 2021

Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic

Part 63

Idaho Newspaper clippings November 13-17, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 13

Jerome County Times., November 13, 1919, Page 1

19191113JCT1

19191113JCT2People Should Safeguard Themselves Against “Flu”

The frequency with which communications are being sent the Department of Public Welfare for information relative to influenza denotes conclusively the citizens of Idaho are wide awake to the possibility of the return of “Flu” in epidemic form.

Each day brings forth the following questions:

1. Has the “Flu” made its appearance in Idaho?

2. Will we have a return of last year’s epidemic of Flu?

Question 1 may be answered by the statement that isolated cases of influenza have occurred throughout the state, a total of nine cases having been reported from four counties but there is no evidence of its return in epidemic form.

Question No. 2 is far more difficult to answer. Not even a seer could foretell how you and your neighbor consider a “cold.” Flu begins as a “cold.” Infection is spread broadcast hours before the patient feels ill enough to call a physician.

A study of the sequence of events in a typical outbreak of influenza, supposing that each case infects only three others, will prove highly instructive and will shed light on the subject. At this rate 729 persons would be infected at the end of thirteen days.

source: Jerome County Times. (Jerome, Idaho), 13 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Filer Record., November 13, 1919, Page 1

19191113FR1

19191113FR2
Must Avoid Recurrence of Influenza Epidemic

E. E. Laubaugh, M.D., Chief Bureau of Public Health Service, Department of Public Welfare, Boise, says:

If we are not to have “Flu” you must observe the following:

1. Consider all colds as “Flu colds.”

2. Complete isolation of patients with “Flu colds.”

3. Keep away from those with colds.

4. Make the fellow who insists he just has a “Slight cold” cough into his handkerchief.

5. Wash your hands frequently and don’t put them to your lips or mouth.

6. Gargles have little or no merit and wash the protective secretions from the throat.

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 13 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Filer Record., November 13, 1919, Page 11

19191113FR3

(ibid, page 11)
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Priest River, Idaho ca. 1915

PriestRiver1915Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 14

The Rathdrum Tribune., November 14, 1919, Page 1

19191114RT1

19191114RT2Endless Chain Not Mystical
Doctor Fighting Influenza Explains How Curative Serum Went From Patient to Patient

The prevalence of influenza and pneumonia with their high death rate makes it imperative to resort to heroic methods of treatment rather than to follow the accepted ones only. The lack of serum or other specific remedy for influenza, writes Dr. Charles R. Humbert in the Medical Record, together with the inability to obtain antipneumococcus serum forced me to use convalescent serum.

The Endless Chain

[?] a well known fact that persons convalescing from pneumonia have anti-bodies in their blood streams. As soon as the patients’ condition permits, therefore, they are bled as much and as frequently as possible.

Serum is prepared and treated, and is placed in stock. When another patient comes in with pneumonia, treatment is begun. When convalescence set in the above procedure is repeated. It is a cause of one gives serum to two, two gives serum to three and so on, the procedure becoming endless.
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[Armistice Day]

Armistice day, Nov. 11 was observed to some extent thruout [sic] the state in conformity with Governor Davis’ proclamation declaring it “a holiday to be observed by the people in a spirit of thankfulness and joy and prayer.”

source: The Rathdrum Tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 14 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Rathdrum Tribune., November 14, 1919, Page 2

[Editorial Page]

The state health board is sending out advices that it is up to the citizens of the state to prevent an epidemic of influenza this winter, by taking proper care of the “slight colds”. All colds, we are told, should be considered “flu colds” until it is positively known they are not.

(ibid, page 2)
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Main Street, Pine, Idaho (1)

PineFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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The Caldwell Tribune. November 14, 1919, Page 9

19191114CT1

19191114CT219191114CT3Is Influenza To Run As An Epidemic Again This Winter
While Only Nine Cases Have Been Reported In Idaho, Dr. Lanbaugh [sic], In Analyzing Situation, Issues Warning

Boise – The frequency with which communications are being sent the Department of Public Welfare for information relative to influenza denotes conclusively the citizens of Idaho are wide awake to the possibility of the return of influenza in epidemic form.

Each day brings forth the following questions:

1. Has influenza made its appearance in Idaho?

2. Will we have a return of last year’s epidemic of influenza?

3. What steps should be taken to prevent a recurrence of last year’s epidemic?

4. What merit is there in the use of prophylactic vaccines against influenza?

Question No. 1 may be answered by the statement that isolated cases of influenza have occurred throughout the state, a total of nine cases having been reported from four counties, but there is no evidence of its return in epidemic form.

Question [2] is far more difficult. Not even a seer could foretell how you and your neighbor consider “a cold.” Influenza begins as “a cold.” Infection is spread broadcast before the patient feels ill enough to call for a physician.

A survey of the sequence of events in a typical outbreak of influenza, supposing that each case infects only three others, will prove highly instructive and will shed light on the subject.

1st day. 1. (Primary) case.

The original or primary case comes to town with a slight cold.

2nd and 3rd days. 3. (Secondary) cases.

The primary case begins to feel sick.

Secondary cases begin to have slight colds.

4th and 5th days. 9. (Tertiary) cases.

Primary case sends for physician.

Secondary cases begin to feel sick.

Tertiary cases begin to have slight colds.

6th and 7th days. 27. (Fourth Series).

Primary case goes to bed.

Secondary cases send for physician.

Tertiary cases begin to feel sick.

Fourth series of cases begin to have slight colds.

8th and 9th days. 81. (Fifth Series).

Primary case reported as pneumonia.

Secondary cases go to bed.

Tertiary cases send for a physician.

Fourth series of cases begin to feel sick.

Fifth series of cases begin to have slight colds.

10th and 11 days. 243. (Sixth Series).

Primary case dead.

Secondary cases begin to have pneumonia.

Tertiary cases go to bed.

Fourth series of cases send for a physician.

Fifth series of cases feel sick.

Sixth series of cases begin to have slight colds.

Health officer gets the first reports of a few of the worst cases. Rumors that everybody in town has a cold. Outbreak is really at its height.

12th and 13th days. 729. (Seventh Series).

Funeral of primary patient.

Secondary cases begin to die.

Tertiary cases begin to have pneumonia.

Fourth series of cases go to bed.

Fifth series of cases send for a physician.

Sixth series of cases feel sick.

Seventh series of cases begin to have slight colds.

Health officer gets a number of reports of cases.

Health officer, Red Cross, and other public health agencies begin to get busy. The number of new cases begin to diminish on account of the lack of susceptible persons.

Now let us repeat our question:

“Will we have an recurrence of last year’s epidemic?” The answer is to be found in your answer to the question: “How are you and your neighbors going to manage the ‘slight colds?'” Your physician arrives on one of the most communicable dis-[…] to assist and the health authorities come along with a whoop and a hurrah after the battle is lost. Their efforts are almost wholly confined to the saving as much as possible out of the wreck.

Mr. Citizen you hold the answer. Instead of asking the health authorities, “Shall we have influenza?” the health officers are asking you “Shall we have influenza?”

The third question has been largely answered in the discussion of the second. We know we are dealing with one of the most communicable diseases and it starts as “a cold.” Fortunately all “colds” are not “influenza colds,” but your physician or no one else can tell an “influenza cold” from an ordinary “cold,” therefore every cold, no matter how mild, must be considered an “influenza cold,” if we are not to have a recurrence of influenza.

After our experience of one year ago, it would be superfluous to discuss what we should do. The citizen with a “cold” has a plain duty, to immediately call his physician and completely isolate himself.

The fourth question is rather difficult of a general answer. Your physician will have to determine whether or not you should be given a vaccine. There still remains considerable doubt as to whether the causative agent of influenza has been discovered and it can readily be understood the utter futility of giving a vaccine if we don’t know what vaccine to give. Don’t misunderstand this statement. I am speaking of influenza and not the complication of influenza. There is a rational scientific basis for giving vaccines to prevent the serious complications of influenza, but this vaccine must be carefully selected, after a complete investigation of the causative agents producing these complications. They vary in different localities. Your physician will have these facts and act on them accordingly.

In conclusion, if we are not to have influenza you must observe the following:

1. Consider all colds as “influenza colds.”

2. Complete isolation of patients with “influenza colds.”

3. Keep away from those colds.

4. Make the fellow who insists he has just a “slight cold” cough into his handkerchief.

5. Wash your hands frequently and don’t put them to your lips or mouth.

6. Gargles have little or no merit and wash the protective secretions from the throat.

From E. E. Laubaugh, M.D., Chief, Bureau of Public Health Service, Department of Public Welfare, Boise, Idaho.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 14 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Placerville, Idaho

PlacervilleFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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The Daily Star-Mirror., November 14, 1919, Page 3

19191114DSM1

Addressed Modern Woodmen

A. G. Pate, a member of the board of audit of the Modern Woodmen of America, attended the regular meeting of the local camp last night and delivered an interesting address. The local camp is making a drive for new members and already has a strong membership. The Modern Woodmen have gone through the trying period of the war in good condition, having paid more than $5,000,000 death claims last December, mostly due to deaths from influenza and war losses. The order paid all death claims of soldiers killed in action, although its charter does not provide for this.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 14 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Pioneerville, Idaho July 3rd, 1917 (1)

PioneervilleJuly031917Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 17

Evening Capital News., November 17, 1919, Page 3

19191117ECN1

19191117ECN2

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 17 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., November 17, 1919, Page 4

19191117DSM1

19191117DSM2Racking Routine

Life with most of us becomes too much a matter of routine. Household duties, office work and other obligations often cause people to overlook their health. As a result – the run-down condition become serious before relief is sought.

Nyals Tonic Hypophosphites

Will build up your health promptly and give you a store of energy which will enable you to ward off serious cold-weather ailments such as Grippe, Tonsillitis and Influenza and the serious complications which usually follow.

This tonic will increase appetite, aid digestion, re-vitalize the nervous system and give your system a chance to store up vitality.

Price $1.00

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 17 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Further Reading

Hypophosphite

noun hy·​po·​phos·​phite
Medical Definition of hypophosphite
: a salt of hypophosphorous acid
especially : one (as the sodium salt) used as a source of assimilable phosphorus

source: Merriam-Webster
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Fellows’ Compound Syrup of Hypophosphites, Fellows Co., New York

Old Main Artifact Posted on June 26, 2014 by Jessica

Fellows’ Compound Syrup of Hypophosphites was widely marketed to physicians, not consumers, as a remedy for many illnesses. It was a commercial success, even though it contained strychnine, a potent poison, and likely made its customers sicker.

Fellows Compound Syrup of Hypophosphites was invented by James Fellows who worked with his father as drug merchants in St John, New Brunswick, Canada.

According to blogger Mary Fran Stotler, “James along with his father were listed as drug merchants in St John in 1850. He worked in his chemist’s shop at 56 Germain Street in St John. Together they established “Fellows & Company” producing household remedies such as Fellows’ Worm Lozenges, Fellows’ Speedy Relief, Fellows’ Dyspepsia Bitters, Fellows’ Golden Ointment, Fellows’ Leemings’ Essence and Fellows’ Balsam Liverwort & Colts Foot. It was here that James developed his formula for the well known, “Fellows Compound Syrup of Hypophosphites.” Patented and internationally recognized as an effective remedy, it is listed in many medical books of the period as “an excellent recuperative tonic”. An advertisement found in International Clinics Quarterly, Vol 3 dated 1905, Fellows Syrup was used “in the treatment of anemia, neurasthenia, bronchitis, influenza, pulmonary tuberculosis and wasting diseases of childhood, and during convalescence from exhausting diseases.” In the ad, there is a reference to the ingredient Strychnine, which is an exceptionally bitter tasting and extremely powerful poison. It acts on the central nervous system, causing powerful convulsions. It was used in some medications in the late 1800’s. In an article in the Canadian Illustrated News dated December 16, 1871 , it mentions that James himself had been a victim of “secondary stage”, pulmonary consumption and use of his own preparation had cured him. Following the death of his father, James moved to London, England where he lived with his family. From there, through a judicious system of advertising and an energetic method of doing business, he established a most flourishing and lucrative business in the sales of his Syrup of Hypophosphites. He returned to St. John on several occasions, renewing old acquaintances. But his failing health made him an invalid and he died in 1889. The St John Globe records him as a man of fine presence, affable and courteous and of a most friendly disposition. ”

This passage in Mary Fran Stotler’s blog also appears on a genealogy page but no direct sources are cited, other than the mentioned articles, and other records about James Fellows’ life seem to be unavailable.

Interestingly, the sentence from the above passage “Patented and internationally recognized as an effective remedy, it is listed in many medical books of the period as “an excellent recuperative tonic” is misleading. While it may have appeared in many medical books, this is by no means a guarantee of it being an “effective remedy”. Many dishonest purveyors of ineffective or harmful concoctions (aka nostrums) routinely published their own advertisements and favorable articles in medical journals to misinform doctors as well as patients.

According to James Harvey Young, author of The Medical Messiahs: A Social History of Health Quackery in Twentieth-Century America, “Being the chameleon-like creature that it is, quackery continued growing during the late 19th century by taking advantage of orthodox medicine’s promising prospects as well as its persisting weaknesses. For one thing nostrum makers began to simulate the methods by which medical and pharmaceutical science kept the profession informed of new developments, turning the doctors themselves into unwitting allies in the campaign to reach the public. Articles were planted in medical periodicals reporting exciting therapeutic advances. The names of the new remedies had a scientific lilt, and complex (if nonsensical) formulas were revealed. Reprints were mailed to doctors, who soon were visited by detailmen, talking as knowingly as did the agents of reputable pharmaceutical manufacturers. The truth was, however, that the first prescription which a doctor wrote for products like Fellows’ Syrup of Hypophosphites was apt to be the last. When the sufferer looked at the printing on the carton and the pamphlets packed within it, he found enough medical advice in vigorous, down-to-earth, and frightening prose to let him dispense with a doctor. As late as 1915 Fellows’ proprietary syrup was still being promoted exclusively to physicians, with not a cent spent on direct advertising to the consumer, but 90 per cent of its sales were over the counter without a prescription.”

continued:
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Before Vaccines, Doctors ‘Borrowed’ Antibodies from Recovered Patients to Save Lives

Dave Roos April 1, 2020 History.com

Doctors first tried injecting patients with blood plasma in the early 1900s. The method has been used against diphtheria, the 1918 flu pandemic, measles and Ebola.

In 1934, a doctor at a private boy’s school in Pennsylvania tried a unique method to stave off a potentially deadly measles outbreak. Dr. J. Roswell Gallagher extracted blood serum from a student who had recently recovered from a serious measles infection and began injecting the plasma into 62 other boys who were at high risk of catching the disease.

Only three students ended up contracting measles and all were mild cases.

The method, while relatively novel, was not new to science. In fact, the very first Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine was awarded in 1901 to Emil von Behring for his life-saving work developing a cure for diphtheria, a bacterial infection that was particularly fatal in children. His groundbreaking treatment, known as diphtheria antitoxin, worked by injecting sick patients with antibodies taken from animals who had recovered from the disease.

1890VonBehring-aNobel Prize winning German bacteriologist and physiologist Emil Adolf von Behring, right, uses a syringe to inject a guinea pig held by lab assistant, circa 1890. Stock Montage/Getty Images

How ‘Convalescent Plasma’ Treatment Works

Von Behring’s antitoxin wasn’t a vaccine, but the earliest example of a treatment method called “convalescent plasma” that’s being resurrected as a potential treatment for COVID-19. Convalescent plasma is blood plasma extracted from an animal or human patient who has “convalesced” or recovered from infection with a particular disease.

“Convalescent plasma has been used throughout history when confronting an infectious disease where you have people who recover and there’s no other therapy available,” says Warner Greene, director of the Center for HIV Cure Research at the Gladstone Institutes. “There must be something in their plasma—i.e. an antibody—that helped them recover.”

Convalescent plasma interacts differently with the immune system than a vaccine. When a person is treated with a vaccine, their immune system actively produces its own antibodies that will kill off any future encounters with the target pathogen. That’s called active immunity.

Convalescent plasma offers what’s called “passive immunity.” The body doesn’t create its own antibodies, but instead “borrows” them from another person or animal who has successfully fought off the disease. Unlike a vaccine, the protection doesn’t last a lifetime, but the borrowed antibodies can greatly reduce recovery times and even be the difference-maker between life and death.

“Convalescent plasma is the crudest of the immunotherapies, but it can be effective,” says Greene.

Plasma Treatments Cut Spanish Flu Fatalities in Half

After von Behring’s antitoxin was distributed worldwide to treat diphtheria in 1895, doctors experimented with the same passive immunity technique for curing measles, mumps, polio and influenza.

During the pandemic influenza outbreak of 1918 known as the “Spanish flu,” fatality rates were cut in half for patients who were treated with blood plasma compared to those who weren’t. The method seemed particularly effective when patients received the antibodies in the early days of their infection, before their own immune systems had a chance to overreact and damage vital organs. In the 1930s, doctors like Gallagher used convalescent plasma effectively against measles.

continued:
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The Spanish Flu Was Deadlier Than WWI

History Channel

In 1918 the Spanish Flu killed at least 50 million people around the world and was the second deadliest plague in history – after, well, the plague in the 1300s. But how exactly did a flu virus cause such massive death and destruction across the world?


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Back to Table of Contents
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 63)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 64)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 65)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 66)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 67)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 68)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 69)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 70)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 71)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 72)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 73)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 74)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 75)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 76)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 77)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 78)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 79)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 80)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 81)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 82)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 83)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 84)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 85)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 86)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 87)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 88)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 89)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 90)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 91)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 92)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 93)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 94)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 95)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 96)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 97)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 98)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 99)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic Ads (Part 100)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic Ads (Part 101)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic Ads (Part 102)