Idaho History July 25, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 65

Idaho Newspaper clippings December 4-31, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 4

The Grangeville Globe. December 04, 1919, Page 2

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Spanish Birth Rate

Now it is in Spain that they are beginning to worry about the rising death rate and the falling birth rate. Dr. Gomez Ocana presents in El Siglo Medico (Barcelona) statistics for several years, showing that in 1912 the death rate was 21.6 per 1,000 population, and that by 1917, before the advent of the pandemic of influenza, it had risen to 26.16. And the birth rate fell from 31.60 per thousand in 1912 to 29.2 in 1917.

Official figures for 1918 are not yet available, but in the city of Madrid the death rate rose in that year to 30.37, while the birth rate fell to 26.70. The figures for 1918, however, are abnormal because of the pandemic.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 04 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Grangeville Globe. December 04, 1919, Page 8

Local Happenings

T. M. Atwood was in the city today from his home in the Winona country, being called here to look after some cattle that had been brought out from the hills. Mr. Atwood stated that his better half, who recently suffered a severe attack of influenza, was now slowly convalescing, being able to be up for a portion of the time.

T. B. Fuller is very ill at his home in this city. Mr. Fuller recently returned from a deer hunt and was taken ill a few days thereafter. His case baffles his physician. He is in an unconscious state a great part of the time.

(ibid, page 8)
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Main Street Looking East, Rigby, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 5

Clearwater Republican. December 05, 1919, Page 2

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World Happenings of Current Week

Miss Emma Penninger of Stockton, Cal., has been asleep for seven days. She wakes from her slumber every morning for about an hour. At that time she is given a glass of milk for nourishment. Her strange malady followed influenza.

There is no law, says a Paris dispatch, or decree preventing the removal of nearly 20,000 American dead from the “interior zone,” but the red tape involved in getting the authorization of mayors and departmental prefects in each individual case makes it necessary to devise a plan to get authorization from the government if the 20,000 Americans are to be removed.
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Soldiers’ Hat Cords

The colors of the cords on the hats of soldiers stand for distinctive branches of the army. Blue is for infantry; yellow, for cavalry; red, for artillery; red and white, for engineer corps; salmon and white, signal corps; maroon, medical corps, black and red, ordinance corps; buff, quartermaster corps; gold and black, commissioned officer.

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 05 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. December 05, 1919, Page 1

19191205CT1

G. A. R. Meets Saturday

The annual meeting of the local G. A. R. post will be held Saturday afternoon at the Masonic hall at 1:30 p.m. Last year, there was no annual meeting because of the influenza epidemic. This year, it is regarded as vital that all members possible attend. Election of officers will be the chief item of business.
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Cold Winter Looms Ahead
Coal Shortage Promises to Become Vital Factor Here

“Well, Santa ought to get here all right, now” remarked one of Caldwell’s quite juvenile citizens Thursday afternoon while he watched the snow come down.

If it were not for the seriousness of the coal situation, more Caldwell people and maturer ones would be enjoying the first real touch of winter the past week has uncovered. Frosty mornings and occasional flurries of snow, beginning last week and continuing with variances ever since, have made people dig into their coal cellars and many of them view with alarm the increasing difficulty of replenishing their precious supply.

No Suffering

So far as known, no real suffering has so far been experienced, according to Mayor Grant Ward. In general, people are conserving their store where the supply is limited and eagerly racing to dealers at every report of the receipt of a car or two. Some coal is still coming in at infrequent intervals. Last week, four cars were gobbled up almost before knowledge that they were here was generally disseminated. Farmers took the major portion, the cars being surrounded by every conceivable variety of vehicle and coal was actually piled direct into the tonneau of automobiles.

Several business blocks are short of coal and one or two concerns that require large amounts are reported to be on the verge of closing down for the time being. Thus far, however, no place of business has been obliged to suspend operations.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 05 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Riggins, Idaho (2)

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 7

Evening Capital News., December 07, 1919, Page 2

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Asks Construction Hospitals To Care For Wounded Men

Washington, Dec. 6. — The construction of a complete chain of government hospitals to care for the wounded was asked today by Surgeon General Blue, appearing before the house appropriations committee.

Blue estimated the cost at $85,000,000 and the capacity at 23,000 beds.
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To fortify the System Against Grip Take Laxative Bromo Quinine Tablets which destroy germs, act as a Tonic and Laxative, and thus prevent Colds, Grip and Influenza. There is only one “Bromo Quinine,” E. W. Groves signature on the box. – Adv.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 07 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Street Scene at Rupert, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 9

Evening Capital News., December 09, 1919, Page 4

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19191209ECN2
How Science Now Makes Up For Dangerous Blood Losses
By Dr. Leonard Keene Hirshberg
A. R., M. A., M. D. (Johns Hopkins University)

There are many measures available nowadays to check aggravated nosebleed, loss of blood from the lungs, severe bleeding of the new-born, bleeding stomach ulcers, or any other extreme degree of hemorrhage.

If the “bleeder” happens to be a person whose blood does not clot, this may be due to heredity, diet with much citric acid, or to bile and jaundice.

On the other hand, certain infections with hemolytic bacteria, germs which have the uncanny power of dissolving blood corpuscles and delaying the clotting power of the blood, often predispose to hemorrhages. Certain races of influenza, pneumonia, tuberculosis and typhoid bacilli develop and unpleasant quality of dissolution of blood.

To treat states of hemorrhage such as any of the above, injections of blood serum, globulin, gelatin and lime have all been displaced whenever it is possible by the direct transfusion of some healthy person’s blood. Among the discoverers and practical applicators of this method stand Dr. Alexis Carrel, Dr. Bertram Bernbeim and several other American Physicians.

Professional Blood Suppliers

Men and women are almost always to be found ready to sacrifice their blood for the purpose. Others receive compensation for it and leave their names and telephone numbers at hospitals. These persons who part with a pint and even more of their blood every three months for transfusion to the veins of another are likely to become a recognized economic class in consequence of the improved technique and wider knowledge concerning the operation which have resulted from study and experiment. Only five years ago this transfusion of blood was a rare operation, resorted to only as a last resort. Now at hospitals, in spite of the difficulties inherent in the conditions, it is almost commonplace.

Two discoveries have served to overcome the difficulties formerly encountered in the transfer of blood from one person to another and to explain the failures which sometimes marked the attempt.

The first discovery was that mixing the blood with a suitable solution of citrate of sodium prevented the tendency of the blood to clot immediately on being exposed to the atmosphere and did not prevent the recipient from obtaining all the benefits of the transfusion. This clotting tendency of the blood had been previously overcome to some extent by using a vessel coated with paraffin, a method which at least delayed the clotting, but is not absolutely certain and presents technical difficulties even in practiced hands.

The second and even more important discovery made about the same time, also by American research students, was that the blood of certain individuals will not mix with that of others, but instead that the fluid part of the one type of blood attacks and destroys the corpuscles of the other. The usual effect of this was simply the destruction of the corpuscles of the transfused blood, but occasionally the effect was so violent that the small amount of blood given was enough to destroy the corpuscles of the recipient with fatal consequences.

Races with Death

It was found possible to classify individuals into four groups which exist in constant proportions., Of these, the smallest groups comprising about 1 per cent., cannot give blood to any except persons of their own group, although they may safely be given any blood. The second and largest group, comprising 44 percent., possesses blood which may be given to anyone without bad effects. The other two groups, of 15 and 40 percent., respectively, are mutually antagonistic. That is, their blood can only be given safely to the members of their own group or of the first group.

The immediate effect of blood transfusion on a patient dying from loss of blood is most startling. Within 10 minutes of beginning the transfusion the patient shows signs of returning to life, his breathing from a series of deep sighs becomes normal, his pulse strengthens and his gray face regains its natural color. In hospitals transfusion is likely to be a real race with death, the margin of time being sometimes as narrow as 15 minutes.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 09 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Street Scene, Roseberry, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 10

Evening Capital News., December 10, 1919, Page 3

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Charity Ball Again On Social Calendar

Boise’s annual charity ball, suspended last year because of the influenza epidemic, is back on the job and will be held some time next month. It was decided at the regular monthly meeting of the Associated Charities Tuesday afternoon in the Mayor’s office.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 10 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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(ibid, page 12)
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Birdseye View, Roberts, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 12

The Idaho Recorder. December 12, 1919, Page 10

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Mrs. Teresa Nagel

This well beloved lady, whose long life had been spent mostly in the Salmon country, died at her home five miles south of this city on Tuesday morning last, December 9, far advanced in age, probably an octogenarian. Mrs. Nagel was the mother of a large family but mothered also a great many other besides her own children. Her home was the seat of a generous hospitality and unfailing bounty. There are two Nagel children, Mrs. Ed Hulick and Mrs. Mel Manfull. The latter made her home with the mother and father at the Nagel ranch. Other children are the the Durand boys, the sons of a former husband, and one daughter. The sons are Frank, Albert, Victor and Gus Durand and the daughter Mrs. H. B. King. One of her granddaughters is Mrs. Sterling Price of Salmon.

Mrs. Nagel was a lover of flowers. In the early days among the pioneers it was a saying that her garden and home could always be drawn upon for the floral offerings at funerals, no matter what season of the year. Numerous families bereft of members in years past feel obligations to her for these offering and for them will hold Mrs. Nagel in Kindly memory.

The old lady was a sufferer a year ago from an attack of influenza from which she never entirely recovered. The funeral took place Thursday afternoon from the home.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 12 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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(ibid, page 9)
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Shoshone Journal. December 12, 1919, Page 5

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19191212SJ2Odorous Epidemic

“A friend of mine has kept himself and his family immune from influenza in a district sorely smitten by eating spring onions.”

– Glasgow (Scotland) Evening Post.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 12 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., December 12, 1919, Page 2

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[Editorial Page]

Portland schools are closed because of an epidemic of small pox in the Oregon metropolis. This dread disease is becoming common throughout the northwest and we may have a scourge of that instead of the “flu” this winter. Well, almost anything is preferable to another visitation of influenza.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 12 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street South, St. Anthony, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 13

Evening Capital News., December 13, 1919, Page 1

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19191213ECN2
Health Of The Nation Better Than Year Ago
Surgeon General Blue in Report Shows Death Rate Below Average – Credit Is Due to Prohibition

Washington, Dec. 13. — Health conditions throughout the United Sates have greatly improved during the last year, Surgeon General Rupert Blue, head of the public health service informed the United Press today.

This improvement he said, is due in part to prohibition and to the lessons of hygiene learned in the war. Relief from the war strain also helped to reduce sickness he believes. A number of Spanish influenza cases are being reported.

Latest reports to the surgeon general from all sections of the country he said, show the death rate to be below the average. Whether this condition is only temporary, he could not say. The week ending Nov. 15, the last reported showed the number of deaths per thousand population below the previous average except in Toledo, Ohio; Rochester, N. Y.; Richmond, Va.; Nashville, Tenn.; Grad Rapids, Mich.; and Fall River, Mass. In all the other leading cities the number of deaths is from 1 to 6 per thousand below average.

Reports of only 332 deaths from influenza, last week reached the surgeon general, against 20,000 for the week last year when the scourge was at its height, he said.

Small pox has appeared in Detroit, Buffalo, Niagara Falls, and other cities along the Canadian border. Blue said Quarantine has been applied in some localities and officials here do not fear further spread of the disease.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 13 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Grand Avenue, St. Joe, Idaho ca. 1913

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 14

Evening Capital News., December 14, 1919, Page 4

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19191214ECN2
What You Ought to Know and Do About Whooping Cough
By Dr. Leonard Keene Hirshberg
A. B., M. A., M. D. (Johns Hopkins University)

The affections and ailments which help to spoil the joy and happiness of little ones are many and various. Of these not the least is the bacterial infection of the windpipe and lung canals with its characteristic, convulsive coughs and “whoop.”

A long-drawn inhalation called a “whoop” is associated with this “catching disease,” hence its name, “whooping cough.” It is directly contagious from person to person. You may catch it, no matter how old you are, if you have not been vaccinated with the anti-pertussis vaccine.

In the winter, because children with it go to school and come home indoors in closer contact with other youngsters, whooping cough is very prevalent and often fatal.

To treat whooping cough lightly, as some mothers do, is the result of ignorant, unobservant, hand-me-down ideas. It is a serious malady and kills many of the strongest children unless attentive, diligent precautions are carefully carried out.

Slow in Development

In one year in England there were over 7000 deaths from it. Animals, especially pets, are subject to it. The microbe associated with it is a mischievous blood-brother of the influenza bacillus.

You may meet a person with whooping cough and boast for a week or 10 days that you “never caught it at all.” That boast, like the boast of those who don’t believe in smallpox, in that week may cause a disease to be spread broadcast, because it takes seven to ten days for these diseases to develop after exposure to them.

You cannot, however, catch up with sentimental errors, therefore millions of people will insist that you never caught it at all.

Symptoms and Remedies

Whooping cough at first begins as a ordinary “cold,” with running nose, watery eyes and later a slight cough. It is then that is is spread all around. After two weeks the “whoop” is hears.

Vomiting sometimes takes place at the end of a paroxysm of coughing. These may occur half a dozen times a day or as often as every half-hour. Pneumonia is also a frequent complication.

Children with whooping cough must be kept from school and playmates. They should not appear in public, but must be kept in bed if there is the least fever or vomiting.

Give them plenty of sunlight and fresh air by keeping the window open and blinds up. Be sure the little patients are carefully protected from drafts and exposure.

Whooping cough vaccine is excellent as a preventive as well as a treatment. It is not an experiment, as its value is now attested by medical skeptics, who are enthusiastic about it.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 14 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Birds Eye View of St. Maries, Idaho ca. 1912

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 16

Bonners Ferry Herald. December 16, 1919, Page 1

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Mrs. L. C. Felch Passes Away
Died Monday Morning at Hospital – A Victim of Pneumonia

Mrs. L. C. Felch died Monday morning at the Bonners Ferry hospital of pneumonia. The body was taken to Ashland, Oreg., this morning by Mr. Felch, where the funeral services and interment will be had.

The deceased was born February 3, 1879. She had made her home here with her husband for many years and had a wide range of acquaintances who join in mourning her death and in extending heartfelt sympathy to the bereaved husband and relatives.

Mrs. Felch took sick with a severe cold a few weeks ago and this developed into pneumonia. Her condition became so serious on Saturday that she was brought to the Bonners Ferry hospital. She suffered an attack of the Spanish influenza last winter and had never fully regained her health and soon succumbed to the attack of pneumonia.

The deceased has a sister and other relatives living at Ashland and will be buried beside her mother in the cemetery of that city.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 16 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street Looking East, Salmon, Idaho ca. 1912 (1)

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 18

The Emmett Index. December 18, 1919, Page 8

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19191218EI2“Flu” Epidemic Will Be Milder
If There is Recurrence It Will Not Be as Severe as Last Winter
No Positive Preventive
Previous Attack Brings Immunity in Percentage of Cases – Enforcement of Sanitation and Avoidance of Personal Contact Necessary Precautions.
(Authoritative Statement Issued by United States Public Health Service.)

Probably, but by no means certainly there will be a recurrence of the influenza epidemic this year.

Indications are that should it occur, it will not be as severe as the epidemic of the previous winter.

City officials, state and city boards of health, should be prepared in the event of a recurrence.

The fact that a previous attack brings immunity in a certain percentage of cases should allay fear on the part of those afflicted in the previous epidemic.

Influenza is spread by direct and indirect contact.

It is not yet certain that the germ has been isolated, or discovered, and as a consequence there is yet no positive preventative, except the enforcement of rigid rules of sanitation and the avoidance of personal contact.

A close relation between the influenza epidemic and the constantly increasing pneumonia mortality rate prior to the fall of 1918 is recognized.

It is now believed that the disease was pretty widely disseminated through out the country before it was recognized in its epidemic state. This failure to recognize the early cases appears to have largely been due to the fact that every interest was then centered on the war.

Above are the important facts developed by the United States health service after a careful survey and investigation of the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, carried on in every state and important city, and even in foreign countries.

No one of the many experts of the service would make a more positive forecast of the all-important question, Will there be a recurrence? All agreed, however, that a recurrence was not unlikely, and in the face of the known facts, that it would be wise to be prepared, more with a view of being on the safe side than actually anticipating danger.

The following excerpts from the government report are published for the benefit of the public and health officers in the hope that this will serve to set at rest the daily publication in the newspapers of statements, which on one hand are calculated to lull the public into a sense of false security and on the other to unduly cause alarm.

Contrary to the opinion expressed frequently during the early weeks of last year’s pandemic by a number of observers, the studies of the United States public health service indicate that the epidemic was not a fresh importation from abroad. Careful study of the mortality statistics of the United States shows that there were a number of extensive though mild forerunners of the pandemic during the previous three or four years. The epidemic was generally of a mild type and has since been almost forgotten. It occasioned, however, a noticeable increase in the recorded death rate from pneumonia.

Rise in Mortality

In the spring of 1918 there was another sharp rise in the mortality rate from pneumonia. In the larger cities of the Atlantic seaboard these increases occurred during January, February and March. In the rest of the country, especially the central and western states, the increases occurred in April, a month during which pneumonia mortality is generally on the decline. This increase was sufficient to indicate a strong departure from the normal. The increased mortality rate extended into May and in some areas longer.

This occurrence has, it is believed, a definite significance in relation to the influenza epidemic. In the United States in the spring of 1918, a number of definite local outbreaks of influenza were observed:

The rise in mortality from pneumonia, this very similar type of disease, in the spring of 1918 is so sudden, so marked and so general throughout the United States as to point very clearly to a definite relation. Everything indicates that the increased mortality from pneumonia in March and April of 1918 was the consequence of a beginning and largely unnoticed epidemic of influenza, the beginning in this country of the pandemic which developed into the autumn of that year.

In the British cities the epidemic manifested three distinct waves – the first and slightest in point of mortality occurring in June and July, the the second and most severe in November, the third in February and March. Data, which need not be cited here in detail, indicate that the course of the epidemic in western Europe generally was similar. In the United States the epidemic developed more largely in a single wave during September, October and November.

The prevalence of a serious epidemic of influenza was first recognized in and around Boston in September of 1918. Within about two weeks it was general in the Atlantic seaboard, developing a little later among the cities further west. Rural districts were usually attacked somewhat later than large interests in the same sections.

In the cities east of the line of the Appalachians the excess mortality from pneumonia and influenza during the weeks ended September 14, 1918, to March 1, 1919, was approximately 5.6 per 1,000; in cities between the Rocky mountains and the Appalachians 4.35; and in those of the Pacific Coast 5.55 per 1,000.

Concerning the important question of immunity conferred by an attack of influenza, the evidence is not conclusive, but there is reason to believe that an attack during the earlier stages of the epidemic confers a considerable, but not absolute immunity in the later outbreaks.

Transmitted by Contact

In general the pandemic of influenza was largely similar to that of 1889-90 in its development, first a mild form, later on a severe world-wide epidemic, in the rapidity of its spread and its high case incidence. It has however been notably different in a much higher mortality, especially among young adults. Such evidence as has been gathered confirms the conclusion previously reached that it is transmitted directly and indirectly by contact. It appears, probable, however, that the infection was already widely disseminated in this country sometime before a serious epidemic was recognized.

Despite the fact that there is still some uncertainty as to the nature of the micro-organism causing pandemic influenza, one thing is certain, that the disease is communicable from person to person. Moreover, judging from experience in other diseases, it is probable that the germ, whatever its nature, is carried about not only by those who are ill with influenza, but by persons who may be entirely well. Everything which increases personal contact, therefore, should be regarded as a factor in spreading influenza.

Much was heard last winter of the use of face masks. Though the use of suitably constructed masks will reduce the interchange of respiratory germs through inhalation, it must be remembered that there are many other paths by which such germs are transmitted from person to person. Soiled hands, common drinking cups, improperly cleaned eating and drinking utensils in restaurants, soda fountains, etc., roller towels, infected food – these are only a few of the common vehicles of germ transmission. The use of face masks appears to make people neglect these other paths of infection, and so the use of face masks has not been attended with the success predicted for them. If we would be more successful in combating influenza greater attention must be paid to the factors just enumerated.

The question of most practical and immediate interest is the probability of recurrence in the near future. Recurrences are characteristic of influenza epidemics; and the history of the last pandemic and previous ones would seem to point to the conclusion that this one has not yet run its full course. On the other hand this epidemic has already shown three more or less distinct phases and has been more severe, at least in mortality, than the three-year epidemic of 1889-92, facts which justify the hope, though not the conclusion, that it has run its course already.

Recurrence is Likely

It seems probable, however, that we may expect at least local recurrences in the near future, with an increase over the normal mortality from pneumonia for perhaps several years; and certainly we should be, as far as possible, prepared to meet them by previous organization of forces and measures for attempted prevention, treatment, and scientific investigation.

There should be no repetition of the extensive suffering and distress which accompanied last year’s pandemic. Communities should make plans now for dealing with any recurrence of the epidemic. The prompt recognition of the early cases and their effective isolation should be aimed at. In this connection, attention is called to the fact that the cases may appear to be just ordinary colds. A recent extensive outbreak of what were regarded as “summer colds” in Peoria, Illinois, proved on investigation to be an epidemic of a mild type of influenza. Experience indicates that these mild epidemics are often the starting points of more severe visitations. Hence every effort should be made to discover as early as possible any unusual prevalence of “colds.”

For municipalities operating on a budget basis, it is important that all delay in providing the necessary financial support to the health authorities in dealing with a recurrence of the epidemic be avoided by setting side an emergency epidemic fund. This may prove of the greatest value in carrying out important preventive measures in the early days of the epidemic, at a time when their beneficial affect is greatest.

The most promising way to deal with a possible recurrence of the influenza epidemic, is to sum it up in a single word. “Preparedness.” And now it is the time to prepare.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 18 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Sand Point, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 19

The Kendrick Gazette. December 19, 1919, Page 6

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19191219KG2
Statistics Show Nation Healthier Than Usual
Mortality Lows and Health Conditions Better than Past Summer Than in Any Corresponding Period in Recent Years

The health statistics of the leading cities of the United States, and for the insurance companies, show that the mortality has been lower and health conditions in general more favorable during the last summer than during any corresponding period in recent years. Public health workers attribute much of this low mortality to the cool, comfortable weather prevailing throughout the summer and to the fact that the influenza epidemic of last fall and winter caused the premature deaths of many persons suffering from chronic diseases. These deaths would have occurred under ordinary conditions throughout the spring and summer of 1919, health workers say.

The figures available in the records of a leading life insurance company, industrial department, during the months of July, August and September, this year, show exceedingly low mortality rates from the acute infectious diseases of children, measles, scarlet fever, whooping cough and diphtheria, as compared with the corresponding months of previous years. Typhoid fever shows a low death rate. This is encouraging because it is a sign of sanitary progress throughout the country. Diarrhea and enteritis, infantile intestinal diseases which have their maximum incidence during the summer in the eastern and central part of the United States, showed this year one of the lowest rates on record. The diseases and conditions associated with child bearing also indicate improvement over the figures for preceding summers. Beginning with the month of September, there was a slight increase in the death rate for influenza and pneumonia, not enough, however, to warrant the conclusion that the epidemic conditions of last year would be repeated.

Public health officials, and the health service of the life insurance companies, are watching carefully the current mortality returns with a view to controlling, so far as possible, any unfavorable mortality situation, should it arise. The United States public health service has suggested that local and state health departments outline an adequate program for the control of epidemics of respiratory disease. The life insurance companies are urging their policy holders who have had influenza or pneumonia to consult with their family physicians frequently in order to combat any of the effects of such diseases upon the heart, kidneys or lungs.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 19 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. December 19, 1919, Page 30

19191219CT1

Canyon County Women Get Together On Big Things
In Spite of Handicaps, Community Work Progresses Under Direction of Farm Bureau During Past Year

By Miss Louise Riddle, County Home Demonstration

Farm bureau for women has made much progress in the past year in spite of all the adverse conditions. At the time, when organization should have been in progress the influenza prevented all meetings, so nothing could be done until spring. Only a few meetings could be held between the time it was possible for people to gather together and the time when spring work became so urgent that time could not be given for meetings.

However, in spite of all these things eighteen communities have been organized during the past year and these have been doing splendid work along all lines of interest in the demonstration program.

During the past year the program was based on five projects, three major and two minor. The major projects are clothing, poultry and health and child welfare. This last includes nutrition, health crusade, physical examination of school children, home nursing and sanitation. The minor projects are production and preservation, a project which is practically completed in this county and efficient homes, one that is really just beginning. This project includes household conveniences, accounts and home yard improvement.

Hold Regular Meeting

In each community there is now a leader for each project with sub-committees for health, in contrast to one leader for all the work in each community for last year. Last year only occasional meetings were held, when some specialist was in the county, perhaps. By the present plan of organization each community holds a regular monthly meeting. It was proven during the past year by the work that Wilder has done and the interest the women of Wilder have taken in farm bureau that this is the means by which such an organization as this lives and grows. The regular meetings and discussions furnish a stimulus for better work. …

Health and Child Welfare

How much does your child mean to you? Do you want to make him a perfectly healthy normal child?

All efforts in this project tent toward improving conditions for the children of today when they reach young manhood, one-third of them will not be as afflicted and so far below normal as not to be fit to help their country. One should be well in normal times to do all he can for himself and his country. It should not take a war to point out to us that the youth is far below par in health. Yet it did take a war to show us that. Every effort is now being made to improve the health of the little ones to point out the defects and to put them in condition to improve the coming generation.

Should Interest All

Every mother should take an interest in the health crusade and urge her child to do all the “chores” each day.

Every mother should be present at the physical examination of her children and do all she can to carry out the recommendations made. Up to date eight schools in the county have been examined. Others will be examined as soon as time and weather permits.

Every mother should strive to feed her child the foods that the child should have for his best development and eliminate other foods.

Every mother should urge that a hot lunch should be served each day in the school her children attend.

The things mentioned here are the things emphasized this past year as part of the health work. They are the things that will be emphasized the coming year. …

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 19 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Shelley, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 20

Evening Capital News., December 20, 1919, Page 4

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The Boise Coal Situation

If the coal shortage situation in Boise was of such a critical nature that it was necessary to commandeer the surplus supply held by some consumers to provide fuel for those actually without and who could not keep warm because of that fact, there would be no serious nor valid objection from anyone. But the situation is not that serious. Nor does it appear to be critical enough to pass an ordinance that would place a penalty on those who took the precaution during the summer months to store coal. If their supply is not absolutely needed, why attempt to regulate and shorten their business hours?

No one will doubt but what the city coal commission, comprised as it is of prominent citizens who have only the best interests of all the people of Boise at heart, has attempted to handle the coal shortage situation in a way that would prevent suffering and so that those who have no coal may be able to secure it. But the commission and the city council should take into consideration that many people now without coal could have stored fuel in the summer and fall and those who did store it last fall, are not among the applicants for permits.

A year ago there was a very serious disturbance in business circles caused by the influenza epidemic. The authorities considered it best to take every precautionary step with the result that some classes of business were forced to shut down in their entirety at great financial loss, the theatres in particular. It is unwise to bring about another business disturbance at this time unless there has developed a situation of a very critical nature.

No such situation exists in Boise at the present time with regard to the shortage of coal. It is especially unwise to attempt to regulate business hours during the Christmas holiday rush and the people generally will not approve the act.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 20 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Rail Street, Shoshone, Idaho ca. 1909

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 21

Evening Capital News., December 21, 1919, Page 32

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source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 21 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Silver City, Idaho ca. 1909

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 23

The Daily Star-Mirror., December 23, 1919, Page 1

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Mining Convention at Spokane

Spokane. — The mining industry is so closely interwoven with the prosperity of the Inland Empire that considerable interest is certain to be shown in the Northwest mining convention in Spokane, February 16-21 at the Hotel Spokane. The influenza ban last year prevented the convention, but this year’s gathering will be of special interest owing to the marked increase recently in the mining development of the country.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 23 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Soda Springs, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 25

Evening Capital News., December 25, 1919, Page 4

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The Heirs Of Mars

From the popular American point of view the great victories of the war were the offensives beginning at Chateau Thierry and St. Mihiel; from the medical viewpoint the greatest triumph was the defeat of germ and vermin-born diseases – epidemics. To date not a single one of these diseases has got a foothold on our shores. Typhus, the great scourge of previous wars, has been absolutely conquered in this war by systematic inoculation.

So great were the improvements made during this war in sanitary devices – water filters, sewage systems, ice boxes, fly traps, incinerators and what not – that those used even in the Spanish-American war look clumsy and primitive by comparison. A way of controlling completely the vermin in laundries and dry-cleaning establishments, a thing unknown before, was discovered. The influenza epidemic was kept under control by wholly new devices for isolating each soldier at night. The very architecture of barracks and buildings of all kinds has undergone an improvement with regard to their health-protecting location and construction.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 25 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Payette Enterprise., December 25, 1919, Page 2

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19191225PE2Pestilence Caused By War
Generally Understood that the Influenza Epidemic Was a Direct Result of Great Conflict

Sufficient time has not yet elapsed to determine the indirect effects of the recent eruption of Mount Kloet in Java which wiped out over a score of villages and killed thousands of the natives, but recollections of Krakatoa’s volcanic outburst in 1883 which within six weeks sprinkled its fine lava dust over the whole world, has given an interesting suggestion to certain members of the medical profession. During the closing year of the war an influenza epidemic raged in many parts of the world. The manner of its outbreak in different countries indicated that the germs of the disease had been conveyed by the currents in the air. The theory, therefore, has been broached that the poison gases with which many sectors of the fighting area where drenched were carried by the wind in every direction, causing the influenza outbreak in Spain, Germany, England, France, South America, Australia, Africa, Asia, as well as in the United States and some of the Central American countries. That the influenza is a corollary of the war is undoubted. Any similar gigantic conflict, is argued, would be attended with a similar widespread pestilence – another reason why every effort should be made to avert wars in the future. — Leslie’s.

source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 25 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Emmett Index. December 25, 1919, Page 2

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[Editorial Page]

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Oranges are a prophylactic against influenza, says a medical writer. Upon seeing the germ in the road you throw it an orange, thus taking its mind off business, while you slip up another street.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 25 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Soldier, Idaho in the Winter, 1909

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 30

The Idaho Republican. December 30, 1919, Page 1

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New Auctioneer Comes to Town

W. O. Orr is a new auctioneer is Blackfoot, who has arranged to hold an auction sale at the Hesse Feed Yard on Saturday the third of January. The announcement is in this issue.

Mr. Orr went overseas from Loveland, Colo., during the war and was blown up in battle while operating a tank. He was reported dead and when his family received the notification, Mrs. Orr and the four children went to stay temporarily with relatives and took influenza on the way and all died within three days.

Mr. Orr was carried unconscious from the battlefield, continued delirious a long time due to a piece of shrapnel in the forehead, and after many months he arrived home fully recovered, only to find that he was alone in the world. The Elks had attended to the last rites for his family, and he has spent much of the time since his discharge traveling and lecturing in the interest of the fund for the relief and care of the orphans of fallen soldier.

Mr. Orr is looking for a business location where he can sell and erect silos and may adopt Blackfoot as his home.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 30 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Maine Street, Spirit Lake, Idaho looking west from 3rd, Oct. 9, 1916

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 31

Evening Capital News., December 31, 1919, Page 4

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Tonsillitis — Some Things You Ought to Know About It
By Dr. Leonard Keene Hirshberg
A. R., M., A., M. D. (Johns Hopkins University)

The smallest hair threw its shadow. A trifle may be the straw to break the camel’s back. A small bacterium may down a half-million persons with influenza. Thus tonsillitis is often foolishly looked upon as a trifling ailment.

The tonsils inside the mouth at the angle of the jaw are seldom as bad in men, women and children who were nourished on mother’s milk as they are in those fed upon cow’s milk and other non-human fodder.

Large tonsils and adenoids are not “trifling” affairs. They are so prevalent all over the world that in America they are blamed upon the dry, warm houses, and in England upon the damp, cold ones.

Mouth breathing, pigeon breasts, snoring, running noses, earaches, running ears, rough, nasal tangs to the voice, deafness, headaches, foul breath and other very commonplace conditions are traceable to tonsils and adenoids, which, if troublesome, ought to be removed before the child is 2 years old.

It is a waste of time and often criminal to delay the removal of adenoids and tonsils and entirely rely upon the application of solutions to the throat of a child, who is only too glad of an excuse to avoid a complete and once-for-all treatment.

To be sure, when there is a fever, an active inflammation and infection in the tonsils, treatment is necessary until the active trouble has subsided. Gargles and application of iodine, alkaline such as compound tincture of [?] are helpful. Cod liver oil internally, milk, cream, fruits, cereals and soft vegetables are a diet that is well taken when tonsillitis is active. … [rest of article unreadable]

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 31 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Stites, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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Further Reading

A Brief History of Blood Transfusion Through the Years

March 10, 2016 By Kristin Garcia Stanford Blood Center

As early as the 17th century, blood has been used as a therapy for a variety of ailments. Over the years, there have been many great advances and it is no wonder this precious resource is so valuable. Here is a look at some of the bigger milestones related to blood transfusion over the years.

1628 English physician William Harvey discovers the circulation of blood. Shortly afterward, the earliest known blood transfusion is attempted.

1665 The first recorded successful blood transfusion occurs in England: Physician Richard Lower keeps dogs alive by transfusion of blood from other dogs.

1818 James Blundell performs the first successful blood transfusion of human blood to treat postpartum hemorrhage.

1840 The first whole blood transfusion to treat hemophilia is successfully completed.

1900 Karl Landsteiner discovers the first three human blood groups, A, B and O.

1902 Landsteiner’s colleagues, Alfred Decastello and Adriano Sturli, add a fourth blood type, AB.

1907 Blood typing and cross matching between donors and patients is attempted to improve the safety of transfusions. The universality of the O blood group is identified.

1914 Adolf Hustin discovers that sodium citrate can anticoagulate blood for transfusion, allowing it to be stored and later transfused safely to patients on the battlefield.

1932 The first blood bank is established at Leningrad hospital.

1939-1940 The Rh blood group is discovered and recognized as the cause behind most transfusion reactions.

1940 The US government establishes a nationwide blood collection program.

1950 Plastic bags allowing for a safer and easier collection system replace breakable glass bottles used for blood collection and storage.

1961 Platelet concentrates are recognized to reduce mortality from hemorrhaging in cancer patients.

1970 Blood banks move towards an all-volunteer donor base.

1972 The process of apheresis is discovered, allowing the extraction of one component of blood, returning the rest to the donor.

1983 Stanford Blood Center is the first blood center to screen for AIDS contaminated blood, using a surrogate test (T-lymphocyte phenotyping) two years before the AIDS virus antibody test is developed.

1985 The first HIV blood-screening test is licensed and implemented by blood banks.

1987 Stanford Blood Center is the first in the country to screen donors for Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I), a virus believed to cause a form of adult leukemia.

1990 A specific test to identify Hepatitis C is introduced.

2002 West Nile Virus is identified as transfusion-transmissible.

excerpted from:
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Whooping cough

Whooping cough, also known as pertussis or the 100-day cough, is a highly contagious bacterial disease. Initial symptoms are usually similar to those of the common cold with a runny nose, fever, and mild cough, but these are followed by weeks of severe coughing fits. Following a fit of coughing, a high-pitched whoop sound or gasp may occur as the person breathes in. The coughing may last for 10 or more weeks, hence the phrase “100-day cough”. A person may cough so hard that they vomit, break ribs, or become very tired from the effort. Children less than one year old may have little or no cough and instead have periods where they do not breathe. The time between infection and the onset of symptoms is usually seven to ten days. Disease may occur in those who have been vaccinated, but symptoms are typically milder.

Pertussis is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is spread easily through the coughs and sneezes of an infected person. People are infectious from the start of symptoms until about three weeks into the coughing fits. Those treated with antibiotics are no longer infectious after five days. Diagnosis is by collecting a sample from the back of the nose and throat. This sample can then be tested by either culture or by polymerase chain reaction.

Prevention is mainly by vaccination with the pertussis vaccine. Initial immunization is recommended between six and eight weeks of age, with four doses to be given in the first two years of life. Protection from pertussis decreases over time, so additional doses of vaccine are often recommended for older children and adults.

continued: Wikipedia
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Tonneau

A tonneau was originally an open rear passenger compartment, rounded like a barrel, on an automobile and, by extension, a body style incorporating such a compartment. The word is French, meaning ‘cask’ or barrel, cf. “tun”.

Rear entrance tonneau

Early tonneaus normally had a rear-facing hinged door, but single and dual side doors were soon[when?] introduced.

When the street was muddy or dirty the car could be backed up to the curb so tonneau passengers could exit directly onto the sidewalk.

see link for photos
excerpted from: Wikipedia
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“Eruption of Mount Kloet in Java”

On May 19, 1919, an eruption at Kelud killed an estimated 5,000 people, mostly through hot mudflows (also known as “lahars”). More recent eruptions in 1951, 1966, and 1990 have altogether killed another 250 people. Following the 1966 eruption, the Ampera Tunnels were built (top and bottom) on the southwestern side of the crater to reduce (not drain completely) the water of the crater lake and thus reduce the lahar hazard.

see link for 1919 image
excerpted from: Wikipedia
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 63)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 64)