Idaho History Aug 1, 2021

Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic

Part 66

Idaho Newspaper clippings January 1-15, 1920

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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January 1

The Daily Star-Mirror., January 01, 1920, Page 3

19200101DSM1

City News

Mrs. O. W. Beardsley received a telegram announcing the death of Mrs. J. W. Porter at Tacoma. Death was due to tuberculosis, following an attack of influenza last winter. Burial will be made in Walla Walla Sunday. Mrs. Porter formerly lived in Moscow and has many friends here.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 01 Jan. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Cougar Mountain & Lodge, Smiths Ferry, Idaho (1)

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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January 3

Evening Capital News., January 03, 1920, Page 4

19200103ECN1

19200103ECN2What Science Has to Say About New “Deer-Fly Fever”
By Dr. Leonard Keene Hirshberg
A. B., M. A., M. D. (Johns Hopkins University)

Life is present in the universe far and wide. Meteors which land from time to time upon the earth contain fixed, congealed, lava-enclosed forms of animal and vegetable life. It is in this way as well as in others that the human intelligence of mankind has brought together facts which indicate reasonably and logically that Nature has vouchsafed life to the other planets.

Indeed there is a myriad of real live being present around us invisible to the unaided senses, but easily perceptible by means of various indirect senses called instruments of precision. It is by no means an easy task set to himself by a research worker to bring forth to a plain man’s senses the vital reality and presence of particular ones of these living things.

When Kitasato first discovered the plague and influenza bacilli, when Laveran found the animalcules, these and similar definite, plain facts were scouted by many orthodox persons learned only in book knowledge. They called the facts “the germ theory of disease.”

Since that day, typhoid, tuberculosis, pneumonia, bronchitis, lockjaw, rabies, diphtheria, yellow fever and many other diseases have been recognized by their perennial and eternal, inseparable associations with bacilli of one variety or another.

Comes now United States public health officer, Dr. Edward Frances, to confirm his colleagues, Drs. Chapin and McCoy in their discovery of a new germ which causes “deer-fly fever,” a malady that has spread from Utah and has proved fatal.

These investigators have named the germ of this malady “bacterium tularense.” It is the cause of a plague-like infection of rats, squirrels and other rodents, which in turn spreads to the human family.

Deer-fly fever occurs especially among the rural population. It appears to have its source in a small eruption or bite made by an insect of the fly tribe.

The surface bitten becomes sore, sensitive and tender. The inflammation then spreads to nearby glands, which enlarge, become inflamed and may even become full of matter and burst or must be opened.

Fever follows and signs of so-called “blood poisoning” develop. This may last from three to six weeks and mimic typhoid, for which it may then be mistaken.

Something like two dozen patients have been recognized in two years already in one county. Most of these, happily, recovered. However, workers in the United States public health service have begun to make a preventive vaccine of the bacteria and this is expected to stamp out the malady.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 03 Jan. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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A Street in Sugar City, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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January 4

Evening Capital News., January 04, 1920, Page 11

19200104ECN1

19200104ECN2
Pneumonia Takes Greater Toll Than Battle

By M. S. Parker

In the late world war pneumonia killed more American soldiers than were killed in battle. This appalling fact, brought to the attention of the public in a summary published by the general staff, clearly emphasizes again the very important part played by disease in impairing our national efficiency.

In 200 days of the fighting in that war in which approximately 1,400,000 soldiers were engaged, 34,000 [?] men were listed as killed in action. There were over 40,000 deaths from pneumonia during that period. It is estimated that about 25,000 of these were traceable to influenza, the last epidemic of which lasted for about eight weeks.

The very heavy death toll from influenza was not confined to the army, of course. The census bureau obtained reports from forty-six cities, including about one-fifth of this country’s population. In the cities in question 82,000 deaths resulted from the epidemic, most of them from pneumonia. If the same rate was maintained throughout the country the number of deaths must have exceeded 400,000. In the United States, the toll taken by influenza, the disease upon which far too many people looked with more or less indifference or of which they appeared to be unwarrantedly unafraid. This number was nearly four times the number of deaths from every cause that occurred in the army in two years of the war.

It is a fact that must be patent to every thinking person that disease is a far more deadly enemy of mankind than armed conflict. It not only brings suffering and sorrow and desolation but it surely and steadily impairs the efficiency of the nation and tends greatly to pull down its standard of living.

The preservation of the public health is a subject that calls for far more attention on the part of the authorities and the people generally than it has received in the past. It has been well said that “The greatest asset of a nation is the health of its citizens.” As a general rule the individual who does not possess reasonably good health does not accomplish much in the world’s work, for on a good health is based practically everything in life worth while. Guard your health even far more than your most valuable material possessions. Health has no collateral, no substitute. It is a thing above price and should be the first thought of every citizen.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 04 Jan. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Sun Valley, Idaho, from Penney Mountain

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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January 8

The Emmett Index. January 08, 1920, Page 4

19200108EI1

19200108EI2New Vaccine Method Used to Check the Flu

London. — A new method of preparing vaccines, which may result in complete mastery of infectious diseases, is described in the London Lancet by the discoverers, Capt. David Thomson and Capt. David Lees, doctors who served in the British army service. They say they can detoxicate a vaccine, which means that the poison in it can be removed.

“Using the new method I have been able to inject without toxic symptoms doses of vaccine ten to one hundred times greater than was ever dared before, with the result that a greater degree of immunity is developed,” says Doctor Thomson.

Doctor Thomson believes a few doses of a compound detoxicated vaccine given in October and again in January will afford considerable protection from influenza.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 08 Jan. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Sweetwater, Idaho June, 23, 1913 (1)

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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January 12

Evening Capital News., January 12, 1920, Page 1

19200112ECN1

19200112ECN2
Influenza Makes Return To Idaho, At Mountain Home
68 Cases Reported Since Wednesday – City and County Officials Prepare to Combat the Disease

Influenza has broken out at Mountain Home in proportions which may indicate the return of the dread pandemic to Idaho. Sixty-eight cases have developed there since last Wednesday, the first evidence this winter of anything like a serious return of the disease to the state.

Dr. E. E. Laubaugh, director of the public health service bureau in the department of public welfare, went to Mountain Home Sunday to look into the situation. He returned there this afternoon to meet with the mayor, the city council and the county commissioners for the purpose of advising them of the steps that must be taken to halt the disease.

All during the winter reports have been coming in of single cases, and state health officials had begun to feel confident that the state would probably escape the disease this winter in any great proportions.

“Since the outbreak in Mountain Home indicates that there may be a serious return of the disease, we feel that the public should be warned to increase whatever precautions have been taken against the disease,” said Dr. Laubaugh.

“The few main preventative measures which should be followed are: Avoid crowds; get lots of fresh air; avoid handling objects that other persons have handled; wash your hands frequently and keep them from about your face and mouth; cover up your coughs and sneezes; treat every cold as if it were an influenza cold, for it may be.”

The Mountain Home outbreak is of general proportions, persons of all ages being affected, and the disease being in all parts of town, Dr. Laubaugh said.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 12 Jan. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Sunset, Idaho in Shoshone County (1)

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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January 13

Evening Capital News., January 13, 1920, Page 1

19200113ECN1

Mysterious Malady In Oklahoma Town Hits Other Cities
Several Cases of Strange Disease Reported in Shawnee and Muskogee – Physicians Disagree Over Diagnosis.

Oklahoma City, Okla., Jan. 13. — The mysterious malady which attacked 500 persons at Skiatook, Okla., has spread to two other cities, according to reports today. Muskogee and Shawnee reported several cases with symptoms similar to those at Skiatook. Physicians at Skiatook disagreed with the diagnosis of the state health department that the disease was probably typhoid fever. Some doctors advanced the theory that it was a “hang over’ from the influenza epidemic of last year.

Muskogee physicians also differed in their diagnosis of the illness. Several said it was dysentery while others called it gastric influenza.

Additional tests were made today of water taken from mains at Skiatook. Thirteen guinea pigs were given injections of the water and died.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 13 Jan. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Evening Capital News., January 13, 1920, Page 10

19200113ECN2
Family Of Eleven In Boise Have Influenza
No Cases Reported in County Outside of City but Protective Measures Are Urged by Physicians.

The Payton family, composed of Mr. and Mrs. Payton and nine children, ranging in age from two weeks to 20 years, are all down with influenza at their home, 718 McKinley avenue. One of the boys was stricken with the disease last week and by Sunday the entire family was ill.

The disease in the one family is all that has been reported so far in Boise, according to Dr. I. J. Pond, city physician, who was called to the home. There is one other case under suspicion, but as yet it has not been pronounced influenza, although the symptoms are similar to those of the dread disease.

Dr. Pond does not believe that the disease will become prevalent in Boise as it did last winter, but urges caution on the part of the public and that no chances be taken with colds.

Dr. Braxton, county physician, stated this morning that no cases of influenza had been reported to him in Ada county outside of Boise. He had been advised of the one family having the disease in Boise and visited them and pronounced the disease influenza, but stated he know of no other cases.

Both Drs. Pond and Braxton, state health conditions are quite good. Dr. Braxton states there are still quite a number of cases of scarlet fever in the county and he believes most of it came from a section in Canyon county, where the disease was pronounced Rose fever and there was no quarantine put into effect. Dr. Pond states in Boise scarlet fever is diminishing due to timely vaccination and states if vaccination was made compulsory among school children, the disease would soon be stamped out as it is not very bad.

(ibid, page 10)
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Starkey Hot Springs, Washington Co., Idaho ca. 1910 (1)

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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January 14

The Daily Star-Mirror., January 14, 1920, Page 1

19200114DSM1

19200114DSM2
Influenza Breaks Out In South Idaho
Much Alarm Felt Over Large Number Of Cases At Mountain Home

Influenza, the worst plague that ever swept over the United States, has again made its appearance in Idaho in virulent form. Mountain Home has 68 cases and the disease is making its appearance in other localities. Alarm is felt and precautionary measures are urged in all localities. Dr. J. W. Stevenson, county health officer is in receipt of a telegram from the state health office at Boise urging that stringent steps be taken to prevent the disease getting a foothold here and, in case it appears, to control and stamp it out quickly. The telegram, received this morning, says:

“Influenza epidemic in several communities in Idaho. Stringent steps are essential for its control. This office requests a sharp look out for cases with complete and prompt reports. We advocate and will support local authorities and vigorous action.” The telegram was signed by Dr. E. E. Laubaugh, who is director of the public health in Idaho.

Many Cases at Mountain Home.

Boise, Idaho. — Influenza has broken out at Mountain Home in proportions which may indicate the return of the dreaded epidemic to Idaho. Sixty-eight cases have developed there since last Wednesday, the first evidence this winter of anything like a serious return of the disease to the state.

Dr. E. E. Laubaugh, director of the public health service bureau in the department of public welfare, went to Mountain Home Sunday to look into the situation. He returned this morning to meet the mayor, the city council and the county commissioners to advise them of the steps that must be taken to halt the disease.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 14 Jan. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Star, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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January 15

The Emmett Index. January 15, 1920, Page 1

19200115EI1

19200115EI2To Parents

There are a few cases of influenza in this community. Are you willing to help fight this epidemic? If so, take the following precaution: Have the children use Dobell’s gargle twice a day. If unable to procure this immediately, use salt and water – a teaspoonful of salt to a glass of warm water – Minnie C. Pipher, school nurse.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 15 Jan. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Nezperce Herald., January 15, 1920, Page 1

19200115NH1

Death of Mrs. Hiram Lentz

Mrs. Hiram Lentz, 38 years old, died of tuberculosis yesterday afternoon at the family home on Thirteenth street near the high school.

The funeral will be held this afternoon at 2 o’clock at the Vassar undertaking chapel, and burial will take place in the Lewiston cemetery. Rev. Green, of the Methodist church, will conduct the services.

Mrs. Lentz is survived by her husband and two children, Lila, aged 10, and an 8-months-old baby. She contracted tuberculosis last February following an attack of influenza.

The family moved to Lewiston last fall from Clarkston, where they had resided six years. They went to Clarkston from Steele, Idaho. A sister, Mrs. Joseph Brock, lives in Clarkston, and another sister, Mrs. Pearl C. Lacy, lives at Peck.

– Sunday’s Lewiston Tribune

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 15 Jan. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Spencer, Idaho, November 20, 1913

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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Further Reading

[1918] Influenza on a Naval Transport

By W.F. McAnally, Lieutenant, Medical Corps, United States Navy.

During the past six months we have treated over 100 cases of influenza and pseudo-influenza. These occurred in the proportion of about 30 per cent of the former and about 60 per cent of the latter. At no time did the disease tend to assume an epidemic form, which fact is possibly due to the thorough prophylaxis which is insisted upon. A typical case of influenza occurs after an incubation period of one to three days. The attack is generally marked by a chill of greater or less severity, followed by fever ranging from 101° to 104° or higher. The patient complains of aching pains in the trunk and extremities, headache, and general malaise. He looks and feels sick. Upon examination, in practically every case of our series, there has been found a more or less severe inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane and tonsillar rings; in some few cases there has been a distinct streptococcic tonsillitis, which was generally very obstinate to treatment and persisted even after the original influenza had cleared up entirely. These symptoms generally appeared on the third or fourth day of the disease.

The treatment has been generally very satisfactory and was practically the same in all of our cases, i.e., rest in bed, free catharsis, Dobell’s solution or a 1 per cent solution of chlorazene as a gargle every two hours, aspirin grs. x and sodium bicarbonate grs. xx t. i. d., together with the subcutaneous injection of influenza bacterin mixed (Mulford), a primary does of 1/2 c.c. being given upon admission and followed at four-day intervals by two or three secondary doses of 1 c.c. each.

Following one, or in some cases two, injections of influenza bacterin and the general treatment as outlined, most of the typical cases were generally discharged to duty in three or four days. Injections of 1/2 c.c. of the bacterin upon admission, followed at four-day intervals by injections of 1 c.c. has been productive almost invariably of exceedingly good results. From one to six hours after the primary injection there is a more or less severe exacerbation of the symptoms, but we have yet to see a case in which a serious reaction occurred.

In the second type of cases, which we have called pseudoinfluenzal for want of a better name, our treatment has not given such good results, although they were seemingly the result of a much milder infection. The following case illustrates this type:

C– Frank, admitted to the sick bay July 15, 1918, complaining of sore throat, slight headache, and muscular pains; temperature, 100.4°; there was a slight inflammation of the nasal and pharyngeal mucous membranes; heart and respiration normal.

Treatment: Bed; magnesium sulphate, oz. 11/2, aspirin, grs. x, sodium bicarbonate, grs. xx t.i.d.; Dobell’s gargle; silver nitrate (10 per cent) locally to throat t.i.d. Influenza bacterin 1/2 c.c. was given subcutaneously upon admission. There was apparently no reaction after the bacterin injection.

July 16, 1918: There is very little change; temperature, 99.8°; patient still feels badly, with aching pains in legs and headache.

July 19, 1918: Improving slowly; temperature ranging from 99.8° to 100.2°; tonsillar rings and tonsils inflamed; influenza bacterin 1 c.c. injected s.c.; no reaction; no muscular pains nor headache.

July 23, 1918: Discharged to duty. No symptoms other than a slight redness of the tonsillar rings; slight variations in temperature from normal to 99.3°. Treatment continued.

This case was mild throughout; there were never any severe muscular pains nor headache; fever was low, and the respiratory symptoms were not marked. It and all the cases of this type resembled influenza very closely, except in the severity of the symptoms; furthermore, all these case of pseudoinfluenza give very little or no reaction to the influenza bacterin, and the course of the disease has not been influenced by it.

In our series of over 100 cases careful records were kept in only about 25 instances. While this number is entirely too small to be a basis for any definite statements, and while the cases were not worked out bacteriologically in the laboratory, it seems that we are justified in the following conclusions:

1. There are two varieties of infection giving practically the same train of symptoms, the only difference being in the severity of the process, one of these being influenza, with the classical symptoms and due to a specific infection. The other, pseudoinfluenza, seems to occupy a position midway between a “cold in the head” and influenza and is not due to the same infectious agent.

2. That for the treatment of influenza we have a specific bacterin, which in our hands and when given in a primary does of 1/2 c.c. subcutaneously, followed by one to three secondary doses of 1 c.c. each, has given very satisfactory results, patients rarely remaining in the sick bay over three to five days. Also, that this specific bacterin has no appreciable effect upon cases of pseudoinfluenzal type.

The above results would have been more satisfactory had we been able to follow up our cases bacteriologically, and it is hoped that some one will report a series of similar cases in which this data will be available.

source: Naval History and Heritage Command
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Kitasato Shibasaburō

Baron Kitasato Shibasaburō, January 29 [O.S. 17 January], 1853 – June 13, 1931) was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist. He is remembered as the co-discoverer of the infectious agent of bubonic plague in Hong Kong during an outbreak in 1894, almost simultaneously with Alexandre Yersin.

Kitasato was nominated for the first annual Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1901. Kitasato and Emil von Behring, working together in Berlin in 1890, announced the discovery of diphtheria antitoxin serum. Von Behring was awarded the 1901 Nobel Prize because of this work, but Kitasato was not.

continued: Wikipedia
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Vaccines

Many vaccines were developed and used during the 1918–1919 pandemic. The medical literature was full of contradictory claims of their success; there was apparently no consensus on how to judge the reported results of these vaccine trials. … The most widely used, and historically the most interesting, was the vaccine produced by Edward C. Rosenow of the Mayo Clinic’s Division of Experimental Bacteriology. Rosenow argued that the exact composition of a vaccine intended to prevent pneumonia had to match the distribution of the lung-infecting microbes then in circulation. For that reason, he insisted that the composition of his vaccine had to be frequently readjusted. His initial vaccine consisted of killed bacteria … He later dropped Pfeiffer’s bacillus entirely. The Mayo Clinic distributed Rosenow’s vaccine widely to physicians in the upper Midwest. … McCoy arranged his own trial of the Rosenow vaccine produced by the Laboratories of the Chicago Health Department. He and his associates worked in a mental asylum in California where they could keep all subjects under close observation. They immunized alternate patients younger than age 41 on every ward, completing the last immunization 11 days before the local outbreak began. Under these more controlled conditions, Rosenow’s vaccine offered no protection whatsoever. McCoy’s article appeared as a one-column report in the December 14, 1918, edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)

excerpted from: The State of Science, Microbiology, and Vaccines Circa 1918
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 63)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 64)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 65)