Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic
Idaho Newspaper Clippings February 11-12, 1920
Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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The Challis Messenger., February 11, 1920, Page 1
Quarantine Established Wednesday Evening, Feb. 4th
Mail Service Discontinued For Two Days
Postoffice Department Denies Knowledge of any Such Order to Mackay Postmaster. Local Postmaster Received no Order to Hold Outgoing Mail But Contractor Hansen Failed to Take Mail Out One Morning.
Last Wednesday evening a quarantine was established at Willow creek summit against infected districts and as a result the people of the entire Salmon river section of Custer county were with outmail for two days.
On Thursday morning the editor called up Mackay postmaster W. A. Criswell and was informed by him that he had received instructions from the Postoffice Department at Washington on February 2nd (two days before the quarantine was established) to withhold all Challis mail until quarantine was lifted. A meeting of business men was held and the following telegram was sent to the Department at Washington:
“Mackay postmaster claims order from Department to withhold all Challis mail. Challis section under quarantine AGAINST influenza, effective February 4th at 6 p.m. Uninterrupted service last year under same conditions. County Health Officer Recommends mail service be continued at once and has made no request for its discontinuance. This district is NOT infected. C. L. Kirtley Health Officer, Custer County.”
On Friday afternoon telegraphic advices from Washington informed us that the Mackay postmaster had been ordered to release the Challis mail at once and Saturday evening we received mail which had been held up at Mackay for approximately 66 hours.
Local postmaster E. W. Keyes, informed the contractor’s agent here that she had no orders to withhold outgoing mail, but despite this fact the contractor. W. V. Hansen, neglected to take the mail out one morning and Friday evening a committee of citizens called on our postmaster and asked that she take the necessary steps to have the mail leave here Saturday morning. Mrs. Keyes called up the contractor at Makay and insisted that the mail leave according to schedule the next (Saturday) morning. Mr. Hansen, whom we are informed, had withdrawn all his stage equipment used on the Mackay route except one truck, instructed his local stage agent, Nickerson, to get the mail out next morning. Thus we were deprived of our incoming mail service two days and the outbound service one day, causing great inconvenience to the citizens of not only this valley, but of Pahsamaroi and the upper country as well.
Last Monday afternoon the following telegram to Dr. Kirtley was received:
“Immediately upon receipt of your telegram took matter up with postoffice service authorities and was advised that postmaster at Mackay had no orders from here to withhold Challis mail. I was assured that he would be communicated with and erroneous impression corrected. Have not heard further from you so assume that service has been restored.”
We are, for sufficient reasons, withholding the signature on this telegram, but the same can be seen upon request.
Interfering with Uncle Sam’s mail service is a serious offense and an endeavor to fix the guilt upon any person or persons responsible for the discontinuance of our mail service is being made so we are informed and a complaint and warrants will be sworn out against those found to be responsible and the matter pushed to a finish.
Such an effort is child’s play – Ouija board stuff – and is extremely ridiculous as anyone, who would give the matter any thought would readily see that the Postoffice Department would not discontinue mail service into a district which was not infected unless the residents there demanded it.
Many Cases Of Flu In Our County
An epidemic of flu is raging in various sections of Custer county.
At Mackay 30 cases are reported and we are informed that others cases are known to exist there which have not been reported by the doctor in charge.
At White Knob the epidemic is said to be raging. Some cases are reported at Barton and near Chilly and several cases are reported near Clayton and in Pahsamaroi.
A quarantine has been established at the Wats bridge and that road will be open to travel only between the hours of 8 a.m. and 10 p.m.
There are no cases of flu in Round valley at the present time, although Bill Vogel is under quarantine on suspicion.
Dr. Kirtley has done remarkably well in keeping the epidemic out of this valley when we are hemmed in with the disease on all sides.
Bert Williams, who has been critically ill with the flu at the Ramshorn mine is reported as on the improve now while Roy Tracht is reported as seriously ill.
By everyone carefully adhering to the quarantine regulations the epidemic will soon be under control and the disease stamped out.
source: The Challis Messenger. (Challis, Idaho), 11 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Challis Messenger., February 11, 1920, Page 2
Idahoan Has Long Sleep
Buhl, Idaho. — Bernard Sandgren, 23 years of age, son of Mr. and Mrs. M. Sandgren, residing a mile north of this city, has been in a somnambulant state of mind since January 20, following an attack of influenza.
(ibid, page 2)
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The Challis Messenger., February 11, 1920, Page 5
Items About People You Know
To Pahsamaroi — Dr. Kirtley went over to Pahsamaroi the later part of the week for a conference with Dr. Hanmer, county physician for Lemhi county relative to the flu situation. Dr. Hanmer assured Dr. Kirtley that the board of health of Lemhi county, and he, as its executive official, were heartily in accord with our quarantine and that the county commissioners of Lemhi county had instructed him to use every effort to keep the disease out of Salmon this year. We are not, it seems, entirely alone in our desire for a rigid quarantine against infected districts.
Taking Census — J. A. Hirrington and J. L. Riley began last Monday to count noses for Uncle Sam in the Salmon river section of Custer county.
(ibid, page 5)
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The Challis Messenger., February 11, 1920, Page 8
County Health Officer
To the Public Generally;
Whereas a contagious and infectious disease, known as Influenza has again made its appearance in many states and particularly in certain parts of Custer county, public health demands that prompt and efficient measures be taken to prevent the spread of said disease to those portions of Custer county not yet infected.
1st. Now, therefore, it is ordered by the County Health Officer of Custer county that all of that portion of Custer county which drains into Salmon River shall and is hereby declared to be a quarantine district for the purpose of preventing the introduction of Influenza into the said district. Said quarantine district and this order creating the same shall remain in full force until the further order of the Board of Health of said Custer county, Idaho.
2nd. All persons are prohibited from entering said district without a permit from the County Health Officer.
3rd. The County Health Officer is hereby authorized and empowered to appoint as many quarantine guards and to create as many quarantine districts as may be necessary to enforce these rules and regulations.
4th. The County Health Officer of Custer County, Idaho, shall cause to be printed suitable permits and quarantine cards in harmony with law and these regulations and place a sufficient number of said permits and quarantine cards at each quarantine station with the quarantine guards stationed there to meet all such necessary demands. It is hereby and herein further ordered and directed that the County Health Officer shall provide all quarantine guards at each quarantine station with “yellow flags” of suitable size, to be used by said quarantine guards in placing or causing same to be placed on the vehicle in which said person or persons are traveling.
5th. All persons coming into said district and desiring to remain therein shall be quarantined for a period of four days, at the home of such person or persons, in case they have a home in said district, and if not, then in some suitable place prepared and designated by the County Health Officer.
6th. All persons have business to transact in said district may enter said district and attend to [?] business, and depart again from said district; but all homes or other places to which such person are allowed to stop and enter must be quarantined for a period of four days; such person or persons so entering under the provisions of this [Order?] shall stop at the first quarantine station on the road [?], that such person or persons enter said quarantine district, and procure a written permit therefor; said permit shall direct such person or persons to travel the most direct public highway to and from his or her, or their homes or place where they seek to go, without stopping; and that each home of place where such person or persons shall go or stop, shall be quarantined by the placing of a proper quarantine card up in a conspicuous place on said residence or place where such person or persons shall go or stop as aforesaid; said quarantine card shall be applied such person or persons by said quarantine, such quarantine to be and remain in full force and effect for a period of four days from and after such person or persons shall so enter as aforesaid; and in the event any such person or persons or others in said home shall become afflicted with said disease, then in such case, said quarantine of said home or place shall be and remain in full force and virtue until ordered discontinued by said County Health Officer. It is further hereby and herein provided that all persons entering said quarantine district as aforesaid, shall place in a conspicuous place on the vehicle in which they travel a “yellow flag” and keep said flag thereon for a period of four days provided they remain in said quarantine district for such period of time; said flag to be supplied by the quarantine guard.
7th. All persons desiring continuous passage through said district shall be granted such privilege, but such person or persons shall first procure from such quarantine guard a permit and flag therefor, and all homes and other places in which they may be permitted to stop and enter shall be quarantined for a period of four days, as provided in Rule Sixth hereof.
8th. The County Health Officer is hereby empowered and directed to cause to be printed large quarantine cards to be posted up in a conspicuous place at each quarantine station so created as aforesaid, which said quarantine card shall correctly describe the boundaries of the Quarantine District hereby created.
9th. Every person or persons, company or corporation violating any of the provisions of this Order will be prosecuted as in such case made and provided.
An emergency existing therefore, this Order shall be and is in full force and effect from the date hereof.
Penalty for violation of this Order is $50.00 fine or imprisonment in the county jail for ninety days or by both such fine and imprisonment.
Dated at Challis, Idaho, this 4th day of February, 1920.
(ibid, page 8)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., February 11, 1920, Page 1
Anniversary Week Of The Boy Scouts
This week is the tenth anniversary of the organization of the Boy Scouts of America and National Good Turn week. Many of the big magazines are giving space to the Scout Good Turn and with them we are urging that everybody do at least one good turn to some one else this week.
The Moscow Boy Scouts have been delayed in their anniversary week plans on account of the influenza but as far as conditions will allow they intend to carry out the program. …
Glee Club Concert Has Been Postponed
Due to the influenza quarantine now in effect at the University of Idaho and the illness of Russell T. Scott, manager and baritone soloist, who is suffering with influenza, the much looked for University of Idaho Male Glee club concert to have been held in the auditorium Friday night has been indefinitely postponed until health conditions are better.
After a triumphant tour of southern Idaho where the club concerts were greeted with crowded and enthusiastic houses, the Friday night concert was looked forward to with considerable pleasure.
source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 11 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., February 11, 1920, Page 2
Miss Lavalle Cone came home from Moscow Monday. She will remain at home here until she entirely recovers from an attack of the flu.
Considerable sickness is reported around Princeton. Two families are recovering from the flu and there is considerable colds and sore throat prevalent among the children.
Art Henderson and Orvis Morgan are both here from the Bovill hospital convalescing from the flu.
(ibid, page 2)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., February 11, 1920, Page 4
Worley Funeral Held
The funeral of J. W. Worley was held Monday afternoon at 2 o’clock, conducted by Rev. H. O. Perry at Grice’s chapel. Only a few friends of the deceased were permitted to attend. Interment was made in the Moscow cemetery. Mrs. Worley and and her children, who have been ill are slowly improving.
Coffee Importation Increase
During the last year the imports of coffee increased 237,000,000 pounds in quantity and $147,000,000,000 in value.
(ibid, page 4)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., February 11, 1920, Page 5
Mrs. M. P. Martinson, who has been very ill of pneumonia at her home on Polk street, is slowly improving. Mrs. McGillan is the attendant nurse.
G. F. Savage is convalescent after a severe attack of influenza.
Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Stone are both ill of influenza at their home on north Jefferson. Mrs. Stone’s parents, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Butler from east of Moscow are in to assist in nursing and Mrs. Butler has been ill. All are improving except Mr. Stone, who is quite ill.
E. J. Rosenberg arrived this morning from Spokane to visit his family. Mrs. Rosenberg, who teaches in the public schools is confined to her home by illness.
Mrs. C. J. McCollister is seriously ill of pneumonia at the home of Mr. and Mrs. L. E. Brooks. Mr. and Mrs. McCollister whose home is in the Nez Perce, were in Moscow to visit friends and relatives, when Mrs. McCollister was taken ill of influenza about three weeks ago. Mrs. McCollister is a sister of Pat Perrine, a senior at the university.
Mrs. E. A. Keane has received work from Spokane that Mrs. Harry M. Driscoll is improving, after a very serious attack of pneumonia.
Mrs. W. H. Correll left today for Culdesac, called by the illness of her sons, of influenza.
Alton Cornielson, high school student, has recovered from the “flu” and is back in school again.
Mr. B. P. Luvaas was called to Genesee by the illness of his son, Lyman Luvaas, who had been taken ill with pneumonia, but later reports show a slight improvement.
The son and daughter of N. G. Gilbertson, east of Moscow, who have been very ill of pneumonia, following influenza, are reported a little better today but their condition is still causing grave concern.
Mrs. M. K. Bue Is Influenza Victim
Mrs. M. K. Bue died at her home in Enterprise, Oregon, last Saturday morning of pneumonia.
The body has been brought here for interment and the funeral will be held Thursday afternoon at 2 o’clock at the Norwegian Lutheran church.
Mrs. Bue, whose maiden name was Marie Croghan, made her home in Moscow for several years previous to her marriage and was actively identified with the Norwegian Lutheran church of this city. She leaves besides her husband, who is a brother of Mrs. C. B. Westover, three children, one of whom was an infant two days old at the time of her death, one sister in Enterprise, three brothers in the east and hosts of relatives at different points, many of whom are living here in the west and among whom may be mentioned the Nordby families of Genesee, the Luvass, Ostroot and Dahl families of Moscow.
Rev. F. I. Schmidt will conduct the funeral, and all friends will be permitted to attend as the body will not be taken to the church.
Texas Whiskey to Be Pure
Austin, Texas. — Whiskey, under the new prohibition law, is classed as a drug, and R. H. Hoffman, pure food and drug commissioner, has announced that he is “going after” retail druggists who are watering their whiskey. The law requires that medicinal whiskey be 44 to 50 per cent ethyl alcohol, he said, and druggists are now paying $1.70 a gallon, plus a $3 tax, for whiskey and selling it for $2 a pint, or $16 a gallon. Mr. Hoffman is of the opinion that they make enough profit without adding water to their stock.
A Two Cent Honor
A bill has been introduced in the senate to restore the coinage of a two-cent coin to be known as the Roosevelt piece.
(ibid, page 5)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., February 11, 1920, Page 6
Cora Correspondence; School Closed Monday
Cora — Mrs. I. S. Miller is very ill with influenza. Mr. Miller’s brother, Ham, visited him a few days last week.
Fritz Leistner and Mrs. Leistner’s brother Marvin McMannama, have been very ill with influenza, therefore school closed last Monday but is expected to open again this Wednesday.
Florence Kidwell came home for a few days but hearing that the Moscow high school was ready to open again, she returned to Moscow Sunday.
Howard Wilcox and Gertrude Farnam came home Thursday, the Garfield schools being closed.
Lewis Burson received word that his wife, who is visiting in North Dakota, is very seriously ill.
(ibid, page 6)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., February 11, 1920, Page 7
Influenza Ban Still In Effect On Campus
No Social Events May Be Held Without Specific Authority
The influenza ban is still on and all students should remember that no public or social events may be held without specific permission or authority from Professor H. T. Lewis. Professor Lewis said he cannot guarantee any more basket ball games, but the ban was lifted for the Willamette game Monday night.
An interesting feature of the epidemic this year is the large number of cases among faculty members. Last year the faculty escaped with but one or two cases. Professor Conwell has suffered a relapse and is still ill. Professor Axtell was quite sick but is out now.
Thirty Student Cases
There have been from 30 to 35 students who have had the influenza, and new cases are being reported right along. Lyle Colburn and Carl Patch are ill at the S. A. E. house.
The Hutton home was opened for a girls’ hospital with Irene McKay and Miss Brown, nurse, in charge. Five patients are the most to be confined there at one time.
The “Y” hut was taken over for an emergency hospital for the boys. Two men are ill there now.
In his call for volunteer nurses and assistants Professor Lewis had very good responses from the Chi Delta Phi, Gamma Phi Beta, Delta Gamma, Kappa Sigma, Sigma Nu and Phi Delta houses.
During the epidemic all individual health claims have been suspended and the money spent for hospital supplies and overhead expenses. The health claims will be established again as soon as the ban is lifted.
(ibid, page 7)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., February 11, 1920, Page 8
President Lindley is Ill
Dr. E. H. Lindley, president of the University of Idaho, is confined to his home on First street with what is feared is a mild case of influenza. His condition is not regarded as serious and his many friends are hoping for his early recovery. Dr. Lindley was forced to cancel his engagement to speak at the annual banquet of the Young Men’s Republican Club, of Seattle, on Lincoln’s birthday, tomorrow night.
(ibid, page 8)
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Cutting Wood at Taney, Idaho (1)
Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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The Grangeville Globe. February 12, 1920, Page 4
Can Prescribe Whiskey
Doctors and Druggists Required to Secure Permits
The Bureau of Internal Revenue has issued a statement relative to the regulations governing the use and procurement of intoxicating liquors for medical purposes.
Both the physician who prescribes and the pharmacist or druggist who sells liquor for medical purposes must have a permit. Application for the permits should be made to the Federal prohibition director. In States where prohibition directors have not been appointed application should be made to the Collector of Internal Revenue. In the case of residents of the District of Columbia application should be made to Collector of Internal Revenue, Joshua W. Miles, Baltimore, Md.
Blank forms – 1403 – for prescribing liquors are being printed and distributed among Federal prohibition directors assistant directors and collectors of internal revenue. Where such blanks are not yet available, physicians holding permits may issue prescriptions on blanks regularly used by them.
Following is the Bureau’s statement:
“Any physician duly licensed to practice medicine and actively engaged in the practice of such profession may obtain a permit to prescribe intoxicating liquor and may then issue prescriptions for distilled spirits, wines or certain alcoholic medicinal preparations for medical purposes for persons upon whom his in attendance in cases where he believes that the use of liquor as a medicine is necessary. In no case may spirituous liquor be prescribed by one or more physicians in excess of one pint for the same person within any period of ten days.
“No specific limitation is placed upon the quantity of wines which may be prescribed for medical purposes. The regulations merely require that no prescription be issued for a greater quantity than is necessary for use as a medicine. Physicians who do not hold permits to prescribe intoxicating liquor are under no circumstances permitted to issue prescriptions.
“All prescriptions for intoxicating liquor are required to be written on prescription blanks prescribed by the regulations (Form 1403), and to be provided by the Bureau, except that in emergency cases physicians may use their regular prescription blanks provided the same contain the date of issue, amount prescribed, to whom issued, and directions for use, stating the amount and frequency of dose.Pending an adequate supply of the official blanks being printed and distributed to directors and acting directors, physicians holding permits have been authorized to issue prescriptions on blanks regularly used by them.
“Prescriptions for intoxicating liquor may be filled only by registered pharmacists who hold permits authorizing them to do so, or who are employed by retail druggists holding such permits. Pharmacists and druggists holding such permits will procure their supplies of intoxicating liquor from manufacturer or other persons holding permits authorizing them to sell liquor.
“Persons to whom prescriptions for intoxicating liquor are issued by physicians may procure the liquor prescribed through pharmacists or druggists holding permits without obtaining a permit.
“Physicians may also obtain permits entitling them to procure not more than six quarts of distilled spirits, wines or certain alcoholic preparations during any calendar year for administration to their patients in emergency cases where delay in procuring liquor on a prescription through a pharmacist might have serious consequence to the patient.
“Provision is also made in the regulations for issuing permits to hospitals and sanatoriums to enable them to procure intoxicating liquor to be administered for medicinal purposes to patients at such institutions and also for issuing permits to manufacturing industrial, and other establishments maintaining first aid stations, authorizing them to procure liquor for administration to their employees for medical purposes in emergency cases.
“All applications for permits above referred to should be made on Form 1404 in triplicate and forwarded to the local Collector of Internal Revenue.
“Section 27 of the National Prohibition Act provides that any intoxicating liquor seized under section 25 or section 26 thereof, and subject to be destroyed, may upon application of the United States Attorney, be ordered by the court to be delivered to any person holding a permit to purchase liquor. All liquor seized under such sections of law may be diverted through regular channels for medicinal purposes under the procedure above described.
“Any intoxicating liquor seized under Federal Law prior to October 28, 1919, if not claimed within sixty days from such date, may likewise upon order of the court be delivered to any person holding a permit to purchase and be diverted to medicinal or other non-beverage purposes.”
Complaints of exorbitant charges for liquor for medicinal purposes which place dispensers thereof in the class of profiteers will be investigated.”
source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 12 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Grangeville Globe. February 12, 1920, Page 5
School Opens Monday
Unless something unforeseen occurs the schools will open for business Monday morning. All the teachers afflicted with the influenza have fully recovered and it is expected an attendance near normal will prevail.
Will Visit California
Mr. and Mrs. W. N. Knox will leave some time next week for a few weeks or a month’s sojourn at points in California. Mr. Knox recently got out after a severe attack of the influenza and it is expected the California climate will assist him in recuperating and aid his health generally.
(ibid, page 5)
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Jerome County Times., February 12, 1920, Page 2
Senator Johnson Flu Victim
Washington. — Senator Hiram Johnson of California is ill at his home here from influenza, it has been learned. The senator has been confined to his bed, but it is not believed his condition is serious.
source: Jerome County Times. (Jerome, Idaho), 12 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Payette Enterprise., February 12, 1920, Page 1
Personal And Local Mention
The Flu must have made its appearance at the Will Griggs home some time during Tuesday night. At least there was a ten pound boy arrived early Wednesday morning.
Mr. A. J. Vanderford being sick and unable to be at his place of business this week, C. F. Callen is janitor, head salesman and the whole push at the Chevrolet sales room.
Little Charles Woodward, son of Dr. J. C. Woodward, was suddenly taken last Saturday with what at first seemed to be infantile paralysis. His condition for a time appeared to be very critical, but later development proved his case not to be as first indicated and his condition not so serious. He is improving nicely and it is believed he will soon be fully recovered.
Mr. Langdon, proprietor of the Commercial Hotel wishes to repudiate the statement made in the Commissioners proceedings regarding smallpox at the Commercial, as there has been no cases to his knowledge.
source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 12 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Payette Enterprise., February 12, 1920, Page 4
How to Avoid Influenza
There is one point regarding influenza on which the medical profession is in agreement. This is stated by the Journal of the American Medical Association as follows:
“The pulmonary complications of influenza, which make it so serious a disease, may be avoided to a large extent by rest in bed at the onset of the illness. Influenza itself is not usually fatal, and general insistence on the importance of rest and warmth at the onset of the illness will accomplish more than all else in preventing complications and reducing fatalities from the disease.”
(ibid, page 4)
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Payette Enterprise., February 12, 1920, Page 5
Mrs. F. M. Burtch
The E. E. Holt Family, who have been ill, are much better.
The George McKeown family has been on the sick list, but all are improving at present.
Those who have been on the sick list but who are improving at present, are, the L. J. Meeker family, the Hooker family, the George Eldredge family, the Percy Frank family, Harry Powell and little daughter, Mr. Solterbeck and M. W. Hezeltine.
The sick folks at the Rands home are improving slowly.
The Whitley Bottom School is closed this week on account of so much sickness.
John Murdock is among those who were taken ill this week.
Mrs. Zane Schubert and Mrs. L. H. Eby have been quite ill the past week.
There will be no meeting of the Fruitland Mother’s Circle until March.
Miss Elsie Bayer came home from Caldwell Saturday on account of the illness of one of her teachers.
Both school and churches have been closed the past two weeks in the effort to stamp out the present outbreak of Flu in the community.
A. M. Carpenter and wife are on the sick list this week.
Mr. James Deal is recovering from his illness at the present writing.
The Methodist people very kindly have loaned the Bungalow, and the ladies of the community have fitted it up as a temporary hospital for the care of the sick.
Mr. H. B. Strawn is on the sick list this week.
Clarence B. Griner
Clarence B. Griner who has been working here through the packing season, died on the morning of February 9th from pneumonia, following influenza. His entire family were ill and feeling that he must keep up in order to care for his loved ones, he heroically ministered to them until compelled to cease. He was born in Danville, Illinois, on March 25, 1887. On May 20, 1907 he was married to Miss Zora Jones and to this union five children were born, three boys and two girls. All but one survive him although at the time of his death two little daughters were lying near his bedside critically ill. In 1914 he took up a homestead near Ironside, Oregon, where he lived until coming to Fruitland last September. His father, Daniel Griner, is expected on Thursday from Illinois and arrangements for interment will be deferred until his arrival. The sympathy of the entire community is extended to the bereaved family.
Oran C. Rands
Oran C. Rands was born at Tripp, S. D. on January 22, 1885, and departed this life on February 3, 1920 at the home of his parents, Mr. and Mrs. John Rands, at Fruitland, Idaho. The cause of his illness was pneumonia following an attack of influenza. He is survived by a father, mother, two brothers and other relatives and many friends. Only last week his brother Franklin succumbed to the same disease. The sympathy of the community is extended to the sorrowing relatives.
(ibid, page 5)
There was almost a 1921 Theodore Roosevelt 2 cent piece
Well worn Copper 03 May 2019
Following the 1919 death of Theodore Roosevelt a bill was almost passed which would have created a Roosevelt two-and-a-half cent piece. The proposal gathered support in Congress, and by 1921 had been modified to a 2 cent coin, which was believed to help bookkeeping and accounting. The coin was to be struck in a mixture of 95% zinc and 5% copper. If this sounds familiar to anyone, it is the exact composition of our current cent! There is a great article in the June 1921 issue of The Numismatist debating the merits of such a piece. While many wanted to honor Roosevelt, there were some who felt his likeness would have been belittled on such a minor coin. And particularly since Roosevelt did so much to improve American coinage in his lifetime, the thought of placing his likeness on a zinc coin would have dishonored him. Apparently it was well known that a zinc/copper mixture would appear silvery at first, but quickly blacken once circulated. Eventually the bill died and nothing became of it. And Theodore Roosevelt would have to wait until his image was placed on the reverse of a 2016 quarter.
source: American Numismatic Association
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Mandatory masks, shuttered theatres and confusing rules: The 1918 Spanish flu pandemic and its similarities with today
Tu Thanh Ha And James Keller December 28, 2020 Updated February 3, 2021
Like contemporary public-health officers who have become household names, the Spanish flu gave prominence to the early pioneers of preventive medicine such as Dr. Hastings.
He is recognized today as a key figure who improved the city’s sanitation in the early 20th century, reducing infant mortality and eradicating typhoid and tuberculosis.
Near retirement as a hospital physician, he turned to public health, spurred by the memory of a daughter who died of typhoid fever after she drank tainted raw milk. He started campaigning for pasteurization and better inspections of milk.
He became Toronto’s medical health officer in 1910, saying on his appointment that “I am anxious to make Toronto the banner city of the Dominion in the matter of health.”
He held the post for two decades. He advocated medical inspections at school to contain diphtheria and scarlet fever. Seeing that city officials revamped plumbing systems but still let sewage disposal taint the water supply, he complained in a speech that “they strain at a gnat and swallow a camel”
Like some other prominent Canadians at the time, he believed in eugenics. He warned that “the subnormal are producing two or three times as rapidly as the mentally normal,” and wanted to prevent “the spread and multiplication of worthless members of society.”
He retired in 1931, hailed as a man who had made Toronto more salubrious. But despite his skills, his handling of the Spanish flu was limited by the knowledge of the time.
Cures And Vaccines
Although Dr. Hastings warned people against squandering money on remedies of dubious value against the flu, stores ran out of menthol, camphor and lozenges. Makers of syrups, laxative, quinine tablets or meat extracts also claimed their products helped ward the flu.
During the war, the sale of spirits was restricted in much of Canada. One exception was liquor prescribed for medical reasons. By 1919, Ontario doctors had penned more than half a million prescriptions for whiskey. Police had to keep order as people lined up outside dispensaries selling liquor.
Meanwhile, Canadian researchers were part of the worldwide effort to isolate the flu strain and immunize the population.
A Queen’s University bacteriologist, Guilford Reed, tested a vaccine on 200 volunteers. The Connaught Laboratories, then part of the University of Toronto, produced another vaccine and shipped out thousands of doses to hospitals and the military.
The Globe described those scientists as “working for humanity.”
“In the solitude of their laboratories, they labour with germs and poisons,” The Globe reported. “They do this for no personal reward. Their discoveries never yield them great riches. … But they carry on that life may be safer and better for those about them, and for those who come after them.”
Those vaccines had a key shortcoming: Scientists at the time didn’t know that a virus, rather than larger bacteria, caused influenza. Nevertheless, modern researchers say those vaccines helped by reducing lethal bacterial complications in flu patients.
Sisters Of Service
As flu cases spiked up, it became clear the health care system would not be able to cope. Many nurses and doctors were overseas for the war. Others became sick, leaving hospitals short staffed. Many victims died at home without ever receiving medical care.
The Ontario government responded by mobilizing volunteer nurses as part of a new organization: Sisters of Service, or S.O.S. An Oct. 15 story announced a “new army to fight the flu,” with 60 women signing up during the first meeting at the legislature. As many as 2,000 volunteer nurses eventually joined the fight.
Margaret Patterson, a Toronto doctor who recently returned from fighting the bubonic plague in India, led the training effort. She held daily lectures and pamphlets with her lessons were distributed across the province.
Three of her lectures were printed in The Globe, addressed “to young lady volunteers.” They detailed instructions on monitoring and treating the symptoms, using household materials. “We are called upon to meet an emergency, a very old disease that is comparatively new to the present generation,” one of the lectures said.
Sisters of Service was part of a network of women’s organizations that rallied to respond to the Spanish flu, providing nursing services, making supplies such as pneumonia jackets to keep patients’ lungs warm and cooking for the sick. Those groups also included the Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire, who still operate today as IODE Canada.
Residents of Okak, an Inuit community on Labrador’s northern coast, are shown circa 1908. A decade later, more than three-quarters of Okak’s population would be wiped out by the influenza pandemic, which had been brought to them by the same Moravian missionaries who encouraged them to settle in places like Okak.
Courtesy Of Them Days / Alice Perrault Collection
Chief Joseph Davis was among thousands of First Nations soldiers who enlisted to serve in the war.
A trapper from the tiny Brunswick House First Nation near Chapleau, Ont., he sailed out for Europe, leaving behind his wife, Angeline, and three young daughters.
He came home in January, 1919, to find out that the flu had killed two of his children.
His wife had to travel more than 50 kilometres by canoe through ice-covered waters to reach Chapleau. One child was already dead. The other was gravely ill and died in hospital.
An earlier Globe article in November described another Indigenous woman who also came to Chapleau with two flu-stricken children. The woman, who was sick herself, had to portage her canoe for 10 kilometres with children in tow. She said she had left behind another woman and her two ailing children. They were later found dead.
The news from Brunswick House and other First Nations showed the reach of the flu in Indigenous communities, with fatality rates in some areas that were 10 times higher than nearby cities and towns.
One article reported that 86 out of 100 Inuit died at the Hebron mission in northern Labrador. Weakened survivors gathered together and left the dead in the other huts. They later discovered that the sled dogs had eaten the bodies. They had to kill the dogs and buried the remains of the dead in a hole cut in the frozen sea.
The flu also hit Indigenous communities in the west very hard, particularly in Manitoba. On the Cross Lake First Nation, nearly everyone was infected and 130 died out of a population of 500. The flu killed 120 of the Norway House Cree Nation – one in six residents. “It was something terrible, whole families wiped right out,” a Globe story read.
Telephone operators in High River, Alta., wear masks to protect themselves from the flu in 1918.
What We Missed
While The Globe already billed itself “Canada’s national Newspaper,” its coverage of the Spanish flu often focused on Toronto and Ontario. There were updates about Quebec, but, beyond that, only occasional dispatches from the East Coast and Western Canada.
Even in Toronto, the coverage was often sporadic and tucked deep into the paper, drowned out by news from the war in Europe, which neared its end just when infections in Canada reached their peak.
The Last Wave
A lasting legacy of the pandemic was the creation of the federal Health Department. The idea of a national health ministry had been around for years, though largely discussed as a way to prevent venereal diseases. The ravages of the Spanish flu propelled the idea forward.
“The epidemic which is now ravaging Canada has brought the question up again in urgent form before the government,” The Globe reported.
Another wave of the flu in the spring of 1919 forced the finals of the Stanley Cup to be called off after five games between the Seattle Metropolitans and the Montreal Canadiens. Five players for the Habs became sick and one, Joe Hall, later died. Team manager George Kennedy also caught the flu and never fully recovered, dying two years later.
In many countries, the Spanish flu faded away by 1919. However, in Canada, there was a final wave in early 1920.
It struck Lieutenant-Colonel Dick Worrall, a picaresque figure who rose from private to commanding a battalion during the war. Born in England, he lied about his age to enlist at 16 in a British infantry regiment in 1906. He later enrolled in the U.S. Army, where he was garrisoned on an island when war started in 1914. He deserted, swam ashore then jumped onto a freight train to Quebec to join the Royal Montreal Regiment.
After the Armistice, he settled in Montreal and married Lorraine Welch, a war widow whose first husband, Captain Charles Crowdy, died from German shelling.
In February, 1920, Welch became ill with the flu. Her husband also contracted the disease while looking after her.
Worrall, who had survived the German gas attacks at Ypres and led night patrols in no man’s land, died shortly after midnight following nine days at Royal Victoria Hospital.
As one Globe article noted during the pandemic, “Never since the black death has such a plague swept the world.”
source: The Globe and Mail
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