Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic
Idaho Newspaper Clippings February 25-26, 1920
Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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The Challis Messenger., February 25, 1920, Page 1
Mrs. John W. Stephens Is A Flu Victim
On February 23rd, at 4 a.m., occurred the death of Mrs. Allie May Stephens, at her home about 4 miles north of this city, of influenza, of which she had been a sufferer but a short time.
Interment was made in the Challis cemetery on Tuesday afternoon at 2 o’clock.
This well known lady was born at Pittsfield, Maine on the 13th day of March, 1886, and lacked but a few days of being 34 years of age at the time of her death.
On Christmas day, 1905, she became the wife of John W. Stephens, who, with a little son, survive her. Besides the husband and son she leaves her mother, sister and three brothers to mourn her loss. …
Prominent Lost River Women Victims Of Flu
The deaths of Mrs. Charles Lemon, Mrs. Jimmy McKelvey and Mrs. Gather Perkins, all prominent Lost river women, from influenza, are reported, the two former dying at their homes in Lost river valley and the latter dying in California where she and her husband were spending the winter.
The report that Charlie Lemon had died from the flu was not correct.
Mrs. Al. West and daughter, Mrs. Laura Ivie, are reported as seriously ill from the flu in the Mackay hospital.
source: The Challis Messenger. (Challis, Idaho), 25 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Challis Messenger., February 25, 1920, Page 2
Would Fight Flu With Whisky
Representative Sabath Proposes Temporary Suspension of Dry Measure.
Washington. — Representative Sabath, Democrat, Illinois, has offered a resolution declaring that whisky is needed as a “cure for influenza, which is alarming [sic] increasing,” and proposing suspension for ninety days of provisions of the national prohibition law requiring special permits and reports from druggists, doctors and others as to the use of liquor for medicinal purposes.
The resolution declared its purpose was to the “end that whisky may be prescribed and obtained for medicinal purposes without unnecessary hindrances and delay.”
More Pay for Teachers
Chicago. — An average salary increase of $50 a month will be given to Chicago school teachers after February 1. More than 1000 teachers failed to report Wednesday and 15,000 pupils were without instruction.
Women Flogged In Prison
Story That sounds Like Page From Spanish History
Atlanta, Ga. — Whipping of women at the city stockade has been ordered discontinued entirely by the prison committee of the Atlanta city council after a public hearing of charges brought by the Atlanta Humane society that women had been strapped to a contrivance resembling a chair and flogged.
(ibid, page 2)
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The Challis Messenger., February 25, 1920, Page 5
Items About People You Know
Everything Closed — During the early days of the spread of the flu in this section the schools, picture show and pool halls were closed down and a ban placed on public gatherings of all kinds. This section has been responsible for containing the disease in a great measure, to those who had already been exposed.
Out of Quarantine — Bill Vogel and Jesse Zilkey, the first ones quarantined in this valley for the flu were released the fore part of the week. No new cases, other than those already under quarantine, have developed during the past few days and it is believed that the situation is under control now.
Income Tax Man — The revenue department, who was to have been here in the interests of the income tax drive from the 23rd to the 26th of this month, advises us that his visit has been post poned to around the 13th of next month on account of the flu quarantine.
News is Lacking — In these days of quarantine there is a scarcity of news – no one coming or going except in cases of absolute necessity.
From Ramshorn — The Challis boys, who were sufferers from the flu at the Ramshorn mine, have recovered and quite a few of them have come down to their homes to rest up during their convalescence.
Verne McGowan Home — Verne McGowan returned home the latter part of last week from a trip to Salt Lake and Elko, Nevada. He reports the flu as thick on the outside as it is here.
To Mackay — Mrs. Frank Nickerson was called to Mackay last week by the serious illness of her sister, Mrs. Al. West.
Heavy Snowfall — A heavy fall of snow visited this section the latter part of last week and has been followed by colder weather.
(ibid, page 5)
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The Challis Messenger., February 25, 1920, Page 7
Idaho And Idahoans
Internal revenue collectors will begin soon to visit all the cities and towns of the state to preparation of the collection of current internal revenues. The deputies will receive income tax returns, and also will arrange their schedule so as to spend a few days in each town to aid taxpayers in making out their returns.
The ice crop is about harvested and the quality of the ice secured is exceptionally good. In Adams county the ice cut was twenty-eight inches thick. In Bear Lake county one company alone has harvested more than 12,000 tons of high grade ice.
The roads throughout the state are improving with use and in most sections are now worn smooth. In the panhandle the roads were deeply rutted before freezing, and as a result they are still rough.
Thirty Nations in Red Cross
Washington. — The first general council of the league of Red Cross societies will meet at Geneva March 2 to map out a program for the advancement of health, prevention of disease and alleviation of distress throughout the world, the American Red Cross announced Tuesday. Delegates from each national society have been invited.
(ibid, page 7)
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The Challis Messenger., February 25, 1920, Page 8
Quarantine Regulations County Health Officer
Whereas a contagious and infectious disease, known as Influenza has again made its appearance in many states and particularly in certain parts of Custer county, public health demands that prompt and efficient measures be taken to prevent the spread of said disease to those portions of Custer county not yet infected.
1st. Now, therefore, it is ordered by the County Health Officer of Custer county that all of that portion of Custer county which drains into Salmon River shall and is hereby declared to be a quarantine district for the purpose of preventing the introduction of Influenza into the said district. Said quarantine district and this order creating the same shall remain in full force until the further order of the Board of Health of said Custer county, Idaho.
2nd. All persons are prohibited from entering said district without a permit from the County Health Officer.
3rd. The County Health Officer is hereby authorized and empowered to appoint as many quarantine guards and to create as many quarantine districts as may be necessary to enforce these rules and regulations.
4th. The County Health Officer of Custer County, Idaho, shall cause to be printed suitable permits and quarantine cards in harmony with law and these regulations and place a sufficient number of said permits and quarantine cards at each quarantine station with the quarantine guards stationed there to meet all such necessary demands. It is hereby and herein further ordered and directed that the County Health Officer shall provide all quarantine guards at each quarantine station with “yellow flags” of suitable size, to be used by said quarantine guards in placing or causing same to be placed on the vehicle in which said person or persons are traveling.
5th. All persons coming into said district and desiring to remain therein shall be quarantined for a period of four days, at the home of such person or persons, in case they have a home in said district, and if not, then in some suitable place prepared and designated by the County Health Officer.
6th. All persons have business to transact in said district may enter said district and attend to [?] business, and depart again from said district; but all homes or other places to which such person are allowed to stop and enter must be quarantined for a period of four days; such person or persons so entering under the provisions of this [Order?] shall stop at the first quarantine station on the road [?], that such person or persons enter said quarantine district, and procure a written permit therefor; said permit shall direct such person or persons to travel the most direct public highway to and from his or her, or their homes or place where they seek to go, without stopping; and that each home of place where such person or persons shall go or stop, shall be quarantined by the placing of a proper quarantine card up in a conspicuous place on said residence or place where such person or persons shall go or stop as aforesaid; said quarantine card shall be applied such person or persons by said quarantine, such quarantine to be and remain in full force and effect for a period of four days from and after such person or persons shall so enter as aforesaid; and in the event any such person or persons or others in said home shall become afflicted with said disease, then in such case, said quarantine of said home or place shall be and remain in full force and virtue until ordered discontinued by said County Health Officer. It is further hereby and herein provided that all persons entering said quarantine district as aforesaid, shall place in a conspicuous place on the vehicle in which they travel a “yellow flag” and keep said flag thereon for a period of four days provided they remain in said quarantine district for such period of time; said flag to be supplied by the quarantine guard.
7th. All persons desiring continuous passage through said district shall be granted such privilege, but such person or persons shall first procure from such quarantine guard a permit and flag therefor, and all homes and other places in which they may be permitted to stop and enter shall be quarantined for a period of four days, as provided in Rule Sixth hereof.
8th. The County Health Officer is hereby empowered and directed to cause to be printed large quarantine cards to be posted up in a conspicuous place at each quarantine station so created as aforesaid, which said quarantine card shall correctly describe the boundaries of the Quarantine District hereby created.
9th. Every person or persons, company or corporation violating any of the provisions of this Order will be prosecuted as in such case made and provided.
An emergency existing therefore, this Order shall be and is in full force and effect from the date hereof.
Penalty for violation of this Order is $50.00 fine or imprisonment in the county jail for ninety days or by both such fine and imprisonment.
Dated at Challis, Idaho, this 4th day of February, 1920.
(ibid, page 8)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., February 25, 1920, Page 1
Axel Pearson Was Buried Here Wednesday
The funeral of Axel Pearson was held at 1:30 Wednesday at Grice’s chapel, Rev. J. E. Oslund, of the Swedish Lutheran church conducting the services. Dean J. G. Eldridge also spoke. Mr. Pearson was a Moscow boy, but had been working recently in Spokane, where he died of pneumonia following influenza. He was 34 years of age. He leaves his mother, Mrs. P. E. Pearson, two brothers, Fred and Victor, and a sister, Mrs. Andrew Nelson, all of Moscow.
All ex-service men are commanded to appear at the University of Idaho campus at 1:30 Sunday afternoon, February 29, to take part in the parade to the Liberty theatre, where services in honor of our sleeping comrades will be held.
Every ex-service man is expected to wear his uniform and to take part in the parade. The French government has given memorial certificates which will be presented at the theatre to relatives of those sleeping in France.
Let us make this occasion a memorable one.
Remember the time, 1:30 p.m.; the place, University campus, and the date, Sunday, February 29.
Be One of the Marchers.
source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 25 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., February 25, 1920, Page 3
“Truth” Presented By Drama League
“Truth,” a comedy of American life in four acts, by Clyde Fitch, will be presented by the Drama League of Moscow at Guild Hall Tuesday evening, February 24th, at eight o’clock. Several dates have been set heretofore for the presentation of the play but it was postponed on account of the influenza epidemic.
The play promises to be most entertaining. It deals with prevarication. …
(ibid, page 3)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., February 25, 1920, Page 4
Individual Health Claims Resumed Now
Student Health Claims Will Be Paid Only If Certificate IS Obtained First
Health claims will be paid after this week, according to Professor H. T. Lewis, chairman of the health committee. Written authorization from either Professor Lewis, or Dean French, will be required before any student can obtain benefit from the fund.
“Absolutely no claims will be paid,” says Professor Lewis, “without written authorization. Emergency cases only will be excepted, such as a fall or burns. There has been much confusion concerning the health claims, and any infringement on the rules as states will not be recognized. In an emergency case the proper authorities should be notified by phone, and provision will be made immediately for the student.”
Must Have Certificate
The physicians certificate or bill will not be accepted as a substitute for a card. The only way in which a student may utilize the fund, is to get an authorization, or health card from Professor Lewis or Dean French.
A new card must be secured for each consultation. A student may not use the same card for several consultations, but is free, however, to go to any physician he may care to.
Pay as Follows
The committee will pay according to the following rule: (1): Any bill up to five dollars in its entirety. (2) In larger bills, $5.00 plus 50 percent of the excess over $5.00 will be paid. If the amount should happen to be six dollars, five fifty will be paid, or seven fifty will be paid on a ten dollar claim. The maximum amount the board will pay is $7.50. This includes all claims for the semester. This amount will be paid in one sum or for several consultations. The physician will take the health card, write his fee on it and sent it to Professor Lewis, who will pay up to the maximum amount.
The resumption of payment of individual health claims does not mean that students having consultations this week may receive a card. During the time the claims have been suspended the money has been spent for general expense. To the hospital equipment purchased last year, four cots, four mattresses, four complete sets of bedding have been added. In addition to this a nurse bill for service during the quarantine, was paid.
Heat, light and food have been supplied, also ambulance hire for students who were ill with influenza. Miscellaneous supplies such as thermometers, hot water bags, pails, etc., were also purchased. Most of what was purchased is permanent equipment. There are now 8 hospital cots.
(ibid, page 4)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., February 25, 1920, Page 5
A letter from George Rowland, written in Spokane Tuesday, says Mrs. Rowland’s mother, Mrs. H. A. DeBolt, is low with pneumonia, but the fever has been reduced from 105 to 102, and that Mrs. and Mrs. Rowland would not leave for Moscow until the family is better. Mrs. P. L. Orcutt, of Orofino, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. DeBolt, was summoned, and passed through Moscow Tuesday for Spokane. Mr. DeBolt is recovering, also other members of the family who are down.
Corlis McElroy is a recent victim of influenza. Mrs. McElroy and son, Ivan, are just recovering from an attack. Mrs. G. F. Savage is acting as nurse.
Mrs. M. M. Snow, who has been very ill of influenza and other complications, is improving slowly. Her nurse, Mrs. H. L. Judd, who has been here for four weeks, left today for her home at Marshall, Wash.
(ibid, page 5)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., February 25, 1920, Page 6
Mrs. Lindley Improving
The hundreds of friends of President and Mrs. E. H. Lindley will be please to learn that Mrs. Lindley’s condition is such as to give strong hopes of her recovery. She is “holding her own” to use the expression of those in attendance, and it is believed the crisis has passed and that she will begin now to show improvement. Mrs. Lindley has been very ill with influenza followed by a very severe attack of pneumonia and her condition has caused the gravest alarm. But the reports today are more encouraging and that hope that “springs eternal in the human breast” is in the ascendancy. Mrs. Lindley’s mother, Mrs. Kidder, who has been ill at the same times, is also reported to be improving today and it is believed that the “worst is over” in both cases. Dr. Lindley has been dividing his time between his arduous duties as president of the University of Idaho and the home where Mrs. Lindley and Mrs. Kidder have been very ill for several days, but he is standing the strain remarkably well despite the fact that he but recently recovered from a severe attack of influenza.
Possible Cause of Fever
The Medical Journal asks if “all fever, or at least a large proportion of it, may not be due to some change in the fluids of the body which prevents water from being available as perspiration which by its evaporation serves to keep the body cool.”
It may be that the practice of making a fever patient perspire freely has another purpose than the washing out of impurities from the blood, this being an actual cooling by evaporation. “An abundance of water has been found beneficial in fevers, and there are many clinicians who are decidedly of the opinion that cold-water baths have much more than merely a direct and mechanical refrigerating purpose, for they are followed by rather free diuresis and often also by perspiration. Indeed, one of the great indications for bath in fever is that the skin is dry and hot, for it is under these circumstances that the bath will do much good.”
A Freak Egg
M. W. Schumacher, living northeast of Moscow, has a monstrosity in the form of an egg. Mr. Schumacher is engaged in dairying and raising Barred Rock chickens. One of these hens has laid several double yolked eggs and one egg had three yolks. But the freak consists of an egg as large as a goose egg, inside of which is an ordinary sized egg with shell, yolk, white and all complete. The outside, or big egg shell contained only white and no yolk, but it contained enough white to fill a tea cup. The end of the big egg shell was broken and the fluid drained out into a cup. Through the aperture could be seen a perfect egg of normal size and the end of this was perforated and the white and yolk were drained out. Mr. Schumacher retained the two empty shells as a souvenir.
(ibid, page 6)
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Payette High School, Payette, Idaho (1)
Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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Payette Enterprise., February 26, 1920, Page 1
Personal And Local Mention
Mr. W. L. Spotswood is having a hard siege of lagrippe and is under the doctor’s care. The sudden change from the climate of southern California was evidently a little too great.
Harry Sanger who has been in a very critical condition at the Ontario Hospital for the past two weeks is now showing some improvement. His case has been a baffling one, but the attending physician gives much hopes of his recovery.
Mrs. H. T. Smith returned Monday evening from Spokane where she went three weeks ago to visit with relatives. She was taken with the Flu shortly after arriving and was confined to her bed most of the time during her stay. She feels like a bird out of the cage since arriving home.
Mr. A. J. Shearer, living north of town, is quite seriously sick with mumps.
Gen. L. V. Patch returned to Boise Wednesday after spending several days with his family. The General was quite sick during his stay in Payette.
Ben Bruce a painter working for Mr. R. Miller, was quite seriously injured this morning while painting the J. A. Lauer house. He fell from a ladder and was found unconscious by the young lady working for Mrs. Lauer. Dr. I. R. Woodward was called but found no bones broken. He was badly bruised and somewhat scratched about the face and will be laid up for several days.
source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 26 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Payette Enterprise., February 26, 1920, Page 2
Juanita Griner who had been lying for the past two weeks almost at the point of death, died on Sunday afternoon at 3:30 o’clock. Great hopes for her recovery were entertained last week, but on Saturday new complications arose which in her weakened condition she could not overcome. She was the second child of Clarence and Zora Griner and was born at Danville, Illinois, on February 18, 1910. When she was four years of age her parents removed to Oregon and she lived in that state until last September when the family came to Fruitland. She had been attending the Baptist Sunday School here and belonged to the third grade at school. In a peculiar way she attracted the love of those who came in contact with her and her passing from this world is sincerely mourned by a large number of friends young and old. Her mother and older sister and two younger brothers, an uncle and grandfather survive her. He death was caused by pneumonia following influenza.
(ibid, page 2)
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Payette Enterprise., February 26, 1920, Page 5
Mrs. F. M. Burtch
Mr. and Mrs. William McConnell were called to Caldwell Monday by the serious illness of Mrs. McConnell’s aunt, Mrs. Anna Spencer.
Miss Alberta Griner is getting well after being dangerously ill for the past three weeks.
Andy Castle who has been very ill with pneumonia was taken to the Ontario Hospital on Monday of this week to be operated upon for appendicitis.
Everett Smith who has been quite ill is now able to be out again.
Mrs. Frank Thompson and Miss Lola Rich who were among those very ill lately are improving at present.
Little Helen Tussing who was taken to Portland to a specialist, was operated upon by Dr. Otis Aiken, Orthopedic Surgeon, who lengthened the muscle of the right leg and put the limb in a cast. He predicted that she would soon be able to walk.
Nellie Kiefer is still on the sick list, not fully recovered from the effects of the Flu.
Our school house at the Eastside needs some attention from the school board at Payette. If something isn’t done in the near future they may be called upon to explain the reason why. The pupils need more than a teacher and a fire in their school room and that is all that is furnished them now.
Dead Ox Flat
Mr. Widsdom is slowly recovering from the flu.
Miss Smith who has been very ill with influenza is much improved and plans to take up her work as teacher next Monday. Miss Cecil Dixon of Payette is substituting in her place.
Miss Charlotte West, teacher of the Jefferson district is suffering with a severe cold and slight attack of the grippe and could not teach Monday.
Mrs. Wm. Vincent is recovering slowly from the flu.
(ibid, page 5)
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Payette Enterprise., February 26, 1920, Page 6
Mrs. McGrevey is able to be up and around her room again after an attack of the flu.
Mrs. Will Armstrong is recovering from the flu.
Mrs. Fowler who has been quite ill is reported much better.
Edna Parsons is recovering from the flu.
(ibid, page 6)
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The Filer Record., February 26, 1920, Page 1
Wednesday morning at her home at Roseworth, Mrs. Anna Cox, age 24. Pneumonia following influenza was the cause of her demise. Mrs. Cox leaves to mourn her death, her husband and one son, age 10, and a multitude of friends. She was a native of Virginia and has been a resident of this section for the past four years. Funeral services were held at the M. E. church Friday afternoon, burial following in the I. O. O. F. cemetery.
Received Sad News
Mrs. J. O Noggle received the sad word Tuesday morning telling of the critical illness of her father, B. F. Sherrick at Elida, Ohio. Owing to her recent illness and that of her daughter, Gladys, together with the fact that she will on Monday move to 511 fifth avenue north, Twin Falls, she will be unable to go to the bedside of her father. The Noggle ranch will be farmed by John [?].
source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 26 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Filer Record., February 26, 1920, Page 4
Attendance at school is on the increase as the flu decreases.
The light and power line to the school house is completed. As soon as fixtures can be installed there will be plenty of light for all occasions. The school house, teacherage and janitor’s cottage will be lighted, in all there will be forty lights put on. There will be a motor in the pump house to pump water.
Leona Chapman has been absent from school on account of illness.
William Detweiler is ill at his home, with pneumonia.
The family of Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Rutter are ill with the influenza.
Mrs. Rubie Bennet and little daughter are ill with the Lagrippe.
O. L. Dudley left Sunday for Ohio, where he was called by the serious illness of his sister, Miss Carrie Dudley.
The family of Mr. Korkel [?] are quite ill with influenza.
Mr. George Lincoln had the misfortune to bread his leg Wednesday when he slipped into an irrigation ditch.
(ibid, page 4)
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The Filer Record., February 26, 1920, Page 7
William Detweiler is reported ill at his home south of town.
Mr. and Mrs. Grant Paget are again able to be about after having been sick with influenza for a week.
(ibid, page 7)
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The Filer Record., February 26, 1920, Page 10
Cedar Draw School Teacher Is A Victim of Influenza
Miss Geneva Bohman, 24, who has been teaching the Cedar Draw school for the past several months, passed away last week at Cedar Draw. Death was due to influenza and pneumonia. Miss Bohman, whose home was in St. Louis, Missouri, was taken sick a week ago. The school trustees secured a physician from Buhl who attended her during her illness. Funeral arrangements will not be made pending receipt of information from her relatives in St. Louis.
(ibid, page 10)
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Idaho County Free Press. February 26, 1920, Page 1
Three In Same Family Are Dead Of Influenza
Three persons in one family died of influenza at Keuterville last week. The dead are:
Mrs. Frank Winkler, aged 65, who died at 6:30 Wednesday evening.
Frank Winkler, aged 70, her husband, who died at 11:15 the same night.
Arthur Romain, 13, a grandson of Mr. and Mrs. Winkler, who died Thursday evening.
Mr. and Mrs. Winkler were pioneer residents of the Keuterville section. They were natives of Austria.
Idaho County Will Have But One Man in Lower House
Representation In Legislature Reduced Because of Light Vote In 1918
Idaho county will have but one representative in the next legislature. Heretofore two representatives have been sent to the low house of the state law-making body from Idaho county, but because of the light vote polled in the county in the election of 1918 the representation is reduced by one-half.
Announcement that, with three new counties in the state, ten less representatives will be sent to Boise in 1921 than in 1919, was made Saturday by Robert O. Jones, secretary of state, after statutory appointment had been completed. The house, in the next session, will outnumber the senate by ten.
What Change Means
The new apportionment means that only seven counties in the state will have more than one representative in the lower house next year, whereas twice that number of counties had two or more in 1919. Nezperce county, where 3289 votes were cast for governor in 1918, gets only one representative, while Caribou, with only 461 votes, has equal representation.
Three reasons exist for the big decrease in the number of votes cast in 1918, compared with previous elections in Idaho – the influenza epidemic, which raged about the time of the last election, failure of voters to go to the polls because of unconcern, and the fact that many voters were in the army and navy and did not cast ballots at the last election.
The legislature, cognizant of the paucity of votes, nevertheless failed to provide a new plan for apportionment this year and the secretary of state was required to comply with the following sections of the statues:
Sec. 52. Representatives Districts.
The several counties shall elect members of the house of representatives as follows: Each county shall elect one representative for each 2500 votes and remaining fraction thereof amounting to 1000 votes or more cast in said county at the last general election, based on the total vote cast for all candidates for governor; provided, that there shall be at least one representative from each county.
Sec. 54. Duty of Secretary of State
The secretary of state must certify to the county auditor of each county on or before the first day of April preceding a general election the number of representatives in the legislature said county will be entitled to elect at the following election.
Where Members Come From
Here is the new apportionment:
The number of representatives each county is entitled to elect to the house of representatives of the Idaho state legislature which convenes January 3, 1921, is as follows:
Ada, 4; Adams, 1; Bannock, 2; Bear Lake, 1; Benewah, 1; Bingham, 1; Blaine, 1; Boise, 1; Bonner, 1; Bonneville, 1; Boundary, 1; Butte, 1; Camas, 1; Canyon, 2; Caribou, 1; Cassin, 1; Clark, 1; Clearwater, 1; Custer, 1; Elmore, 1; Franklin, 1; Fremont, 1; Gem, 1; Gooding, 1; Idaho, 1; Jefferson, 1; Jerome, 1; Kootenai, 2; Latah, 2; Lemhi 1; Lewis, 1; Lincoln, 1; Madison, 1; Minidoka, 1; Nezperce, 1; Oneida, 1; Owyhee, 1; Payette, 1; Power, 1; Shoshone, 2; Teton, 1; Twin Falls, 3; Valley, 1; Washington, 1. Total 54.
Highway Closed For Period of 30 Days
The North and South highway will be closed for a distance of about a mile up the Salmon river from a point one-half mile south of the Doumecq place, for a period of thirty days, it is announced by Grant Smith & Co., highway contractors. Excavation is now in progress on this stretch of road, and it is impossible for teams to pass over the road. Mail is being packed around the obstructed section of the road.
source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 26 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Idaho County Free Press. February 26, 1920, Page 2
The Rev. G. W. Gamble held preaching services Sunday. He was unable to keep his last appointment on account of the influenza quarantine.
The play which was presented in the Doumecq schoolhouse Friday night was successful. The crowd though not large, was appreciative and caused the players to do their best. Proceeds from the play and dance were devided [sic] between the two schools.
Miss Iowa Wann, who teachers at Bug Slope, attended the play and dance Friday night.
(ibid, page 2)
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Idaho County Free Press. February 26, 1920, Page 4
Mrs. W. Lane and family left recently for Nogalez, Ariz., where they were called on account of illness of Mrs. Lane’s father. Mrs. Land had not known of her father’s location for a number of years, until she received a telegram from a physician saying her father was there and dangerously ill. Mrs. Lane’s brother owns property, in Arizona and if she likes the location the family will make their home there.
Mrs. J. B. Hardman was called to Portland recently owing to illness of her mother.
The new primary teacher, Miss Ethel Davenport, arrived here last Thursday. She began teaching on Monday.
(ibid, page 4)
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The Wallace Miner. February 26, 1920, Page 6
Under date of February 18 the Engineering and Mining Journal has the following comment on the metal market: (…)
Copper — Copper has been very dull during the week and there has been very little or no buying by large consumers, who have been held back by lack of transportation facilities, due largely to congestion resulting from recent storms, and who have experienced much difficulty in some cases by labor shortage due to the epidemic of influenza. Large producers are not meeting the outside market, but are holding firm at around 19c. Export business is reported done regularly at 19c and a little higher.
source: The Wallace Miner. (Wallace, Idaho), 26 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., February 26, 1920, Page 1
Mrs. Lindley Not So Well
Mrs. E. H. Lidnley, wife of President Lindley of the University of Idaho, who has been critically ill with pneumonia following influenza, is not so well today. Her condition has caused some alarm but there is still strong hope that she will recover. Ernest Lindley, eldest son of President and Mrs. Lindley, who has been with the basket ball team of which he is captain, has been asked by telegraph to come home and is expected to reach Moscow tomorrow noon. Faculty women and neighbors are assisting in caring for Mrs. Lindley and her mother, Mrs. Kidder, who is also quite seriously ill with the disease. Yesterday it was believed that the crisis had been passed and that Mrs. Lindley was beginning to improve, but this proved a false hope as her condition is not as satisfactory today as yesterday.
Short Skirts and Low Necks
The dress reformers will have to find some other platform than ill health upon which to state their attack on modern feminine attire. The world is full of fine, strong, healthy girls in short skirts and low necks. If the morals of the world can’t stand the low necks and the short skirts, it is the morals of the world which are unhealthy, the girls are all to the good. — Baker (Oregon) Herald.
source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 26 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., February 26, 1920, Page 3
Harvard Happenings – Aged Pioneer Miner Ill
Harvard — Frank Cochrane and John English went to Bovill Saturday to see “Uncle Pat” Flynn, who is quick sick at the Bovill hospital. Mr. Flynn, who was one of the early pioneers of the Hoodoo Mining district, is now past eighty years old and is getting quite feeble.
The influenza situation is greatly improved here. School reopened Monday after two weeks quarantine. While there were several cases of the disease in the community, all were of a mild type compared with a year ago, and those afflicted are on the road to a speedy recovery.
Mr. and Mrs. H. J. Smith took their young son, Fred, to Spokane, for medical treatment the first of the week. The little fellow has been in poor health for some time.
(ibid, page 3)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., February 26, 1920, Page 5
Miss Betty Dowdy, who with her brothers, Marvin and Marcus, spent the winter in California, returned home today, the brother having arrived two days ago. Miss Dowdy was ill in Spokane, where she was compelled to stay two weeks, on the journey home.
Mrs. W. H. Connor has gone to Cheney, Wash., where her daughter, Mrs. Cora Campbell is ill with influenza.
“Billie” Carter, little son of Mr. and Mrs. Ray Carter, is quite ill with pneumonia.
A wire from Spokane, dated 10:42 this morning, to V. McQueen, a brother of Mrs. H. A. DeBolt, said: “Mother has pneumonia. Is getting worse all the time. S. T. DeBolt.” All relatives of the family here have been summoned, as little hope is now entertained for her recovery. Other members of the family are, it is believed, out of danger.
A two-reel film of Dodge Brothers ignition system will be given at the Y. M. C. A. This evening. Admission free.
Mr. Bursan has gone to Dakota to join his wife who has been very ill but is improving. Later they may go to Everett.
Mrs. Doupe is very ill with influenza.
(ibid, page 5)
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The Nezperce Herald., February 26, 1920, Page 1
Curtis J. Miller is about his business activities again after a real tussle with the flu.
Mrs. Lizzie Ransier has a severe attack of influenza, contracted last Sunday when she spent the day in intensive work among the flu sufferers on Central Ridge.
Among the Nezpercers who have visited Central Ridge the past few days to render assistance among the influenza sufferers are the following: Misses Lottie Sorenson, Bertha Schafer, Blanche Sweet, Laura Jacobs; Mrs. Lizzie Ransier, Mrs. Frank Wright, and Messers. Roy Walters, Earl Hess, Floyd Jorgens, Ben Laier, Arthur Heston and Billie Conger. Calls have been coming in for assistance and Judge Niles and others here are making every effort to have people ready to meet these calls. Dr. Gist was expecting three nurses last night, to be supplied by the Lewiston Red Cross, but these failed to arrive. Many of the flu patients on the Ridge are showing good improvement, there are a few severe cases there still, with a continued tendency of the spreading of the malady in that neighborhood.
Fred Williams is ill of the flu at the home of his uncle, C. T. Berry, in this city.
County Spelling Contest March 23
On March 23, next a written spelling contest will be held among the schools of Lewis county that care to compete, according to advices being prepared and sent out by County Superintendent of Schools Miss Wilson.
Since this is to be a written match, definite plans can be made for it and carried out without probable interference by influenza conditions. The regular annual oral and written contest is set for March 19, the rules of which will be along lines of those which have gone before. Preliminary matches will be held by the several schools and winners at these matches will compete at the county contest at Nezperce on March 19. But the holding of this event will be contingent upon flu conditions within a limited time prior to that date, and the matter will be more or less in abeyance for the present.
The inter-county contest, which was to have been held at Lewiston on March 26, has been dropped for the reason that influenza outbreaks in sections of the five counties concerned make preliminary work for it impractical.
Mrs. Anna Lomax-Walters Dead
The sad news was received here the first of the week that Mrs. Anna Walters, nee Miss Anna Lomax, had passed away at her home in Los Angeles, Cal., on the 17th instant as the result of an attack of influenza.
The deceased was about 35 years of age, and leaves her husband and two children. She was well known in Nezperce, where for a number of years she was a popular member of the sales force of the Felt Mercantile Co., during which time she was prominent in our social circles and made many warm friends in the community, who will be sadly impressed by the sad news of her untimely end.
County Teachers Conference
It is planned to hold the conference of Lewis county school teachers at Ilo on Friday March 5, and the meeting of the school directors of the county on the following day. The program as arranged for the conference on its original date, Feb. 13, will be carried out as far as possible.
Mrs. J. R. Hughes and baby daughter returned Tuesday from a visit with relatives in South Idaho, being well recovered from a severe flu attack which detained them at Spokane several days.
Central Ridge News
Most every family that didn’t have the flu last winter is having it this, it seems.
The schools are closed this week on account of the flu.
Mrs. Stach and daughter, Hattie were called to the Bruce Senter home, where all are sick with the fly.
The Thostensons have a case of measles at their home, Lewis being confined with the ailment, but is getting along all right.
source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 26 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Nezperce Herald., February 26, 1920, Page 7
Local and Personal News Notes
Sheriff A. W. Mitchell has been on the sick list the past week with an attack bordering on the flu. His condition is improving at this time, however.
Mrs. E. Nelson and Mr. R. L. Ralstin, of Lewiston, came in Friday to visit Mr. and Mrs. Bert Ralstin, of near Mohler, and assist in caring for him during an attack of the flu.
Wilfred Waters, one of our well known young farmers of Route 2, has been confined to his home for some time by an attack of inflammatory rheumatism, but is said to be showing improvement at this time.
Tom Thompson was in Lewiston yesterday for treatment of wounds received in the service in France.
For Mohler Postmastership
The department announces that an examination will be held at Ilo on March 13 for the filling of the postmastership of Mohler. That office pays a salary of $253 per year, and any adult residing in the territory served by that office may take this examination.
(ibid, page 7)
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The Nezperce Herald., February 26, 1920, Page 8
What Spreads Influenza?
Doctors, Boards of Health and Newspapers May Spread Influenza by Mental Suggestion.
A well known citizen treats this important subject pointedly and interestingly as follows:
Common sense, supporting the doctrine of the church, affirms the golden mean between the extremes of co-called Christian Science (Mind Monism) and the Materialism (Matter Monism). It affirms the real existence of both mind and matter, but it also affirms the superiority of mind over matter. Common sense, confirmed by experience insists that mind is over matter.
Because mind is over matter, a clever doctor can, by mere mental suggestion, make you sick enough to die. Hypnotists can put some persons to sleep by mental suggestion. I have heard of medical fraternity initiations in which the victim almost died under the mental suggestion that blood was gushing from his arteries and veins. On the other hand, even in cases of pneumonia, patients sometimes fight their way back to health by sheer will power.
In view of these generally admitted facts, it is not improbable that much of the influenza epidemic is due to mental suggestion. I do not deny the germ theory. I believe that corn grows only where it is planted. But every farmer knows that corn will not grow, even if it is planted, unless the soil is also fit for it. Now medical men assure us that the pneumococci and other germs are nearly always present in the mouth of everyone. Lowered physical, and probably much more lowered mental resistance, makes the soil fit for the rapid growth of pneumococci. Doctors admit that they know little about the matter. But some of them hold that colds, la grippe, influenza and pneumonia are merely stages in such growth favored by the right mental and physical conditions in the patient.
It is my contention, therefore, that many disease epidemics are greatly promoted, if not even caused by mental suggestion. If newspapers from the very beginning would make no mention of the flu, and if no one started or repeated or exaggerated rumors about it, there would be far fewer persons suffering from such diseases.
Even boards of health are the victims of misguided mental suggestion. To a certain extent they are also, no doubt innocently, contributing to the spread of the disease by mental suggestion.
Doctors and health experts disagree as to the value of the drastic bans. In the fall of 1918, when in the city of New York the flu was a prevalent and virulent as elsewhere, no ban was proclaimed. The death rate there was less than elsewhere. It must make many of the doctors smile in their sleeves to observe how the public, once having worn the yoke of a ridiculous and valueless ban, clamor for the same or a similar yoke upon the reappearance of the flu even in a mild form. Like many other characteristics in our mental life, it makes a man think, if he thinks at all, that this “land of the free” has become the land of bunc.
The present epidemic was only mild all over the country. Except in this or that locality the death-rate was scarcely above the normal. Of course “it is decreed unto all men once to die, and after this the judgement.” But why worry about a death-rate that is scarcely above the normal? What would the public demand and the boards of health decree if we were undergoing a really serious disease epidemic, in which the death would take 10 to 25 percent of the population? I hope that the boards would become hysterical and do nothing. Otherwise we would probably be ordered to burn down our houses and cremate our clothes and our bodies.
If, then, this epidemic is largely due to mental suggestion, it must largely be overcome by mental suggestion. Newspapers should avoid headlines and sensationalism. They should publish the full truth and show that the present death-rate is not so very alarming.
If boards of health were one-tenth as zealous in proclaiming bans on suggestive films in the movies, on suggestive and immoral dances and fashions that corrupt morals and invite the spread of venereal diseases, as they are in giving sensational interviews to newspapers on the flu, they would become veritable towers of moral and physical strength in their respective communities.
(Not be misunderstood or misinterpreted in my intentions, I feel impelled to state expressly and emphatically that this article from start to finish was meant only for general application, not with any particular reference to our local board of health or out local doctors; every one of whom is held by the writer of these lines in the highest and most sincere esteems.) — A Citizen
(ibid, page 8)
Northwest Mask Wars And Pandemics
NWPB News July 20, 2020 By Knute Berger
Volunteers wearing gauze masks at a street kitchen in Cincinnati serve food to children of families afflicted by the flu pandemic in the winter of 1918-1919. Courtesy of Spokesman-Review Archives
Was there resistance to masks during the 1918 pandemic? Did they work? How was mask wearing enforced in the old days?
Quick answers: Yes, there was resistance and defiance, masks worked to limit or stall the spread of disease, and mask-wearing was sometimes enforced with fines, arrests, jail time and, in at least one case, gunfire.
After scouring press coverage on the West Coast during the 1918 flu era, I can say resistance to adopting masks was not universal, but it also was not uncommon. In Seattle, during the influenza’s lockdown period in October and November of 1918, people without masks were banned from public transit and ticketed or fined by members of the police’s masked “Flu Squad.” Headlines had a somewhat negative spin: “Thousands Are Hit with Flu Mask Order,” shouted one in the Seattle Star.
The masks recommended during the 1918 pandemic were made of heavy-duty six-ply cotton gauze. They were thick and no particular joy to wear. People who refused to wear them or couldn’t be bothered were called “mask slackers” or “mask scoffers.” During World War I, the term slacker described people who neglected their patriotic duty, almost as bad as being a draft dodger.
In Walla Walla, the chief of police, John Haven, refused to enforce a state mask mandate. He pointed out that he was going to meet heavy resistance and, anyway, that he had no authority to carry out a state directive, only city ordinances. Still, he also openly defied the instructions of the city’s health officer, J.E. Vanderpool, to follow the state health officer’s guidance.
Even as people dropped dead in Walla Walla and rural southeast Washington, business owners pushed to have their establishments — saloons and billiard halls — reopened in defiance of advice from most doctors and health officials.
Yakima was less reluctant to crack down on scoffers and slackers if they were doing business with the public. The city’s sanitation inspector arrested 15 people for “working or transacting business in a public place without wearing gauze masks prescribed by the city health commissioner,” according to a 1918 article in the Spokesman-Review. The problem was the merchants, not their customers. The business community held that the city had no authority to mandate masks.
Then, as now, health officials were divided on whether masks truly prevented the spread of Spanish influenza. Many understood that the chances of transmission were worse in enclosed public spaces, like churches and movie theaters, but opinion was divided on the efficacy of masks outdoors. Some believed the fresh air fought the flu, and encouraged people to open their windows and let in the bountiful breeze.
Mainstream medical belief held that going maskless could spread contagion. The thick multilayered gauze masks appeared to work in reducing new cases, and they proved effective for medical staff treating flu patients.
Other physicians claimed the masks themselves became an unsanitary health hazard if not cleaned and sterilized. Dr. J. C. Bainbridge, a prominent physician from Santa Barbara, California, claimed, “The common use of the mask tends to propagate rather than check influenza.” Others simply argued that masks had no effect. However, historians generally believe that social distancing and masks saved tens of thousands of lives since there was little else that proved truly effective, such as vaccines and serums.
Still, divided opinions and often localized health authority meant communities responded differently to the pandemic. Seattle and Spokane, for example, were generally mask compliant. Spokane, in fact, had trouble keeping up with the public demand for masks, and many of the coverings were hurriedly made and ill-fitting. The Spokesman-Review featured photographs of professional women in masks under the headline, “Women in Business Life Don ‘Flu’ Masks.” There was less enthusiasm in Portland, on the other hand, which did not pass a mask ordinance, with one city council member objecting that he would “not be muzzled with a mask like a hydrophobia dog.”
The San Francisco Bay Area saw reluctant acceptance of masks at first, then massive pushback. A mandatory ordinance, announced in bold headlines on the front page of the San Francisco Chronicle in late October 1918, read: “Wear Your Mask! Commands Drastic New Ordinance.” It blared over the mugshots of city leaders all masked up like surgeons. Many equated mask compliance with patriotism and the war effort, an appeal that worked for many prior to the end of World War I with the signing of the armistice on Nov. 11, 1918, midpandemic on the West Coast.
In the debate over masks by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, Seattle and Portland were cited as cities that had benefited from masking. Violators of the new San Francisco law would be guilty of a misdemeanor and fined between $5 and $100 and risked up to 10 days in jail. The city wasn’t fooling. By Nov. 10, a San Francisco Examiner headline read, “1,000 Alleged Mask Slacker Cases in Jails.” Judges tried to clear this mass of mask arrest cases as fast as possible with fines or two days in jail.
But the penalty, in some cases, could be even worse. Shortly after the mask rule went into effect, a local blacksmith named James Weisser was arrested for drunkenness and spent the night in jail. After release the next morning, he proceeded to publicly and loudly inveigh against the mask rule on the corner of Powell and Market streets, drawing a substantial crowd, according to the Examiner newspaper. This intersection is well known as the downtown jumping-off point of the city’s famed cable cars.
A deputy health inspector, Henry Miller, pushed his way through the crowd and ordered Weisser to get a mask at a nearby drugstore. Weisser then attacked Miller, flogging him with a pouch full of silver dollars and knocking him to the ground, where he continued the beating. Miller drew and fired his revolver, wounding Weisser and two bystanders, including a woman whose leg was grazed by a bullet. The crowd scattered and police arrested both Weisser and Miller. I could not find coverage of what happened to the two after that.
The city’s influenza numbers showed improvement less than three weeks after the mask ordinance went into effect. But, as in the current pandemic, opposite conclusions were drawn: Success could mean masks were no longer necessary, or could be a sign that the policy was working and should continue. That December, the mask order was lifted. Bay Area residents celebrated. In Oakland, one newspaper reported, “citizens made bonfires of their muzzles in the streets.”
But shortly after the mask bonfires, the Spanish flu reignited and cases climbed again. San Francisco reinstituted its mask rules in January 1919, triggering a rebellion that resulted in the formation of the Anti-Mask League. A mass meeting protesting the masks drew over 2,000 people. The league petitioned the city, demanding a rollback of the mask mandate, and officials complied a month later.
In Seattle, a similar narrative took hold. Once people were free of their masks, they refused to go back to them, even as flu cases started to rise again. A Seattle Post-Intelligencer editorial in early December 1918 warned that reinstating health edicts would spark fear not of the flu, but of an excess of “regulatory zeal.” There was no indication, the editorial opined, that “another shutdown of business and revival of the mask would be tolerated.” Compliant Seattle was done with compliance.
Many observers of the time believed masks helped flatten the pandemic curve. When it came to stifling dissent, however, they proved an ineffective muzzle.
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State and Dearborn / Public domain
source: Texas State University
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