Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic
Idaho Newspaper Clippings April 1-2, 1920
Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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The Grangeville Globe. April 01, 1920, Page 1
Judge Scales Improving
Will Open Court in Nez Perce County, Monday, April 12th
Judge Wallace N. Scales, who had been confined to his home for the past two weeks with an attack of influenza, is rapidly regaining his normal state and has announced that court in Nez Perce county will open at Lewiston on Monday, April 12th. The regular term of court for Lewis county was postponed until May.
Horses and Cattle Brought Good Figures at Ferdinand Sale
One of the best farm sales of 1920 was reported by Auctioneer Harry C. Cranke, who was in the city Monday night. The sale was held that day at Ferdinand, at the Mrs. Rose Kuther place. Horses sold from $225 to $450 per span; 3-year-old steers up to $123 per head; 2-yeare-olds, $90; yearlings, $51; ewes, $18; lambs, $14. The bidding was fast and the large list of property was quickly disposed of.
[Note: Mr. Kuther passed away from influenza.]
Red Cross To Relieve Needy
Makes Social Survey of City to Learn Needs of Children and Families Handicapped
In its peace-time program, the Red Cross is endeavoring to make some return to the towns and small communities which gave such splendid service in time of war. Believing that there is a field of social service that no other agency is in a position to enter at this time, the Red Cross is undertaking to bring medical aid and material relief to children and families that are handicapped in some manner.
For the purpose of finding out just what these problems are in each community, a social survey is taken covering the field of health and sanitary conditions, and child and family conditions. Miss Jessie U. Cox of the division office at Seattle, has come at the request of the Lewiston Chapter to make such a survey of Idaho, Lewis and Nez Perce counties. Miss Cox was in Grangeville last Thursday completing the organization. It is hoped to have all the facts gathered next week. Superintendent F. E. Lukens has consented to see that the questionnaires regarding city activities and the relief work done in Grangeville are filled out. Mrs. A. C. Lanningham has the health questions. Mrs. S. V. Fullaway will collect facts regarding need for further child and family welfare work. Persons who know of such cases should communicate with her. Judge Campbell has kindly consented to report on Juvenile cases.
It is hoped that the facts concerning Idaho county may be summarized and reported back to Grangeville with recommendations by the last of the week.
The Rec Cross will need your active cooperation in endeavoring to find the proper solution for such social evils as are found in Idaho county.
source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 01 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Grangeville Globe. April 01, 1920, Page 2
Jim Maques’ son is reported quite ill with pneumonia.
Wallace Hill suffered a very painful burn on his hand, when in his garage a few days ago. He seized an ignited acetylene pipe to prevent the flames reaching a gas tank.
Dr. Foskett made a trip to Round Valley Wednesday.
Anna Smith, who recently finished her term of school at the Star school, departed Monday with her sister for their home at Kendrick, Wash.
A teachers’ meeting for Salmon river teachers, conducted by Miss Sweet, was held in Whitebird Saturday afternoon.
The dance and basket social given by the Whitebird school and mothers’ club Friday evening was well patronized and a success financially as well as socially. A picture show was presented first, followed by the auction of baskets, which, under the skillful managing of Seth Jones resulted most satisfactorily. After supper, dancing was in order, with the Nepean orchestra. The proceeds of the evening, a sum amounting to more than $290, are to be expended in playground apparatus.
Among The Farm Bureaus Of Idaho
100 in Mothers’ Classes
Under the direction of Miss Kunz, Fremont county nurse, 100 women are enrolled in mothers’ classes. Six hundred school children were examined for physical defects last month.
(ibid, page 2)
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The Nezperce Herald., April 01, 1920, Page 1
Public School News
The Fighting Canadians, the fourth number of the Lyceum course will be here to give a program in the Nezperce High School auditorium on the evening of April 9. They were billed for Feb. 7, but on account of the influenza ban, their date had to be postponed. It is with great anticipation that we look forward to this number. We are sure the audience will be well entertained.
Card of Thanks
We take this means of extending, so far as words can express, our sincere thanks to the good friends and neighbors who so loyally came to our assistance during and following the fatal illness of our beloved husband, son and brother, Evert Beenders, and in this expression of thanks we are mindful of the many beautiful floral offerings made by friends.
Mrs. Evert Beenders
Mr. and Mrs. W. K. Beenders and Family
Mr. and Mrs. C. S. Cook and Family.
News Stories Briefly Told
Items of Interest Gleaned From The Daily Life of Home Folks In Town and County
The 1920 hunting and fishing licenses are now on tap in this district and may be had locally from M. D. DeMoude at the City Drug store. But the season closed today on trout fishing for two months, and there will probably not be much demand here for licenses till this ban is off.
This section has been experiencing some very disagreeable weather the past ten days, but it is mild compared with the storms that swept the territory between the Great Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico the first of the week. In these 200 lives were lost and a property damage of over $6,000,000 sustained.
Albert Cuddy was on the sick list last Sunday but is allright [sic] again.
Mrs. Rurey was called to the bedside of her sister, Mrs. Chas. McColister, Sunday.
Edith Smith, teacher of the Sunset school attended the teachers’ conference at Ilo, Friday March 26.
Everett Williams has taken his old job of carrying mail again, as Alva Centers is working for Harley Brannon.
Easter services will be held at the Mohler church Sunday, April 4th. There will be all day services, including a small program. Everybody is invited to attend.
Nearly all the Mohler farmers have started their spring plowing.
source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 01 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Nezperce Herald., April 01, 1920, Page 2
Central Ridge News
Don’t forget to come to the literary at the Central Ridge school house Friday evening.
March is doing the lion act down this way also.
Guess our roads will need more dragging, and they’ll get it too.
Elwin A. Eastman, one of this community’s favorite sons, who recently completed four-years service in the U. S. Marine corps, in which he saw overseas duty during the war and wherein he gained the rank of sergeant, and after receiving his honorable discharge at Quantico, Va., returned to the home of his parents, Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Eastman, in Lewiston, and the first of this week came with his father to their farm west of town to resume the work he dropped four years ago to join the Marines. His duties have taken him from one end of this country to the other several times, and while overseas he was in the aviation service in England, where a long siege of influenza and pneumonia held him until the close of hostilities. His many old friends are glad to welcome him back to the home of his boyhood.
(ibid, page 2)
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The Nezperce Herald., April 01, 1920, Page 3
How Diphtheria is Contracted
One often heard the expression, “My child caught a severe cold, which developed into diphtheria,” when the truth was that the cold had simply left the little one particularly susceptible to the wandering diphtheria germ. If your child has a cold when diphtheria is prevalent you should take him out of school and keep him off the street until fully recovered, as there is a hundred times more danger of his taking diphtheria when he has a cold. When Chamberlain’s Cough Remedy is given it quickly cures the cold and lessens the danger of diphtheria or any other germ disease being contracted.
How is Your Complexion?
A woman should grow more beautiful as she grows older and she will with the due regard to baths, diet and exercise, and by keeping her liver and bowels in good working order. If you are haggard and yellow, your eyes losing their lustre and whites becoming yellowish, your flesh flabby, it may be due to indigestion or to sluggish liver. Chamberlain’s Tablets correct these disorders.
(ibid, page 3)
(ibid, page 5)
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The Nezperce Herald., April 01, 1920, Page 6
Baths Turned To Good Use
Salzberg, Once Famous Pleasure Resort, Now in the Possession of Crippled Roumanian Solders
The famous salt baths of Salzburg, where the millionaires of Austria, Hungary and the Balkan states used to spend their summers, now are curing rheumatic Roumanian [sic] soldiers.
Stripped of all their luxurious furnishings during the war, the Salzburg baths have been refitted with the aid of the American Red Cross for use as a military hospital for chronic rheumatism resulting from trench warfare. Five hundred soldiers are there, recovering from rheumatism and similar diseases contracted while undergoing the hardships of war.
In times of peace, thousands of tourists visited Salzburg, high up in the Transylvanian Alps, southwest of Kronstadt. Many came for the dazzling social life. With its magnificent hotels and gay casino, it was perhaps the chief showplace of eastern Europe. When the Huns pushed the Roumanians out of this district early in the war, General Mackensen and his staff took possession of the town and staged luxurious revelry there. When they left they looted the place, stripped the hotels of tapestries, furniture and brass fittings. Even the equipment for the medical baths was wrecked.
Under the direction of Maj. George C. Treadwell of Albany, N.Y., and several American physicians, the baths were refitted sufficiently to care for the soldiers.
[see footnotes 1 and 2 below.]
(ibid, page 6)
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The Nezperce Herald., April 01, 1920, Page 7
Local and Personal News Notes
Word was received by Mrs. Millage, of this vicinity, on Monday of last week that Roy Cornwell had undergone an operation for ulcers of the stomach at Emanuel Hospital in Portland, and that he was getting along very well.
H. T. Brown, of Kamiah, was adjudged insane in the probate court here Tuesday and was yesterday taken to the asylum at Orofino. He has a wife and eight children and owning to the fact that his condition took vicious turns, it was feared that he might at any time inflict personal injury on these or his neighbors.
The party who borrowed the steering wheel from my tractor in the Thomas Bros. warehouse lot is requested to return the same without further argument.
H. A. VonBargen.
(ibid, page 7)
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The Nezperce Herald., April 01, 1920, Page 8
In the death of E. H. Kiliam, which occurred Tuesday night at his home in Lewiston from pneumonia following influenza, the Lewiston country loses one of its most highly esteemed citizens. He was 59 years of age and had been head of the Lewiston Printing & Binding Co. since coming to that city 14 years ago.
(ibid, page 8)
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Payette Enterprise., April 01, 1920, Page 1
Mrs. G. F. Thayer
Just before going to press we learn of the death of Mrs. G. F. THayer which occurred at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Mark Prindle, at seven o’clock last evening after an illness of six weeks. He death was caused by influenza complicated with heart trouble. The funeral will be held tomorrow, (Friday) at 2 o’clock from the Prindle home. In our next issue we will publish an appropriate obituary.
Mrs. Albert Improving
The many friends of Mrs. M. F. Albert will be pleased to learn that she is now again on the road to recovery. She has had a long hard siege and has been very low at different times, but the attending physician at the hospital in Boise telephoned Mr. Albert yesterday afternoon that she was doing nicely and baring any unforeseen complications, she would be able to be removed to her home before long.
Personal And Local Mention
Mr. Whalen received a wire from Pocatello on Wednesday morning advising him of the very serious illness of his daughter Elsie. He and Jack left on No. 4 for Pocatello.
J. M. Swanson who was taken to the hospital at Boise last week, suffering from the effects of a kidney stone, returned home Saturday evening and is able to again be on the street.
When Sam Deardorf came down to the Barber Shop this morning and started playing a tune on the razor strop, there came a sound like this – Dady-o-dad, dady-o-dad, dady-o-dad, dad, dad, dad, and the smile on his face told the story. There is now three in the Deardorf family but the young barber won’t need a shave or a hair cut for some time.
A bunch of joy riders, driving a Ford car last Sunday about half way between Payette and Weiser on the State Highway, got a little too hilarious and wound up in the ditch beside the road. Fortunately a few scratches and a little shaking up was all the injuries received. The car however was considerably damaged.
The Street sprinkler made its first appearance on the streets Wednesday morning and was greatly appreciated by the merchants and others who were on the streets.
source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 01 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Payette Enterprise., April 01, 1920, Page 2
Statement Regarding Teacher Shortage
And Salaries in the State of Idaho
The State Teachers’ Association Committee, investigating teacher shortage and salaries in Idaho, call attention to their findings. The report, covering twenty-six counties and thirty-two independent districts, shows the following:
364 teachers entered the profession in September 1919.
Out of 550 positions in Southern Idaho, 391 teachers were new to their schools.
There is an actual shortage of approximately 100 teachers at this time.
450 teachers began their work last Fall on permits. Of these 172 failed in the examinations.
Those in charge state the outlook for next year in the following terms: “great shortage of teachers”; “general progress will be retarded”; “rather gloomy”; “few applications received”; “continuous streams of teachers pouring into other lines of work.”
The solution to the problem is put in the following terms: “Better salaries and better living conditions” (salary question mainly); “erection of teachers’ cottages”; “increase in salaries”; “better boarding accommodations.”
It is evident from the results of the investigation that we are facing a crisis in our public schools. The conditions become even more serious when the statement of those in charge of teacher-training in our State institutions are taken into account. Not only are teachers leaving the school rooms, but a decreasingly small number are entering the profession. The State University reports that 13 graduates and 25 under-graduates will be ready for work next year. Idaho Polytechnical Institute reports “seven grade and rural teachers, one in teacher-training and one in music.” The graduating class at Albion Normal numbers 25. Lewiston Normal reports that it will send out approximately 175 teachers all told for next year. This makes a grand total of 247 new teachers for the vacancies that will occur in the 4000 public school positions of Idaho. Idaho has always drawn teachers from other states but what is true in our state is true in even greater degree throughout the entire nation. The salary question must be met if our schools are to be maintained.
C. F. Dienst
George G. Barrett
L. A. Thomas
H. R. Wallis
(ibid, page 2)
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Payette Enterprise., April 01, 1920, Page 5
Arb Drinkwine was over on the bench visiting his brother, Mell Drinkwine, who has been very ill but is now on the fair road to recovery.
Dr. Hurd was called up the valley to attend a sick horse of Tom Windle’s. Mrs. Hurd and little daughter were with him.
Mr. and Mrs. Lee Gearhart were up the Valley to the Store Sunday afternoon. Mrs. Gearhart was driving a fine Studebaker car.
First it blows and then it snows. Typical March weather, which we have been experiencing the last ten days.
(ibid, page 5)
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Payette Enterprise., April 01, 1920, Page 7
Mrs. Cosie Branthoover
Word has been received that C. K. and Velva Powell have recovered from the flu and Mrs. C. C. Powell will remain in Corvallis. Mr. Powell will leave for that place soon.
Mrs. Ford Burtch is on the sick list, also the oldest boy, John Burtch.
Mrs. Tom Harris is quite sick this week.
James A Wright family are quarantined with scarlet fever.
George Heckes had the misfortune of breaking two fingers on his right hand when he caught them in a corn sheller.
There will be an Easter program at the Methodist church next Sunday April 4 from 10:00 to 11:00 a.m. Rev. Knight of New Plymouth will deliver the Easter sermon following the exercises.
Mrs. E. E. Parsons is quite ill this week.
(ibid, page 7)
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Payette Enterprise., April 01, 1920, Page 8
Dead Ox Flat
Mr. Burtwell, father of Mrs. Gellipse of Moores Hollow, who is visiting here from Canada, suffered a stroke of paralysis last Tuesday.
Mr. Horace Joseph went to Seattle to attend the funeral of a relative.
There is to be an Easter Service at the Park School house next Sunday. The older division are giving a “Scriptural Easter,” consisting of the story of Easter in song. The Primary department will give a concert. The services will begin at 1:30 in the afternoon.
“The Ford is my chariot,
I shall not want another
It maketh me to lie down in wet places.
It destroyeth my soul,
It leadeth me into deep waters;
It leadeth me into the paths of ridicule for its name’s sake;
It prepareth a breakdown for me in the presence of my enemies.
Yea, though I run thru the valley at twenty-five per, I am towed up the hill.
I will fear more evil when it is with me.
Its rods and its shafts discomfort me.
It annointeth my face with oil.
Its water boileth over.
Surely to goodness, if Lizzie follow me all the days of my life,
I shall dwell in the House of the Nuts forever.”
– Dr. Glenn – Idaho Republican
(ibid, page 8)
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High School. Wendell, Idaho
Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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The Rathdrum Tribune., April 02, 1920, Page 1
From Over The County
The infant daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Chas. Geeters died March 24, aged one month and five days.
There is a shortage of houses, and old shacks are being fitted up for habitation.
Post Falls citizens, Wednesday of last week, won their case against the Post Falls Water company, heard before the state public utilities commission, when the company was ordered to complete by May 1 extensive repairs and improvements in its system.
E. L. McCubrey, died of pneumonia in Spokane. The body was brought to Spirit Lake Thursday morning and the funeral will be held Saturday.
Work was resumed last week on the Panhandle highway with two teams and eight men.
The demand for fire wood is greater than the supply.
W. B. Russell who has the contract to grade the north and south highway through Harrison started work with a crew of men and teams last week.
Thomas Center, age 26, who was drowned in Windy bay, was buried Sunday.
George Costello met with an accident last week at the Blackwell mill which resulted in his death, following the amputation of his leg. A slasher saw broke and flying caught his right leg, almost severing it from his body. He was taken to the hospital and the leg amputated, but on account of the shock and loss of blood he expired.
source: The Rathdrum Tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 02 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Rathdrum Tribune., April 02, 1920, Page 2
Insomnia Not Hard To Cure
Easy to Tell the Cause of the Affliction and Remedy is Matter of Common Sense.
“There are two kinds of insomnia, and each has its cure,” a doctor said.
“In the first kind you go to bed apparently sleepy, and as soon as your head touches the pillow, you become wide awake, and the most vivid and feverish thoughts whirl through your mind for hours. At last, sick with exhaustion, you fall asleep, but it’s too late then. Too much time has been lost. You rise in the morning unrefreshed.
“In the second kind of insomnia you go to sleep all right as soon as you go to bed, but in an hour or so you wake up. You lie tossing an long while. You rise unrefreshed here, too.
“The first kind of insomnia is due to rich, undigested food clogging the stomach. The remedy is simpler meals in the evening – no pork or game or cheese or pastry, but, instead, fish or chicken, whole-meal bread, custards or milk toast.
“The second kind is due to lack of exercise. A daily half-hour’s gymnastics, followed by a cold bath and a rubdown, will drive it permanently away.”
(ibid, page 2)
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The Rathdrum Tribune., April 02, 1920, Page 3
Idaho News Paragraphs
Recent Happenings in This State Given in Brief Items for Busy Readers
Mrs. Zumwalt Dies
Lewiston — Mrs. Philestia Zumwalt, age 90, and her son, John Zumwalt, age 72, died of influenza, the mother on Wednesday and the son on Thursday of last week. Mrs. Zumwalt was a pioneer of the northwest, having come across the continent to Oregon almost 70 years ago. Mr. Zumwalt and the son accompanied her on that trip.
Dies of Heart Leakage
Sandpoint — Mrs. Frank A Twiss of Sandpoint died recently from leakage of the heart after an illness extending over a period of five months.
State Asks Time Change
Boise — Responding to a popular demand indicated by petitions and resolutions filed from all parts of southwestern and south central Idaho, the public utilities commission has forwarded to the interstate commerce commission a formal complaint asking that mountain time be declared as standard for the territory between Pocatello and Huntington instead of Pacific time.
(ibid, page 3)
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The Rathdrum Tribune., April 02, 1920, Page 5
Two inches of snow fell in town last Friday night, melting the next day. The freakish weather was later marked by southwest winds bearing clouds of dust from the Big Bend to further enhance the value of Idaho real estate. April was ushered in by another snow storm which covered the ground to a depth of between three and four inches.
There will be an Easter service at the Community church Sunday evening. The pastor will speak briefly on “Easter and It’s Meaning.” The choir will be accompanied by an orchestra and special Easter music will be rendered. With these, Mrs. James will give a reading, “The Dawn of the Soul’s Awakening,” which is a vivid description of the resurrection.
(ibid, page 5)
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Clearwater Republican. April 02, 1920, Page 3
Idaho News Paragraphs
Recent Happenings in This State Given in Brief Items for Busy Readers
Lewiston — The automobile camp grounds at Delsol park, east of the city, will soon be completed and ready for tourists.
Coeur d’Alene, Idaho — After surviving his wife nine weeks, Major C. D. Warner died March 27 of old age, leaving no known relatives. He was born July 18, 1840, and married Anna A. Green March 1, 1864. He was quartermaster sergeant in the 123d New York volunteers in the army of the Potomac.
source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 02 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Clearwater Republican. April 02, 1920, Page 5
What Your Friends And Neighbors Are Doing
Mrs. S. C. Morgan, sister-in-law of F. C. Babcock, departed on Thursday’s morning passenger, taking with her Mr. Babcock’s motherless baby, whom Mrs. Morgan will care for as a mother, for her departed sister.*
The Grangeville Electric Light and Power Company is removing the copper line and installing a larger one to the North Idaho sanitarium, which is putting in some new electrical equipment.
District deputy game warden, H. L. Walrath, announces that he is in receipt of the new 1920 fish and game licenses, which are now on sale at the usual places in Orofino.
County Assessor, J. P. Harlan went to Elk River, via Spokane. The necessity for a direct road to Elk River is very evident from the fact that the quickest route to the mill town is by way of Spokane. Mr. Harlan intends to make the assessment of Elk River before returning.
Mrs. Nelson Dies
Mrs. Della Nelson, an inmate of the North Idaho Sanitarium since March 5th, died at that institution March 27th from mania. She was 49 years old. The remains were shipped to Lewiston where burial took place on the 29th.
* from Clearwater Republican. February 13, 1920, Page 1
Mrs. Babcock Succumbs
Mrs. Grace Babcock, wife of F. C. Babcock of the Orofino Auto Company, died Sunday night from influenza after an illness of several week’s duration. She was 24 years old and leaves besides her husband, an infant son and a daughter three years old, to mourn her death. She came from Spokane to Orofino a number of months ago with her husband, who had accepted a position as mechanic in the Clearwater Garage and later becoming interested in the Orofino Auto Co. The body was shipped to Spokane Tuesday morning, burial taking place Wednesday.
Mrs. Babcock’s death came as a shock to her many friends, who join the bereaved family in mourning her untimely loss.
(ibid, page 5)
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Clearwater Republican. April 02, 1920, Page 8
Boy Now Goes to His Mother
Boy Stolen 24 Years Ago And Raised By Indian Women, Found By Mother
Raised by an Indian woman who adopted him when he was little more than a year old and not knowing of his parentage until a few months ago, Howard Wilson, will now join his mother, Mrs. A. E. Danley, near San Francisco. He was adopted by the tribe and was given an allotment of 120 acres near Stites. Since attaining manhood he has engaged in the sheep business and has a small herd near Kooskia.
Wilson was away to war when his mother, who was a nurse in a military hospital at San Francisco, learned from an Idaho boy from Orofino, that a white child had been raised in the upper Middle Fork country by Mrs. William Wilson, an Indian woman. The soldier knew that the white child knew nothing of his parentage and as his age corresponded with that of Mrs. Danley’s missing child, she began an investigation through the Indian department and the Indian agent at Lapwai, with the result that she has established beyond all doubt the identity of the white boy as her missing child.
It was more than 24 years ago when Charles Wilson, then a babe in the cradle, was stolen from his mother’s home at Mt. Idaho. The Elk City mining excitement was on and his father was away to the mines. Mail service was slow and uncertain and the entire country was filled with strangers moving to and from the mining districts. All efforts to gain a clue of the missing babe were fruitless and the mother finally removed from the scene of her grief and established her home in California.
Mrs. Danley never forgot her missing boy and when the United States entered the war she volunteered her services as a hospital nurse and was assigned to duty in San Francisco, near her home. It was while rendering this service to the sons of other mothers, that she nursed the soldier who gave her the first clue to her missing son. As soon as Mrs. Danley had positively established the identity of her son, she came to Idaho to await his return from the army and now the son will visit his mother at her California home.
Mrs. Wilson, the Indian woman who reared the child, knew there was something wrong in the transaction by which the child came into her possession, but never suspected the truth. She told Mrs. Danley that the child had been placed in her care by a white man and was able to give the name of the man who had the child. This later information cleared up the matter for Mrs. Danley as the man named was well known to her at Mt. Idaho, and when trouble between the families arouse, he had made a threat that he would make her suffer severely, but at the time the child was kidnapped the man who had made the threat had been away from Mt. Idaho for some time and was not suspected. He told the Indian woman that the child was his but that his wife was dead and that he had no place where the child could be cared for. The man then disappeared and after due time the child was adopted by Mrs. Wilson according to Indian custom.
Howard Wilson said last evening that his foster Indian mother and her husband had always been kind to him. The Wilson home is up the Middle Fork about 12 miles from Kooskia and comparatively few of the residents of the upper Clearwater knew that this Indian woman was raising a white child. When the Indian allotments were made the adopted child came in for his allotment and is now the owner of a very desirable 120 acres above Stites.
– Lewiston Tribune
(ibid, page 8)
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The Kendrick Gazette. April 02, 1920, Page 1
It is said that the condition of County Commissioner Columbus Clark, who has been critically ill at his home on Fix ridge, is considerably improved.
Various kinds of weather visited Kendrick Tuesday. At times it had the appearance of spring; then the temperature would drop as the sun hid behind a cloud. The next minute it was either raining, sleeting or snowing. In the afternoon the wind blew a gale and with it came a dust storm. Along toward evening it rained mud, which was the end of a punk March Day.
Big Bear Ridge
Dr. Rothwell was called on the ridge by the illness of D. J. Ingle, who is much improved at this writing.
Miss Della Wilson closed her school at Steele and returned to her home in Lewiston Friday. She has a position at Alexander’s store of that place for the summer. Mrs. Leon Ingle is teaching this week to complete the seven month’s term.
Miss Claribel Ingle finished a very successful two weeks of school at Taney Friday.
Clifford, the second son of Mr. and Mrs. Joe Baker, died of pneumonia following the flu. The Baker family moved to Washington last fall. We extend our sympathy to the bereaved family.
Miss Naomi Head and her little nephew, Arnold Dahlgren, are on the sick list.
Mr. Miller is preparing a program. He expects to have a basket social in the near future. The proceeds to purchase an organ for the school.
Mr. and Mrs. Chris Beyer went to Spokane last Monday where Mrs. Beyer will enter a sanitarium for medical treatment.
Dr. Kelly of Kendrick was called Monday morning to attend Mr. John Gentry, who is quite ill.
Old March has given us her share of disagreeable weather.
This community was shocked Thursday afternoon to learn of the sudden death of Adair Pemberton. He had been slightly ill for the past three or four days but his condition was not thought to be serious until a very short time before his death. He has never been strong since an attack of infantile paralysis when he was a child. His last illness started with a cold and complications setting in caused his death. he was a young man of sterling character and in spite of his physical affliction was always cheerful and by his pleasing, straightforward disposition made friends wherever he was known. His death as cast a cloud of sadness over the entire community.
Over The County
H. M. Smith brought to the record office the first of the week a few specimens of cotton grown by him in his garden last summer. He secured a few seed from Mrs. Geo. Heifert who brought them from the south, and planted them. About 20 plants came up from the seed and grew from 2 to 4 feet high, he says, and were pretty well developed when the early frost nipped them last fall. The ball in which the cotton is encased was developed to a point where it was almost ready to burst where it was open as is the case when the cotton plant matures and had the frost not come for a short time later the cotton would have doubtless matured. However, the specimens brought to the Record office were plucked and laid away and seem to have matured fairly well, the outside covering bursting open exposing a nice ball of cotton which to all appearances is a good quality of cotton. Mr. Smith also raised some sweet potatoes which did well considering the unfavorable weather conditions last year.
Saturday morning about 9:30 while the city was all peaceful and quiet, it was aroused by a loud noise. Upon investigation it was found that the gas tank of the acetylene welding plant of the corner garage had blow up. Pearl Chaney, who was operating it, was standing close to it and was knocked down. He at once got up and proceeded to put out the fire it had started and in doing was burned severely about the face and hands. His eyes are badly injured and his lungs and nostrils were injured by inhaling the hot gas. He is suffering considerable but it is hoped he will soon be on deck again.
The Good Old Days
Today it is a poor egg that doesn’t bring a nickle, and butter is worth 70 cents a pound. The old-timer looks back over the years. He sighs for the good old times. Eggs were 10 cents a dozen and butter 20 cents a pound, says the Miami News.
But does he really want “the good old times?” Let’s see.
In those days people had parlors and didn’t use ’em. Now they have living rooms and wear ’em almost out.
They lighted their homes with Kerosene “hanging” lamps.
Fellows took their girls out “buggy-riding” and knew nothing of the joy of a fleet motor car.
Men were paid a dollar a day on the section, and the other day laborers, just a little above him, was paid ten dollars a week.
As some other man has said, when a person had weak lungs they began to select a nice green spot in the “marble orchard” for him, and if your appendix got tangled up, they said you had inflammation of the bowls and they buried you deep.
And women wore bustles and long germy skirts and had limbs instead of legs.
Houses were heated by stoves of one kind or another. And – bath tubs and other toilet facilities there were none. Remember those cold winter nights with the ordinary lot 220 feet long?
Yes, those were not the good old days. Let ’em keep their 10-cent eggs and their 20-cent butter. Living in 1920 is worth more than it costs, even if it costs more than it did.
source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 02 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Kendrick Gazette. April 02, 1920, Page 8
H. E. Bramer and wife of the Southwick country went to Lewiston Tuesday afternoon to visit Mrs. Bramer’s brother, Herman Meyer, who is now convalescing from his operation.
Ben Callison went to Lewiston the first of the week to spend a short time with his wife, who is quite ill at a hospital there. It is likely that she will have to remain at the hospital several weeks for treatment. The doctors advise a low altitude for a while as she has heart trouble.
The funeral of Mrs. Elsie Case, whose death followed an operation for appendicitis and abscess, was held at Lewiston Wednesday morning. Mrs. Case was born in Kendrick 28 years ago and was the eldest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. B. W. Strain. She is survived by a six-year-old son.
The American Legion dance last Friday night was fairly well attended but the boys did not quite make expenses, lacking something over $7 to cover cost of giving [the] dance. They hope to make up their loss on the next dance.
On account of a wind storm which blew down eight poles along the electric light line near Tekoa, Tuesday, Kendrick was without electric power nearly all day.
(ibid, page 8)
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Cottonwood Chronicle. April 02, 1920, Page 1
Since the first announcement several weeks ago that plans were under way for securing a hospital for Cottonwood much favorable comment has been heard in favor of the movement. We were in hopes that we would be able to make some definite announcement of the committee’s plans this week, but owing to the bad weather the committee has not been able to get together. Everyone that has been approached in the matter of a hospital has expressed himself as heartily in favor of the same and no doubt the necessary financial support will be secured by a little united effort put forth by the people of Cottonwood and vicinity. The committee has plans for enlisting the united support of every man, woman and child of Cottonwood as well as the farmers of the surrounding country and by all doing just a little the thing can be accomplished so easily that we will wonder why it wasn’t done before.
If Cottonwood is to keep step with other progressive towns and has at heart the welfare of the community we cannot afford to pass by this opportunity to assist those of our citizens who have undertaken the work of organization and are working hard for this worthy cause. Let’s all get in and boost, if we wait till you are flat on your back and have to be sent somewhere else to a hospital you’ll be a booster alright but it will be too late. Let us do it now.
Sale A Good One
The auction sale conducted by Mrs. Rose Kuther near Ferdinand Monday brought exceptionally high prices for everything offered for sale. According to Auctioneer Cranke steers brought as high as $123 a head, horses sold for as high as $450 a span. Hogs brought 19 1/2 cents a pound. The total proceeds of the sale amounted to $7000. $2000 more than was expected.
Albert Nau Injured
Tuesday morning Albert Nau and his sister, Mrs. Rose Kuther drove up in front of Mrs. M. Meakin’s residence with a four-horse team and unloaded some furniture that Mrs. Meakin had purchased at the auction sale. For some reason the horses took fright and in an effort to control them Mr. Nau dropped a line. The horses made a short turn around, nearly upsetting the load; both he and Mrs. Kuther jumped, landing in the muddy streets. The lady apparently escaped injury, but Mr. Nau badly sprained his ankle, and for a time was very faint. He was carried into the hotel, where D. C. E. Alcorn attended him, and later he was taken to his home.
It is a fortunate mishap, after all, in as much, as both parties might have been seriously injured, as the horses appeared very much excited. Help arriving so soon after the happening cleared up the street obstruction. Mr. Nau will be laid up for some time, which is an unfortunate happening at this time of the year, when the busy season is practically upon the farmer.
– Ferdinand Enterprise
172 Teachers Failed
The seriousness of the salary and teacher shortage situation in Idaho is set forth in a report of the committee of the State Teachers’ association, which is conducting a statewide investigation. This report, which was made public Monday shows an actual shortage of teachers to the number of 100, with 450 teachers holding their positions on permits. Of the latter 172 failed to pass the examinations, but are now teaching because otherwise teachers could not have been secured.
News Around The State
Items of Interest From Various Sections Reproduced for Benefit of Our Readers
Idaho’s share of the $257,000,000 federal appropriation for road building in 1920-21 is $1,159,967.
Idaho hunters, in 1919, killed 2230 deer, 136 elk and seventy seven mountain sheep, according to a report made to Governor Davis by Robert O. Jones, state commissioner of law enforcement.
About 14,000 Idaho farm bureau members will be called upon before April 15 to approve or disapprove a tax plan proposed by a bill in congress whereby land holdings valued in excess of $10,000 will be taxed one per cent. The American Farm Bureau association will compile the results of the referendum and make recommendations to congress.
source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 02 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Cottonwood Chronicle. April 02, 1920, Page 8
C. Strikfaden Quite Ill
Chas. Strickfaden was taken to the hospital at Lewiston Tuesday morning, owing to severe bleeding at the nose.
Mr. Strickfaden and family returned from California two weeks ago, where they had spent the winter. Both Mr. and Mrs. Strickfaden had quite a tussle with influenza while away, and the attending physician opines this strange affliction is a relapse of the unwelcome malady.
Upon their arrival here, he apparently was feeling fine, and the sudden turn for the worse, is deeply regretted by his friends.
– Ferdinand Enterprise.
Cottonwood And Vicinity
Personal Mention and Local Happenings of the Week in This Vicinity
Dr. J. D. Shinnick, one of the few persons in Idaho county being commissioned captain during the Great World War will leave Sunday morning for Twin Falls where he will represent Cottonwood Post No. 40 of the American Legion at a state convention of all the legions in the state of Idaho.
Several young men of the city gathered at the home of Dr. and Mrs. Shinnick Sunday, where they discussed the ways and means of organizing a glee club. Organizations of this kind are fine for any small town and gives the young men an opportunity to spend many a leisure hour, which sometimes are to dispose of in a village the size of Cottonwood.
An expert telephone man from Spokane is this week busily engaged in enlarging the switchboard at the Pacific Telephone office.
Day with more than ordinary significance during this month are as follows: Today, Good Friday; 4th, Easter Sunday; 6th, 3rd anniversary of the U. S. joining the Allies in the Great World War; 13th, birthday of Thomas Jefferson; 19th, Patriots Day; 27th, birthday of U. S. Grant.
(ibid, page 8)
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The Idaho Recorder. April 02, 1920, Page 1
This prosperous young mining man of Gilmore died in Salmon last Sunday morning from pneumonia. He was stricken a few days before and was hurried by sleigh to Leadore and then on to Salmon, but there was no hope of saving his life when he arrived here.
Mr. Schauffleberger was a partner in a lease from the P. I. with Benson Evans and his age was 35 years, being a native of Switzerland. His wife whom he married six months ago was Miss Grace Smith, former teacher at Gilmore. He was entering upon a life of great promise and usefulness, being an industrious and untiring worker. The body was sent to Boise for interment by Undertaker Doebler, the widow and his former partner going out by the same train on Tuesday.
Sam Briney has returned home after successful surgical attention from Dr. Wright in Salmon.
Realistic Hoax For April First
On the program of sense and nonsense arranged for the Business Men’s association banquet and smoker last night there was one number above all others that thrilled, with pistol shots and other accessories of a warm scrap. The setting arose over what seemed to be a hot personal dispute between Fred Viel and E. H. Casterlin as to the honesty and integrity of each other. Viel accused Chasterlin of neglect of his official duty as county prosecuting officer and an all-round slacker, using hot words in the complaint. Casterlin replied in kind, saying that Viel had been a bad lot in business from which he had to retire on account of innumerable questionable acts, short change stunts and all the rest of his misdoings. The account was stretched out at great length when Viel cried out to the speaker to stop or he would shoot, but Casterlin did not stop until the actual shooting began. Then the lights went out and there ensued a scramble of the assemblage to get out of the way of the flying bullets. Telephone Johnson, being mistaken for a pole up which one of the scramblers undertook to climb to safety, had his face pretty badly lacerated in the mix-up. Others impaired their shins in making their get-away among the chairs. As soon as the lights came on again the blanched faces of those remaining in the room testified to the success of the hoax. …
source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 02 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Recorder. April 02, 1920, Page 5
County Nurse Reports On
Miss M. E. Lunney, county nurse, completed last week the examination of 36 pupils in the Brooklyn school, where the result was tabulated as follows:
For 13 no sort of treatment was recommended.
Nutrition was found good for 32.
Four were underweight.
Two suffered from heart trouble.
One had defective hearing.
In four there were nasal defects.
Seven had defective vision.
Twenty had defective teeth.
Twelve tonsils affected.
Twelve had adenoids.
Recommended for treatment 24.
One referred to physician, diagnosed appendicitis.
Two home visits made.
One eye bandaged.
The observations of the county nurse will be watched with the greatest interest. Among other things she says:
Health is a national obligation and is a matter of great economic importance and the question is, What is being done to increase the nation’s efficiency. If we give the child the proper start we need not worry about the adult. The fate of the child depends on the standard of the home. Children are entitled to as good care as the live stock or crops.
A human life is worth $40,000, economic value to the nation. Fifteen million die annually. Many of these lives might have been prolonged if physical defects had been corrected in childhood.
One of the Worst
A real blizzard of the Montana variety came howling over the mountains from the north Tuesday evening. Show in sheets from off the high peaks was driven along 60 miles an hour. The snow soon blew out but the wind continued to whistle through the night, with a temperature that fell to 15 below zero.
An All Fools’ Dance
An all fools’ dance is to be given by the Cheeroll orchestra this Friday night, April 2. The members of this cheery musical company assure The Recorder that they hope to make for better dance music than they have heretofore. Besides rehearsing often they have a complete new outfit of drums and traps, upon which it is certain their expert and original drummer, Leonard Hull, will manipulate with dexterity. The proceeds of this dance will be turned over to the high school athletic fund to assist spring athletic activities. Perhaps you have heard, in one form or other, this orchestra – the playing, management, motive etc. Try being a Missourian tonight.
(ibid, page 5)
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The Idaho Recorder. April 02, 1920, Page 8
Leadore And Upper Lemhi
Easter Services — An Easter service will be held at the school house at 8 o’clock Sunday evening. The service will consist largely of song. However, appropriate scripture will be read and a short talk by Dr. Safford. An offering will be taken before the close to be turned over to the Sunday school as the school is hardly large enough to pay for literature and janitor’s charge. So come out to the Easter service prepared to give the Sunday school a boost.
Family Affair — If one person had all the chicken pox of the Lee Stewart family that person would be some sick. There are lots of them and they’ve all got it. And speaking of the Stewart family, Mrs. Stewart is a kind hearted soul. She raises chickens for a lot of stray, hungry cats. They kill and dress their own chickens though.
Rudey Schaffelberger was taken to Salmon last week Friday suffering with typhoid-pneumonia. He was brought down from Gilmore the night before on a sled. Mrs. Schaffelberger accompanied her husband and will remain with him through the sickness. (Death of patient reported elsewhere in this paper.)
The Boyle creek school will be out Friday, April 2. The eighth [grade] pupils will take their examination at the Big Flat school.
The county superintendent and county nurse visited the Boyle creek school Wednesday.
W. E. McCracken postmaster, received a sack of mail that should have gone to Connecticut. That mail is a long ways from home.
Mrs. Eric Ravndal and daughter, Clover, and son, Gerald, spent Thursday evening with Mr. and Mrs. Ed Caperton. The Capertons have a new Silvertone Victrola.
Joe Sedivic has been seriously ill with an abscess on his neck.
John Cox has a wheel installed in the Salmon river to raise water for irrigation.
“Frenchy” is moving a bunch of cattle down the Salmon river.
Gilmore is rapidly approaching the point where it will be known as a deep mining camp.
This will be the banner year for Lemhi county, and we should all pull together and boost the county as a whole as well as our home town.
Big Flat Items
Harley McDonald was on the jury the past week.
Mrs. Maes returned last Tuesday with her two daughters, Edna and Lucile. Edna went to consult an eye specialist while Lucile had her adenoids and tonsils treated. It is said both children are much improved.
Fred Pattee was on the sick list but is now improving.
Sarah Houtz returned last week from Butte, where she took her young son Glen, to be operated on. The lad is much improved.
(ibid, page 8)
Salzburg in 1914; cathedral on the left, Hohensalzburg Fortress in the background
Salzburg – literally “Salt Castle” is the fourth-largest city in Austria.
The town is on the site of the Roman settlement of Iuvavum.
Following World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Salzburg, as the capital of one of the Austro-Hungarian territories, became part of the new German Austria. In 1918, it represented the residual German-speaking territories of the Austrian heartlands. This was replaced by the First Austrian Republic in 1919, after the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919).
excerpts from: Wikipedia
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Discussion on the value of medical baths for invalid soldiers
by R Fortescue Fox
This article was first published by JRSM in Volume 8, March 1915.
Rheumatic affections bulk largely in the health statistics of armies in times of peace, and the diagnosis “rheumatism” is quite as commonly used for those who are invalided in war. The conditions so designated are of course various, but sometimes appear to be analogous to what has been described as “fatigue fever,” met with after extreme and long-continued physical exertion, as in forced marches, especially when the men are not fully trained. An excessive muscular metabolism causes in this condition an accumulation of waste products within the muscles, and a slight, general septic intoxication, the symptoms being exhaustion and stiffness and acute pain on movement. If the muscular work is too greatly prolonged, what has been called “organic exhaustion” ensues, perhaps with cerebral disturbance.
In slighter cases immediate relief is obtained by stimulating the circulation in the muscles, and so sweeping away the waste products. A good example of this rapid cure of abnormal fatigue is the regulation hot bath after a day’s hard deer-stalking in Scotland. We are told that at the Front hot baths are now greatly appreciated by men fatigued from duty. Even when the case is serious and of many weeks’ duration, the judicious use of hyperthermal baths sometimes gives surprising relief.
Professor Russell, of Edinburgh, has recently given me a verbal account of some soldiers admitted under his care into the Royal Infirmary from the fighting line in France. Those men had been in the retreat from Mons and in the advance to the Aisne, and had been invalided on account of “rheumatism”; one of the men, who was in the Royal Field Artillery, was so ill before he left the Front that he had to be helped on to his horse, and when admitted to the infirmary seemed to have little power in his legs. All the men were very greatly and promptly relieved by a hot bath; the effect on the artilleryman was marked and immediate. The treatment in all the cases was curative. The bath was taken as hot as the patient could bear it, and some ammonia was added to the water.
Painful synovitis in a single joint, especially the knee, appears to be common in those who have occupied cramped positions in the trenches. In others there are deposits and thickenings in the connective tissues, more or less generalised, to which the names “fibrositis” and “neuritis” are variously applied. All experienced spa physicians will agree that such cases, when the acute phase has passed away, furnish a large proportion of successes in their practice.
excerpts from: NIH
1919 Serbian Soldiers Treated for Influenza
Serbian soldiers are treated for influenza on February 5, 1919, in Rotterdam, Netherlands, at the auxiliary hospital for Serbians and Portuguese. The auxiliary hospital was located in Schoonderloostraat, the building of the Society of St. Aloysius. In the center is Captain Dragoljub N. Đurković with a member of the medical staff. CC BY-SA H.A. van Oudgaarden, courtesy of Piet van Bentum
source: Alan Taylor April 10, 2018 “30 Photos of the 1918 Flu Pandemic” The Atlantic
The Spanish Influenza Pandemic: As Viewed Then and Now
by John D. Grabenstein, RPh, PhD, Executive Director, Global Vaccines Medical Affairs, Merck Research Laboratories. He has published widely on the history of vaccine development, immunization policy, and pneumococcal and smallpox vaccination, among other topics.
posted September 10, 2018 Karie Youngdahl
The Historical Medical Library of The College of Physicians of Philadelphia. Scrapbook of newspaper clippings (September 14, 1918 to March 1, 1919) concerning the influenza epidemic in Philadelphia, 1918-1919
Trains were the primary mode of transportation; the trains stopped running. So many people died, cities ran out of wood for coffins. Churches cancelled services to slow the contagion. Hospitals across America erected canvas tents to cope with unprecedented numbers of patients. Despite desperate and contradictory advice on how to quell the epidemic, no medical effort existed that could help the people.
Historians agree that the influenza pandemic of 1918-19 was the greatest loss of life in such a short period at any time in the history of humanity. This pandemic, a very wide-ranging epidemic, easily exceeded the toll of any war or natural disaster. The Eurasian bubonic plague epidemic of the 1300s and the plague of Justinian in the sixth century caused more deaths overall, but those deaths were spread over years and decades, rather than a few months as in 1918-19.
How Bad Was 1918?
The numbers that describe the influenza pandemic of 1918-19 are nothing short of staggering. In the United States, 25 million people fell ill (one-quarter of the nation’s population) and 675,000 people died. These fatalities exceed the combat deaths of American soldiers in every war of the 20th and 21st centuries, combined.
In Philadelphia, 7,600 people died within 14 days in 1918. During the week of October 23, 1918, 21,000 deaths due to influenza were reported nationwide, the highest weekly mortality level for any cause at any time in American history. During October 1918, 150,000 people died in Pennsylvania alone. In some Alaskan villages, 50% to 85% of the people died.[1-6] Graphs of American life expectancy show steady improvement, with a clear exception: the dramatic dip caused by the 1918 influenza pandemic. [See Figure 1.]
US Life Expectancy. 1910-60. SOURCE: Lemon SM, Mahmoud A, Mack A, Knobler SL, eds. The threat of pandemic influenza: are we ready? workshop summary. National Academies Press; p. 73. 2005 Apr 9. DATA: U.S. Department of Commerce (1976); Grove and Hetzel (1968); Linder and Grove (1943)
Around the world, the most commonly quoted death toll is 21 million people, about 1% of humanity. Some estimates suggest that 30 million or more people lost their lives. About 500 million became ill. Some communities were stricken especially hard; at least 4% of the population of India are believed to have died. New Zealand was infected by ships from the United States. Australia was protected for several months by a vigorous quarantine that eventually failed.
It is hard to conceive of human misery on this scale. Healthy streetcar conductors started the day feeling well, then fell dead by lunchtime. Children were found untended, because both parents had succumbed unexpectedly within hours of each other. A San Francisco hospital reported treating more than 1,000 patients with pneumonia simultaneously.
Medicine in 1918 and Today
The first indication of the developing American outbreak came in March 1918 at Camp Funston, Kansas, near present-day Fort Riley. By April, cases appeared in most American cities and followed American soldiers deploying to Europe to help General Pershing repel the German Kaiser’s army from France.
The Army hospital commander at Camp Funston reported: “There are 1,440 minutes in a day. When I tell you there were 1,440 admissions in a day, you will realize the strain put on our Nursing and Medical force.” The pandemic weakened German military forces perhaps more than Allied troops, and may have been a precipitating factor in Woodrow Wilson’s physical and mental demise at the end of his presidency.
During those first few months, the infection was incapacitating, but not exceptionally lethal. By August, however, virulence increased and people were dying in droves. In response to the incapacitation and deaths, theaters, dance halls, bars, schools, and other places of public assembly were closed, including churches. Football games were cancelled and telephone booths were padlocked.
Many cities adopted ordinances requiring people to wear gauze face masks in public. Compliance with the regulation was good in some places or at some times, but bad in others. The clinical value of masks in reducing droplet transmission is variable, except in reminding people to reduce close contact. Prescott, Arizona, made shaking hands a jailable offense.
Teams with horse-drawn wagons in Philadelphia found 200 abandoned corpses in streets, alleys, and tenements. Morgues were overcrowded when embalmers refused to come to work. In one city, a trainload of coffins passing through was highjacked by a health official for local use.
Recall that this was the pharmacologic era that featured quinine and digitalis. Little was available in the pharmacopeia to prevent or treat this influenza. In the 1910s, scientists had not yet discovered the existence of viruses, much less viewed influenza A virus through a microscope.
Americans of that era called the 1918 pandemic by the name “Spanish influenza,” because early clusters of deaths were reported in Spain while censored elsewhere. People in Spain called it the “Russian flu,” while the French blamed the Chinese. Clinicians of that era called the infection influenza, but they thought it was caused by Bacillus influenzae (Pfeiffer’s bacillus, now known as Haemophilus influenzae). Others blamed Friedlander’s bacillus, Klebsiella pneumoniae.
We know now that influenza pandemics are caused by influenza type A, but not by Haemophilus influenzae type b. Dozens of bacterial vaccines were tried in 1918, but they were ineffective against viruses, naturally. Home remedies included red-pepper sandwiches and various teas. Desperate measures were recommended, including chloroform inhalation, camphor amulets, and removal of tonsils or teeth.
What Might a Modern Pandemic Look Like?
What would have happened if the 2009 influenza pandemic had not burned itself out? What will we do when the influenza virus next mutates into a strain as virulent as seen in 1918 or 1957? Without intervention, society would be threatened in an analogous fashion. The toll would be much the same, perhaps worse.
Airplanes might stop flying for lack of personnel to keep them in the air. Congregation in malls, theaters, arenas, and houses of worship might be banned again. Spread of pandemic influenza in 1918 was aided by the mass movement of troops during World War I. In our modern era, jet airplanes can transport people and viruses far more efficiently. Would the public expect or tolerate cessation of commercial airline traffic or closing the Interstate highway system to slow disease transmission?
Commerce and services taken for granted may be disrupted. Telephone service in 1918 failed when switchboard operators succumbed. Telephony services are automated today, but what if computer programmers and utility workers fall ill, or the people who replenish banking machines with $20 bills? Network problems could disrupt services over a wider area than in 1918.
An influenza pandemic differs markedly from more common natural disasters. The acute phase of hurricanes or earthquakes lasts just a few minutes or hours. Unaffected areas can send assistance during the following weeks and months to help with recovery. Influenza pandemics, on the contrary, are expected to persist for 8 weeks in each locale, striking multiple communities simultaneously, lessening the ability to rally relief from neighboring locations. Competing demands for assistance will be fierce.
We can expect people to misinterpret colds and other viral respiratory infections as cases of pandemic influenza, diverting and diluting health-care resources. Inappropriate or counterproductive responses can be expected. Too stringent quarantine requirements may be imposed, as in 1918. Destruction of property to establish cordons sanitaire is possible, too. We can anticipate quack remedies and talismans reminiscent of 1918, as well as their 21st century counterparts, such as inappropriate serological testing. Objective facts and voices of reason will compete with schemers and the desperate.
Will there be enough trained personnel to operate the hospitals, dispense from pharmacies, and run the ambulances? In the 1918 experience, shortages of people and materiel struck many communities. Contingency plans will be needed. Simple measures could include suspending vacations, working extra shifts, canceling non-acute care and procedures, and enlisting volunteers. Increased responsibility could be given to nontraditional providers. Training programs could be cut short and graduations accelerated. Retirees could be recalled to duty. National Guard units could be mobilized to help with essential services.
Fortunately, the US government and state governments greatly enhanced their pandemic planning from the mid-2000s onward, prompted by an influenza A/H5N1 pandemic among birds and then the 2009 human influenza A/H1N1 pandemic.
A major component of those recent preparedness efforts are focused on vaccines. The US government invested billions of dollars to expand domestic influenza vaccine-manufacturing capacity. These efforts were tested in the 2009-10 influenza pandemic, which started out with exceptional pathogenicity, and then fortunately tempered over the course of multiple months. The vaccine supply was inadequate during that early alarming phase. By the time the vaccine manufacturing pipeline was reliably yielding product, the public recognized the reduction in disease severity and lessened its collective clamor to be vaccinated. Untested was the adequacy of clinic space and supplies to vaccinate hundreds of millions of people in a short period of time.
The unpredictability of influenza presents many challenges. Most influenza seasons are not as exceptionally bad as the 1918-19 crisis, but rather closer to the average (substantial) burden of serious disease and death. Understanding the history of extremely lethal influenza pandemics is essential to garner the preparedness and planning resources that will mitigate the next influenza pandemic
Note: This piece was adapted from an earlier publication
Grabenstein JD. Pandemic influenza: Planning now to avoid another tragedy. Hospital Pharmacy 1999
source: This History of Vaccines – An Educational Resource by The College of Physicians of Philadelphia
1918 Nurse Wearing Mask
No source or other info available. Found on Twitter:
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Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 88)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 89)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 90)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 91)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 92)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 93)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 94)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 95)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 96)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 97)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 98)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 99)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic Ads (Part 100)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic Ads (Part 101)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic Ads (Part 102)