Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic
Idaho Newspaper Clippings April 2, 1920
The Idaho Republican. April 02, 1920, Page 1
Miss Lila Liljenquist is confined to her home on account of illness.
Roscoe Jones Dies
Roscoe, the twelve-year-old son of Mr. and Mrs. R. L. Jones, died Wednesday night after a long illness, resulting from an automobile accident last January. He was knocked down by a Ford and dragged for some distance and during his recovery from that accident developed pneumonia.
May Get A Bonus
Ex-Service Men to Receive Compensation, Says Good
Ex-service men will receive compensation from the government, according to a letter received by Judge J. E. Good of the probate court from his son, Donald R. Good, who is attached to the adjutant general’s office at Washington, D. C. Mr. Good was present at a meeting recently of the ways and means committee of the senate, when the subject of compensation was being discussed. He stated in the letter to his father that the disposition of the committee seemed to favor some kind of compensation and that it probably would e given in the shape of land, an opportunity of borrowing money to improve land or a cash bonus. The ex-soldier is to be given his choice.
Ask Big Fund For Army Flying Service
An appropriation of $60,000,000 for the aviation forces of the army for the coming fiscal year was asked Tuesday by Major General Menoher, director of the air service, appearing before the house military affairs committee. He stated that $33,000,000 are necessary for training and operation.
Jokes Get Many
April Fool’s Day Takes Toll of Unsuspecting Victims
The month of April was ushered in with the usual number of April fool jokes and pranks played on unsuspecting citizens of Blackfoot. Chocolates with onion, cork, cotton and soap fillings were given away much to the discomfort of the recipient. Even the teachers of the various schools were not exempt. All day long a harmless looking shoe box lay in front of the postoffice, but only a few hardy individuals kicked it. Several pocketbooks, apparently well filled, lay on the walks in various portions of the city and not a few attempted to pick them up.
One of the best jokes pulled in the city yesterday was when one of the porters of a local barber shop took one of his brother porters out along the railroad track for several miles to give him a drink of alleged whisky. It was rather likely looking bottle of wet goods, but it surely lacked the kick. The liquid was made up of soap and other like ingredients. Neither of the porters are speaking to each other today.
source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 02 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —
The Idaho Republican. April 02, 1920, Page 2
Vaccine Wins Great Battle
Used Successfully in the Fight Against Pneumonia
Research Work Goes On
United States Public Health Service Encouraged by Tests Made in Research Laboratories in New York – Shortage of Monkeys is Seriously Interfering With Progress of Research Work – Limitation of Serums Explained
The United Sates public health service is experimenting with monkeys in the research laboratory in New York city for the purpose of establishing definitely the value of vaccine in the prevention of pneumonia and of serum in its care.
The research work, in which 200 monkeys already have been used, began in Washington in March of last year in order to follow up remarkable results obtained in some of the army camps in the use of vaccine against pneumonia, which in the last two years has caused more deaths than any infectious disease. The experiments were started in the Army Medical school in Washington by Maj. Russell L. Cecil and Dr. Francis C. Blake, now of the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research. Both reported encouraging results to the New York County Medical society, and gave figures on the use of the vaccine at Camps Upton and Wheeler, indicating great value in the vaccine. Doctor Cecil is continuing the experiments with G. L. Steffen, a bacteriologist, for the United States public health service. The work will continue for a year or more before the research is considered complete.
Monkey Scarcity Retards Work
The experiments are progressing slowly at present because of the scarcity of Philippine monkeys. There are so few in this country at present for medical work that they command a price of $20 apiece. Louis Ruhe, and animal dealer, who recently brought in a shipload of 700 monkeys from India, said it was difficult to import the animals because freight shipping from the Orient was so brisk that ship owners would not allow space to animal importers, and because it was necessary to send men to India or the Philippines to look after the health of each cargo of monkeys.
Doctor Cecil, who stated in a report to the New York County Medical society that the pneumonia rate at Camp Wheeler among the unvaccinated soldiers was 20 times the rate for the vaccinated, has finished the experimentation on monkeys with Type 1 of pneumonia. These experiments are held to indicate that the vaccine gives protection against this type of pneumonia, and that the serum, given in time, cures it. The vaccine is an extract made from dead pneumococcugerms. The serum is taken from the blood of a horse inoculated with the germs. The theory is that the vaccine stimulates protective action in the blood of the human being to prevent the disease, while the serum contains an agency developed in the blood of the horse for combating the disease, which the human system makes against the disease after it had obtained a start.
A long series of preliminary experiments were made at the Army Medical school in Washington, which proves that pneumonia ran a course in the Philippine monkey of almost exactly the same nature as in man. After that monkeys were used in sets of of two. The pneumonia germs of Type 1 were shot into the throats of one vaccinated and one unvaccinated monkey, the unvaccinated one being used as a “control.” The unvaccinated monkeys, it was reported, invariably got pneumonia and died from it. The vaccinated monkeys contracted the disease, but in a mild form, and soon recovered.
Large doses of vaccine have been used in the experiments in New York city with more favorable results. Six sets of monkeys have been inoculated with the germs there. The unvaccinated monkey has died each time, while the monkey vaccinated with the larger dose has not contracted the disease at all.
Experiments are now beginning in the use of Type 2 of pneumonia, which is in four types. The year or more of experimenting is to include the use of vaccines against each type and combination of the vaccine against all the types. The advocates of the vaccine believe its value has been established in the army camps against the first three types, but less is known about the so-called fourth type, which is thought to comprehend several groups of pneumococcus and other infections.
Inoculated Monkeys Saved
Other experiments were made in the cure of monkeys inoculated with Type 1. They were given hypodermic injections of serum twice a day until their temperature had become normal. Uniform success was reported in saving the inoculated monkeys by this method.
The results from the use of vaccine at Camp Wheeler were similar to those obtained in the Y. M. C. A. in New York city during the epidemic a year ago, which reported that of 275 persons treated with the vaccine developed by Dr. Ellis Bonime in that city, only three developed influenza or pneumonia, while of 217 Y. M. C. A. workers who were not vaccinated, 45 contracted influenza or pneumonia. Doctor Cecil in a report on the results at Camp Upton, said:
“The first figures showed only 17 cases of pneumonia of all types occurring among 12,519 men who received vaccine; whereas, among unvaccinated troops during the same period there was a total of 173 cases of pneumonia of all types. For the ten weeks which the men were under observation, the pneumonia death rate for vaccinated troops was only .83 per thousand; for the unvaccinated it was 12.8.
“Altogether 13,460 men, or about 80 per cent of the entire strength of Camp Wheeler, were vaccinated against pneumonia with pneumococcus lipovaccine. Both the local and general reactions produced by the vaccine were mild. Only 7 per cent of those who received the vaccine were sufficiently affected to receive hospital care. None of these were seriously ill and a majority of them returned to duty in two or three days after admission.”
The limitations of the vaccine and some of the difficulties in bringing it into general use were stated as follows:
“One of the chief difficulties which we encountered in fighting against pneumonia is the variety of types of pneumonia which are encountered. Even if streptococcus, influenza and other rare forms are eliminated for the reason that they are not often seen in civil life, the pneumococcus itself occurs in such a variety of types that it is difficult to prepare a vaccine capable of protecting against all of them. If Type 4 pneumococcus were a fixed type similar to Types 1, 2 and 3, this difficulty would be obviated. But Type 4 pneumococcus is simply a name given to a large group of pneumococci, which appear to be entirely independent of each other and which give no mutual protection.
“Pneumonia rarely occurs as an epidemic scourge like smallpox, so there would be difficulty in having vaccination against pneumonia. People do not fear the disease and are, therefore, unwilling to submit to the inconvenience of being vaccinated. Unless vaccination against pneumonia is practically compulsory, it will be very difficult to get a large number of candidates in civilian communities.”
[* See Further Reading below]
Is The Opportunity Self-Evident?
Now that grownups are really getting educated in the important subject of childhood, and finding their boasted American school system stranded on the shoals of inefficiency, we may look for a better era. There was no hope for improvement so long as the people who pay for the schooling were so complacent as to think it was the best to be had, cheap as it was.
It has been the good old parental habit to consider the public school an opportunity all sufficient in itself to awaken the best in the young person. They sent off their children at eight-thirty every morning, provided meals, paid for clothing and books, scolded over report cards once a month – and left the rest to Providence and the teacher.
If the boy didn’t do well and wanted to quit at the end of a few years in high school, father would say: “Well, he don’t realize his opportunity. Let him get out into the world and learn for himself that education is worth while, the same as I did.” And out went John, Frank or Jim into a work-a-day job to find too late what he had missed and to envy college boys who were always getting ahead of him in spite of their late start in business.
The father’s duty does not end with providing the opportunity of schooling. It is up to him to sell his son on the idea of education. Nobody else can have his influence over the boy. Nobody else will be so much to blame if the son shall only awaken to the truths after school-day opportunities are far behind.
Nor has he fulfilled the duties of a father, nor taken advantage of his own opportunity until he shall have taken a personal interest in the schools of his community and made them the best possible.
The noble profession of school teaching should not be turned over to cheap incompetents. That isn’t the way to make schooling the opportunity you claim it to be, dad.
– F. C. K.
(ibid, page 2)
— — — —
The Idaho Republican. April 02, 1920, Page 5
Death of Mrs. Pierce
Mrs. Bertha M. Pierce died at her home east of Blackfoot Thursday morning after a brief illness. She is survived by her husband and one child. Funeral arrangements have not been announced.
Hailey Man Attacked In Night By Coyote
Hailey — Along about the fore part of last week Paul Coats, living on Fish creek above Carey, was awakened in the night by a disturbance among the dogs near his house. He got up to investigate the trouble and was quite severely bitten by a coyote on his right leg just above the knee.
As he wore quite heavy clothing the teeth of the animal did not penetrate the flesh as much as they otherwise would. Still, the marks of the teeth showed plainly on the flesh and there was much apprehension lest the coyote was afflicted with the rabies. The animal was later killed and the head forwarded to Boise for examination.
Returns from it have not yet been learned at this writing, but it is believed that the analysis will show the presence of rabies. – Hailey News Miner
(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —
Montpelier Examiner. April 02, 1920, Page 1
Mrs. H. Ansell has returned from a two weeks visit with Mrs. William Morgan at Cokeville. Mrs. Morgan’s health is reported as greatly improved following an extended sick spell.
That horses are bringing good prices in Bear Lake county was demonstrated at Dingle Wednesday when T. C. Wallentine sold a fine team of black horses for which he receive four hundred and twenty-five dollars.
source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 02 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —
Montpelier Examiner. April 02, 1920, Page 3
In The Gem State
Arbor day has been set for April 2 in Bannock county.
At the election held at Cambridge on school bonds the proposition was carried by 150 to 3.
Completion of the branch line of the railroad to open up the Idaho coal mines near Driggs, was announced last week.
Idaho school districts cannot issue deficiency warrants to complete school buildings for which bond issue money has proved insufficient, according to the attorney general.
(ibid, page 3)
— — — —
Montpelier Examiner. April 02, 1920, Page 4
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Sarbach left Saturday for Salt Lake where Mr. Sarbach will undergo an operation in one of the hospitals there.
A baby girls was born to Mr. and Mrs. H. C. Dimick Sunday.
Dr. A. L. Chilton, Optician, of the Pocatello Optical company, will be in Montpelier April 22nd and 24th at Goodman & Christman’s Jewelry Co., Montpelier, and at the Stucki home, Paris, April 23rd, 10 a.m. to 3 p.m.
(ibid, page 4)
— — — —
Montpelier Examiner. April 02, 1920, Page 9
Mrs. Lester Munk has the smallpox.
Mrs. Riley Hayes went to Salt Lake Thursday morning and returned Sunday afternoon with his brother David who has been in Salt Lake taking treatment under Dr. Lindsey.
The old folks’ party held on the 31st will long be remembered by all those who attended. Supper was served in good old style and a dance at night concluded the program.
(ibid, page 9)
— — — — — — — — — —
Shoshone Journal. April 02, 1920, Page 1
Shoshone Hospital Notes
The hospital was incorporated March 22nd.
The hospital has made arrangements with Miss B. A. Newland to take the superintendency. Miss Newland graduated from St. Lukes in Boise about ten years ago. She is a registered nurse. After graduation she specialized a year as a surgical nurse. Later she managed the hospital at Weiser. The Weiser doctors say she was the most efficient superintendent that every had. In addition she has made good in a position in the commercial world where tact and business ability were essential. With her at the helm our hospital will avoid the shoals and reefs that often wreck a new institution.
High School Notes
The few in the eighth grade who can recite are exceptionally good guessers, says Miss Faris.
The county nurse, Miss Sinclair, is with us this week giving the entire school a general physical examination. Many minor defects have been found which could be overcome by the use of a Gym and two or three classes each week for every student in school. It is a problem which should be given no little thought.
Neil Hubbs is under the care of Dr. Jones this week.
The next nursing class will be held with Mrs. Most, April 5. These classes are attracting considerable attention and are doing a very useful service to the community.
The clean-up campaign is now on in this community and is progressing as rapidly as possible. It is the intention of the community to make it a flyless place, if possible this summer.
The Darrah ranchers have nearly completed getting in their spring planting.
Dietrich Precinct Notes
J. R. Smith has been several days this week laid up with sickness very clearly indicating threatened pneumonia.
Myrtle Borden came home from her school work at Pocatello to spend Sunday with the folks, became ill here and was compelled to take a few days off.
Prof. Fancher, who has charge of the school at Besslen had a close call for life Sunday evening. Going to Shoshone in his car he had proceeded as far as the crossing half mile west of Dietrich. Traveling in the same direction was a freight train, unnoticed until too late. As he turned to cross he found himself almost under the train. In a second he kicked his brake on and jumped. He saved himself but the car was reduced to kindling wood in the mix up with the locomotive. It seems to be a mystery how Fancher saved himself.
Samuel Brotzman last Monday turned his school wagon over to his son Frank. At the crossing west of town the team scared at the wreck of Fancher’s car and nearly made a wreck of a school car and a lot of children.
Dietrich School Notes
The hot lunches for the pupils were stopped last week.
source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 02 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —
Shoshone Journal. April 02, 1920, Page 5
Francisco Leguavra, a young Spaniard, about 18 years of age, died Tuesday night at the boarding house of Julian Pagoaga. He was attacked by influenza which was followed by pneumonia, and he succumbed to the disease although he was a strong healthy young man. He is survived by two brothers who are in the employ of stockmen. The funeral services were held from the Catholic church.
Lynn Lamunyon returned home the first of the week after spending two months in Pasadena, California, for the benefit of his health. He is much improved and reports feeling fine.
Rev. and Mrs. M. H. Brown were at Kimberley Saturday attending the funeral services of Mr. Brown’s sister’s child.
The high school boys spent Saturday cleaning and leveling a strip of land on the east side of the high school property for a tennis court. They intend to put the ground in good condition and have a fine place for the sport.
(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —
The Caldwell Tribune. April 02, 1920, Page 1
Ralph Antrim of Greenleaf is confined to his home with a bad attack of mumps.
Robert Bates has returned to college after illness with the mumps. Mr. Bates underwent a slight operation on his hand Wednesday which is infected with blood poison.
Donald Jenkins of Voorhees Hall received a severe cut on his hand Wednesday evening with a piece of glass.
Curtis Haydon Wednesday received word of the death of his mother at the old family home in Missouri at the age of 87 years. Apparently in the best of health, she was suddenly stricken Tuesday with acute congestion of the lungs and died quite suddenly. Mrs. Haydon was a Caldwell visitor several summers ago and she made many friends here through her typically southern kindly character. Because of the length of time required to make the trip, Mr. Haydon will not go east for the funeral.
Something went wrong with the weather prophet as usual. Those who remember, assert that March was welcomed with rain, sleet and occasional flurries of snow. According to time honored adages, the month should have parted this world in peace and quiet. On the contrary, Tuesday and Wednesday, the last days of the month, were as disagreeable as any typical March day could be. Cold, blustery winds featured both days and night saw hard frosts.
source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 02 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —
The Caldwell Tribune. April 02, 1920, Page 3
Idaho Goats’ Milk For Idaho Babies
Boise, Ida., March 29 — Idaho babies requiring goats’ milk, the nearest to mother nourishment, will no longer have to depend upon California for their supply. Goats’ milk shipped from there is not quite up to the standard required by physicians. At the suggestion of Dr. F. T. Cary, of Gooding, the Idaho Game Breeders’ association have secured a herd of pure bred registered Togensbury (Swiss) goats for its farm in the Hagerman valley. From the farm goat milk will be supplied sick Idaho babies.
An interesting incident of the installation of this herd was a birth en route. On the train Mrs. Goat gave birth to twins, a male and a female.
(ibid, page 3)
— — — —
The Caldwell Tribune. April 02, 1920, Page 5
Local and Personal
Advices received here Friday morning from the Rev. Francis Cook, who has been conducting services at Roseberry the past week, indicate that he will return to Caldwell either today or tomorrow. Meetings at Roseberry conducted by the Rev. Cook and the Rev. Rule, have been uniformly successful. Influenza interfered somewhat. According to the Rev. Cook’s letter, snow in Long Valley is still three feet deep in places with hay greatly in demand.
Funeral services were held Monday afternoon for Mrs. A. P. Alexanderson, wife of a well known Centerpoint farmer. The Rev. B. W. Rice conducted the services. Mrs. Alexanderson died Sunday morning following a lingering illness. She is survived by her husband and six children.
Funeral services were held Wednesday afternoon at the Case chapel at 4 o’clock for James Vick who died Tuesday morning. Interment was in Canyon Hill cemetery.
Miss Evelyn Nichol, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. T. M. Nichol, severely burned her hand Monday morning while she accidentally spilled a pot of burning grease upon it.
Word was received here Monday that W. C. Dyer, who is spending the winter in California, is seriously ill.
Mrs. R. M. Bird, who has bee ill for the past two weeks with acute kidney complaint, is greatly improved. Mrs. Myra Horn of Cherokee, Iowa, is expected to arrive in Caldwell this week for an extended visit. Mrs. Horne is Mrs. Bird’s mother.
Jack Allison, the young son of Mr. and Mrs. W. B. Allison of Canyon Hill, Sunday broke his elbow when he jumped on the running board of his father’s automobile.
(ibid, page 5)
— — — —
The Caldwell Tribune. April 02, 1920, Page 7
Miss Eunice Rockwood, who is home from college at Corvallis, Or., is confined to her home with influenza.
Miss Bessie Trout who visited Tuesday with her sister, Mrs. George Obendorf, left that same evening for Weiser where she is to take a case. Miss Trout is a trained nurse.
Mrs. H. Roy Gee is in Portland where she is receiving medical aid.
Mrs. Margaret Knowlton county superintendent of schools, was in Roswell last week on business.
Next Sunday Easter services will be conducted at Sterry Memorial church. A program is being prepared by the Sunday school. The choir will have special music.
The Pleasant Ridge school boys played an interesting game of basket ball with the Huston boys last Friday afternoon. Huston was the winner this time.
The Pleasant Ridge Sunday school is preparing an Easter program to be given April 4th, at 3 o’clock p.m.
(ibid, page 7)
— — — —
The Caldwell Tribune. April 02, 1920, Page 9
Following Colds, Grip or Flu, Thin, Watery or Poisoned Blood
(By Dr. Valentine Mott)
At this time of year most people suffer from what we term “spring fever” because of a stagnant condition of the blood, because of the toxins (poisons) stored up within the body during the long winter. We eat too much meat, with little or no green vegetables.
Bloodless people, thin, anemic people, those with pale cheeks and lips, who have a poor appetite and feel that tired, worn or feverish condition in the spring-time of the year, should try the refreshing tonic powers of a good alterative and blood purifier. Such a tonic as druggists have sold for fifty years, is Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery. It is a standard remedy that can be obtained in tablet or liquid form. Made without alcohol from wild roots and barks.
Baker City, Oregon: — I was taken with influenza and also had a nervous breakdown. My stomach was so bad I did not retain my food for three or four weeks and I was troubled with sourness and gas. I doctored with my two favorite doctors and a Chiropractor. One day I sent for a copy of Dr. Pierce’s Medical Adviser (price, 50c.), which I read and decided to make a trial of the “Medical Discovery.” At that time I was only able to stay up a few minutes at a time. After taking two bottles I was able to be on my feet all day. I am now able to eat anything without discomfort and never have the dryness in my mouth in the morning nor any bowel troubles. I walk 18 or 19 blocks at a time now and feel no ill effects.” Mrs. Wm. Hoggard, 2630 Church St.
(ibid, page 9)
— — — —
The Caldwell Tribune. April 02, 1920, Page 10
Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory
The illness of D. B. Myers proved to be more serious than was at first thought. He was taken to the sanitarium on Sunday and on Monday submitted to an operation. Mrs. Myers spent the day at Caldwell to be near her husband. At last report he was doing well.
The poultry meeting of the farm bureau which would occur regularly on Thursday, April 1st, has not been definitely arranged for and will be announced later.
Mrs. Alexanderson of lower Dixie passed away Sunday morning after an illness of several months. The family have the sympathy of their many friends.
Mr. and Mrs. Willis Spencer went over to Sunny Slope Sunday to see Mrs. Anna Spencer. Mrs. Spencer has been down for several weeks with rheumatism fever.
Several of the men are cleaning the ditches this nice weather.
Mr. and Mrs. W. M. Hobson, who have been in California the past year for her health, have just returned, having made the trip in their car.
Marble Front Items
Miss Freda Davis a former resident of this vicinity, but now living on Deer Flat was taken to the Caldwell Sanitarium on Thursday of last week where she underwent an operation for appendicitis.
Little Jack Allison while attempting to jump from a slowly moving car was thrown to the ground breaking his arm in two places, one fracture above the elbow and the other just below.
Mrs. Vaughn who has spent the past two weeks in Boise at the St. Alphonsus hospital where she underwent a minor operation of the eye, is spending the week with Mrs. F. L. Cook.
Mr. Oliver Mason is tussling with the mumps this week.
Mrs. L. S. McElwain and friend, Mrs. Thorp called on Miss Freda Davis at the Caldwell sanitarium Monday. They also called at the Harry Burger home to see Miss Fugate who has been confined to her bed since the first of the year with a broken hip.
(ibid, page 10)
— — — —
The Caldwell Tribune. April 02, 1920, Page 11
Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory
Mrs. Hampson has been ill with the grippe the past week.
Miss Millie Howard went to Emmett Saturday to spend a couple of days with her mother, who is ill with pneumonia.
The V. V. Sparks children have the mumps.
Mr. B. M. Altizer has the mumps.
Little Evelyn Carr had to have her injured eye lanced again on Saturday.
Mrs. Ella Carr has recovered from the tonsillitis.
Harry Carr is ill with the tonsillitis.
Two residents of our community are in the Caldwell hospital. Mrs. D. E. Dorsey is quite ill at the Steensland hospital and George Hanmmer is convalescing from an operation for appendicitis at the sanitarium.
March has been a decidedly changeable month this year. Our weather has given us a sample of summer like days, and days when we realized that winter was not far away. Last Saturday we had a regular snow storm in the morning and by afternoon we were having wonderful spring weather.
Quite a number of diseases were active in this neighborhood last week Mabel Wilson had the mumps. Tom Jackson and Mrs. Harry Reynolds had the influenza. Gladys Jackson suffered with tonsillitis. Jessie Norton was home with a cold and Mrs. Deel had both the influenza and the small pox.
A necktie social was given at the hall on the evening of March 20, for the purpose of raising money for a piano for the Claytonia Sunday school. The entertainment for the evening was an old fashioned school. A good time was reported. The returns from the neckties were $9.50.
W. J. Robinson is quite ill from a complication of diseases.
The children of the Midway school sent sixty dozen eggs to the childrens home in Boise Tuesday as an Easter gift.
Miss Marguerite Bumgarner, who is teaching near Wilder, spent the week end with home folks.
(ibid, page 11)
— — — —
(ibid, page 12)
— — — — — — — — — —
The Meridian Times., April 02, 1920, Page 2
If anyone wants a happy old age, he must first of all never betray his optimism; second, never brood over the past and the dead; third, work away to the last breath, to keep as much of his cerebral elasticity as possible.
Life is the interval between one breath and another – he who only half breathes only half lives, but he who uses NATURE’S rhythm in breathing has control over every function of his being.
All defects in the air passages, as well as the unphysiologic conditions arising from them, must be corrected before one can breath properly and be well.
Let us abate something, at least, of our devotion to the almighty dollar, and regard the world as something better than a huge workshop in which we are to toil and moil unceasingly, till death stops the human machine. Let us learn how to play.
Name “Bayer” On Genuine Aspirin
Safe and proper directions are in every “Bayer package”
“Bayer Tablets of Aspirin” to be genuine must be marked with the safety “Bayer Cross.” Then you are getting the true, wold-famous Aspirin, prescribed by physicians for over 18 years.
Always buy an unbroken package of “Bayer Tablets of Aspirin” which contains proper directions to safely relieve Colds, Headache, Toothache, Earache, Neuralgia, Lumbago, Rheumatism, Neuritis, Joint Pains, and Pain generally.
Handy tin boxes of twelve tablets cost but a few cents. Druggists also sell larger “Bayer” packages. Aspirin is the trade mark of Bayer Manufacture of Monoaceticacidester of Salicylicacid.
source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 02 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —
(ibid, page 3)
— — — —
The Meridian Times., April 02, 1920, Page 8
Meridian News Notes
Mrs. W. F. Tucker is seriously ill at her home southeast of town.
The little son of J. M. Dodds, who has been dangerously ill, is better and is recovering.
Miss Vida Elliott who has been seriously ill in a Boise hospital has recovered and returned home Sunday.
Mrs. George Powell had a stroke of paralysis Saturday morning and is in quite a serious condition.
Mrs. Vandenburg, a nurse, has purchased lots just west of the A. V. Tallman residence, where she expects to erect a maternity home.
Mrs. C. L. Cutton returned home Thursday after a month’s stay in St. Alphonsus hospital, for an operation for appendicitis.
Mrs. Charles Ayers was operated upon at a Boise hospital this week for appendicitis. She is getting along all right.
An interesting Arbor day program has been planned for April 14, on the high school campus. Gov. D. W. Davis will be present and deliver the address and trees will be planted in memory of Meridian’s soldier boys who lost their lives in the war.
(ibid, page 8)
The Way North Carolinians Do It At Home
During the epidemic last fall and winter 13k644 North Carolianians laid down their lives to a “spit-borne” disease – influenza!
No info, from unknown sources. Found on Twitter:
Results of Prophylactic Vaccination Against Pneumonia at Camp Wheeler
R L Cecil, H F Vaughan 1919 May 1
1. 13,460 men, or about 80 per cent of the entire camp strength, were vaccinated against pneumonia with pneumococcus lipovaccine.
2. The dosage employed in all cases was 1 cc. of the lipovaccine containing approximately 10 billion each of Pneumococcus Types I, II, and III.
3. Both the local and general reactions produced by the vaccine were usually mild. Only 0.7 per cent of those who received the vaccine were sufficiently affected to need hospital care. None of these was seriously ill, and a majority of them returned to duty on the 2nd or 3rd day after admission.
4. Most of the troops inoculated were under observation for 2 or 3 months after vaccination. During this period there were 32 cases of Pneumococcus Type I, II, and III pneumonia among the vaccinated four-fifths of camp, and 42 cases of pneumonia of these types among the unvaccinated one-fifth of camp. If, however, all cases of pneumonia that developed within 1 week after vaccination are excluded from the vaccinated group, there remain only 8 cases of pneumonia produced by fixed types, and these were all secondary to severe attacks of influenza. This exclusion is justified by the fact that protective bodies do not begin to appear in the serum until the 8th day after injection of pneumococcus lipovaccine.
5. There is no evidence whatever that pneumococcus vaccine predisposes the individual even temporarily toward either pneumococcus or streptococcus pneumonia.
6. The weekly incidence rate for pneumonia (all types) among the vaccinated troops was conspicuously lower than that for the unvaccinated troops.
7. The pneumonia incidence rate per 1,000 men during the period of the experiment was twice as high for unvaccinated recruits as for vaccinated recruits, and nearly seven times as high for unvaccinated seasoned men as for vaccinated seasoned men.
8. Influenza causes a marked reduction in resistance to pneumonia even among vaccinated men. Of the 155 cases of pneumonia (all types) developing 1 week or more after vaccination, 133 were secondary to influenza.
9. The death rate for 155 cases of pneumonia (all types) that developed among vaccinated men 1 week or more after vaccination was only 12.2 per cent, whereas the death rate for 327 cases of all types that occurred among unvaccinated troops was 22.3 per cent. The death rate for primary pneumonia among vaccinated troops was 11.9 per cent. Among unvaccinated, it was 31.8 per cent, almost three times as great. On the other hand, the mortality rate in pneumonia secondary to influenza is about the same for the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups.
10. In conclusion, it must be admitted that the results of pneumococcus vaccination at Camp Wheeler have not been so striking as those obtained at Camp Upton in 1918, largely on account of the influenza epidemic; but, although influenza obscured to some extent the effect of pneumococcus vaccination at Camp Wheeler, the results are sufficiently encouraging to justify its further application in civil as well as in military life.
source: PubMed NIH
— — — — — — — —
Studies on Experimental Pneumonia.
II. Pathology and Pathogenesis of Pneumococcus Lobar Pneumonia in Monkeys.
Francis G. Blake, M.D., and Russell L. Cecil, M.D.
(From the Bacteriological Laboratories of the Army Medical School, Washington.)
(Received for publication, January 23, 1920.)
In a preceding paper it has been shown that pneumonia may be produced readily in normal monkeys by the intratracheal injection of minute amounts of pneumococcus culture and that the disease so produced runs a clinical course identical with that of lobar pneumonia in man. In this paper it is proposed, first, to describe the pathology of pneumococcus pneumonia experimentally produced in monkeys, in order to show that the disease is identical with lobar pneumonia in man, and, second, to present observations concerning the pathogenesis of lobar pneumonia based upon study of the pathology of lobar pneumonia in monkeys.
continued: Europe PMC is the partner of PubMed Central (PMC), an ELIXIR core data resource, and the repository of choice for many international science Funders.
— — — — — — — — — —
The 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic
as Covered in The Journal of Immunology from 1919 to 1921
Demonstration at the Rec Cross Emergency Ambulance Station in Washington, D.C., during the influenza pandemic of 1918.
C. 1918, Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division
The deadly 1918–1919 influenza pandemic generated an impressive body of immunological research into the cause and prevention of the disease, and that urgency is reflected in the many articles on influenza published in The Journal of Immunology from 1919 to 1921. Because bacteria had been shown to be causative of other infectious diseases, including typhoid fever and diphtheria, and viruses were not yet understood as more than filter-passing agents, most scientists of the time believed the cause of influenza to be bacterial. German physician Richard Pfeiffer had isolated bacteria from influenza patients during the previous pandemic of 1892 and believed that these bacteria were the cause of influenza; the bacteria had come to be known as Pfeiffer’s bacillus or Bacillus influenzae or B. influenzae (now Haemophilus influenzae). By the time of the 1918 pandemic, many scientists had embraced Pfeiffer’s hypothesis, and researchers were attempting to establish the etiological significance of B. influenzae to the disease by examining cases from the unfolding influenza pandemic.
Immunologists cultured and isolated bacteria from patient samples, including throat swabs, sputum samples, pleural effusions, and lung exudates, with mixed results. In 1919, C . Roos from the Mulford Biological Laboratories in Glenolden, Pa., reported that a collective review of all influenza samples analyzed by the laboratory beginning with the epidemic of 1915–1916 identified B. influenzae in “50 to 90 per cent of the cases.” In September and October of 1918, Roos specifically examined 33 specimens from cases of clinical influenza characterized by a sharp onset and isolated B. influenzae from 27 (82 percent), although streptococci and pneumococci were also commonly present, being found in 25 (76 percent) and 20 (61 percent) of the specimens, respectively. Although B. influenzae could not be reproducibly isolated from all cases of influenza examined, Roos and others placed little significance on the negative findings, ascribing them to improper specimen collection or culture technique. Nevertheless, the inconsistent presence of B. influenzae in patient samples, its presence in healthy individuals, and the isolation of other types of bacteria from influenza patients cast doubt on the theory that Pfeiffer’s bacillus was the cause of influenza.
William H. Park (AAI 1916, president 1918), laboratory director, New York City Board of Health, Division of Pathology, Bacteriology, and Disinfection, contended that, to establish etiological significance, it was not sufficient merely to establish the presence of Pfeiffer’s bacillus in all (or nearly all) cases of the influenza but that it was also necessary to show that the same strain or type was present in all cases. Under the direction of Park, Eugenia Valentine (AAI 1920) and Georgia M. Cooper (AAI 1920) injected rabbits with cultures of B. influenzae and tested each antiserum against the same (homologous) culture and against other cultures of B. influenzae isolated from the lung, larynx, or trachea of influenza patients. They were surprised to find a multiplicity of strains and could conclude only that “B. influenzae is not the primary etiological agent in epidemic influenza.” The lack of a “hypothetical pandemic strain” was later confirmed by similar methods by other investigators, including Arthur F. Coca (AAI 1916, secretary-treasurer 1918–1945, editorin-chief 1920–1948) and Margaret F. Kelley of New York Hospital and Cornell University. Other papers, however, presented contradictory findings. In one such paper, F. M. Huntoon (AAI 1918) and S. Hannum demonstrated that antiserum protected mice from heterologous strains of B. influenzae. So it was that, long after the pandemic subsided, uncertainty remained about whether this microorganism was the primary cause of influenza or whether it was a secondary opportunistic invader.
Despite the uncertainty surrounding the cause of influenza, the lethality of the 1918 outbreak lent particular urgency to the question of prevention, and a number of investigators worked to develop a vaccine against the disease. During the height of an influenza epidemic occurring in New Orleans in the fall of 1918, Charles W. Duval and William H. Harris of Tulane University vaccinated approximately five thousand individuals with a chloroformkilled B. influenzae preparation. They reported that only 3.3 percent of those vaccinated developed influenza, compared with 41 percent of the unvaccinated control group. Duval and Harris concluded that, although the number of vaccinated persons was few, the results were “interesting and significant from the standpoint of prophylaxis.” In New York City, Park, in collaboration with other members of an influenza commission and the workers of the New York City Department of Health, undertook a comprehensive study of acute respiratory infections — work that was funded through a grant from the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. The first issue of The Journal of Immunology from 1921 (vol. 6, no. 1) was dedicated exclusively to this topic and the resulting series of papers. As part of this series, Park and his colleagues tested combined vaccines made from B. influenzae and strains of streptococcus, pneumococcus, and staphylococcus on 1,536 employees of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. Their results were somewhat less striking than the findings of Duval and Harris, as they found no difference in respiratory disease overall (including influenza) between the inoculated and control groups. However, it was noted that the vaccinated group showed the “beneficial influence” of a lower incidence of pneumonia.
The cause of influenza would not be definitively resolved until the 1930s, with the isolation of swine influenza virus by Shope and the subsequent isolation of human influenza virus by Smith, Andrewes, and Laidlaw. Whereas Pfeiffer’s hypothesis regarding the bacterial cause of influenza was ultimately proven incorrect, it was generally agreed then, as now, that most of the deaths from the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic were due to secondary bacterial infections — and that some of the early vaccines could have, in fact, prevented the rate of bacterial pneumonia and death from the disease.
Modern influenza research continues to be presented in The Journal of Immunology nearly one century after these early papers appeared in the wake of the 1918 pandemic. Topics of research include the role of innate immune defenses in protection, the specificity of the T cell memory response, and mechanisms for improving vaccination, among others. Contemporary papers examine the immune response to recent strains, including swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus, the cause of the 2009 pandemic, and highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses, speculated to be the possible source of a new pandemic. Much research remains to be done to fully staunch infection and death from seasonal outbreaks and future pandemics of the disease, but, if recent research is a fair indicator of future initiatives, immunology as a field will yield key findings for understanding influenza and limiting the menace it poses to public health.
source: Pages 44-45 The American Association of Immunologists
[Note: This “magazine” has several stories about the development of the polio vaccine as well.]
Back to Table of Contents
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 63)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 64)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 65)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 66)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 67)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 68)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 69)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 70)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 71)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 72)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 73)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 74)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 75)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 76)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 77)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 78)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 79)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 80)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 81)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 82)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 83)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 84)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 85)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 86)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 87)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 88)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 89)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 90)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 91)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 92)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 93)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 94)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 95)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 96)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 97)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 98)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 99)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic Ads (Part 100)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic Ads (Part 101)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic Ads (Part 102)