Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic
Idaho Newspaper Clippings April 13-16, 1920
Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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Bonners Ferry Herald. April 13, 1920, Page 1
Nursing Course In September
Teach Home Hygiene and the Care of the Sick In Their Homes
Classes in home hygiene and care of the sick will be conducted in Boundary county during September and October under the auspices of the Red Cross. It was impossible to start the course in March as had been planned because of the inability of Miss Durkin, director of nursing activities of the northwest division, to send an instructor at that time. Miss Durkin advised Mrs. Faucett that they were obliged to suspend work in many places during January and February on account of the influenza and as that work had to be finished first she had no instructor available before the first of April.
The committee here decided it would be better to postpone the course until September so that the high school pupils might have the privilege of enrolling.
This course is designed to instruct women in personal and household hygiene; to aid in the prevention of all sickness and in the care of the sick in their own homes. It should appeal to every woman who is interested in maintaining the health of her own home and the community.
Get Ready – “Clean-Up Week”
Civic League and City Authorities Will Co-operate To Make City Clean
Next week, beginning Monday, will be “clean-up” week in Bonners Ferry and the Civic League will co-operate with the city officials in an effort to make all parts of the town spick and span.
Mrs. F. A. Shultis will act as chairman of the Civic League workers. The city will provide wagons to haul away all the trash that has accumulated the past winter, which cannot be easily burned. Residents are urged to get their yards and streets cleaned up and to place the rubbish in boxes or sacks so that it can be quickly disposed of.
City Marshall Worley will make his usual spring sanitary inspections in the near future and all places that are not cleaned up will be cleaned at the expense of the property owner and if necessary charges of violations of the state sanitary laws will be preferred.
Mrs. Caroline W. Flood, county superintendent of schools, reports that several more schools of the county have chosen new names, selected from the names of great men of the United States. District No. 19, at Porthill, has selected the name “Roosevelt”; the Paradise Valley school has selected the name “Lincoln”; the school at Naples has selected the name “Pershing.”
Must Carry A Idaho License
Game Warden Issues a Warning To All Sportsmen
New and stringent rules put out by State Game Warden Otto M. Jones, require all hunters and fishermen to carry their licenses with them or to chance arrest for hunting or fishing without a license. All deputies have been instructed to ignore the wellworn excuse: “I left my license at home,” and the license and gun or rod must stick together.
W. H. Heathershaw, deputy game warden for Boundary and Bonner counties, states that he will enforce the new rule without fear or favor and that all violators will be prosecuted.
Fireman Wing Seriously Hurt
Struck On Head By Arm of a Mail Crane at Samuels, Thursday
Claude Wing, a fireman employed by the Great Northern Railway Co., met with a serious accident Thursday morning at Samuels, Idaho, when he was struck on the head by the arm of a mail crane. He was pulled out of the engine cab and fell about thirty feet from the crane, suffering a fracture of the skull. When Wing was struck by the mail crane he was leaning out of the cab to watch a hot box that had developed on his engine.
Wing was brought to Bonners Ferry and taken to the Bonners Ferry hospital where an operation was immediately performed for the removal of a piece of the skull pressing against the brain. There seems to be a good chance for the recovery of the injured man unless complications set in.
Mr. Wing is a resident of Hillyard. He has been employed as a fireman on the Great Northern railway for about two years. He is 27 years old.
Thursday evening two members of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen came here to help take care of Mr. Wing. For a while he was delirious and would try to tear off the bandages on his head. His father arrived on Friday from Rockford, Wash.
Wreck On S. I. Railway
The east-bound Spokane International passenger train was wrecked yesterday morning at Milepost 62, 15 miles west of Sandpoint. As a result the train was four hours late.
Baggageman Whitney was quite seriously injured, it is reported, suffering several broken ribs and severe bruises about the head. He was taken to a hospital in Sandpoint.
The cause of the wreck is not known. The baggage car, the smoker and the chair car went off the tracks but the engine was not derailed. The rear trucks of the engine tender left the track.
source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 13 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. April 13, 1920, Page 7
H. E. Brown, of the Brown Timber Company, operating near Porthill, was in town yesterday. He plans to leave Wednesday for California, with his wife and son, who live at Sandpoint, and may remain a month. Mrs. Brown and her son have both been in poor health of late and are in hopes of recuperating in California.
Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Kinnear left today for Rochester, Minn., to be with their son, Emers, who has been in the Mayo Bros.’ hospital for several weeks, taking treatment and who will undergo an operation on Friday for tumor of the brain.
The members of the Reader’s Club held their regular meeting this afternoon at the home of Mrs. S. C. Witwer, on the Northside. Dr. E. E. Fry was on the program for a paper entitled “Modern Surgery.”
Fish and Game Licenses for Sale at the Hawks Drug store. (adv.)
(ibid, page 7)
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Bonners Ferry Herald. April 13, 1920, Page 8
S. E. Henry left Thursday for Hot Lakes, Oregon, where he will take treatment for rheumatism.
Eighth grade examinations were held last week in the short term schools of the county. State examinations will be held at the middle of May in the long term schools.
A small fire in the Bonner Bakery was discovered last Tuesday morning and was put out before any great damage had been done. Proprietor Buteau is having the repairing done in such a manner as to prevent future trouble and so as to make the bakery building fireproof.
(ibid, page 8)
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Bonners Ferry Herald. April 13, 1920, Page 10
Round Prairie News Notes
M. C. Gentry and family are all ill with the influenza.
Mrs. Bradley, who has been seriously ill at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Gudbaur, for some time, is slowly improving. Mrs. Gudbaur is just recovering from an attack of influenza and Mr. Gudbaur is now ill with the same disease.
There was quite a little excitement Thursday morning when it was reported that the Round Prairie school was afire. A water line was formed but it was soon discovered that there was more smoke than fire. The stove pipe had slipped together leaving an opening near the roof though which the smoke passed from a freshly kindled fire. There was only a small blaze which did but little damage and which was quickly put out. The teachers and the pupils used the water to scrub the place.
(Received too late for last week.)
Mr. Donehoo is very sick with the “flu.”
Mrs. H. E. Dehlbom was in Bonners Ferry last week having dental work done.
Mrs. Leonard Pierson was in Bonners Ferry last week having dental work done.
Friday, April 16, is the closing day of the Addie school. Miss Dunn expects to leave on the afternoon train for Spokane where she will wait for her sister’s school to close when they will both return to their home in Texas.
Round Prairie Notes
(Received too late for last week.)
Mrs. A. Gudbaur was taken suddenly ill Monday evening of last week. Her mother had been ill previous to this, but both are improving.
Last Friday afternoon Frank Dysart was kicked by one of Mr. Robinson’s mules. Fortunately he was not seriously injured.
(ibid, page 10)
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Idaho Street Looking South, Wendell, Idaho ca. 1909
Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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Clearwater Republican. April 16, 1920, Page 2
Has Cure For Tuberculosis
Physician Declares He Has Found New Way to Fight Disease
Attacks The Germ Capsule
Increase Power of Blood to Digest Wax of Tuberculosis – Claims a Large Record of Recoveries Even in Advanced Stages
New York. — Many physicians of this city have shown interest in a treatment for all forms of tuberculosis developed by Dr. Benjamin S. Paschall, formerly of Seattle, now of New York, and asserted by him to be more effective than quinine is for malaria.
Tuberculosis is not thrown off easily by the body as many other infections are, according to Doctor Paschall, because the germ manufactures for itself a capsule of wax which gives it a high degree of protection from the natural powers of the blood to digest and destroy germs and other foreign substances.
The problem which confronted him at the beginning of his research in 1907, according to Doctor Paschall, was to find a method of increasing the power of the blood to digest the wax of tuberculosis germs.
The theory which Doctor Paschall finally adopted was analogous to the use of iron as a tonic. The blood does not digest iron. But iron, treated with certain acids, makes a compound which the blood can digest. Doctor Paschall set out, he said, to combine the wax with chemicals into a substance which the blood could absorb. His object was to cause the blood to manufacture digestive juices which after absorbing this compound, would remain in the blood to break up and expel the wax of the tuberculosis germs.
Doctor Paschall, then according to his statement, devoted himself to the study of waxes and sent all over the world for different types. The analysis of the tubercule wax showed that a great many substances enter into its composition.
He produced his first treatment in 1908. After various experiments on guinea pigs and other animals he became satisfied that he had discovered a valuable therapeutic agency, and his first human patient was himself. He had been a sufferer from tuberculosis, and he believes that he cured himself with injections of the compound which he had then made.
The theory on which the treatment was worked out resembles that on which salvarsan was developed, although differing in some particulars. Doctor Ehrlich, who announced his discovery in 1910, found a coal-tar compound which stained the parasite which he sought to destroy, but did not stop its activity. He combined that chemical with arsenic constituents. This compound, in staining the parasite, released the poison which destroyed its action, without hurting the human body. This process is reversed by Doctor Paschall, who possessed the latent enemy of tuberculosis in the wax, but had to find chemicals combinations which would make it available. His “mycoleum” differs also in that it is a combination of chemical and bacteriological products, whereas salvarsan is a union of chemicals only. And, while salvarsan attacks the parasite directly, the mycoleum is supposed to excite the blood to make the attack.
He at first used the treatment only in the case of persons in advanced stages of tuberculosis, who asked for it. Even in the advanced stages Doctor Paschall claims a large record of recoveries.
Doctor Paschall had scores of letters from former patients and physicians on the Pacific coast testifying to the successful use of mycoleum. One is from a physician who said that he was cured within a week of tuberculosis of the eyes, which had threatened to destroy his sight, after a long treatment by other methods. In this case Doctor Paschall asserted that he had treated the man when he was in a hospital, almost blind, and when surgeons were preparing to remove one of his eyes in the hope of saving the other. On the following afternoon, according to Doctor Paschall, he found the man on the outside of the hospital cranking up his automobile and preparing to ride home. In cases of tuberculosis of the eyes, throat or kidneys or other forms, in which the diseased part is in close communication with the blood stream, the beneficial results are manifest in a few hours, it was stated. In the case of tuberculosis of the lungs the germs diffused through the body are said to be digested within a few hours after the first treatment, and the patient regains much of his energy and feeling of wellbeing. Bone and joint tuberculosis are said to yield readily to the treatment.
Because mycoleum is in a laboratory stage of manufacture, only a small quantity is in existence and its present cost is between $1,000 and $2,000 a pound, each pound containing about 150 doses. Enormous quantities of tuberculous germs have to be grown in order to obtain a small amount of the wax. [* see footnote 1]
source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 16 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Clearwater Republican. April 16, 1920, Page 5
What Your Friends And Neighbors Are Doing
Harry Stevens, an inmate of the Northern Idaho Sanitarium since November 6th, 1915, died at that institution Tuesday, April 13th, from pneumonia following influenza. He was 29 years old. The body was shipped to Genesee Wednesday for burial.
Mr. and Mrs. Sam Eller accompanied by Dr. Horswill went to Lewiston Wednesday morning to place Mrs. Eller in a hospital for medical treatment. Mrs. Eller is suffering from lung trouble and it was necessary to have a X ray examination made to locate and diagnose the ailment.
(ibid, page 5)
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Clearwater Republican. April 16, 1920, Page 7
Death Rate for 1918 Was Highest in History of the Country, Statistics Show
The death rate of 18 for each 1,000 of population in the death registration area of 30 states and 27 cities, with a total estimated population of 81,868,104 for 1918 was the highest on record, according to the census bureau’s annual mortality statistics, which show 1,471,367 deaths for the year.
Of the total deaths, 477,467, or more than 32 percent, were due to influenza and pneumonia, 380,996 having occurred in the last four months of the year when an epidemic of these diseases prevailed. The rate for influenza and pneumonia was 583.2 for each 1000,000. Influenza caused 244,681 deaths and pneumonia 232,786, showing rates of 289.9 and 284.3 for each 100,000, respectively, the highest rates which ever have appeared for these causes. The rate in 1917 for influenza was 17.2 and for pneumonia 149.8.
The other principal causes of deaths were organic diseases of the heart, tuberculosis, acute nephritis, Bright’s disease and cancer, which together were responsible for 391,381 deaths , or nearly 27 per cent of the total during the year.
(ibid, page 7)
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Cottonwood Chronicle. April 16, 1920, Page 1
News Around The State
Items of Interest From Various Sections Reproduced for Benefit of Our Readers
According to a report made to the directors of the children’s home at the monthly meeting held Saturday in Lewiston there are now 47 children in the home. Eight children were received during the month, four coming from a home made motherless by the recent influenza epidemic.
Increases allowed the teachers of the Lewiston public school will amount to $19,000. The average increase in salary amounted to approximately 35 per cent.
To Mr. and Mrs. C. B. Holbrook of Wendell, Idaho has come the unique distinction of celebrating their seventieth wedding anniversary, the rare event having taken place at Wendell March 23, with Mrs. Holbrook in her eighty-eighth year and Mr. Holbrook in his ninety-first year.
The city council of Lewiston has been petitioned to employ a woman policeman, or welfare worker, to safeguard the youth. The request was made by a delegation representing the women’s organization of that city. Mrs. Charles Smith was chairman of the delegation with Mrs. James E. Babb, Mrs. W. J. Jordan and Mrs. F. S. Randall.
source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 16 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Cottonwood Chronicle. April 16, 1920, Page 4
County Seat News Items
Tillie Ketron, 2 1/2-year-old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Ketron, died Wednesday morning in the family home in Denver. Death was caused from pneumonia. Burial took place Thursday in the Denver cemetery. A. J. Maugg furnished the funeral.
Snow is fifteen feet deep at Mountain House and thirty-three inches of snow lies at Elk City, according to William Noble of the forest service, who has just returned to Grangeville from Elk City. Snow of such depth at the present time is unusual, it is said.
(By Wm. A. Lustie)
“On her arrival in the town of her destination, she is informed that all reservations at the hotels are taken but is invited to sit in the lobby for the night. The following day she canvasses the town for a permanent rooming place. She wanders from house to house like a street vendor and is told again and again by the lady of the house, that though she is very sorry, it would be quite impossible for her to accommodate a teacher in this respect. Finally she is informed that “No doubt Mrs. Jones will room a teacher.” The Jones have a large home on the next corner with no children, and the teacher is directed to the Jones residence. On making her wants known the teacher is informed with considerable emphasis by Mrs. Jones, “No, indeed,” she never has roomed a teacher, never intends to room a teacher, and very curtly bids here “good afternoon.” –
At last she is located for better or for worse but too often in a place which is unattractive and unfit, with none of the privileges of the comforts, or of the atmosphere of home environment.
— From an article in the Idaho Teacher on why Teachres Leave the Profession.
(ibid, page 4)
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Cottonwood Chronicle. April 16, 1920, Page 8
Cottonwood And Vicinity
Personal Mention and Local Happenings of the Week in This Vicinity.
Mrs. George Poler is reported on the sick list this week.
Dr. Orr was called to Ferdinand the first of the week on professional business.
Dr. W. F. Orr was a professional business visitor at the county seat Monday. The Dr. made the trip in his car and stated the roads were none too good for motoring.
Dr. H. B. Blake was called to Winchester Thursday morning on professional business. He returned home again Thursday evening.
Dr. and Mrs. L. A. Truitt who have made their home at Southwick for the past year where the doctor was engaged in his profession have returned to Cottonwood to make their future home.
Miss Anna Peterson, who has been teaching school near Vollmer for the past eight months returned home Saturday evening to spend the summer vacation with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. John Peterson. Miss Peterson closed her school last Friday. From reports Miss Peterson has conducted a very successful term of school and was offered the position for the next year with an increase in salary but at the present time has not signed up for the coming year.
(ibid, page 8)
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The Idaho Recorder. April 16, 1920, Page 1
Mrs. Albina Blake
This well known lady passed away at her Salmon home, in Brooklyn, on the morning of April 13, aged about 65 years. She had been ill for several months. her daughter, Mrs. Stella Custer of Seattle was with her. At one time Mrs. Blake lived at Gibbonsville and later was lessee of a hotel in Salmon. A rooming house in this city which she successfully conducted for a number of years was recently sold by her to Mrs. Jessie Daniels.
The funeral is to take place from the Methodist church this Friday afternoon at 2 o’clock.
Heavy Cattle Losses
County Commissioner George W. Yearian, who is attending the regular meeting of his board this week, says he fears 20 per cent of the cattle of the upper Lemhi valley will be lost to the ranchers from the prolonged winter. The unusual snow in that locality is barely gone.
Restaurant Keepers Leave
The restaurant conducted in Salmon for a month by the Harps was found to be closed to its patrons on Sunday morning last, when it was ascertained that the managers had left town for parts unknown. Inquiries by the sheriff’s department failed to locate or intercept them in their flight. It was understood that they departed under their own steam, leaving a number of merchants and others to mourn the loss of credits given them in their restaurant business.
source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 16 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Recorder. April 16, 1920, Page 2
Don’t Whine In Sick Room
Remember to Carry Cheer, Not Sympathy to Those Who Are Temporarily “Shut In”
Every one is called upon now and then to visit the sick room. Conditions surrounding the bedside visitations present a wide variation. There is one rule that holds good under all conditions, and that is to carry cheer and sunshine – not a long face, but a smile. If the patients are able, talk to them of what is going on outside. Help them to forget themselves. A man who for over twenty years had been paralyzed, was visited by a friend who was profuse in expressing his sympathy and regret at the sick man’s helplessness. As he was about to leave, the afflicted man said, “Come again, won’t you, but when you do, please forget to tell me that you are sorry for me as every one tells me that. I’ve heard it every day for twenty years. Help me to forget it. Bring me a breath of the outside world.”
Flowers are always a gracious help in making the sickroom a place of cheer. A book or a magazine also helps.
– Thrift Magazine.
(ibid, page 2)
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The Idaho Recorder. April 16, 1920, Page 5
A letter from Mr. and Mrs. James [?] Sinclair, who are now at Cedar Grove, Mo., tells of the arrival of a [baby] boy for them on March 1, which [is] mentioned as overbalancing the actions that came to all of the family with an attack of the flu for all of them [since] leaving Salmon last fall. They will remain at Cedar Grove for the summer.
Mrs. Hagen finds herself again in the restaurant business with the departure of the buyers of her popular eating place in Salmon. With a competent force she opened Hagen’s again yesterday evening.
The report of treasure trove in the finding of a bottle of old stock out among the accumulated weeds and trash in the business district in Salmon has started a general cleaning-[?] among the townspeople. Let the good work proceed.
(ibid, page 5)
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The Idaho Recorder. April 16, 1920, Page 8
Leadore And Upper Lemhi
Dr. H. H. Scarborough, the Eye Specialist, will be in Leadore, Tuesday, April 27, until 4 p.m. (Ad)
Mark Finley is nursing a sore hand the past few days. Blood poison is the cause.
Charley Maes has been laid up for several days with a bruised hand but will soon be out and at it again.
Most of the force at the Sunset has been laid off and the mill closed for the time at least. We understand that the boys are having trouble again to draw their pay. This seems to be the main trouble at the Sunset. They paid the men for the few days worked in April but left March to look out for itself.
Several of our ranchers will be unable to put in crops this spring owing to the weakness of their horses. Many of the horses have had a hard time to stretch the brittle thread to the present time, and the impossibility to get feed now makes the poor animals useless. Now is the time for the government to act if she has any action left and get seed to the farmer and assist him in getting it in.
Postmaster In Bad
Charles Denny registers a kick against the new postmaster but it is thought things can be fixed up so as to avoid a serious hitch.
In Denny’s complaint he alleges that he took a pair of shoes to the postmaster and made it known that he wanted to send them to Salmon by parcel post to have them half-soled. The postmaster weighed them and accepted the stamps for mailing, but later refused to send them until the owner had them fumigated. A number of the people who smelled the shoes are taking sides with Chase. Charlie is afraid that the publicity of the affair will tend to hurt his trade, so the less said on the subject the better.
A Sure Sign
Last Monday the train got in at 12:30 p.m., a sure enough sign of spring. Besides there are other indications, for instance, it rained last week and we have no snow and the weather is much warmer.
Leadore School Notes
The county nurse visited our school today. She says that Leadore High as an average has a very good record of healthful pupils.
Even though Miss Vedder is away the domestic science girls have class.
Hayden Creek Basin
Because the examination questions were not received in time last week Miss Lonita Tobias and Miss Verlin Holbrook are taking their examinations this week.
The Tendoy school was visited by the county nurse last week. We are proud to state that 7 out of 21 were perfect, which makes 33 1/3 per cent. Several more passed 98 and 99.
We have had a few nice days this week and every one is taking advantage and plowing, getting ready to put in their crops. Some have their sheep on their ranges but the grass is pretty short yet, and other feed, such as hay and grain, is being used. If the strike isn’t ended soon the stockmen will suffer serious loss on account of not being able to ship in feed from the outside. The range will not be in condition to turn stock on for three weeks. We have been reading some of the compliments (?) paid the railroad in our little valley but I wonder what would have been the consequences if we had had no railroad here at all. If that “crawling thing” hadn’t crawled in here with hay and corn time after time through endless hours of toil, hardships and suffering where would our financial support of our county have been? Our fields would have been strewn with dead carcasses of sheep and cattle. That the winter was an unusual one we all admit, and having had the drouth before it caught people unprepared, but I am sure that every man who had stock depending on feed from the outside are more than grateful to the “crawling thing” that proved their lifesaver.
(ibid, page 8)
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Montpelier Examiner. April 16, 1920, Page 1
Teachers In City School Get 33 Percent Raise
It will be good news to the friends of the public schools in Montpelier to learn that the teachers have been granted a 33 per cent increase in salaries. The teaching profession has long been one of the poorest paid of any public workers and the matter of wage increase has been given state wide attention. The action of the Montpelier school board in granting the increase is commendable and strictly in keeping with the action taken by other communities, and should receive the whole-hearted endorsement of every individual.
Three new teachers will be added to the local schools next season, making a total of 30 instructors in the city schools.
City Water High In Chemical Tests
Montpelier’s water supply has recently undergone state and federal tests, and the various chemicals pronounce the water pure, having passed all tests. This is regardless of the fact that the water at present is not altogether clear.
Feed Shortage Still Serious Star Valley
Instead of hauling hay and such other feed as is available into Star Valley for the relief of starving live stock, may of the cattlemen now are driving their cattle this way and they will be fed within a few miles of Montpelier.
The Star Valley Independent says:
“Through the efforts of Bert Linford, secretary of the Lincoln county farm bureau and Sheriff D. C. Oakley, the inspection of cattle going into Idaho has been lifted, and cattle that are to be taken there for feeding in this emergency may not be held up by not being inspected as the law provides. Sheriff Oakley telephoned the governor and explained the situation, who in turn gave orders to let the stock across the state line without the formalities of an ‘official inspection.'”
Forest Service Notes
The continuation of storm is working a great hardship on the stockmen of Star Valley, who are practically out of feed and unable to secure any on the account of the shortage and the poor condition of the roads. Some stock have already been turned out in that vicinity, but unless spring opens up speedily there will be a heavy loss.
Gean Hays was called here from Oregon last week to attend his brother David’s funeral, which was held Friday. A large attendance and many beautiful flower.
The funeral of Mrs. Alice Hayes which was held Wednesday, was a most beautiful funeral. The speakers, audience and flowers all spoke of Mrs. Hayes’ goodness.
The hay question is getting mightily serious around here. There are a number pretty low on hay.
(Examiner Special Service.)
A lively party was given Tuesday evening by the members of the Emerson Seventh grade sewing club. The boys and girls present enjoyed to the fullest extent the lively games and delicious refreshments.
Miss Gladys Horsley, teacher at the Emerson school, spent the weekend at her home in Soda Springs.
Through the agency of the Farm Bureau several cars of hay and grain have been shipped in to relieve the feed situation. Several Star Valley farmers have been here to procure hay for their stock in Star Valley.
source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 16 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier Examiner. April 16, 1920, Page 10
In The Gem State
Idaho’s first annual motor car show was held at Pocatello last week.
Teamsters at Boise have gone on strike, demanding $5 per day for eight hours.
The second annual state convention of the American Legion was held at Twin Falls last week. Five hundred delegates were present.
Paul Coats, who was bitten by a rabid coyote at his ranch near Fish creek a few days ago, has gone to Salt Lake for a special pasteur treatment.
Contracts have been let for the new resort structure at Lava Hot Springs. Contract for the building calls for the expenditure of $33,908 and for the plumbing and heating, $7,368.
The Natatorium at Boise has again passed into the hands of the Boise Artesian Hot and Cold Water company, the original owners. The original cost of the plant was $95,000. When the Boise Railway company bought the property it paid $150,000.
Federal officials are in possession of a complete distilling outfit thought to be the largest taken in the state, and some 500 gallons of corn and bran mash. The still was located about twelve miles northeast of Blackfoot, in a pocket in the lava flow.
(ibid, page 10)
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Montpelier Examiner. April 16, 1920, Page 12
Mrs. Laverne Jones of this city is confined in a Salt Lake hospital where she is recovery [sic] splendidly from a serious operation recently performed.
Mrs. Fred Sarback, Sr., is spending a few days in Salt Lake visiting her son Walter Sarback, who is confined in a Salt Lake hospital.
(ibid, page 12)
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The Idaho Republican. April 16, 1920, Page 1
Campaign To Rid County Of Flies Is Taking Form
Five Days, April 26 to 30, Will Be Devoted to Cleaning Up Community
“Swat The Fly”
Clean-Up Program Is in Charge of Miss Stockard
The “Swat the Fly” campaign is rapidly taking form under the direction of Miss Chloe Stockard, boys’ and girls’ county club leader. From April 26 to 30 is to be devoted to the campaign and at that time all filth, refuse and other breeding places of the fly will be cleaned up. In an article on the work, Miss Stockard says:
This is the time to begin the war on the flies. Don’t wait until they are already here as you give them a chance to begin their deadly work. Get rid of their favorite places of breeding, such as the manure pile and the garbage heap. Flies not only breed in filth, but they feed on it and then contaminate everything they lay their hairy little legs on. Let’s see that Blackfoot has a decided decrease in its fly population this summer.
Descendants from a single overwintering female fly by September would number 5,598,720,000,000.
A well infested manure pile may contain from 1,200 to 2,000 maggots per pound of manure. Not all of a large pile of manure is infested to this extent.
A single fly may carry 6,600,000 bacteria.
The fly may carry the following disease bacteria: Typhoid fever, tuberculosis, cholera, dysentery and “summer complaint.”
The house fly exists only thru the toleration of men – a toleration which, were it not ignorant, would be criminal.
The house fly is the most terrible single enemy that mankind has among living creatures. Beasts of the jungle have slain their thousands, but this prowler in the household has slain his tens of thousands. Of all vermin he is the most filthy; of all purveyors of disease the most deadly.
The house fly is born in offal – nowhere else. All his life is in the manure pile, the cuspidor and the cesspool are his home.
Plane Carries Mail to Falls
Pocatello — The first aerial mail in Idaho was delivered Wednesday by Pilot Barker, when a large mail sack of first and second class mail was taken in Barker’s airplane to Idaho Falls. The mail was addressed “via airplane,” according to regulations, and left here at 12:20. Barker made the trip without mishap and returned to Pocatello to take up some passengers who were prevented from flying last week on account of a light break in the machine.
source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 16 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. April 16, 1920, Page 2
Big Game Census Shows Increase
Plenty of Deer, Elk and Mountain Goats Says Jones
Federal forest service officials, submitting to Otto M. Jones, state game warden, their 1919 game census for southern Idaho, Thursday reported rapid increase in big game in the state.
Here are the present totals reported by forest supervisors of game in the Boise, Cache, Caribou, Idaho, Lemhi, Minidoka, Payette, Salmon, Sawtooth, Targhee and Weiser national forests: Deer, 16,575; elk, 1200; mountain goats, 2861; mountain sheep, 1134; moose, 70; antelope, 284.
In the same territory there were killed during the year 1090 deer, 30 elk and 80 mountain goats.
“Nearly all the supervisors report an increase in big game,” said R. C. Gery, acting district forester at Ogden. This is generally attributed to the game preserves, to destruction of predatory animals and better enforcement of laws.
A continuous closed season for mountain sheep is recommended, however. Mr. Gery said: “In spite of the closed season, the mountain sheep do not seem to be more than holding their own. The total number of sheep is very small considering the area involved and it is evident that a continuous closed season is necessary.”
Other excerpts from the report are here given:
“There is an increase of moose on the Targhee forest and it is hoped that a more rapid spread of this excellent game animal will result. It is apparent that it will survive more adverse winter conditions of snow and forage than either deer or elk.
“On several forests, September 15 is believed to be too early for the deer season to open and one is recommended opening October 15. If the number of hunters continues to increase, a shortening of the season will be necessary, and in that case it could begin October 1 and extend to November 15.
“The present season for elk in the counties adjoining Wyoming was apparently based on the former season in Wyoming and is too long. The supervisor of the Targhee forest recommends a season from October 15 or November 1 to November 15. September 15 is too early for it to open, since it is the running [sic] season and too warm for the meat to be utilized.
“It is apparently desirable to make an adjustment of the game preserve in Twin Falls and Cassia counties. The deer range in Nevada, Utah and Idaho, the greater number of them being in Idaho during the summer season. These two counties in Idaho are closed to deer hunting, but there is an open season of ten days in Utah and thirty days in Nevada. Local sentiment will not support protection under these conditions. The law is weakened where residents of Idaho are prohibited from killing deer which may cross the state lines and be killed in Nevada or Utah. It is very probable that a smaller area designated as game preserve in Idaho would allow Idaho residents an equal opportunity with those of Nevada and Utah to hunt and still obtain the objects of the game preserve.
“The condition of game birds is not nearly as satisfactory as that of big game. There is practically a unanimous report that the three grouse – dusky, ruffled and Franklin’s, are decreasing, in most cases rapidly. Wherever protected the sage hens have increased and there is a general belief that the supply can be maintained with a short season and small bag limit.
“The destruction of predatory animals is of particular importance in connection with game production since there is a far greater loss from this source than by poaching, even under very lax enforcement of the laws. On several of the game preserves, the losses of game from predatory animals or eagles is preventing a proper increase. Encouragement should be given to trapping by responsible parties within game preserves.
“In view of the exceptionally high prices of furs, it is probable that the supply of fur bearing animals will be redued to a point where the production and value of furs obtainable will be much lower than it should be. In the case of predatory animals, this will be beneficial, but it appears that it will be necessary to designate game preserves in order to maintain a supply of fur bearing animals not excessively destructive to game. All the forests report a decrease in fur bearing animals except those generally considered predatory.
“There is reported a very general and decided decrease in the fish supply from all waters except those which are inaccessible. There has been an immense increase in the number of fishermen and the decrease can be expected in spite of the increase in distribution of fish for stocking purposes. The reasons are (1) the heavy fishing, (2) the loss in unscreened ditches and (3) low water resulting from drouths.”
The forestry department recommends increases in the number of game preserves and bird sanctuaries and heavy restocking of fishing streams.
(ibid, page 2)
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The Idaho Republican. April 16, 1920, Page 3
Delbert Taylor is ill with the small pox.
George Wareing is unable to attend school on account of the small pox.
The children of the eighth grade took the examinations in geography and history last week.
A number of Shelley business men attended the boxing match at Idaho Falls Monday evening.
(ibid, page 3)
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The Idaho Republican. April 16, 1920, Page 4
Last Influenza Epidemic Cost $5,000,000 Insurance
The influenza-pneumonia epidemic, now virtually ended, has cost the life insurance companies of the United States about $5,000,000, according to an estimate made by an official of one of the big eastern companies.
This figure is about one-quarter of the insurance paid out to influenza and pneumonia victims during the epidemic of 1918-1919, he said.
No Airplane Patrol For Idaho Forests
Idaho’s hopes of forest airplane patrols were very weak Tuesday following a receipt of a telegram from Addison T. Smith, member of congress, who has been asked to take up with executive officials the reported army plan to limit the patrol to California and Oregon only.
The congressman said:
“Western members are co-operating towards securing if possible additional appropriations to permit extending aerial patrol forest service. Secretary of War Baker contends that under existing appropriation it is impossible for him to extend the service to Idaho, Washington and Montana.
Red-Haired Old Maids Scarce, Says Briton
London — “Have you noticed that there are very few red-haired old maids?” said an authoritative anthropologist. “Red-haired people are of a very high order of intelligence. Consequently red-haired girls have many admirers and marry young.”
His opinion was expressed relative to the statement of a cinema producer that brunettes are cleverer than blondes. Several scientists agree generally that both men and women of dark complexion are quick-witted and imaginative, while the great majority of fair people are more hardheaded but a little slower in mental response.
(ibid, page 4)
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The Idaho Republican. April 16, 1920, Page 5
Mrs. W. R. Young of Goshen is reported to be very ill.
Miss Grace Faulconer, county superintendent of schools, inspected the schools at Goshen and Jamestown Thursday.
Dr. W. W. Beck returned Tuesday night from the east, where he has been taking post graduate work in surgery and attending clinic. Mrs. Beck met him at Cheyenne on his way home.
(ibid, page 5)
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The Caldwell Tribune. April 16, 1920, Page 8
Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory
Arena Valley Items
The Moore boys have recovered from the mumps, but Mr. Moore is ill again.
Several in the Klan family are on the sick list this week.
The Circle met last Wednesday at the Carl Case home with Mrs. Oates as hostess. A short business session was held at which a letter from county health headquarters was read urging the community to see that each home is put in the very best sanitary condition on or before the week of April 19-24, which is “county cleanup” week to try and reduce the fly question to a minimum. Inspectors will be out to see how well the law has been complied with. A program of music and recitations followed and a delicious cake and coffee were served by the hostess. The next meeting will be with Mrs. Al Ewing April 21.
Water is now in the ditch for the season’s irrigation.
Miss Russell, assistant at the post office is quite ill at the Patterson hotel.
Dr. and Mrs. W. W. Bauer took Sunday dinner with Dr. and Mrs. A. B. Boeck.
Rev. L. G. Black, who has been at the Mayos for a short time, having a physical examination has returned and is hopeful of being relieved of his suffering without an operation.
North Sunny Slope
Bert Spencer had the misfortune to get his arm broken when he was thrown off a horse recently.
Sam Vanhyning got his wrist broke and Lorin Wallace his leg broke this week. Sunny Slope is quite a bone breaking place lately.
Miss Ruth Hammer has been giving the eighth grade pupils their examinations the past week.
Mr. Van McElwain is recovering from the measles.
source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 16 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. April 16, 1920, Page 10
Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory
Thos. Gillam has purchased a Ford Truck and will run a butcher shop and meat route this summer.
The neighborhood is sorry to hear of the serious illness of Maie Shue.
Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Hobson have returned from California where they have been the past year for Mrs. Hobson’s health.
Kyle Wittel attended the military funeral for Roscoe Merrick Sunday.
A. C. Laster is on the sick list this week.
The Midway P. T. A. will hold a sale of cakes, doughnuts and cinnamon rolls Saturday April 17th at the Nampa Department store.
W. W. Vail’s children have been having measles but are getting along nicely.
Mrs. S. W. Vail was called to Colorado Springs the past week on account of sickness. Miss Blanch has been in Colorado Springs for several months for her health and was not as seriously ill as her mother expected to find her. They are expecting to return home soon.
Mrs. Lillie Spencer attended the Myers funeral in Caldwell Thursday.
The drainage election was held last Thursday and defeated by a large majority.
(ibid, page 10)
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The Caldwell Tribune. April 16, 1920, Page 11
Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory
Mr. Fred Davis has been ill with the scarlet fever. His brother Earl of Nampa is doing chores.
James Matlock’s baby has been ill the past week.
Mrs. Spraug is on the sick list the past week.
The weather prophet reports a shower on Wednesday afternoon of this week at the home of Mrs. Frank Weeks. The shower is supposed to fall on Miss Marguerite Wharton of Middleton.
Loren Wallace had the misfortune to sustain a very painful injury one day last week when a hay slip attached to a team of horses overturned and pinned him underneath. The blow caused a bad break of the bones in his thigh and the patient will be laid up for some time.
Mr. Elmer Leesh was on the sick list last week. We do not know if it was the influenza or a bad cold.
(ibid, page 11)
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The Caldwell Tribune. April 16, 1920, Page 12
Local And Personal
Dr. H. E. Spencer underwent a slight operation on his neck Tuesday morning at the Steensland hospital.
“Grandpa” Morrow is improving after a serious illness.
The children at the Cupp home on Kimball avenue have measles.
Mrs. J. W. Shepperd, who has been at the Caldwell sanitarium the past two weeks, suffering from a nervous breakdown, was able to return to her home Wednesday.
E. G. Rodefer was arrested Tuesday afternoon by Chief of Police Baker on the charge of being drunk. He appeared before Judge W. S. Maxey Wednesday morning and after pleading guilty was fined $10.
(ibid, page 12)
Photo of Benjamin Stuart Paschall with his sister Mary Paschall. Taken on 25 September 1903 in Seattle, Washington upon completion of hiking from San Francisco to Seattle along the Pacific Coast Trail. Photo courtesy of T. MacMillan.
source: Paschal/Paschall Genealogy
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Cure For Tuberculosis – Probably A Fake
A seven days wonder has been employing the atention of the writers of sensational newspaper articles in Seattle in the alleged discovery of an article to be called “Mycoleum” which is a sure cure of tuberculosis – according to its maker, Dr. Benjamine S. Paschall and his wife, Rose Garfield Paschall, are reported to have been working on the nostrum for years, and to have spent huge sums of money on its production. To add to the importance of the matter, Mrs. Paschall’s father was a first cousin of President Garfielld. Advanced stages of the disease of tuberculosis will need thirty doses. Although the newspapers say that the inventors of this baffler of the white plague have spent $300,000 in their work of discovering this great remedy, physicians are exceedingly dubious as to its merits. One Portland physician says that it sounds to him like awful humbuggery. The usual method adopted by the supposedly ethical discoverer of something that will alleviate suffering is for the discoverer to present its merits to an established medical society so that its members may give it a thorough investigation. If it is a genuine thing, there need be no fear that it will not be adopted.
source: (Google Books) Page 5-6 American Sentinel, Volume 29 – 1921
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History of Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis has existed since antiquity. The oldest unambiguously detected M. tuberculosis gives evidence of the disease in the remains of bison in Wyoming dated to around 17,000 years ago. However, whether tuberculosis originated in bovines, then transferred to humans, or whether both bovine and human tuberculosis diverged from a common ancestor, remains unclear. A comparison of the genes of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in humans to MTBC in animals suggests humans did not acquire MTBC from animals during animal domestication, as researchers previously believed. Both strains of the tuberculosis bacteria share a common ancestor, which could have infected humans even before the Neolithic Revolution. Skeletal remains show some prehistoric humans (4000 BC) had TB, and researchers have found tubercular decay in the spines of Egyptian mummies dating from 3000 to 2400 BC. Genetic studies suggest the presence of TB in the Americas from about AD 100.
Before the Industrial Revolution, folklore often associated tuberculosis with vampires. When one member of a family died from the disease, the other infected members would lose their health slowly. People believed this was caused by the original person with TB draining the life from the other family members.
Although Richard Morton established the pulmonary form associated with tubercles as a pathology in 1689, due to the variety of its symptoms, TB was not identified as a single disease until the 1820s. Benjamin Marten conjectured in 1720 that consumptions were caused by microbes which were spread by people living in close proximity to each other. In 1819 René Laennec claimed that tubercles were the cause of pulmonary tuberculosis. J. L. Schönlein first published the name “tuberculosis” (German: Tuberkulose) in 1832. Between 1838 and 1845, John Croghan, the owner of Mammoth Cave in Kentucky from 1839 onwards, brought a number of people with tuberculosis into the cave in the hope of curing the disease with the constant temperature and purity of the cave air; each died within a year. Hermann Brehmer opened the first TB sanatorium in 1859 in Görbersdorf (now Sokołowsko) in Silesia. In 1865 Jean Antoine Villemin demonstrated that tuberculosis could be transmitted, via inoculation, from humans to animals and among animals. (Villemin’s findings were confirmed in 1867 and 1868 by John Burdon-Sanderson.)
Robert Koch identified and described the bacillus causing tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis, on 24 March 1882. He received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905 for this discovery. Koch did not believe the cattle and human tuberculosis diseases were similar, which delayed the recognition of infected milk as a source of infection. During the first half of the 1900s the risk of transmission from this source was dramatically reduced after the application of the pasteurization process. Koch announced a glycerine extract of the tubercle bacilli as a “remedy” for tuberculosis in 1890, calling it “tuberculin”. Although it was not effective, it was later successfully adapted as a screening test for the presence of pre-symptomatic tuberculosis. World Tuberculosis Day is marked on 24 March each year, the anniversary of Koch’s original scientific announcement.
Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin achieved the first genuine success in immunization against tuberculosis in 1906, using attenuated bovine-strain tuberculosis. It was called bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG). The BCG vaccine was first used on humans in 1921 in France, but achieved widespread acceptance in the US, Great Britain, and Germany only after World War II.
Tuberculosis caused widespread public concern in the 19th and early 20th centuries as the disease became common among the urban poor. In 1815 one in four deaths in England was due to “consumption”. By 1918, TB still caused one in six deaths in France. After TB was determined to be contagious, in the 1880s, it was put on a notifiable-disease list in Britain; campaigns started to stop people from spitting in public places, and the infected poor were “encouraged” to enter sanatoria that resembled prisons (the sanatoria for the middle and upper classes offered excellent care and constant medical attention). Whatever the benefits of the “fresh air” and labor in the sanatoria, even under the best conditions, 50% of those who entered died within five years (c. 1916). When the Medical Research Council formed in Britain in 1913, it initially focused on tuberculosis research.
In Europe, rates of tuberculosis began to rise in the early 1600s to a peak level in the 1800s, when it caused nearly 25% of all deaths. In the 18th and 19th century, tuberculosis had become epidemic in Europe, showing a seasonal pattern. By the 1950s mortality in Europe had decreased about 90%. Improvements in sanitation, vaccination, and other public-health measures began significantly reducing rates of tuberculosis even before the arrival of streptomycin and other antibiotics, although the disease remained a significant threat. In 1946 the development of the antibiotic streptomycin made effective treatment and cure of TB a reality. Prior to the introduction of this medication, the only treatment was surgical intervention, including the “pneumothorax technique”, which involved collapsing an infected lung to “rest” it and to allow tuberculous lesions to heal.
Because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), surgery has been re-introduced for certain cases of TB infections. It involves the removal of infected chest cavities (“bullae”) in the lungs to reduce the number of bacteria and to increase exposure of the remaining bacteria to antibiotics in the bloodstream. Hopes of eliminating TB ended with the rise of drug-resistant strains in the 1980s. The subsequent resurgence of tuberculosis resulted in the declaration of a global health emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993.
The 1918 flu didn’t end in 1918. Here’s what its third year can teach us.
By Jess McHugh February 6, 2022 Washington Post
In this photo from Oct. 19, 1918, a sign posted at the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia indicates the flu pandemic, known as Spanish Influenza, is extremely active. (U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command/AP) (Uncredited/AP)
In New York City in 1920 — nearly two years into a deadly influenza pandemic that would claim at least 50 million lives worldwide — the new year began on a bright note.
“Best Health Report for City in 53 Years,” boasted a headline in the New York Times on Jan. 4, 1920, after New York had survived three devastating waves of the flu virus. The nation as a whole, which would ultimately lose 675,000 people to the disease, believed that the end might finally be in sight.
Within a few weeks, however, those optimistic headlines began to change. Before the end of the month, New York City would experience a surge in influenza cases. Chicago and other urban centers reported the same.
Residents should prepare themselves for an “influenza return,” New York City health commissioner Royal S. Copeland warned. He predicted that the virus variant responsible for the surge would be milder and that those who had fallen ill the previous year would be immune. He was wrong, at least in part: While many places worldwide did not see a fourth wave of the great influenza pandemic, several metropolises — including New York City, Chicago and Detroit — had another deadly season in store.
The 1918 flu lasted far beyond 1918. Two years after it began, just as officials such as Copeland were declaring victory and cities were easing restrictions, a fourth wave hit parts of the country, bringing punishing caseloads that pushed some hospitals to the brink of collapse and left many more Americans dead.
The virus did not seem so menacing when it began: The first wave in the spring of 1918 was relatively mild. But it returned with a vengeance in the fall, probably having mutated. That second wave burned through patients around the world. Street cars were converted into hearses, and priests collected bodies with horse-drawn carriages.
During the second wave alone, more Americans were killed by the flu than died in the First World War, the Second World War, the Korean War and the Vietnam War combined.
The flu pandemic seemed to affect young people in particular, for reasons that historians and scientists are still debating. When the first recorded cases arrived, World War I was raging, and the cramped conditions of the trenches meant that the virus could pass rapidly from soldier to soldier, and the conditions in field hospitals often hastened the spread. Other experts have suggested that people in their 20s and 30s were less likely to have prior immunity to similar flu viruses.
Regardless, the virus alone lowered life expectancy in the United States by more than 12 years. As many as 10 percent of all young adults living through the time of the flu pandemic may have died of it, according to historian John M. Barry in his book “The Great Influenza.”
By the winter of 1919-1920, Americans were weary of the limitations on daily life. Nearly all of the public health restrictions — such as mask-wearing, social distancing and the closure of schools and churches — had been lifted. A hasty return to public gatherings led to an increase in case numbers. Politicians either blamed people’s carelessness for the reemergence of the virus or downplayed the seriousness of it.
The fourth wave was not front-page news in the way that prior spikes had been. The coverage was often relegated to small paragraphs deep inside newspapers, reporting thousands of new cases on a weekly or even daily basis. By February 1920, there was an epidemic in a state prison in New Jersey, and some courts were forced to halt proceedings because of illness.
One physician wrote a letter to the editor in the New York Times in the winter of 1920, begging people to avoid “needless exposure to influenza” through unnecessary social contact. The doctor warned that anyone who visited someone who was ill was then “capable of spreading the disease to any number of others who might have escaped, thereby putting an extra drain upon the already overburdened hospitals, nurses, and doctors.”
But if the fourth wave failed to generate the kinds of headlines and fear of its predecessors, it wasn’t for a lack of lethality. In New York City, more people died in the period from December 1919 to April 1920 than in the first and third waves, according to a research paper on influenza mortality in the city. Detroit, St. Louis and Minneapolis also experienced significant fourth waves, and severe “excess mortality” was reported in many counties in Michigan because of the flu.
Local governments’ public health interventions actually may have contributed to the fourth wave by limiting the virus’s spread in prior waves. Letting the virus run rampant, however, would not have been advisable either, said Wan Yang, an assistant professor of epidemiology at Columbia University and an author of the paper on New York City influenza mortality. “More infection could also lead to more mutation, so that could generate a new virus variant that can then erode your prior immunity, so it’s an interplay depending on how the virus is going to evolve, which is really unpredictable,” Yang said.
Influenza viruses and coronaviruses are genetically different, so it’s not possible to make a one-to-one comparison with the 1918 pandemic. Yang noted that the novel coronavirus appears to mutate far faster than the 1918 influenza virus. Management of the current pandemic also has benefited from many scientific developments that were not available a century ago, including more-sanitary hospital conditions, better access to clean water, and — perhaps what is most notable — a vaccine.
Still, we can get a glimpse into our future by looking at the past. The 1918 flu virus, after lingering in a deadly form for more than two years, eventually grew milder. Now it is “part of every seasonal flu we have,” said Ann Reid, the executive director of the National Center for Science Education, who helped sequence the genome of the 1918 influenza virus in the 1990s. Her research found that some genetic aspects of the 1918 virus continued to be present in new outbreaks, including pandemics in 1957 and 1968. People with immunity to the 1918 virus were therefore likely to have some protection from its genetic cousins.
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