Idaho History Apr 10, 2022

Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic

Part 101

Influenza “Cures” from Idaho Newspapers 1919
Patent Medicines, Advertising, Home Remedies and Misinformation

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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1919

January 9, 1919

The Emmett Index. January 09, 1919, Page 5

Emmett News

19190109EI5

A trained nurse, who has been nursing the influenza in Canada, tells of a successful treatment given in Canada, which she said never failed in preventing bronchial pneumonia, and saved hundreds and hundreds of lives. The patient is enveloped in a mustard plaster. A sheet is taken and fitted to the patient around the neck and under the armpits. On it is laid the mustard plaster, made with lard, mustard and flour. The plaster covers the patient, back and front, from below the ribs up close under the armpits and up to the neck. The nurse said she wished every paper in the United States would print the mustard plaster treatment.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 09 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Emmett Index. January 09, 1919, Page 8

(ibid, page 8)
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January 11, 1919

The Daily Star-Mirror., January 11, 1919, Page 2

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 11 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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January 20, 1919

Evening Capital News., January 20, 1919, Page 1

19190120ECN2Prove Influenza Not Contagious; Previous Theories Are Ditched

San Francisco, Cal., Jan. 20 — Medical theories regarding Spanish influenza were turned topsy turvy today by an announcement from the office of the government public services.

Fifty navy men from Goat Island were exposed to influenza in every possible way in a test conducted by the government. To the surprise of the doctors not one contracted the disease.

The men slept with the patients and waited on them.

Dr. W. C. Billings of the health service, who conduted the experiments, admitted previous theories regarding the disease were overthrown.

[* see Footnote 1)

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 20 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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January 30, 1919

The Grangeville Globe. January 30, 1919, Page 5

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 30 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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January 21, 1919

The Idaho Republican. January 21, 1919, Page 4

19190121TIR5How To Avoid Influenza
Doctor Says to Cut Out Fruits, Sweets and All Fried Foods

To be immune from influenza cut out fruits, greasy foods, sirups [sic], confectionery, honey and fried foods. This is the advice of Dr. Frederick de Lue of Boston, an expert. Here are some of Doctor de Lue’s influenza pointers:

Influenza bacillus locates most readily in rheumatic people. Acids in the system are the cause of colds. Chocolate that we give our soldier boys makes acid, and acid serves as food for the influenza bacilli. Boiled rice is a better ration than chocolate.

source: The Idaho Republican. page 4 (Blackfoot, Idaho), 21 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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January 22, 1919

The Challis Messenger., January 22, 1919, Page 1

19190122CM1Simple Remedy Will Nearly Always Save Life

It may not come amiss at this time to publish the following article by M. A. Redding, recently published in the Denver Rocky Mountain News:

“Will you please give me space in your paper for the following most valuable information:

“That nobody needs to die of pneumonia:

“To the medical fraternity and the public:

“I am again knocking at the doors of hospitals, pulling at the heartstrings of the doctors and appealing to the common sense of the public.

“During my stay in Pasadena last winter I read in the Los Angeles papers of the deaths from this sneaking, dreaded disease called pneumonia, from two to three and up to five every twenty-four hours. At last on the 7th of February, 1918, I went to Los Angeles and got the prescription inserted in four of the Los Angeles daily papers. The public read it in the 7th of February, and what a change. From a high death rate during the winter and before that day, it stopped suddenly. The daily papers recorded only one death a day of pneumonia and most all the victims were infants less than one year old.

“What was the cause of this sudden change? Let me tell you. It was this simple remedy discovered by me 14 years ago. It can be had at any drug store for 25 cents.

“Saturate a ball of cotton as large as a one-inch marble, with spirits of alcohol add three drops of chloroform to each ball of cotton, place it between the patient’s teeth and let him inhale the fumes in deep long breaths for five minutes; then rest for 15 minutes or longer, if needed; then inhale again 5 minutes and repeat the operation, as directed, for twenty-four times, and the result will be that the lungs will expand to their normal condition and in 24 hours the patient is out of danger, and in 48 hours he is cured – although weak.

“Cotton should be changed twice in fifteen minutes.

“Another method of inhalation for elderly people with out teeth, and patients in last stages of pneumonia:

“Get a small alcohol lamp or any other apparatus, and a porcelain cup, make a one-inch thick cover of wood for cup, put four small nails under cover to prevent sliding off; bore a 1/2 inch hole in the middle and insert in the cover a 1/2 inch robber tube long enough to reach patient’s mouth then boil alcohol diluted with water 50 per cent, or plainer, half and half (no chloroform needed in this method) and let the patient inhale through the tube the fumes of the boiling alcohol in deep long breaths for 15 minutes and follow directions above and I can assure you you will disappoint the undertaker and live many happy days.

“But listen: do not wait until you get pneumonia, but use the simple remedy as soon as you feel that your lungs are afflicted. Give the cure to all with whom you come in contact; it is safe and reliable.”

source: The Challis Messenger. (Challis, Idaho), 22 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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January 23, 1919

Evening Capital News., January 23, 1919, Page 5

19190123ECN2Women Need Swamp-Root

Thousands of women have kidney and bladder trouble and never suspect it.

Women’s complaints often prove to be nothing else but kidney trouble, or the result of kidney or bladder disease.

If the kidneys are not in a healthy condition, they may cause the other organs to become diseased.

Pain in the back, headache, loss of ambition, nervousness, are often time symptoms of kidney trouble.

Don’t delay starting treatment. Dr. Kilmer’s Swamp-Root, a physician’s prescription, obtained at any drug store, may be just the remedy needed to overcome such conditions.

Get a medium or large size bottle immediately from any drug store.

However, if you wish first to test this great preparation send 10 cents to Dr. Kilmer & Co., Binghamton, N.Y., for a sample bottle. When writing be sure and mention the Boise Daily Capital News.
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19190123ECN3No Quinine In This Cold Cure
“Pape’s Cold Compound” Ends Colds and Grippe in a Few Hours

Take “Pape’s Cold Compound” every two hours until you have taken three doses, then all grippe misery goes and your cold will be broken. It promptly opens your clogged-up nostrils and air passages of the head; stops nasty discharge or nose running; relieves the headache, dullness, feverishness, sore throat, sneezing, soreness and stiffness.

Don’t stay stuffed-up! Quit blowing and snuffling. Ease your throbbing head – nothing else in the world gives such prompt relief as “Pape’s Cold Compound,” which costs only a few cents at any drug store. It acts without assistance, tastes nice, and causes no inconvenience. Accept no substitute.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 23 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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January 23, 1919

The Emmett Index. January 23, 1919, Page 1

19190123EI3Method Of Treating Flu
Used in 500 Cases Without a Single Mortality

The following article from a leading medical journal was sent to The Index by a well known and successful Idaho physician, who believes it should be given to the public for the benefit of those afflicted with influenza who may not be able to secure a physician. No one, however, should fail to call a physician if one is within reach. The article follows:

“In a paper read at the Douglas Park branch of the Chicago Medical Society, Dr. A. J. Croft described a method of treatment employed in 500 cases of influenza without a single death. It consists in complete rest in bed for at least five days; daily flushing of the bowels with Saline Laxative or Pluto Water; restriction of food, none being given at all for the first 48 hours; and abundance of hot drinks, such as hot lemonade or weak tea; a warm sponge bath two or three times a day; avoidance of depressing drugs, such as opiates and phenacetin, and the restriction of the amount of salicylates.

“The medicinal remedy principally relied upon is Calcidin (Abbott), which is given in one-grain doses every three hours, in association with sodium, salicylate, three grains. As a counter-irritant a mustard plaster is applied to the chest. Strychnine is employed when indicated. When the temperature has returned to normal, the sodium salicylate is discontinued, but the Calcidin is continued.”

The Idaho doctor referred to warns those who follow the above directions to consult a physician regarding talking of strychnine before using it.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 23 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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General Hospital, Pocatello, Idaho ca. 1912

HospitalGeneralPocatello1912Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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February 06, 1919

Evening Capital News., February 06, 1919, Page 12

19190206ECN2Influenza Germs
By Valentine Mott Pierce, M.D.

19190206ECN3Influenza is produced by a bacillus or germ coming chiefly from discharges from the nose, throat and lungs of the person who coughs, sneezes, or spits. The person attacked feels chilly, develops a high temperature – usually accompanied by headache and “ache all over” as it is usually described. If you have the above symptoms get into bed as quickly as possible, after a hot mustard foot-bath. Take a good laxative, such as castor oil or one made up of May-apple, leaves of aloe, root of julap, and sold in every drug store as Doctor Pierce’s Pleasant Pellets. Then surround yourself with hot water bottles. It is a fact mentioned by physicians of the largest experience that the effort on the part of nature to throw off the poisons results sometimes in inflammation of the kidneys. It is therefore very important to assist nature in eliminating the toxins (poisons) from the body thru the bowels, skin and kidneys. Drink a great deal of water, and hot-water, before meals. A new kidney remedy called “Anuric” (anti-uric-acid) can be obtained of the druggist. This “Anuric” flushes the bladder and kidneys and throws off the toxins (poisons), and should be taken with hot water or hot lemonade. Clear the nose with some good antiseptic spray or Dr. Sage’s Catarrh Remedy. It is, of course, unnecessary for me to emphasize this, keep strong and healthy, fear neither germ nor German, and observe the three C’S: A Clean skin, Clean bowels, Clean nose and mouth and you have half won the battle.
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19190206ECN4Colds Cause Grip and Influenza
Laxative Bromo Quinine Tablets remove the cause. There is only one “Bromo Quinine,” E. W. Grove’s signature on the box. 30c.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 06 Feb. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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February 9, 1919

Evening Capital News., February 09, 1919, Page 17

19190209ECN2

Golf Preventative Against The “Flu”
Those Who Followed the Prescriptions of Old Dr. Golf Escape Ravages of the Spanish Disease; Excellent Exercise.

According to statistics roughly compiled in this city by those who follow the little white balls over the knobs and grassy levels of the country and the Boise Golf clubs, the prescriptions of old Dr. Golf are most efficacious in warding off disease, especially influenza.

During the recent epidemic, oxygen and sunshine were recommended by every physician – “All the fresh air you can get” – and lovers of the links were keen enough to discover a new excuse for absence from their offices in the afternoon.

In San Francisco for two or three weeks the links were as dotted with players every afternoon as on a Saturday or Sunday, and the smallest percentage of influenza sufferers was recorded among the golfers.

The Spokesman-Review recorded that in Spokane there are over 700 golfing men, maids and matrons, and that only 10 of them surrendered to the Spanish invader. A dispatch from Portland provided even more convincing evidence:

“Six hundred members of the Portland Golf club and a like number of members of the Waverly Golf club, and perhaps the same number from the Tualatin Golf club, have thus far escaped influenza. Members of the clubs mentioned declare their immunity from the disease is because golf tends toward health. Officials of the clubs say that not one of their members has so far been stricken, because the playing members have taken advantage of links and the open air.”

It is true, also, of the local golf club that those who made it a practice to get their daily exercise on the teeing green were free from any signs of influenza; but a few members of the club coming down with the “flu” and they being golfers who did not leave their hot offices during the winter to get out in the air.

Golf is not only most healthful, but an excellent sport and the best of exercise for the man who cannot stand the more strenuous varieties of physical pleasure.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 09 Feb. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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February 11, 1919

Evening Capital News., February 11, 1919, Page 6

19190211ECN2Before or After the Influenza

It gets you in the head or back – suddenly – and oh, how you suffer! all on account of that little influenza bacillus. It is a fact that when nature tries to throw off the poisons from the body the result sometimes is inflammation of the kidneys. Therefore, the best way is to assist nature as much as you can either before or after the attack by throwing off the poisons (toxins) from the body thru the excretory organs, such as the bowels, skin and kidneys. Drink plenty of hot water, hot or cold lemonade, take Cr. Pierce’s Anuric Tablets for the kidneys and backache. Then take an occasional laxative, such as castor oil, or one made up of May-apple, leaves of aloe, julap, made into tiny, sugar-coated pills – to be had at every drug store as Dr. Pierce’s Pleasant Pellets. To build up after the grip – to make red blood and fill the body with vim, vigor and vitality, take an iron tonic, known as “Irontic,” and sold at most drug stores, or that well-known herbal tonic which has been so favorably known for the past fifty years, Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery. this is made from roots and barks of forest trees and brings the freshness of the woods right to you.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 11 Feb. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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February 14, 1919

The Meridian Times., February 14, 1919, Page 7

19190214MT1Tired Nervous Mothers
Should Profit by the Experiences of These Two Women

Buffalo, N.Y. – “I am the mother of four children, and for nearly three years I suffered from female trouble with pains in my back and side, and a general weakness. I had professional attendance most of that time but did not seem to get well. As a last resort I decided to try Lydia E. Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound which I had seen advertised in the newspapers, and in two weeks noticed a marked improvement. I continued its use and am now free from pain and able to do all my housework.” – Mrs. B. B. Zielinska, 202 Weiss Street, Buffalo, N.Y.

Portland, Ind. — “I had a displacement and suffered so badly from it at times I could not be on my feet at all. I was all run down and so weak I could not do my housework, was nervous and could not lie down at night. I took treatments from a physician but they did not help me. My Aunt recommended Lydia E. Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound. I tried it and now I am strong and well again and do my own work and I give Lydia E. Pinkham’s Compound the credit.” – Mrs. Josephine Kimble, 935 West Race Street, Portland, Ind.

Every Sick Woman Should Try Lydia E. Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound

Lydia E. Pinkham Medicine Co. Lynn, Mass.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 14 Feb. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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February 21, 1919

Evening Capital News., February 21, 1919, Page 6

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 21 Feb. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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February 28, 1919

Shoshone Journal. February 28, 1919, Page 5

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 28 Feb. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Recorder. February 28, 1919, Page 5

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 28 Feb. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Hospital Square, Soda Springs, Idaho

HospitalSquareSodaSpringFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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March 1, 1919

Evening Capital News., March 01, 1919, Page 2

19190301ECN6Stopped Cough After Influenza

“I want to say that Foley’s Honey and Tar is the best cough medicine I ever tried,” writes E. B. McDowel, R.F.D. 1, Box 119, Arlington, Tenn. “My son had influenza. He had the worst kind of a cough and I tried everything, but nothing did any good. God sent me a friend with Foley’s Honey and Tar, and his cough was better the next day and in two days he had no cough at all.” Foley’s Honey and Tar stops harsh, racking coughs; eases wheezy breathing. It is effective, yet pleasant to take. Whitehead’s Drug store.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 01 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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March 5, 1919

Evening Capital News., March 05, 1919, Page 6

19190305ECN219190305ECN3Dangerous Weakness Follows Influenza
There Is Real Danger In the After-Effects of This Treacherous Disease

Those who have survived an attack of the dreaded influenza find their strength taxed to the utmost, and the entire system in a weakened and nerve-shattered condition. For this disease is intense in its severity, and its after-effects are as much to be guarded against as the disease itself.

The pain-racked body is in such a debilitated condition that the vitality is at a low-ebb, the strength returns very slowly, and the patient becomes despondent because of his helplessness. And unless there is a full restoration to his former robust condition, he is liable to fall an easy prey to any ordinary illness. In other words, there is danger of a permanent injury to the system.

You owe it to yourself to regain your full strength and health just as completely and promptly as possible, and to take all precaution to avoid the after-effects of the disease. This you can do by giving nature such assistance as needed in rebuilding the waste tissue and restoring the strength and vitality.

All waste tissue must be rebuilt and all lost strength must be restored through the blood supply, for through this vital fluid alone can the damage be repaired. And after its battle with the germs of grippe and influenza, the blood is thin and weak and must have help in its stupendous task of rebuilding the system, and restoring the strength and buoyant vitality to the stricken body.

Just here is where S. S. S. has proven such a valuable aid, for it is without question the most efficacious blood purifier ever discovered. This reliable old remedy, which has been sold by druggists for more than fifty years, was first used by the Indians who discovered the medicinal value of the roots and herbs of the forest, and has been used with the greatest success for more than half a century.

S. S. S. is the one remedy that is so useful in repairing the damage done by influenza and grippe, because it promptly enriches the blood supply, and fills the veins with new life and vitality, which in turn rebuild the waste tissue throughout the system. No matter how long since you have had this disease, you should begin at once to take S. S. S., which will do so much in putting the system back into perfect physical condition.

And remember, too, that avoiding disease is simply a matter of keeping the system in perfect condition, so that those who keep their blood supply pure and strong and vigorous are not nearly so liable to attack. A few bottles of S. S. S. is worth many times its cost as a precaution against disease.

Those who take S. S. S. can get any desired medical advice without cost by writing to Chief Medical Adviser, 101 Swift Laboratory, Atlanta, Ga.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 05 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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March 17, 1919

Evening Capital News., March 17, 1919, Page 7

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 17 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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March 19, 1919

The Challis Messenger., March 19, 1919, Page 3

source: The Challis Messenger. (Challis, Idaho), 19 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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March 20, 1919

The Filer Record., March 20, 1919, Page 8

19190320FR2Don’t Fear The Flu

It can’t get you, if you use “Dr. Hiller’s Essential Oil Tablets.” They quickly relieve coughs, colds, all throat and lung troubles, reduce fever, prevent attack if taken in time and are free from drugs or opiates. A real life-saver which should be used in every home. Trial package of 2 tubes, $1.00. Full package, 10 tubes $5.00. Complete directions. Postpaid on receipt of price. Sold exclusively by

Frederick Hiller, M. D.
Suite 423 Consolidated Realty Bldg.
Los Angeles, California
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19190320FR3Weeks’ Break-Up-A-Cold Tablets Nip A Cold In The Bud
Quickest way to break up a cold. Get the genuine at any drug store. 25c

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 20 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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March 25, 1919

The Daily Star-Mirror., March 25, 1919, Page 4

19190325DSM2“Flu” Serum Useless
Physicians Are Still Hunting for a Preventive
U. S. Laboratory Director Says No Cure for Baffling Disease is Known.

New York — Considering that the insurance companies of the United States lost about $130,000,000 during the three months last year when the influenza epidemic was at its height, it was but natural that when the Association of Life Insurance medical Directors met in the annual convention in Newark the physicians and public health authorities should concern themselves almost exclusively to the search for some preventive measure which would preclude another outbreak of the plague.

And yet, although it was shown that about 6,000,000 people in the world perished from it, 400,000 of whom were Americans, all the medical experts admitted that the disease was completely baffling. Said Dr. G. W. McCoy, director of the hygienic laboratory of the public health service in Washington:

“There is no serum that I know of which is of the slightest value in preventing influenza, nor is there a serum that is of any use whatever in the treatment of the disease.” He made this statement after carefully experimenting with serums and vaccines in all parts of the country where the disease had broken out, and particularly in Pelham Bay and the army camps where the mortality was great.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 25 March 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Harrison Hospital, Harrison, Idaho ca. 1910 (1)

HospitalHarrison1910Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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April 8, 1919

Evening Capital News., April 08, 1919, Page 8

19190408ECN4The Blood
(By Lee Herbert Smith, M.D.)
After Influenza And Hard Winter Colds

After an attack of the grip or pneumonia, or even a hard cold, the blood is left thin, watery, and one is said to be anemic. Instead of the blood cells being round, as in diagram “A”, they become irregular, as in “B.” When you feel weak, nervous, or the skin breaks out in pimples, eruptions or boils, and you feel “blue” and without any snap or energy, sometimes hands cold and clammy, there is usually a large decrease in the red or white blood corpuscles and one should build up with some good blood-builder and tonic.

You can put iron in your blood and the cells become round and red, losing the irregular shape, by taking a good iron tonic, called “Irontic,” put up by Dr. Pierce and sold by most druggists. This “Irontic” is compounded of a soluble iron, nux and herbal extracts. With this you gain in vim, vigor and vitality. Instead of pale cheeks, tired and worn out before the day is half done, after taking “Irontic” your cheeks will have color, you will feel strong and vigorous and ready for work.

Or if you like a good alternative and herbal tonic, such a one can be obtained at any drug store, favorable known for the past fifty years as Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery. This is made from the wild roots and barks of forest trees and without the use of alcohol.

source: Evening Capital News., April 08, 1919, Page 8
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April 12, 1919

Evening Capital News., April 12, 1919, Page 8

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 12 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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April 23, 1919

Evening Capital News., April 23, 1919, Page 5

19190423ECN3Don’t Buy Aspirin In A “Pill” Box
Ask for “Bayer Tablets of Aspirin” in a Bayer package – Marked with “Bayer Cross.”

You must say “Bayer.” Never ask for merely Aspirin tablets. The name “Bayer” means you are getting the genuine “Bayer Tablets of Aspirin,” proven safe by millions of people.

Don’t buy Aspirin tablets in a pill box. Insist on getting the Bayer package with the safety “Bayer Cross” on both package and on tablets. No other way!

Beware of counterfeits. Only recently a Brooklyn manufacturer was sent to the penitentiary for flooding the country with talcum powder tablets, which he claimed to be Aspirin.

In the Bayer package are proper directions and the dose for Headache, Toothache, Earache, Neuralgia, Rheumatism, Lumbago, Sciatica, Colds, Grippe, Influenza-Colds, Neuritis and pain generally.

“Bayer Tablets of Aspirin,” American made and owned, are sold in vest pocket boxes of 12 tablets, which cost only a few cents, also in bottles of 24 and bottles of 100 – also capsules. Aspirin is the trade mark of the Bayer Manufacture of Monoaceticacidester of Salicylicacid.

source: source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 23 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Twin Falls Hospital, Twin Falls, Idaho ca. 1912

HospitalTwinFalls1912Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 28, 1919

The Challis Messenger., May 28, 1919, Page 3

source: The Challis Messenger. (Challis, Idaho), 28 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Kellogg Hospital, Kellogg, Idaho ca. 1908

HospitalKellogg1908Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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June 13, 1919

American Falls Press. June 13, 1919, Page 5

19190613AFP2
Influenza and Headaches
(Health Talk No. 2 by G. A. Wilson, D. C.)

Light (electric) is electricity, and electricity is current – generate by a dynamo and transmitted by wires. Decreased current means partial or a lack of light.

Health is life, and life is current generated in the brain and transmitted by the nerves. The difference between a live and a dead man is – one has life currant and the other has not. The difference between a healthy and a sickly man, is – in the healthy man the current is normal, while in the sickly it is decreased by mechanical interference; so, primarily, health is the result of life-current transmitted without interference, while disease is the result of decreased life-current. Chiropractic removes the interference.

It Works out in Practice

An example: “I started to feel better from the first adjustment I received at hands of Dr. Wilson, Chiropractor. I got better rapidly and all it took to make me well was three adjustments. Not only did he cure me of the Flu but he cured me of the bad headache that I had suffered with for a long time before I took sick. I know that Chiropractic saved my life, for I was almost dead when Dr. Wilson was called.” – (Signed) (The name will be furnished upon request.)

Dr. G. A. Wilson
Chiropractor
Phone 7-W Wones Bldg.

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 13 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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June 27, 1919

American Falls Press. June 27, 1919, Page 7

19190627AFP2
Heart Trouble Following Influenza
Health talk No. 4 By G. A. Wilson, D. C.

Health authorities are freely predicting that the after-effects of the Spanish Influenza that snuffed out 400,000 lives in the United States will be apparent in heart trouble and lung complaint, with general physical weakness.

The record of chiropractors in the influenza epidemic was inspiring, and the after-effects in cases handled by chiropractors have not been in evidence. The reason for this is that the chiropractic method removed the cause. The disease only attacked those suffering from weakness of lungs, kidneys and bowels. Chiropractic adjustments removed the nerve pressure that caused this weakness, and the disease disappeared without bad after effects. …

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 27 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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St. Joseph’s Hospital & Church, Lewiston, Idaho

HospitalStJosephsLewistonFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 11, 1919

American Falls Press. July 11, 1919, Page 3

19190711AFP2What Editors Say About Drugless Methods
(Health Talk No. 6)

Bernarr McFadden, editor of the Physical Culture, the monthly magazine, and the editor of the Rocky Mountain News, both deal some sledge hammer blows for the drugless methods.

McFadden says in a statement about the comparative statistics of the medical and the drugless treatment of Spanish Influenza cases, “If these figures are correct, and they are put forward as correct by honorable men, what appalling conclusions one would be forced to draw! Think what it would mean! It would mean that most of the 400,000 who died would be alive today, that they were actually, though unintentionally killed.”

The Rocky Mountain News says: “These statistics mean (if true) that the old school treatment of at least two diseases (the flu and pneumonia) is in many cases more deadly than the diseases themselves. Death caused by malpractice, whether thru ignorance or otherwise, should be prevented.”

Chiropractic is a new science resulting from the discovery that bad alignment of the twenty-four movable vertebrae or joints of the back bone interferes with spinal nerve force and weakens and diseases the body. No other discovery ever explained so sensibly why one man’s disease differs from another. Call today and learn for yourself what Chiropractic can do for your case. …

No Charge

Consultations are free, so don’t disregard the danger signals, namely headaches, dizziness, tired feeling, shortness of breath, etc., when you can consult a chiropractor free of charge.

Dr. Geo. A. Wilson
Palmer Graduate
Chiropractor
Phone 7-W Wones Bldg.

[* see Footnote 2]

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 11 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Hospital, Moscow, Idaho ca. 1922

courtesy: The Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 25, 1919

The Grangeville Globe. September 25, 1919, Page 6

19190925GG2Will Not be One Day Without PE-RU-NA
This Lady Tells Her Friends

Mrs. Mary Fricke, 507 Bornman St., Belleville, Ill., is just one of the many thousands of ladies throughout the country who, after an agony of years, have at last found health, strength and visor in PE-RU-NA.

Her owns words tell of her suffering and recovery better than we can do it: “I suffered with my stomach, had awful cramps and headaches so I often could not lay on a pillow. Saw your book, tried PE-RU-NA and got good results from the first bottle. To be sure of a cure I took twelve bottles. I have recommended PE-RU-NA to my friends and all are well pleased with results. I will not be one day without PE-RU-NA. Have not had a doctor since I started with PE-RU-NA, which was about fifteen years ago. I am now sixty-three years old, hale, hearty and well. Can do as much work as my daughters. I feel strong and healthy and weigh near two hundred pounds. Before, I weighed as little as one hundred. I hope lots of people use PE-RU-NA and get the results I did.” An experience like that of Mrs. Fricke is an inspiration to every sick and suffering woman.

If you have catarrh, whether is be of the nose, throat, stomach, bowels, or other organs, PE-RU-NA is the remedy. It is not new; it is not an experiment. PE-RU-NA has been tried. PE-RU-NA has been used by thousands who once were sick and are now well. To prevent coughs, colds, grip and influenza and to hasten recovery there is nothing better.

PE-RU-NA will improve the appetite and digestion, purify the blood, sooth the irritated mucous linings, eradicate the waste material and corruption from the system. It will tone up the nerves, give you health, strength, vigor and the joy of living. In what Mrs. Mary Fricke and thousands more have done – try PE-RU-NA. You will be glad, happy, thankful.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 25 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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September 28, 1919

Evening Capital News., September 28, 1919, Page 11

19190928ECN3
Apples Vs. Influenza

The old adage that “an apple a day keeps the doctor away” is to be given a real test during the coming winter at the Nampa Nazarene college. The students there are relying on apples to prevent a repetition of the Spanish influenza epidemic.

It is the suggestion of E. F. Stephens of the Stephens orchards, Nampa, who Saturday backed it up with an outright gift to the students of 100 bushels of Jonathan apples, imposing but the one condition that they should be freely eaten by all the students. Mr. Stephens has been a great fruit eater for years and enthusiastically believes it a specific for nearly all bodily ills.

The apple offer was made on the basis of an announcement that the students’ club “menu” committee of the Nampa college is planning to confer with the University of Idaho extension department and the farm bureau domestic science department on balanced rations as an influenza preventative. But Mr. Stephens did not stop with the gift of 100 bushels of Jonathans. He has also offered the students’ boarding club of the college 600 bushels of apples, with all the curative qualities of the fruit acids contained therein, on the following terms: For each hour of student labor in the Stephens orchard, the club is to receive one bushel of apples.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 28 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

New Hospital, Wardner, Idaho ca. 1908

courtesy: The Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

October 08, 1919

Evening Capital News., October 08, 1919, Page 8

19191008ECN2Board Of Health Warns Against Flu
Authorities Nervously Await Recurrence of Dreaded Epidemic

Medical authorities seem to be of the opinion that this country will again be visited by the dreaded scourge of influenza, and have already taken steps to warn the public as to the precaution that should be observed.

The Board of Health of the state of Connecticut has had large placards printed and widely distributed containing the following advice, which will be found valuable in any locality, its purpose being to avoid, if possible, a recurrence of this dreaded epidemic.

19191008ECN3How to Avoid the Flu

1. Don’t inhale any person’s breath.
2. Avoid persons who cough and sneeze.
3. Don’t visit close, poorly ventilated places.
4. Keep warm and dry.
5. If you get wet, change your clothes at once.
6. Don’t use drinking cups or towels that others persons have used.
7. For the protection of others, cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze.
8. Clean your teeth and mouth frequently.
9. Don’t spit on the floor.

In addition to the above, the Health Commissioner of New York City, in an interview in the New York Times, predicts a return of influenza, warns everyone to guard their health carefully, and those who are weak, he advises to build up their strength to better be prepared for the attack.

The medical profession practically admit their helplessness, and health authorities are nervously facing the situation. They can only advise that precautionary measures be adopted that will prepare the system for the attack.

They are advising that the system not be permitted to get into a rundown condition, but that it be kept in a healthy, vigorous state so that if will be prepared to better withstand the danger of influenza. The blood is the most vial force of life; therefore, it follows that upon the condition of the blood depends largely the condition of the entire system.

Every organ, nerve, muscle, tissue and sinew of the body is dependent upon the blood supply for nourishment, and as it circulates through the system pure and rich and free from all impurities, it furnishes these different members of the healthful properties needed to preserve them and enable them to perform their various duties.

So long as the blood remains free from infection, we are liable to escape disease, but any impurity in this life-giving stream acts injuriously on the system and affects the general health. Disordered blood comes from various causes, such as a sluggish condition of the circulation, imperfect bowel and kidney action, indigestion, etc., but whatever the cause the blood must be purified before the system is in such a robust condition that it is able to ward off disease. …

S. S. S., the fine old purely vegetable blood remedy, is a valuable agent in building up the system, and giving it that robust and vigorous vitality that is so essential as an aid in resisting influenza, and other dangerous ailments. A course of S. S. S. will prove to you its great efficiency, as it has in so many cases of impaired and impoverished vitality. It is sold by all druggists, and is worth many times its cost in building up and strengthening the system, and giving it a robust vigorous and healthy circulation that is so important in helping to ward off the attacks of disease.

You can obtain without cost free medical advice by writing to Chief Medical Adviser, 151 Swift Laboratory, Atlanta, Ga.

[*Note* this product is still available.]

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 08 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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October 15, 1919

Evening Capital News., October 15, 1919, Page 2

19191015ECN2To Fortify the System Against Grip

Take Laxative Bromo Quinine Tablets which destroy germs, act as a Tonic and Laxative, and thus prevent Colds, Grip and Influenza. There is only one “Bromo Quinine” E. W. Grove’s signature on the box. 30c

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 15 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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October 24, 1919

The Caldwell Tribune. October 24, 1919, Page 5

19191024CT2On The Defensive

During the aftermath of influenza or its debilitating complications, there is more than ordinary need that you nourish and protect every avenue of your strength.

Scott’s Emultion

because of its effective tonic-nutrient properties, daily help tens of thousands to renewed strength. Those who are fearful or rundown in vitality should use the means that help build up a healthy resistance.

What Scott’s does for others it will do for you. – Try it!

The exclusive grades of cod-liver oil used in Scott’s Emultion is the famous “S. & B. Process,” made in Norway and refined in our own American Laboratories. It is a guarantee of purity and palatability unsurpassed.

Scott & Browne, Bloomfield, N. H.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 24 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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October 28, 1919

Evening Capital News., October 28, 1919, Page 8

19191028ECN3Chest Colds, Coughs and Sore Throat Go Over Night
Begy’s Mustarine Is Better Than Liniments, Plasters, Poultices or Hot Water Bottles – Does the Work in Half the Time

19191028ECN2Remember the terrible Influenza Epidemic last year.

The demand for Begy’s Mustarine was so enormous, that stocks in retail stores and wholesale warehouses disappeared with amazing speed.

Get a box now – or two boxes, you can’t tell what will happen.

But just as soon as your throat gets sore or you feel that tightening in the chest, Rub on Begy’s Mustarine, for nothing on this earth will subdue inflammation, and prevent congestion, quicker than this great and first improvement on the old fashioned Mustard plaster.

It’s the quickest pain killer known, so be sure when you even suspect pleurisy, bronchitis or tonsillitis, to use it freely.

It won’t blister not even the tenderest skin – it can not blister.

But it’s hot stuff, and contains more concentrated non-blistering heat, than any other counter-irritant in existence.

That’s why it goes right after pains and aches, soreness and swellings, no matter where located and ends all the misery and distress so quickly, that sufferers are joyfully astonished.

Use Begy’s Mustarine always in the yellow box, to ease the pain of rheumatism and gout.

Just rub it on for a lame muscle, sore feet, stiff neck, cramps in the leg, sprains and strains.

Get out the box promptly when you have neuralgia, neuritis, lumbago, backache, headache, earache, toothache, or any ache anywhere.

Be sure it’s Begy’s Mustarine – made of real yellow mustard and other pain-destroying ingredients. Druggists announce return of money if it doesn’t do as advertised. One box equals 50 blistering Mustard plasters.

S. C. Wells & Co., LeRoy, N. Y.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 28 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Shoshone County Hospital, near Wallace, Silverton, Idaho

courtesy: The Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 17, 1919

The Daily Star-Mirror., November 17, 1919, Page 4

19191117DSM2Racking Routine

Life with most of us becomes too much a matter of routine. Household duties, office work and other obligations often cause people to overlook their health. As a result – the run-down condition become serious before relief is sought.

Nyals Tonic Hypophosphites

Will build up your health promptly and give you a store of energy which will enable you to ward off serious cold-weather ailments such as Grippe, Tonsillitis and Influenza and the serious complications which usually follow.

This tonic will increase appetite, aid digestion, re-vitalize the nervous system and give your system a chance to store up vitality.

Price $1.00

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 17 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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November 17, 1919

Evening Capital News., November 17, 1919, Page 3

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 17 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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November 24, 1919

The Daily Star-Mirror., November 24, 1919, Page 6

19191124DSM2Disease is Ever Lurking at This Season Waiting for a Victim too Weak to Combat It

Use precautionary methods at this season and guard your system against attacks of disease.

Colds, Coughs, Grippe, Influenza, Tonsillitis and other cold weather ailments should be treated promptly and with remedies that are known to be effective.

We carry all of the popular preparations known to medical science and we can suggest a good one for use in any special case.

If seriously ill consult your physician – but when preventive measures are sought – see us.

“Better Be Safe Than Sorry”

Corner Drug Store – C. E. Bolles, Proprietor

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 24 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

St. Lukes Hospital, Boise, Idaho (2)

courtesy: The Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 12, 1919

Shoshone Journal. December 12, 1919, Page 5

19191212SJ2Odorous Epidemic

“A friend of mine has kept himself and his family immune from influenza in a district sorely smitten by eating spring onions.”

– Glasgow (Scotland) Evening Post.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 12 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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December 21, 1919

Evening Capital News., December 21, 1919, Page 32

19191221ECN2Those earthquakes in the Pyrenees are probably the echo of another clash between the Spanish natives, who call it French influenza, and the French natives, who call it Spanish influenza.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 21 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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December 25, 1919

Payette Enterprise., December 25, 1919, Page 2

19191225PE2Pestilence Caused By War
Generally Understood that the Influenza Epidemic Was a Direct Result of Great Conflict

Sufficient time has not yet elapsed to determine the indirect effects of the recent eruption of Mount Kloet in Java which wiped out over a score of villages and killed thousands of the natives, but recollections of Krakatoa’s volcanic outburst in 1883 which within six weeks sprinkled its fine lava dust over the whole world, has given an interesting suggestion to certain members of the medical profession. During the closing year of the war an influenza epidemic raged in many parts of the world. The manner of its outbreak in different countries indicated that the germs of the disease had been conveyed by the currents in the air. The theory, therefore, has been broached that the poison gases with which many sectors of the fighting area where drenched were carried by the wind in every direction, causing the influenza outbreak in Spain, Germany, England, France, South America, Australia, Africa, Asia, as well as in the United States and some of the Central American countries. That the influenza is a corollary of the war is undoubted. Any similar gigantic conflict, is argued, would be attended with a similar widespread pestilence – another reason why every effort should be made to avert wars in the future. — Leslie’s.

source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 25 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Emmett Index. December 25, 1919, Page 2

19191225EI2Oranges are a prophylactic against influenza, says a medical writer. Upon seeing the germ in the road you throw it an orange, thus taking its mind off business, while you slip up another street.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 25 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
———————-

Patent Medicines

Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound

LydiaPinkham-a

Was Lydia E. Pinkham the Queen of Quackery?

She developed an immensely popular, if questionably effective, herbal remedy for “female complaints.” Pioneer in alternative medicine or…?

By Rebecca Rego Barry – November 22, 2017 JSTOR

The famous Vegetable Compound, cooked up by Lydia on her stove, contained unicorn root, life root, black cohosh, pleurisy root, and fenugreek seed preserved in 19 percent alcohol.

more info:
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Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound (1873-1906)

By: Rainey Horwitz Published: 2017-05-20

First marketed in the US 1875, Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound was an herbal medicine used by women to relieve menstrual discomfort and menopausal symptoms in women. The herbal compound was invented by Lydia Estes Pinkham in 1873 in her home kitchen in Lynn, Massachusetts. Pinkham created the compound by mixing alcohol with roots and herbs. The compound was patented, packaged, and distributed by the Mrs. Lydia Pinkham Medicine Company in 1876. The Mrs. Lydia Pinkham Medicine Company advertised the compound in many US newspapers and magazines, causing Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound to become a household name and making treatments for female reproductive discomfort mainstream in the US.

In 1873, during a US economic downturn, fifty-four year old Lydia Pinkham was concocting home remedies for illnesses using family recipes. According to Pinkham scholar Sarah Stage, the tradition of concocting medicines in the home was a common hobby for housewives during the nineteenth-century, when many people were suspicious of the expensive and often dangerous medications prescribed by doctors. Pinkham owned botanical remedy books and medical guides, including the herbal remedy guide, John King’s The American Dispensatory. Pinkham provided herbal remedies to her neighbors and friends for various ailments. As her remedies became more popular, strangers contacted her in search of her recipe. With help from her three sons, she started packaging and selling the compound as Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound for the treatment of menstrual discomfort.

Pinkham created her vegetable compound using a mixture of roots and herbs that grew wildly in North America. The original recipe, created by Pinkham on her home kitchen stove, contained black cohosh, life root, unicorn root, pleurisy root, and fenugreek seed. The unicorn root allegedly gave energy to the uterus and lessened the likelihood of miscarriage. The pleurisy root allegedly helped cure prolapsed uteri, which occur when uterine tissues drop into the vaginal canal. Black cohosh allegedly treated symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, and to have sedative and anti-inflammatory properties that treated menstrual cramping. Pinkham purchased her ingredients from local suppliers, and after steeping and macerating the plants, combined them in cloth bags and allowed the mixture to percolate. She added alcohol to her compound to preserve the mixture, filtering it through an additional cloth before bottling the compound for sale.

Pinkham’s original recipe contained approximately twenty percent alcohol, which Pinkham claimed was a preservative for the vegetable mixture. According to Stage, the Pinkham family considered alcohol to be a legitimate medicinal ingredient. The family, however, made lozenges and pills for instances in which the consumption of alcohol might worsen menstrual disorders. Critics questioned the medical utility of the compound’s alcohol content, arguing that the intoxicating effects of alcohol overwhelmed any supposed medical benefits. In response, the Pinkhams claimed that their vegetable compound posed no threat to those wishing to abstain from consuming alcohol.

In 1876, with the help of her sons, Pinkham established Mrs. Lydia Pinkham’s Medicine Company to mass produce the compound and transformed her home basement in Lynn, Massachusetts, into a factory. That same year, in 1876, Pinkham patented her vegetable compound. Pinkham and her sons began packaging bottles of her vegetable compound for sale, and they advertised the product by distributing pamphlets around the neighborhood. Throughout the 1870s, Mrs. Lydia Pinkham’s Medicine Company expanded its advertising throughout New England, placing advertisements in newspapers and women’s magazines.

The vegetable compound’s advertisements and packaging featured Pinkham’s portrait. According to historian James Young, the prominent placement of Pinkham’s portrait on her products was an attempt to appeal to women. The compassionate and grandmotherly image of Pinkham was meant to assure women that the vegetable compound had been created by a woman who understood the discomfort of menstruation and menopause. Young claims that advertisements for Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound made Pinkham the most recognizable woman in late nineteenth century US.

The compound claimed to treat a variety of what Pinkham called female complaints, a term commonly used to refer to women’s reproductive ailments in the nineteenth-century. Primarily, the compound was advertised as a treatment for menstrual cramps and menopause symptoms, such as hot flashes. After the product began selling more successfully, the Pinkham family adjusted the packaging and advertisements for Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound to claim that the compound assisted conception by lowering risk of miscarriage, and that it treated kidney and ovarian diseases. Pinkham’s product eventually became so well known and her face so well recognized, that songs were created surrounding her name and legacy. One such song describes Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound as causing weight gain, increasing milk production during lactation, and increasing female fertility. According to Stage, consumer testimonials for Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound frequently featured the saying, “There is a baby in every bottle,” which became the compound’s tagline.

Many ads and in-package pamphlets asked readers to submit inquiries about female health for Pinkham to address in published pamphlets. Pinkham started a Department of Advice and guaranteed women that no male would ever read the contents of the letters addressed to Mrs. Lydia Pinkham, encouraging women to ask questions they may otherwise have deemed uncomfortable or taboo. According to Young, Pinkham used candid and straightforward language on her packaging and advice pamphlets to target women who were displeased with the care they had received from their physicians and to inform her female audience about their bodies and reproductive processes.

According to Young, Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound helped give more power to women by taking some medical authority away from the male dominated medical field. During the 1870s, while Pinkham was distributing her products and publishing medical advice, the standard treatment for severe menstrual cramps involved surgically removing the ovaries, a medical procedure with a forty percent mortality rate. According to Young, Pinkham said that male physicians were indifferent and insensitive to women’s reproductive health. Young claims Pinkham argued that only women could understand a woman’s ills. Pinkham’s products challenged the treatments male physicians prescribed to women in late nineteenth century.

In 1906, the US Government enacted the Pure Food and Drug Act, which required producers of patent medicines, like Mrs. Lydia Pinkham’s Medicine Company, to disclose the ingredients in their products on the product’s label. Once the alcohol content of Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound was displayed on its label, customers discovered that the product contained fifteen percent alcohol. Mrs. Lydia Pinkham’s Medicine Company had recently decreased the alcohol content from twenty percent alcohol. The new Act also prevented producers of patent medicines from making claims on their packaging and advertisements about the product’s effectiveness that were not necessarily true. That meant that Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound could no longer be advertised as treating problems like prolapsed uterus, uterine ulcers, or general female weaknesses. Nonetheless, the compound continued receive positive testimonials and sell successfully.

In 1968, Mrs. Lydia Pinkham’s Medicine Company was sold to Cooper Laboratories headquartered in Pleasanton, California. Into the first decades of the twenty-first century, pills and liquids based off Pinkham’s original vegetable compound recipe were available in pharmacies and do not contain alcohol.

source: w/references
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Hypophosphite

noun hy·​po·​phos·​phite
Medical Definition of hypophosphite
: a salt of hypophosphorous acid
especially : one (as the sodium salt) used as a source of assimilable phosphorus

source: Merriam-Webster

Fellows’ Compound Syrup of Hypophosphites
Fellows Co., New York

Old Main Artifact Posted on June 26, 2014 by Jessica

FellowsHypophosphites-aBottle embossed: “Fellow’s Compound Syrup”

Fellows’ Compound Syrup of Hypophosphites was widely marketed to physicians, not consumers, as a remedy for many illnesses. It was a commercial success, even though it contained strychnine, a potent poison, and likely made its customers sicker.

Fellows Compound Syrup of Hypophosphites was invented by James Fellows who worked with his father as drug merchants in St John, New Brunswick, Canada.

According to blogger Mary Fran Stotler, “James along with his father were listed as drug merchants in St John in 1850. He worked in his chemist’s shop at 56 Germain Street in St John. Together they established “Fellows & Company” producing household remedies such as Fellows’ Worm Lozenges, Fellows’ Speedy Relief, Fellows’ Dyspepsia Bitters, Fellows’ Golden Ointment, Fellows’ Leemings’ Essence and Fellows’ Balsam Liverwort & Colts Foot. It was here that James developed his formula for the well known, “Fellows Compound Syrup of Hypophosphites.” Patented and internationally recognized as an effective remedy, it is listed in many medical books of the period as “an excellent recuperative tonic”. An advertisement found in International Clinics Quarterly, Vol 3 dated 1905, Fellows Syrup was used “in the treatment of anemia, neurasthenia, bronchitis, influenza, pulmonary tuberculosis and wasting diseases of childhood, and during convalescence from exhausting diseases.” In the ad, there is a reference to the ingredient Strychnine, which is an exceptionally bitter tasting and extremely powerful poison. It acts on the central nervous system, causing powerful convulsions. It was used in some medications in the late 1800’s. In an article in the Canadian Illustrated News dated December 16, 1871 , it mentions that James himself had been a victim of “secondary stage”, pulmonary consumption and use of his own preparation had cured him. Following the death of his father, James moved to London, England where he lived with his family. From there, through a judicious system of advertising and an energetic method of doing business, he established a most flourishing and lucrative business in the sales of his Syrup of Hypophosphites. He returned to St. John on several occasions, renewing old acquaintances. But his failing health made him an invalid and he died in 1889. The St John Globe records him as a man of fine presence, affable and courteous and of a most friendly disposition. ”

This passage in Mary Fran Stotler’s blog also appears on a genealogy page but no direct sources are cited, other than the mentioned articles, and other records about James Fellows’ life seem to be unavailable.

Interestingly, the sentence from the above passage “Patented and internationally recognized as an effective remedy, it is listed in many medical books of the period as “an excellent recuperative tonic” is misleading. While it may have appeared in many medical books, this is by no means a guarantee of it being an “effective remedy”. Many dishonest purveyors of ineffective or harmful concoctions (aka nostrums) routinely published their own advertisements and favorable articles in medical journals to misinform doctors as well as patients.

According to James Harvey Young, author of The Medical Messiahs: A Social History of Health Quackery in Twentieth-Century America, “Being the chameleon-like creature that it is, quackery continued growing during the late 19th century by taking advantage of orthodox medicine’s promising prospects as well as its persisting weaknesses. For one thing nostrum makers began to simulate the methods by which medical and pharmaceutical science kept the profession informed of new developments, turning the doctors themselves into unwitting allies in the campaign to reach the public. Articles were planted in medical periodicals reporting exciting therapeutic advances. The names of the new remedies had a scientific lilt, and complex (if nonsensical) formulas were revealed. Reprints were mailed to doctors, who soon were visited by detailmen, talking as knowingly as did the agents of reputable pharmaceutical manufacturers. The truth was, however, that the first prescription which a doctor wrote for products like Fellows’ Syrup of Hypophosphites was apt to be the last. When the sufferer looked at the printing on the carton and the pamphlets packed within it, he found enough medical advice in vigorous, down-to-earth, and frightening prose to let him dispense with a doctor. As late as 1915 Fellows’ proprietary syrup was still being promoted exclusively to physicians, with not a cent spent on direct advertising to the consumer, but 90 per cent of its sales were over the counter without a prescription.”

continued: with more info and advertising
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Hill’s Cascara Quinine Cold Tablets


source: The Smithsonian National Museum of American History

Whitehall Pharmacal Company
Patent Medicines; Drugs; Non-Liquid

The indications or uses for this product as provided by the manufacturer are: Recommended for the relief of the following discomforts usually associated with colds: nasal stuffiness and discharge, headache, muscular aches and pains, neuralgia and neuritic pains, constipation, and that hot, flushed feeling.

Physical Description
acetophenetidin, 2 grs. per tablet (drug active ingredients)
cascara sagrada (drug active ingredients)
quinine sulfate (drug active ingredients)
aloin (drug active ingredients)
aspirin (drug active ingredients)
ephedrine sulfate (drug active ingredients)

source: The Smithsonian National Museum of American History
— —

Cascara Sagrada

Rhamnus purshiana. Family: Rhamnaceae

Cascara sagrada was first used by the American Indians. It means “sacred bark.” It’s made from the bark of a tree found in the northwestern U.S.

The bark contains anthraquinone glycosides. This acts as a cathartic or laxative. Cascara may help relieve constipation. But in 2002, the FDA marked laxatives that contain cascara sagrada as category II agents. This means they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for over-the-counter use. Manufacturers had not done the studies to show the safety of cascara sagrada.

excerpted from: University of Rochester Medical Center Health Encyclopedia
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Smearing the Mustard on the Skin

By Roger M. Grace Thursday, March 3, 2005 Metropolitan News-Enterprise

Etched on a clay tablet in cuneiform (picture writing) is this medical advice from ancient Sumer (now Southern Iraq):

“Sift and knead together, all in one turtle-shell, the sprouting naga plant and mustard; wash the sick spot with quality beer and hot water; scrub the sick spot with all of the kneaded mixture.”

Dated at around 2100 B.C., the tablet is said to contain the world’s oldest known prescription.

Through the succeeding centuries, mustard came to be utilized for medicinal purposes in a variety of forms. Among them were mustard plasters, mustard poultices, and mustard baths, already discussed here. Add to the list mustard-based liniment (liquid or semi-liquid applied to the skin to relieve pain or as a counterirritant), mustard salve (greasy gook applied to sores and wounds) and mustard ointment (salve spread on the skin).

Such mustard-based agents were used by the Greeks and Romans to counteract a variety of maladies. They were employed by American Indians to treat rheumatism. Mustard-based preparations were marketed in Europe and were imported by colonists in the New World.

Makers of mustard-based preparations ascribed versatility to their products. An ad in the Edinburgh (Scotland) Weekly Journal on June 3, 1801, for example, represented that Whitehead’s Essence of Mustard “has frequently succeeded in curing the most desperate Cases of Rheumatism, Rheumatic Gout, Lumbago, Sciatica, Headach, Numbness, Palsy, and Complaints of the Stomach, after the best advice and every other Medicine has failed.” …

Bufferin, introduced Nov. 7, 1949, was touted as an advancement over regular aspirin because its buffering agents precluded stomach upset. Likewise, rub-on compounds containing mustard and buffering ingredients were heralded four decades or so earlier as modern replacements for mustard plasters because they eliminated blistering.

Taking major credit for buffered mustard was a New Yorker. Typical of his ads was one in the March 26, 1910 edition of the Newark (N.J.) Advocate which said:

“The man who put mustard plasters out of business had to invent something better, for mustard plasters have been used for aches, pains and other afflictions for scores of years and have given relief to millions.

“But when J. A. Begy, the well known chemist, of Rochester, N.Y. compounded, after years of experiment, a preparation which he named Begy’s Mustarine, he gave to the world something so much quicker in action than mustard plasters, that medical authorities recognized its supremacy at once.” …

Mustard-based products intended for external use are on the market in the U.S. yet today, billed as “natural” remedies.

excerpted from: Copyright 2005, Metropolitan News Company
— — — —

Johnson & Johnson 1900 Mustard Plaster

MustardPlaster-a———————-

Footnotes

Footnote 1

The State of Science, Microbiology, and Vaccines Circa 1918

John M. Eyler, PhD

Epidemiological Studies

… Perhaps the most interesting epidemiological studies conducted during the 1918–1919 pandemic were the human experiments conducted by the Public Health Service and the U.S. Navy under the supervision of Milton Rosenau on Gallops Island, the quarantine station in Boston Harbor, and on Angel Island, its counterpart in San Francisco. The experiment began with 100 volunteers from the Navy who had no history of influenza. Rosenau was the first to report on the experiments conducted at Gallops Island in November and December 1918. His first volunteers received first one strain and then several strains of Pfeiffer’s bacillus by spray and swab into their noses and throats and then into their eyes. When that procedure failed to produce disease, others were inoculated with mixtures of other organisms isolated from the throats and noses of influenza patients. Next, some volunteers received injections of blood from influenza patients. Finally, 13 of the volunteers were taken into an influenza ward and exposed to 10 influenza patients each. Each volunteer was to shake hands with each patient, to talk with him at close range, and to permit him to cough directly into his face. None of the volunteers in these experiments developed influenza. Rosenau was clearly puzzled, and he cautioned against drawing conclusions from negative results. He ended his article in JAMA with a telling acknowledgement: “We entered the outbreak with a notion that we knew the cause of the disease, and were quite sure we knew how it was transmitted from person to person. Perhaps, if we have learned anything, it is that we are not quite sure what we know about the disease.”

The research conducted at Angel Island and that continued in early 1919 in Boston broadened this research by inoculating with the Mathers streptococcus and by including a search for filter-passing agents, but it produced similar negative results. It seemed that what was acknowledged to be one of the most contagious of communicable diseases could not be transferred under experimental conditions.

excerpted from:
— — — —

see also:

“The Most Terrifying Experience”: The U.S. Navy and the Pandemic of 1918

1918NavalHospitalMississippi-aNaval Training Camp Gulfport, Mississippi. Interior of isolation ward, naval hospital during influenza epidemic. (NH 116532)

… The 1918 influenza pandemic was a wartime plague, and it is impossible to understand apart from its context in the midst of the Great War. Indeed, even its (incorrect) name, the Spanish flu, was a product of the war; since Spain was neutral, the Spanish government was among the few that did not censor the alarming reports of the disease ravaging its population, leading to a false impression that it had struck Spain particularly hard.[3] The war made the severity of the pandemic possible, crowding people together in severely congested camps and trenches, moving the infected from one population center to another in mass numbers, placing thousands of people who had never travelled more than a few miles from home in unfamiliar disease environments, and hampering even the most basic of procedures for containing its spread.

At the forefront of the United States’ participation in the war effort, the Navy stands out among American institutions for the severity of its suffering during the pandemic. Indeed, one historian refers to the early weeks of the outbreak as “largely a naval affair.”[4] Naval personnel, crowded on ships and in navy yards, were prime targets for the disease. Those in the theater of combat in Europe were likewise among its victims, and the strains of warfare overshadowed all efforts to combat the virus. Yet the Navy was also at the forefront of the fight against influenza. Navy nurses and doctors put their own lives at risk to treat personnel and civilians alike. Naval officers took the lead in cities across America to bring the pandemic under control. And the Navy’s scientific minds played a key role in researching the virus and seeking a cure. They were not always successful, but their efforts made the pandemic less disastrous than it otherwise would have been, and their endurance through often nightmarish circumstances was every bit as creditable to the ideals of the service as those waging war against Germany. This is their story.

continued: Naval History and Heritage Command
— — — —

see also:

The U.S. Military and the Influenza Pandemic of 1918–1919

Carol R. Byerly, PhD National Library of Medicine

Synopsis

The American military experience in World War I and the influenza pandemic were closely intertwined. The war fostered influenza in the crowded conditions of military camps in the United States and in the trenches of the Western Front in Europe. The virus traveled with military personnel from camp to camp and across the Atlantic, and at the height of the American military involvement in the war, September through November 1918, influenza and pneumonia sickened 20% to 40% of U.S. Army and Navy personnel. These high morbidity rates interfered with induction and training schedules in the United States and rendered hundreds of thousands of military personnel non-effective. During the American Expeditionary Forces’ campaign at Meuse-Argonne, the epidemic diverted urgently needed resources from combat support to transporting and caring for the sick and the dead. Influenza and pneumonia killed more American soldiers and sailors during the war than did enemy weapons.

continued:
— — — — — — — — — —

Footnote 2

Edzard Ernst Tackles Chiropractic

Review Oct 25, 2020 Harriet A. Hall, MD

Edzard Ernst’s new book is a handy, comprehensive reference for all things chiropractic.

Edzard Ernst’s prolific output continues. In his latest book Chiropractic: “Not All That It’s Cracked Up to Be” he takes on one of the most popular SCAMS (So-Called Alternative Medicines). It is an even-handed review of the history and claims of chiropractic, examining the totality of the published evidence. He addresses what he sees as “a scandalous amount of misinformation”, and tries to set the record straight. Rather than advising against chiropractic, he asks readers to make up their own minds and make reasonable decisions based on the evidence.

The book begins with this quotation from Fontanarosa and Lundberg:

“There is no alternative medicine. There is only scientifically proven, evidence-based medicine supported by solid data or unproven medicine, for which scientific evidence is lacking.”

He starts by describing the origin and early history of chiropractic, providing many details that were new to me.

D. D. Palmer claimed to have invented it on September 18, 1895, when he adjusted the spine of deaf janitor Harvey Lillard and allegedly restored his hearing. He then extrapolated to conclude that 95% of illness was a result of displaced spinal vertebrae interfering with nerve function (the other 5% was due to subluxations of other bones). Elsewhere he claimed to have obtained his chiropractic knowledge during a séance from the ghost of a doctor. He later tried to claim that chiropractic was a religion, in an attempt to evade charges of practicing medicine without a license.

Palmer was anti-science. He claimed that smallpox was not a contagious disease but was caused by subluxations that could be corrected. …

continued:
———————

Further Reading

Bloodletting and gas fumes: Quack treatments of the 1918 flu

By Kristen Rogers, October 17, 2020

… In the face of threat by a new infectious disease, people become desperate, said Dr. Jeremy Brown, an emergency care physician and author of “Influenza: The Hundred-Year Hunt to Cure the Deadliest Disease in History.”

That desperation and a similar threat were what made people living during the 1918 flu pandemic — which killed 50 million to 100 million people worldwide — flock to dangerous quack treatments like moths to flames. That included doctors.

Although conventional doctors had just recently gained more respect than alternative practitioners by the early 20th century, mainstream doctors still “had almost nothing to offer” for the flu said Laura Spinney, a science journalist and author of “Pale Rider: The Spanish Flu of 1918 and How It Changed the World.”

Since they thought the 1918 flu was a bacterial disease instead of a virus, their knowledge and treatment efforts fell short, she said.

“Through the course of the pandemic, you see people gradually turning away from conventional medicine as they realize it can’t help and turning to the alternatives, folk medicines, quack cures and so on,” Spinney said. “Which, of course, until very recently (in the early 20th century), had been equally respectable and equally accessible.”

Doctors also “really had no concept of when a medicine becomes a poison — how medicines interact with human tissues and what the right dosing is,” Spinney added. Those questions are what “we ask in our clinical trials these days that cost so much, take so long and try to measure safety and efficacy.”

… “One of the interesting things you see in 1918 is that trust broken down because people saw that their doctors were hopeless. And so they, seeking to control the symptoms, turned to alternative systems which they felt could offer more hope, more effective treatments at that point,” she added.

… Devastation, desperation and an inexperienced, unregulated medical field constituted a petri dish for numerous unproven — and sometimes barbaric — treatments.

Aspirin out of control

Aspirin, made from the bark of willow trees, had been used to treat pain for millennia. Since aspirin was known for reducing fevers, too, the drug became the international first-line treatment for flu — sometimes administered in doses six times higher than what is now known to be safe, Brown said.

The problem was misunderstanding that aspirin has a “narrow therapeutic window, meaning if you give too little it doesn’t work (but if) you give too much, it can cause some very, very dangerous conditions.” They include “sweating, ringing in the ears, rapid breathing and then brain swelling and coma, convulsions and death,” Brown said.

Given the exorbitant doses and fatal side effects, many flu deaths may have been from aspirin overdoses rather than just the virus itself, some studies have suggested.

However, some countries with death tolls in the millions — such as India — didn’t have easy access to aspirin — so it probably didn’t have a major impact on the global death toll, according to one study, Spinney said.

Antimalarial drugs

Quinine, another centuries-old drug from cinchona bark, has been used mainly for treating malaria, caused by infection with the parasite Plasmodium. Like the flu, a symptom of malaria is fever.

“If you have malaria, you give somebody quinine, you attack the parasite,” Brown said. “If you don’t understand that the fever goes away because the parasite is killed by the quinine, you miss out that little step and say the fever went away because the quinine, so quinine must be good for all fevers.”

Quinine wasn’t toxic to the flu virus since the infective agent that caused flu — a virus — differed from the infective agent that induces malaria — a parasite. That modern medicine will test therapies for similar symptoms is reasonable and common, Brown said. “The problem is if you just take a drug used for one condition and you’re not testing it to see if it improves a second condition, but you’re just simply giving it on the belief that it must, should or will,” he added.

Drain their blood, rid their disease

For more than 2,500 years, medical practitioners had surgically removed blood from patients to blindly treat disease. Partly based on the Greek philosophy of four humors — black bile, phlegm, yellow bile and blood — as the basis of emotions, temperament and health, bloodletting was believed to remedy disease caused by imbalanced humors.

“Some people were hooked on to the belief that even if you were well, having some blood removed was sort of a good preventative measure, like, perhaps today, we might take some vitamins or go on a jog,” Brown said.

In the 19th century, doctors used bloodletting to treat fevers, headaches and difficulty breathing. In 1918, “having observed that some patients seemed to take a turn for the better following a gushing nosebleed, menstruation, even — traumatically — miscarriage,” Spinney wrote in her book, “some revived the ancient practice of bloodletting.”

The trust in and respect for this historical method meant that many practitioners, including top-tier military doctors, swore by bloodletting after others considered it useless.

Gas fumes for symptoms

Some British parents took their sick children to the local gasworks to sit and inhale fumes to reduce their flu symptoms.

A sanitary worker who went to investigate this claim “saw that there was indeed a relationship that while a lot of people were dying of influenza in the local area, at these gasworks where people were working, their influenza rate was much, much lower than the general population,” Brown said. “This led people to this observation that inhaling the chlorine gas would be good for you.”

Though chlorine is an effective disinfectant that, in high doses, can kill bacteria and viruses, it is also poisonous. Why parents started taking their kids to gasworks before their ideas were substantiated might have started with growing rumors, Brown said.

“Evacuating the bad stuff out of the patient” was the mindset of doctors who treated their patients’ fevers with castor oil, enemas and laxatives made from magnesia or mercury chloride, Brown said.

Laxatives, enemas and castor oil

“There was this belief that an enema would be good for you regardless, really, of what your specific disease was,” he added. “We have medical textbooks that were published as late as 1913 (or) 1914, in which laxatives were recommended as a treatment for the fevers that accompanied influenza.”

Expelling evil spirits and elements

Since Western medicine hadn’t yet fully spread through Eastern countries such as China and India, some relied on their ancient, traditional forms of healing.

“Witch doctors in the hills of India moulded human figures out of flour and water and waved them over the sick to lure out the evil spirits,” Spinney wrote in her book. “In China, besides parading the figures of dragon kings through their towns, people went to public baths to sweat out the evil winds, smoked opium and took yin qiao san — a powdered mix of honeysuckle and forsythia that had been developed under the Qing (dynasty) for ‘winter sickness.’”

Generations of local cultures and traditions shaped the remedies people sought to alleviate their symptoms. “Human beings, in general, need to feel a sense of control over whatever is afflicting them. That’s just a perennial truth,” Spinney said.

excerpted from:
— — — — — — — — — —

The American Influenza Epidemic of 1918–1919:

A Digital Encyclopedia Largest digital collection of newspapers, archival manuscripts and interpretive essays exploring the impact of the epidemic on 50 U.S. cities (Univ. of Michigan).

An estimated 650,000 Americans lost their lives to the infamous and tragic 1918-1919 influenza epidemic, a small but significant fraction of the approximately 50 million deaths the disease caused worldwide. Countless more were left without parents, children, friends, and loved ones. Communities across the country did what they could to stem the rising tide of illness and death, closing their schools, churches, theaters, shops and saloons. Doctors, nurses, and volunteers gave their time – and, occasionally, their lives – to care for the ill.

These pages contain the stories of the places, the people, and the organizations that battled the American influenza epidemic of 1918-1919.

“They are placed on the cots until every bed is full and yet others crowd in. The faces soon wear a bluish cast; a distressing cough brings up the blood stained sputum. In the morning the dead bodies are stacked about the morgue like cord wood.”
— Victor Vaughan, A Doctor’s Memorie

link:
— — — — — — — — — —

Before Vaccines, Doctors ‘Borrowed’ Antibodies from Recovered Patients to Save Lives

Doctors first tried injecting patients with blood plasma in the early 1900s. The method has been used against diphtheria, the 1918 flu pandemic, measles and Ebola.

Dave Roos Updated: Apr 1, 2020 Original: Mar 30, 2020


Nobel Prize winning German bacteriologist and physiologist Emil Adolf von Behring, right, uses a syringe to inject a guinea pig held by lab assistant, circa 1890. Stock Montage/Getty Images

link: History.com
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