Category Archives: Weekly History

Idaho History June 19, 2022

Mining History of Yellow Pine, Stibnite and Cinnabar

(Part 1 Yellow Pine)

A Historical Summary And Cultural Resource Study Of Yellow Pine, Stibnite, and Cinnabar, Valley County, Idaho, Stibnite Mining Project

Prepared By Arthur A. Hart, Director Idaho State Historical Society 1979 Chapter 2

Introduction

During the 1979 summer season an intensive literature review, interviews, and field reconnaissance were performed by this investigator under a subcontract with James M. Montgomery, Consulting Engineers, Inc. (JMM) as a subelement of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Stibnite Mining Project Gold Mine and Mill. The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was prepared by JMM under a “third party” agreement between the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Payette National Forest, and Canadian Superior Mining (U.S) Ltd.

The report prepared by this investigator is intended to serve as a support document to the DEIS, and be utilized by JMM to meet the requirements of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 and Executive Order 11593. These directives require that federal agencies consider the effects of federal, federal-assisted, and federally licensed projects on properties included or eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places. The regulations also require that the Advisory Council of Historic Preservation be offered the opportunity to comment on such undertakings. Approval of a cultural resources assessment which includes a historical and archaeological resources evaluation by the Agency Official (Forest Service) and State Historic Preservation Officer is also required.

Information from this report was used by JMM in preparing the DEIS. The results will also be incorporated into the Operating Plan which is currently being developed by JMM. This will ensure that adequate mitigation is implemented where potential adverse effects are determined so that historical/cultural resources are adequately protected.

Methodology

Historic cultural resources in the Stibnite area were inventoried and studied using the following procedures:

1. All available literature on the history of mining in the Stibnite area was searched and studied. Sources used (and cited in the report) include:
a. H.D. Bailey, Stibnite 1978.
b. The Engineering and Mining Journal 1903
c. Prospectus of the Golden Gate Mine 1902
d. The Stibnite Miner 1942-45
e. U.S. Geological Surveys Reports 1921-50
f. Idaho State Mine Inspector’s Reports 1921-50
g. Other serials used included The Idaho County Free Press, Saturday Evening Post, Idaho Power Company Bulletin.

2. Photographs in the collection of the Idaho State Historical Society were used for descriptions of structures no longer extant. Private collections of photographs, including those of Hubert Martin and Ernest Oberbillig were also of great value in reconstructing early Meadow Creek Mine, Yellow Pine Mine, Cinnabar, and the town of Yellow Pine, as well as Stibnite itself at various stages of its development.

3. Field work included on-site inspection of every extant structure known to the most experienced and knowledgeable residents:
a. Ernest E. Oberbillig, whose father J.J. Oberbillig pioneered the claims in the area, personally conducted the author over every road and jeep trail shown on U.S.G.S. maps of the area, and over a number not shown. Oberbillig, whose resume is attached, has known the area for more than 50 years. He personally built a number of the roads in the area.
b. Warren Campbell, Roy Smith, and E. Fay Kissinger also supplied information and suggestions on sites to be investigated.
c. Aerial inspection of the area was made with Oberbillig and pilot Ray Arnold of Cascade, Idaho.

4. Oral history was collected from a number of informants who had known the area in its early days and especially during the 1940’s boom period. Five hours of tapes were made from interviews with Ernest Oberbillig and Hubert Martin. These tapes are on file at the Idaho Historical Society.

5. Documentation of sites and structures was made on film. About 750 existing photographs are on file at the Idaho State Historical Society, in addition to those included in the report.

6. Maps dating from 1902 until the present were studied to establish early trails and wagon roads, mine locations, and sites of structures.

7. Special attention was focused on areas which might be impacted by proposed mining activities in the area. These were found to be minor, but are discussed in the recommendations following the Stibnite section of the report.

History Of Yellow Pine, Idaho

The town of Yellow Pine takes its name from Yellow Pine Basin, a sheltered mountain valley above the junction of Johnson Creek and the East Fork of the South Fork of Salmon River, about 50 miles northeast of Cascade, Idaho. Boulder Creek and Quartz Creek enter the East Fork at the eastern end of the valley. The average elevation of the townsite is about 4750 feet above sea level. The area of gently sloping ground upon which the original town is located comprises about 40 acres; later additions are northeast on higher ground.

Yellow Pine Basin was known and named long before a town was located there. Prospectors, who covered nearly every square mile of the central Idaho mountains after gold was discovered in the north on Orofino Creek in 1860, were no doubt struck by the impressive stand of giant virgin Ponderosa pines in the sheltered basin.

An interesting early reference in print to Yellow Pine Basin appeared in the Idaho County Free Press of Grangeville on July 30, 1886. Norman B. Willey, a pioneer miner and legislator who would become Idaho’s second state governor in 1890, wrote from Warrens on July 20, 1886:

“A report has been in circulation this spring of the discovery of rich placer mines on some unknown tributary of the South Fork. Many parties went in, some over the snow from the south and west in search of it, but without avail so far as is known. Two men were caught in there by the approaching winter and managed to survive till spring losing their horses. One fell sick and his partner made his way out over the crust to the Basin after medicine and grub, having $700 in dust in his possession. Of course he had made it by some fortunate strike. He left notices in various places stating the facts and location of his sick pard. But his pard did not die. He entrapped various unwary squirrels and fool hens and got about again. In due time the other one returned, and they both left, supposably for supplies and equipments. Undoubtedly there must be very rich mines in that section. P.S. It appears that they had $700 apiece making $1400 for the little work they did. Since writing the foregoing I am reliably informed that the two men rocked all winter near the forks of the east branch of the South Fork and took out altogether twenty-seven dollars. How are the mighty fallen! N.B.W.”

A month later the Free Press commented on Willey’s letter editorially, condemning “the Yellow Pine Humbug,” and some other newspapers which were still “booming the fraud as though they honestly believed in the reports they are circulating.” It said it would “burn the pants off anything or anybody that tries to beat its way into prominence under false pretenses.” 1

Real mineral developments of importance in the area of Yellow Pine were still years away when the item quoted above was written, but the incident had results of another sort. A mining engineer named George C. Catlin wrote and published a novel called “Yellow Pine Basin, the Story of a Prospector.” Catlin’s book was copyrighted in 1897 and published in Boston by Small, Maynard and Company in 1898. It was obviously based upon his own experiences and on the “Yellow Pine humbug” described in Willey’s letter. Its historical value is in the way it depicts the life of two prospectors in Yellow Pine Basin. Descriptions of topography, flora and fauna are too accurate for us not to believe that Catlin knew first-hand the country he wrote about. His description of Placerville, Idaho is another authentic note which suggests strongly that the author had been there. Since mining engineer Catlin had also served in the Civil War, the stories of the war worked into his narrative are also probably autobiographical. 2

Catlin’s novel deals with the adventures of two prospectors working in Yellow Pine Basin, Idaho in 1881 and 1882. Bud, a young man, learns the prospector’s trade from Zeb, a hardy old-timer with experience in California, the Fraser River of British Columbia, and in Montana, Arizona, Nevada and Mexico.

In long evenings over the campfire, or before the fireplace in the winter cabin they build, Zeb tells Bud about his adventures in prospecting, mining, and the Civil War. (All subjects the author knew first hand). The two work hard and strike it rich before Zeb is seriously injured and Bud decides to risk the journey alone to the nearest settlement in search of a doctor. Through deep snow and bitter cold, he finds his way to Placerville, in Boise Basin, more than 80 miles south. The townspeople are helpful and sympathetic. However, the doctor, whom Bud had counted on taking back with him, is too frail for the tough journey on snowshoes. Bud returns alone, after men from Placerville help him part of the way. He find Zeb dead, and a touching farewell note. The balance of the novel deals with Bud’s return east with a fortune in gold and his later adventures outside Idaho.

In 1897, the year Catlin wrote his novel about Yellow Pine Basin, news got out that the Caswell brothers had made a rich gold discovery at Thunder Mountain 20 miles to the east. By 1902 thousands of miners and prospectors had flooded the region. This influx indirectly led to the establishment of a permanent settlement at Yellow Pine. It was a sheltered spot, relatively milder in winter than the high country around, and at the crossroads of trails from Warrens, Pen Basin on upper Johnson Creek, and placer locations on the South Fork of Salmon River. 3

As was usually the case, prospectors who had no luck at the main strike fanned out over the surrounding country to try their luck. Golden Gate mine was located in 1902 on the ridge east of Johnson Creek just above the Basin. 4 This and other claims in the area led to the establishment of a general store and unofficial post office at Yellow Pine by A.C. Behne, traditionally regarded as the first settler and long called “Mr. Yellow Pine.” 5

Production of gold near Yellow Pine was negligible because of the difficulty of getting it out economically. Although John Oberbillig, a pioneer miner in the area, credited a Mr. Baker with the first discovery of antimony at an early date, 6 it would be years before there was much interest in this strategic metal, or before it could be produced economically. It was not until after 1927 that the Bradley operation at Stibnite, 14 miles from Yellow Pine, gave the smaller place some importance as well.

Mining continued on a small scale on a number of claims in the Yellow Pine area after Thunder Mountain declined. Pringle Smith and Albert Hennessy were pioneer miners who did annual assessment work on several claims from 1902 onward. Smith located the Cinnabar float with rich quicksilver possibilities, and in World War I the military need for mercury used in shell primers led to some small development and production. 7 The fuller development of Cinnabar had to await World War II, however, when it became profitable to greatly enlarge production there.

During all of this time Yellow Pine remained a small supply center and wintering place. A post office was officially established at Behne’s store, and a few new buildings were put up using sawn lumber. Photos of the World War I era show mostly log cabins.

The builders of mountain cabins in the Yellow Pine area used the largest logs they could handle. Figure 2-1 shows examples of these log structures. Lodgepole pine was plentiful and easy to work, but the thicker walls possible when Ponderosa pine was used reduced the amount of chinking needed and produced a better insulated structure, especially important in the sub-zero winters typical of that vicinity. 8 Several sawmills operated in Yellow Pine Basin, and from about 1918 on nearly all of the local buildings were made of lumber rather than logs.

Figure 2-1
Figure2-1Examples of pre-1920 built log structures in the town of Yellow Pine.
[*Note: this is a photo of the 2nd School in Yellow Pine which was built in 1922.]

Yellow Pine, Idaho Today

A curious feature of the present architecture of Yellow Pine is the large number of buildings which have been moved there from Stibnite. When the big war-time development was abandoned in the 1950’s, the town of Stibnite was dismantled. Although many structures were torn down for the materials in them, most of the houses were moved out by truck. Today perhaps a quarter of Yellow Pine is made up of Stibnite houses built between 1940 and 1945, and moved in the 1960’s. 9

One house was moved to Yellow Pine from Big Creek — a bungalow of 1924 now owned by Roy Smith. 10 Although there are a number of other buildings surviving from the 1920s, there is only one of unusual architectural quality. This is the log house-hotel on the hill to the east which dates from 1925-26. 11 An inventory of the architecturally or historically interesting buildings of Yellow Pine follows, keyed to the map shown on Figure 2-2. The original 1930 plat of the townsite is also shown on Figure 2-3.

Figure 2-2
Figure2-2Selected Architectural Inventory of Yellow Pine, Idaho.
[*Note: See document for larger size.]

Figure 2-3
Figure2-3Initial Plat of the Town of Yellow Pine, Idaho, November 16, 1930.
[*Note: See document for larger size.]

Recommendations On Potential Significance For Yellow Pine

The potential historical significance of Yellow Pine is derived from its role as a supply and social center for miners in the area following the 1902 rush to Thunder Mountain. Not until World War I was there enough activity to create a cluster of log buildings recognizable as a settlement in Yellow Pine Basin. It was 1930 before a plat was filed by Albert C. Behne. Greater accessibility of Yellow Pine by automobiles led to the establishment of a lodge, tourist park, and taverns in the 1930’s, even before the World War II boom at Stibnite. Elk hunters and fishermen came regularly to Yellow Pine, expanding a local economy basically dependent on the Bradley operation at Meadow Creek and Monday Camp.

Although some bootlegging had been done before 1932, the repeal of prohibition made taverns an important local attraction. Like mining camps on the Idaho frontier of an earlier day, Yellow Pine has always had more taverns than any other kind of business. Social life centers in them, although there is strong loyalty and participation by adults in the operation of the one room school.

Architecturally, the potential historical significance of Yellow Pine primarily associated with the Stibnite houses moved in after that town was dismantled. Yellow Pine is a potential historic district, but will not be clearly eligible for the National Register until the majority of its structures are 50 years old.

Proposed mining developments at Stibnite would not appear to have a significant impact at Yellow Pine, unless the decision is made to house employees there instead of at the Stibnite site. At present, the company (CSM) is not planning to house a major portion of the mine work force at Yellow Pine. The company is, however, negotiating with a local land owner for a small parcel of vacant land (approximately two acres) northeast of the townsite. Several pre-fabricated housing units would be located on the parcel if arrangements can be finalized. These units would house CSM administrative personnel. Growth at Yellow Pine will undoubtedly take place in any case, continuing the process by which living towns gradually change character in many ways. Increased summer/winter second home development is expected to occur regardless of whether the proposed Stibnite Mining Project is implemented.

Suggested Considerations For Mitigation Of Potential Impacts

The study of Yellow Pine history and architecture contained here should be continued. The Idaho State Historical Society and Long Valley Historical Society should be encouraged to record the life and times of this interesting community. Recommendations for mitigating potentially adverse effects on identified historical resources should be developed as elements of the EIS and the Cultural Resources Assessment, and submitted to the Forest Service Officer and State Historic Preservation Officer in compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act and Executive Order 11593. A specific mitigation plan (if determined necessary) should then be developed for incorporation in the Operation Plan prior to approval of the project.

Notes on Yellow Pine

1. Idaho County Free Press (Grangeville, Idaho, 20 August, 1886) p.l.
2. Who Was Who in America (Chicago: Marquis-Who’s Who Inc. 1968). Volume IV, p. 162
3. The Engineering and Mining Journal (28 March, 1903), map p. 478.
4. Prospectus of the Golden Gate Mine (Boise, Idaho, 27 December, 1902), Original in Huntington Library.
5. Albert C. Behne and H.T. Abstein homesteaded at Yellow Pine before World War I. The townsite is on Behne’s original property, and was platted by him in 1930. (See page 14 of this report.)
6. J.J. OberIDillig, letter to the editor, The Stibnite Miner (Stibnite, Idaho 28 October 1942) p.l.
7. Esper S. Larsen and D.C. Livingston. Geology of the Yellow Pine Cinnabar Mining District, Idaho. United states Geological Survey, Bulletin 715 (Washington, D.C., 1921) p. 80.
8. Ernest Oberbillig, interview with the author 10 September 1979, (tape on deposit, Idaho Oral History Center, Idaho State Historical Society) Oberbillig’s father, J.J. Oberbillig, built several cabins in the area in the 1920s.
9. Warren Campbell, interview with the author, 27 November 1979. Ibd. Campbell moved the Stibnite houses. (See more in Stibnite chapter.)
10. Roy Smith, interview with the author, 9 November 1979. Ibid.
11. E. Fay Kissinger, interview with the author, 20 November 1979. Ibid. Kissinger was in Yellow Pine in the 1920s. He built a number of the buildings and ran a sawmill there later.

(To be continued – Part 2 Stibnite)

source: AHGP – Valley County Idaho
[h/t SMc]
— —

Full Text: A Historical Summary and Cultural Resource Study Of Yellow Pine Stibnite and Cinnabar Valley County Idaho Stibnite Mining Project.pdf
— — — — — — — — — —

Photos

Yellow Pine Hotel

OldYPHotelEarls-a

Now home of Donna Earl Valdez. At one time a hotel in Yellow Pine. Lee Earl collection.

courtesy: Alyce Ruth Milstead
— — — —

Yellow Pine Mid-1970’s

Mid1970sYellowPine1-aHeading to Yellow Pine
source:

Mid1970sYellowPine2-aYellow Pine
source:

Captioned: “Going to “town” for a night of partying.”

source: Carol and Jim photo album – “My summer in Stibnite salvaging barn wood in the mid 1970’s.” photo collection:
—————-

Further Reading

Link Yellow Pine School Part 1
Link Yellow Pine History table of contents
Link Stibnite History table of contents
Link “Yellow Pine Basin: The Story of a Prospector” By Henry G. Catlin 1897 (entire book)
Link Idaho State Historical Society Mining Collection [photos]
——————–

Idaho History June 12, 2022

Thunder Mountain Gold Mining Prospectus 1902

Thunder Mountain Rush Part 8

Going to Thunder Mountain, Grangeville, Idaho 1899-1900

GoingThunderMtn1899-1900-Fritz

source: History of Idaho Mike Fritz Collection
— — — — — — — — — —

TMProspectus1Prospectus Of The Thunder Mountain Gold Mining Company.

Incorporated Under The Laws Of Arizona.
Capital Stock, $2,000,000.
Represented by 2,000,000 Shares of Common Stock, of a par value of $!.00 Each.
All stock when issued becomes absolutely full paid, and is not assessable for any purpose whatever.
This Company has no Bonds or Preferred Stock.
Holders of the Common Stock are exclusively entitled to all of the Company’s net earnings and surplus.

Directors.
Hon. H, C. Begole, State Senator, Belleville, Ill.
Hon. F. W. Hunt, Governor Of Idaho, Boise City, Idaho.
C . M. C. Harper, Banker And Manufacturer, Boston, Pa.
Dr. D. W. King, Physician, Joplin, Mo.
W. M. Lucas, Pres. Lucas Oil Well Drilling Co , Beaumont, Tex.
John A. Cragin, Cashier First National Bank, Joplin, Mo.
J. H. Schlund, Real Estate Dealer, Chicago, Ill.
Thomas Morgan, Manufacturer, Muncie, Ind.
A. A. Cass, Mine Owner, Cartervi!le, Mo.

Officers.
H. C. Begole, President.
Gov. F. W. Hunt, First Vice-president.
C. M. C. Harper, Second Vice President.
W. M. Lucas, Secretary.
John A. Cragin, Treasurer.

Western Office :
Boise City, Idaho.

Eastern Office :
The Company’s Authorized Agents,
J. E. Morhardt & Co,
Broad Exchange Bldg., New York. N. Y.

TMProspectus2Fortunes In Thunder Mountain Gold.
A Rare Opportunity.

The newly discovered gold fields of the Thunder Mountain district, in Idaho, offer opportunities to make money that have never before been equaled in the history of this country; and one of these opportunities is now extended by the Thunder Mountain Gold Mining Company to every reader of these lines.

It is conceded by all who have visited the district that it is the richest gold section in America, if not in the world. Not half of the Thunder Mountain story has yet been told. It is too big to tell. A full realization of the vastness and the unprecedented riches of this new field can be comprehended only by those who go into the heart of these gold laden mountains, and see for themselves.

TMP1Panning Gold on Thunder Mountain.

Experts frankly admit that they never before saw or even heard of a formation similar to the ore deposits of Thunder Mountain. They cannot account for it, and old time miners stand speechless in amazement when they see for the first time these vast ledges of rich, free milling ore, running here and there and everywhere, and stretching away for miles and miles; so very far, in fact, that the real limits of the district have not yet been established.

That is a picture, briefly drawn, of the greatest gold country yet discovered on this continent. But, after all, it should come as no surprise to mining people who are familiar with the past history of the production of gold in this singular State of Idaho; the State whose name, translated, means the “Gem of the Mountains.”

We desire our readers to grasp thoroughly the importance of the disclosures which follow, and to that end we present, briefly, some facts of record pertaining to Idaho’s past gold production. Our purpose is to give some idea of the inexhaustible nature of its mineral resources, a circumstance of much significance in considering the future of the new Thunder Mountain district.

It is estimated by statisticians having all existing records at hand that Idaho has produced more gold than the total production of both California and Colorado. The mines of the entire State of Colorado have produced to date something like $300,000,000. The mines of its most famous camp, Cripple Creek, yielded a total production up to January 1st, 1902, of $116,549,287. These figures are generally regarded as something gigantic, yet they are a mere bagatelle in comparison with the actual records of Idaho.

Boise Basin, of which Idaho City is the center, has alone produced from its placers, a strip of country fifteen miles wide by twenty-five miles long, over $300,000,000, and the section surrounding Elk City, which is admitted to be the richest placer mining district in the world, has produced over $400,000,000.

The Ebenezer mine yielded upwards of $300,000, working only 75 feet of ground; the Gambrinus more than $325,000; the Sub Rosa $260,000; and these properties, together with numerous others which might be mentioned, constitute an old camp, yet new ledges are found every little while. In fact, it is not half prospected, nor a hundredth part developed.

The mines of Elmore County, at Rocky Bar and Atlanta, according to the records of Wells, Fargo & Company’s Express· have produced more than $60,000,000. In the Custer country the Charles Dickens has a record of $4,000,000 before a stick of timber was used or a candle burned. The Montana, in Estes Mountain, paid $1,000 a foot while simply a common prospect shaft, and yielded in going 500 feet more than $400,000. The Custer mine has a record of $8,000,000. The Lucky Boy property has 15 feet of $25 free gold ore and has paid hundreds of thousands of dollars in dividends.

The De Lamar mine was sold to an English company for $2,500,000 after Captain De Lamar had taken several millions out of it. Since that time the property has paid in dividends to its English owners the amount of the purchase price, and for six years since that time has been operating “on velvet.” It has undoubtedly produced upwards of $10,000,000.

Up the Boise River from Boise City the placer grounds have all been located within the last few years. Old timers had passed over them day after day without observing their value, and they were eventually found to be rich in gold by some “tenderfoot” who was laughed at by those who “knew it all” when he commenced prospecting in land that was supposed to be barren. And since then these same properties have been worked with enormous profit. One company in this district recently spent approximately $200,000 in opening their ground, and then struck an old river channel up the side of the mountain or slope, that out-rivals Klondike, values averaging as high as $15 per cubic yard.

The Sheep Mountain country contains what are probably the largest and richest silver mines in the West. The Bull Dog mine shows an unbroken vein 30 feet wide for a total length of 6,000 feet, which runs from 20 to 500 ounces silver to the ton, and from $20 to $80 in gold. Ore shipped from J. Earley’s Birdie mine ran from 375 to 2,000 ounces in silver, and from $20 to $70 in gold to the ton, and this, practically speaking, is all an unprospected country. This :reference to silver, perhaps, is departing somewhat from our subject; yet it brings out a point we wish to make, namely, that Idaho is a great State, a very big State, in a sense, and a sparsely settled State. Portions of it are utterly wild, and for this reason mining developments thus far have been confined, comparatively speaking, to a very few districts.

Snake River Valley, uninviting as it may look, has literally a lining of gold. Hundreds of miners are working the bars along the banks of the stream, primitively, of course, yet with good returns. They cannot save all the gold, to be sure, but they save enough of it to pay them for their trouble. Some of them, even by the most crude methods, are washing out from $10 to $30 a day.

And who has not heard of the great Couer D’Alene mines? The fame of this section in the northern part of the State has traveled around the world and back again, and with good reason, for their output of both silver and lead has been on an enormous scale, and there are also in this district some very rich gold mines. The majority of these properties, however, are at present working on development, deferring actual treatment or shipment of ore until the completion of railroads now building bring transportation facilities nearer home.

Pierce City, or Oro Fino, was one of the early camps of Idaho, and yielded upwards of $30,000,000 in placer gold. Recently prospectors have gone back and located a number of quartz veins, showing ore of which the value may truthfully be termed wonderful in comparison with similar formations in other parts of the West. Elk City, previously mentioned, is another of the old placer camps of the State that has recently been found to contain enormously rich veins and ledges of quartz.

The camp of Florence has proved one of the richest ever discovered anywhere, in proportion to its surface dimensions. The first pan of dirt in the ”discovery” yielded $800. In late years prospecting for the quartz veins, the real supply of the placer gold, has been vigorously pushed, with the result that many mills have been erected. The average yield per ton of all the operating mills in this section is extraordinary. $38,000,000 was taken from the placers of Florence camp before the discovery of her quartz veins, and in one year, from 1862 to 1863, the Wells-Fargo Express Company alone handled over $33,000,000 in bullion and gold dust from Florence and Pierce City properties.

TMP2Up the Trail to Thunder Mountain.

Warrens, the sister camp to Florence, also has a great record. Its ore is very rich, some of it milling (from the Rebolt mine) $2,000 in gold to the ton; and the placer locations of the camp have produced upwards of $25,000,000, so far as the records show, and it is said that a much larger amount has been taken out.

So much for a general review of the showing this State has already made. Now compare Idaho with Colorado, and what do you find? Simply this: that the discovery of Cripple Creek, in Colorado, focused at or near that point a group of capitalists. They came in just at the right time, when, with the aid of improved machinery they could invest their money with but little risk, and the district was advertised all over the world. A great mining exchange was created at Colorado Springs, and ever since that day we have fallen into the habit of regarding Colorado, with its notorious Cripple Creek, as the leading mining State of the Union.

Money and concentrated energy “boomed” that one little camp of Cripple Creek to such an extent that we are surprised when we glance over actual figures, and learn that the “insignificant” State of Idaho could give Colorado another Cripple Creek, and then beat her out in a total showing of both gold production and ore reserves.

TMP3Tracing a Ledge of Gold on Rainbow Mountain.

But, to top all this, now comes Thunder Mountain, with a wealth of gold ore that the most imaginative prospector never dreamed of finding. The Thunder Mountain district will undoubtedly furnish the world with more gold than has yet been produced by California, Colorado, and all the balance of the State of Idaho. This statement, of course, will be at once challenged by the average mining ”expert,” whose business, in part, is to be as skeptical as possible. But we do not propose to waste time arguing the point. We know what there is at Thunder Mountain, and we propose to tell what we know about it in the following particulars. We admit that nothing like the formation in this new field was ever before encountered anywhere on earth. Everybody admits it. But to the man of sound reasoning this fact only demonstrates that there are opportunities here to make money that no other section ever offered. The skeptical “expert,” like a great many others, will have to travel into the heart of the new Eldorado and ascertain for himself, by personal observation, that a new standard of values has been established.

TMProspectus3Concerning The District.

The Thunder Mountain District is so named from the fact that the first rich discovery, made by the three Caswell brothers, was on the summit which they themselves had christened “Thunder Mountain,” because of the low rumbling sounds which almost constantly emanate from it. But it is now generally recognized that other sections of the district are even richer, and present, in several respects, much more desirable features for the prospector.

Rainbow Mountain, for instance, is regarded as better ground, because it is more highly mineralized, and the ore, for the most part, is high grade, Except for a few unmineralized spots, it actually appears that Rainbow Mountain is simply a gigantic pile or summit of rich, gold bearing ore. Entire claims on one slope of Rainbow are mineralized from side to side and end to end. As one walks across these claims every step plants the foot on gold ore that is worth on the average at least $20 a ton, and running through these immense ledges are numerous streaks that carry bonanza values, often going in excess of $1,000 a ton.

TMProspectus4The Company’s Property.

The property of the Thunder Mountain Gold Mining Company, consisting of five full claims, each 1, 500 feet long by 600 feet wide, is located on the eastern slope of Rainbow Mountain, and, as will be seen by reference to accompanying map, adjoins the Gold King group, which has recently been purchased for $200,000.

In October, 1901, the company’s promoters sent in its first convoy, consisting of sixteen horses and mules, and eight men, with all necessary equipment for performing development work, the idea being to ascertain as accurately as possible the exact value of the several claims; and the reports made at that time, as well as those since received, warrant the statement that this property is unquestionably richer and better than any that has yet been developed on Thunder Mountain proper, not even excepting the Dewey group, which was purchased from the Caswell brothers for $100,000, and is now valued at $10,000,000.

On April 26th of the present year, our special representatives left Chicago, for Council, Idaho, to conduct the second convoy of men and mules, which was to carry provisions and also additional tools and incidental equipment to the property. Needless to say, this expedition arrived safely at its destination, and the reports that were brought back were more encouraging than ever. The Company maintains a representative on the property constantly, and has done so from the beginning, in order that its interests may be well taken care of, and the property developed as rapidly as possible.

TMProspectus5Character Of Ore.

The ore formation on Rainbow and Thunder mountains does not differ materially from other free milling camps, except in the immense size of the ledges. The average prospector thinks he has a big thing if he locates a vein of gold ore 3 feet in width, and running $10 to the ton. But the “veins” on this Company’s property, and, in fact, throughout the district, are so immense that they are simply termed ledges, as their width averages from 300 to 600 feet, frequently widening out to much greater dimensions. Indeed, some entire sections are mineralized, the ledges in such places evidently having widened out until they ran together, thus practically forming one compact, solid mass of ore. Precisely such formation is encountered on our property on Rainbow Mountain. Very large portions of our five claims are mineralized, and for years to come the ore can actually be quarried out.

Numerous tests for values show that it averages in excess of $20 in gold to the ton, and there are streaks in it that run very high. Many of these rich streaks are as wide as the entire mineralized vein on the ordinary property in other camps, and they will undoubtedly bring the general average of values up to a figure far in excess of that we have named.

H. L. Hollister, a man who has spent all his life in mining, was all through this district last spring, and made a number of tests of the ore on our property. He says that it will all run $20 to the ton or more, and when asked to give an estimate as to the total value of the Company’s five claims, said it was too big to figure out. “Why, there is enough gold on your locations,” he said, with an expression which indicated plainly that he meant it, ”to pay off the Government Debt.” And then added: ” The property is so big and so rich that no one company will ever be able to exhaust its ore supply. You might as well try to bale out the ocean.”

Mr. Hollister also said that the ore was so free milling that it could be mined and milled at a cost not exceeding $1 a ton, a statement that is corroborated by every expert and mining man of practical experience who has visited the district.

From these figures as to the value of the ore per ton it will be seen that it is decidedly high grade. The ore on the Dewey property, on Thunder Mountain, is termed “low grade,” and averages about $8 to $10 a ton, although it, too, has many rich streaks in it that run above $1,000 to the ton. But it is a fact that it makes little difference to this Company and its stockholders whether our ore runs ten dollars or fifty dollars. There is a fortune in every ten square feet of our ground – and we have 100 acres. If the value was only $5, or even $4 a ton, it would still be a really great proposition, because there is so much of it, and it can be mined and milled so cheaply. Ore that yields a profit of $3 a ton is, in the ordinary camp, regarded as a big thing. Here we have an unlimited supply of ore that will return a net profit of at least $19 a ton. Moreover, not more than 4 tons of ordinary free milling ore can be treated in a day by a single stamp in the regulation stamp mill, or forty tons with a ten-stamp mill; whereas the ore in the Thunder Mountain district is so soft and the gold is so free that a thousand pound stamp will crush 8 tons per day, thus giving 80 tons as the daily output of a ten-stamp mill – or double the customary returns.

TMP4Big Creek – Near Thunder Mountain

TMProspectus6Profits And Dividends.

The Company proposes to commence operations with a 40-stamp mill, which will crush 320 tons of ore per day. To be conservative, we will figure only on six tons per stamp, however, which gives a total daily milling capacity of 240 tons.

Taking the ore value at $20 a ton, and allowing for cost of $1 a ton for mining and milling, we have a net profit of $19 per ton, which on 240 tons amounts to $4,560 per day. But to be conservative again, we will ignore our proven values, and figure that the ore nets us only $10 a ton. Then, on our conservative daily production of 240 tons we have conservative daily Net Profits of $2,400.

There are 365 days in a year, and at this rate our total annual net profits would amount to $876,000. But we must allow for occasional delays and a break-down now and then; so we will figure on only 300 ·days operations – which computation shows a total annual Net Profit of no less than $720,000, or just 36 per cent. in earnings on our full capitalization, to be paid out in dividends.

This, remember, is after making ample allowances. We have under-estimated the crushing power of the mill, we have under-estimated the value of the ore, we have under-estimated the number of working days in the year. And, more than this, we have figured on a mill of only forty stamps.

Now, on some properties a forty-stamp mill is about the limit that can be worked advantageously. Because on such properties the narrowness of the vein limits the number of men that can be employed in the workings. But on our property no such conditions exist. The entire property itself is a single, mammoth vein, if you please to look at it that way, and, as we have said before, thousands of tons of the ore can be actually quarried. Hence almost any number of miners can be employed in the work of getting out the ore for treatment, and so there is really no limit, comparatively speaking, to the mill capacity.

As the work of development progresses, therefore, more stamps will be added, and the Company’s net returns correspondingly increased. A 100-stamp mill, operated in accordance with the above conservative figures will pay annual dividends of 90 per cent. on the par value of the Company’s stock, or 7 1/2 per cent. monthly.

Again, we figure on a 40-stamp mill paying dividends of 36 per cent. on the par value of the stock. Then the actual return to the purchaser of these shares will be just as much GREATER than 36 per cent as the price he pays for his stock is under or lower than par – the par value being $1 per share. For instance, if you buy your stock at 20 cents a share, the return on your actual cash invested would be at the rate of 180 per cent. per annum. And if you buy it at 40 cents your returns would be at the rate of 90 per cent.

TMProspectus7Company To Erect Mill.

A mill of at least 40-stamp capacity will be erected on the Company’s property at the earliest possible moment – and this means as soon as the road now being built into the heart of the district is completed. The work is under contract and is being rushed, and the road will probably be completed and in fair condition by fall of the present year. In the meantime the Company proposes to develop its properties and get the mill building ready, so that production on a large scale can be commenced as soon as the machinery is set up.

TMProspectus8How To Obtain Stock.

To provide working capital for the full development of the mines and the purchase of necessary machinery, together with such buildings as are required, a portion of the Capital Stock of the Thunder Mountain Gold Mining Co. is hereby offered for public subscription.

The price will be advanced as development work progresses, and the right is reserved by the Company to reject any subscription in, whole or in part if, in the judgment of the Directors, such action is deemed wise and advantageous to the best interests of the Company and its stockholders. The Company also retains the privilege of withdrawing all stock from the market and terminating this offer absolutely at any time it may so desire, and without further notice.

Applications for stock should be made out on the Company’s Subscription Blank, and forwarded direct to the New York Office, accompanied by remittance in full if purchased on the cash payment plan, or by the stipulated first payment if purchased on the installment plan.

TMProspectus9Points Of Interest.

The Thunder Mountain Gold Mining Co. is organized along practical lines, and for practical purposes. Its Board of Directors is composed of business men of high commercial and financial standing in their respective communities and the work at the mines is in charge of experienced mining men.

Their united efforts have resulted in launching, through the organization of this Company, an enterprise which it is believed will prove one of the most profitable investments ever placed before the public. Certainly no opportunity equal to this exists at the present time, and we sincerely doubt whether it can be duplicated.

Conditions in the Thunder Mountain district are extraordinary, and this Company’s property could not possibly be more advantageously located. The figures herein presented are ultra-conservative, yet they show the certainty of returns so large as to insure a great advance in the price of the Company’s stock. There are no features of uncertainty. The ore is there, and we KNOW its value is as good as $20 to the ton, at the lowest calculation. That is a demonstrated fact, produced by actual test. And these tests, bear in mind, were made from the surface, and, as phonolite has been found it is considered indicative that the values will become still greater as depth is attained. Again, in all developed properties in the district it has been found that these great ledges are seamed with ore deposits that carry remarkably high values, usually far in excess of $1,000 to the ton. It might be said, indeed, that there are veins within veins. There is practically no dead rock on our properties, at all. In every part of it rich ore is encountered – and we say “rich” ore, because free milling ore that runs $20 to the ton and more IS rich ore.

The operation of the five-stamp mill on the Dewey property also demonstrates that all the statements that have been made about the free milling character of the ore of the district are absolutely true. It can actually be both mined and milled for 75 cents a ton, yet we have figured on a cost of $1.

The State Mining Inspector, of Boise, Idaho, is a firm believer in the future of the camp. He says; “Many persons believe that the reports from Thunder Mountain are greatly exaggerated for the sake of booming the district, but in my opinion the region is even richer than prospectors think it is.

“A person may sink almost any place in that country and find pay ore. It costs only $1.25 a ton at the highest figure to handle it, and, by the way, that is one of the advantages of Thunder Mountain over many other districts. The ore is more free, and costs less to mill. Some of it can be put through for fifty or sixty cents. Thunder Mountain is the center of a wonderful mineral country. On every side are districts which have turned out large sums of gold, mostly placer.”

And this statement is exactly in line with the facts given earlier, concerning the big output of the placer lands in the valleys and lower levels surrounding Thunder Mountain on every side. It is known, now, that the gold in placer gravel is merely the small particles which have washed down with the rain and snow from the mother veins hidden high up the sides of the mountains. And, just as Idaho’s production of placer gold has excelled that of all other districts, is it not reasonable to assume that the supply point, the natural store house, is equally superior to the deposits of other sections?

On this point there really is no chance for argument – and no occasion for it, either; for we are through with theory, now. We are not searching for the main supply veins, they have already been found; and their wealth is something unprecedented. The question now to be considered is how to turn these discoveries into individual fortunes, and we do not believe a better method is at hand than a liberal purchase of stock in the Thunder Mountain Gold Mining Co, – a company that is organized expressly for the purpose of taking advantage of this greatest of all great opportunities.

Address all communications to

TMProspectus10J. E. Morhardt & Co.,
Broad Exchange Building,
New York City.
Authorized Agents for the
Thunder Mountain Gold Mining Co.
— — —

source: UCSD Library (UC San Diego)
courtesy Justin Smith Idaho History 1800 to Present
— — — — — — — — — —

Return from Thunder Mountain, Grangeville, Idaho 1899-1900

ReturnThunderMtn1899-1900-Fritz

source: History of Idaho Mike Fritz Collection
——————

Further Reading

Link to Thunder Mountain – Roosevelt History
(Table of contents to stories)
————————

Idaho History June 5, 2022

A Hunt in the Rockies 1892

Forest and Stream
A Weekly Journal of the Rod and Gun
Volume XXXXIX
July, 1892 – December 1892
Parts 1 through 3

A Hunt In The Rockies In Three Parts — Part I
August 11, 1892

It is hardly necessary to state that months of preparation and the usual fond anticipations were all gone through with before the arrangements were completed. My old companions in many a hunt, Messrs. A. C. Kepler, of Lancaster, and Frank B. Blood, of Conneaut, O., were anxious to go but could not. “Kep,” one of the most ardent and efficient hunters and trappers in the United States, and a royal good fellow, was building a new house and could not get away. Blood, the man with nerves of iron and deadly aim, was an important witness in court, and compelled, much against his will and inclinations, to forego what we considered the most gigantic hunting excursion on our list.

It must be admitted that my spirits sank somewhat below zero as I stood alone with my face turned toward Idaho, with the determination to go if 1 was obliged to “go it alone.” After all, much of the pleasure to be derived from an outing depends upon agreeable companions. But, as the old party was broken, and I was going, I called on the reserve, and wrote to my friend, fisherman, wing-shot and gentleman, H. W. Bush, Esq., assistant auditor and treasurer of the Kansas City, Fort Smith & Southern Railroad, at Neosha, Missouri. Well, were it not for the space it would take up I would insert his reply. It began thus: ”Dear Old Boy: Whoop ‘er up — I will be thar! Tell me how and what I must get ready,” and closed up by saying something about “dead-heading,” which of course I did not fully understand, but learned all about it later on. I had heard of and was in correspondence with that celebrated hunter, guide and Indian fighter, George W. Rea, of Beaver Canyon, Idaho, had his terms per diem for a complete outfit, and knew just what it would cost: and the possession of this bit of information caused me to feel very perceptibly the necessity of getting at least two more companions to join us, lest the hunt would, like the Indian’s gun, “cost more than it came to.” My enthusiasm was so great in that direction that I offered one or two of my friends who always had galore in their eyes $50 toward defraying expenses to join me; but business or some other good reason interfered, and they were reluctantly obliged to say no to my entreaties. Wonder if I will have the same difficulty to encounter this fall, when I expect to go to Newfoundland on a caribou hunt? Just as I was about giving up efforts to decrease the expenses by increasing the number of hunters, I received a letter from a perfect stranger to me. Christian Weber, of Baltimore, Maryland, who incidentally heard that I was going to the Rockies to hunt, and requested that he be added to the party. I was not long in writing him to show up with recommendations, which he promptly did: and soon the third and last recruit was mustered in, and a capital fellow he proved to be, besides being an amateur photographer and the possessor of a fine instrument.

I assumed command of the expedition, and at once issued orders governing the amount of baggage, and each man was limited to about the following articles, all to be packed in a carry-all, in order to facilitate transportation on pack animals: One hunting suit, two undershirts, two pairs drawers, two overshirts, four pairs stockings, one-half dozen handkerchiefs, one pair hunting shoes or boots, one pair gum boots, one pair gloves, one cap, one hat, one gum blanket, two woolen blankets, two towels, one piece soap, ammunition and loading tools to suit arm used, pipes and smoking and chewing tobacco, in case they used any, and any other small articles which would neither take up much room nor add much weight. In addition to the above enumerated articles I carried, as I always do, a limited supply of medicines, hypodermic syringe, bandages and adhesive plaster, etc. When all packed, each man’s luggage, independent of the arms and each a short light trunk rod and fly-book, weighed less than 125lbs.

The Start.

1892HR1“Shongo” And His Hunting Horse “Warrior”
From an amateur photograph.

What follows I take from my journal of outings, religiously kept for the last fifteen years; and if every one would take as much pleasure in looking over some of the old records way back, where big catches of fish and bags of game are truthfully recorded, in localities on the borders of civilization, but now under a high state of cultivation, they could pleasantly while away many an hour, and fight some of their battles over as the old war veterans are said to do.

Left Lancaster Sept. 30, at 4:45 A. M . fast line, on time — suppose it knew I was in a hurry to get on my way to the greatest hunt (to be) of my life. Arrived at Philadelphia on time, and, after practicing on a warm but delightfully tough steak, I was ready to take the 8:15 train, via Baltimore and Ohio, for Chicago; 10:40 we crossed the bay on transports and landed in “my Maryland.” At 1 P. M. passed through Harper’s Ferry, where I had not been since 1861, when I was a gallant soldier seeking to destroy him who would insult the American flag, or something to that effect. Arriving at Washington, D. C, the first man I saw, because I was looking for him as I presume, was Chris Weber, the little Herman recruit from Baltimore. We had dinner in the rear car, talked the proposed trip over, and each, I suppose, formed an opinion of the other. 1:35 P. M., “Martinsburg,” shouts the trainman, and that reminded me of the three months’ picnic. I recognized nothing familiar about the place, but away back in memory’s halls, on a back shelf, and molded from age and inactivity, I resurrected a picture of the destruction of a distillery, and can yet see streams of whisky flowing like water as the heads of the barrels were being chopped out with axes. I also see soldiers filling their canteens from depressions in the ground. 5:20 P. M. — Passing through the Cumberland Mountains, and now we stop at Deer Park, W. Va. The President’s cottage stands on a hill due north and about 500yds. from the station. It is the first cottage on the north side of the track, and a very modest structure when compared to the summer residences of some of the crowned heads of foreign countries. The scenery from Martinsburg to 20 miles west of Deer Park is romantic and magnificently picturesque. 7:10 P. M., Grafton. — A good supper and but 15 minutes to “bolt” it in.

Oct. 1, 5:30 A. M. — Just getting daylight. Had a good night’s sleep, and just passing Findlay, Ohio. Arrive at Chicago at 10:55, and leave for Kansas City at 12 M.

Oct. 2, 6 A. M. — Retired last night at 8 o’clock, and slept the sleep of the just. Crossed the Mississippi at 10:55 last night, and since then have been in the State of Missouri. Arrive at Kansas City at 7 A. M., and find the smiling face of Bush in waiting. After a square breakfast at the Blossom House restaurant, we do up the town. 11 A. M. finds us on board train en route for Denver, Col.

Oct 3, 7:45 A. M. — Here we are in Denver, the great city on the plains, an oasis in a desert. The ride from Kansas City to this point was not very interesting. Western Kansas and all of eastern Colorado is an arid plain, and resembles the ocean in general appearance: small cactus, scrub sage and ant hills go far to make up the very uninteresting picture of desolation. The earth was so dry that dust filled the coaches and made existence very unpleasant. 9:45 A. M. finds us en route again westward bound. Sixty-nine miles west of Denver, and the only thing interesting either in the animal or vegetable kingdom this far through this barren land to a traveler is the fact that it is almost impossible to look from the car window and not see prairie dogs sitting up right and sometimes within 10ft. of the track, looking cute and wise. How they live there and keep sleek and fat, where nothing grows but sage. I leave others who know to tell. Athol, Wyo., 1:35 P. M. — Colorado is now east of us, and owing to a wreck on a branch road we are delayed two hours; likewise at Cheyenne, which is a beautiful town of 8,000 inhabitants.

Oct. 4, 6 A. M. — Just arrived at Green River, Wyoming. The scenery here is grand beyond description. Weber becomes enthused and as we are again delayed and there is sufficient time, he gets out his camera and takes a view of Castle Rock, which is a magnificent pile, 600ft. above the railroad track, and fashioned by one of nature’s best architects. 9:20 A. M. — Off we are again, and our objective point is Pocatello, Idaho. 3 P. M. — Just crossed the line dividing Wyoming and Idaho. For the last hundred miles we have been traveling along the Bear River, and if we saw one goose, brant or duck we saw thousands. This Stream meanders along through the Rockies, and is the only one within many miles: and hence the waterfowl all congregate on its limpid waters and guzzle over its pebbly bottom. 10:30 P. M., we arrive at our destination, Beaver Canon, Idaho.

Oct. 5. — All hands up early, repacking our baggage and getting ready for our trip up the Shotgun Valley to Rea’s Ranch, which is 45 miles due east, and in the direction of the southern boundary of the National Park. We hire a rig for $24, or $8 each, for selves and baggage. 10:30 A. M., all aboard, and we are on our way behind two cayuses hooked to a light though strong wagon. Road good, though very dry and dusty. Stop at 2 P. M., and about half way, to feed. Route leads through a basin, which is bounded on two sides by high wooded mountains. Meet a band of about 150 Indians on their return from their fall hunt to their reservation at Blackfoot, Idaho, which is south of Beaver Canon. Their pack animals were loaded to the gunwales with meat and hides, and they had with them a fine herd of horses of all shades of color. We had quite a parley with their chief Tindo, who could speak some pigeon English, and inquired as to whether there were any Indians at Beaver. He was a fine, fat, sleek fellow, apparently about 50. To the question as to whether they got plenty of meat, his reply was, “Indian he get plenty meat.” Just at sun down we pulled up at our long-looked-for objective point, Rea s Ranch.

Well, almost any one could form a faint idea as to the extent of our curiosity and profound satisfaction at the picture before us, presented by a glimpse at this veteran hunter’s ranch. Bear, deer, antelope, elk, badger and mountain sheep pelts were tacked up wherever you gazed, and on the roofs of the building were securely anchored several pairs of elk antlers. During the afternoon we saw hundreds of sage hens, or chickens, as they call them here, and we bagged several by way of getting our hands in.

Rea’s Ranch is located on a bluff, about 200ft. from the Shotgun, and at an elevation of about 25ft. above the water. Rea named the stream, and says it came to pass thus: A way back in the sixties he and a partner were trapping on this stream. They had pack animals, and among other things too numerous to mention the “pard” had one of those old-fashioned, muzzle-loading smooth-bore guns, as heavy as a fence rail, and Rea says almost as long, “and not worth a white and black skunk skin anyway.” They had camped “on the west bank of the stream, about a mile and a half below the site of his present ranch. The snow was deep, the horses were over burdened and almost tuckered out; Rea was packing the last horse, when “pard” handed him the old gun to be strapped fast on the now over loaded horse. Rea says, “Keep your old gun, you are more able to pack it than the cayuse. For a thimbleful of beans I would chuck it into the creek.” “Pard” took the old gun’s part and reached for his revolver, which was always at his side. Rea promptly knocked him down, and that was the end of it. “Pard” pouted, stood the gun up against a cottonwood tree nearby, and the outfit moved on. They soon settled the difficulty and all went on as smoothly as before, but the old gun kept lonely watch leaning up against the cottonwood. Several years after the occurrence Rea came through the valley again, and remembering the circumstance as well as the location, visited the spot. Sure enough, there stood the old gun against the tree, looking much the worse from the action of the elements and its long vigil. Rea, true to his first intentions, took up the weapon and cast it into the stream. Since that time the stream is known as the “Shotgun,” and is so shown on the maps.

Rea’s Ranch.

1892HR2Rea And His Ranch.
From an amateur photograph.

We return to a description of Rea’s Ranch and its surroundings. The stream is not more than 10 or 12ft. wide 200ft. above the buildings. About 100yds. above it receives the waters from a spring which rises one-half mile further south, and where this spring empties into the Shotgun it is 60ft. wide and will average 8in. in depth. Below the building Rhea has constructed a dam, the back water covering several acres. The dam is so constructed that trout can go up but few can return. The consequence is that the water above the dam is alive with the speckled beauties of all ages and sizes, and furnishes not only fine sport but a handsome revenue from the sale of fish. He seines out of that dam yearly thousands of pounds, which net him 20 cents per pound delivered on the cars at Beaver Canyon. He has 920 acres of improved land, most of which is park or meadow, well set with natural grass, well watered and beautifully located. The buildings include of the dwelling, which is built of logs, with planing mill doors and window frames with glass. The roof is formed with poles, averaging from 4 to 6in. in diameter, laid side by side, in the interstices ropes of hay are carefully packed in, and covering the whole is about 10in. of earth, which becomes solidly packed and makes a good roof, shedding water well and besides resisting the sun’s rays in summer, as well as the chilling blasts of winter. A good-sized kitchen attached completes the dwelling part of the ranch: and, although not as elegant as a brown or green stone front, with the floors covered with Brussels and the windows draped with lace curtains, Rea’s Ranch on the Shotgun, located as it is in that beautiful valley in far off Idaho, furnishes finer scenery, with more solid comfort, rest and recreation for the brain-worker than either my pen or camera can depict.

The valley is about eight miles wide, bounded on two sides by spurs of the Rockies, some of them snow-capped and well wooded, and the air as pure as the rippling water. Near the dwelling is another building, known as the “dead house,” without windows, but two doors on opposite sides. The contents of this building furnished a medley for a tourist not soon to be forgotten. Here hung against the wall, to the left as we entered, the antlers and skull of a bull elk, which had been killed but two weeks before our arrival. In yonder corner hangs the saddle of an antelope, with a very large piece clipped out for our supper. Over there in that corner lies a pile of mountain sheep horns, antelope heads and horns. On the poles above our beads hang bear, antelope, coyote, lynx, badger, mountain sheep, elk and moose hides, and on the joists above rest our guide’s toboggan and Norwegian snow shoes (some of the latter 10ft. in length). On the ground floor are traps of all kinds, some for grizzly and silvertip bear, weighing as much as 50lbs. each, to which are attached ponderous chains. A great heap of riding and quaint-looking pack saddles finish up the contents of this unique inclosure, the sight of which helps to dispel the cares of business which still hover around us, though far from home and out of its reach.

The next structure adjoining is used for a general workshop, and has a forge, work bench and all kinds of artisan’s tools. Near by the latter is the stable for the horses, and connected with it is the corral, a large inclosure in which the cayuses are confined when not grazing. Below the dwelling and about half way to the edge of the water is a cave or “dugout,” such as many families lived in on the borders of civilization, where I used to hunt years ago in Iowa and Dakota.

The front of Rea’s cave is built of logs, and has a strong door. This is used as a cellar for the safekeeping of meat, etc. Supper was called, and we were all anxious to get there, as our ride of forty-five miles from Beaver Canyon and the additional exercise of taking a chance shot at sage hens gave us appetites for much less tempting grub than juicy antelope steak, brook trout and roast elk, with good bread and potatoes, which was- the bill of fare for supper, with the addition of coffee or tea as preferred.

Sunday Morning, Oct. 5. — We have all slept soundly. The sun is just peeping over yonder snowclad mountain top, the air is thin and cold, and a white frost covers the ground. That hoary-headed peak doesn’t look to be over five or six miles from here, but Rea assures me it is twenty good long Idaho miles off. So much for our judgment of distances in rarified air. As he and I stood in front of the door admiring the beautiful sunrise as it lit up the magnificent landscape, I kept him busy answering questions, when suddenly I thought I saw some thing move on the side of a small elevation off to the right. I called his attention to the fact. “Oh, they are antelope; I presume you can see them in almost any direction and at all times in the day from the ranch. Get your field glass and take a good look at them.” The glass was forthcoming, the same I carried through nearly four years of the late war, and sure enough there was a herd of ten antelope quietly grazing. I say, “George, how far are they off?” Again I was surprised, and took lesson No. 2 in computing distances in rarified air, as he replied, “At least two miles.” “Where are Bush and Weber? We will call them. They, too, must see the first four-legged game.” They soon appeared, half dressed, slip-shod and rubbing their eyes. The gentleman of German extraction became suddenly very much excited, and insisted on starting in pursuit at once, before breakfast, and although it was Sunday morning. “How far are they off?” queried one of us. One said three-quarters, the other thought they might be out about half a mile. When informed by George that they were at least two miles off, and that it would take most of the forenoon to get around them and under cover within shooting distance, our German companion became somewhat less enthusiastic, and gave up the idea of going for antelope on that particular Sunday morning before breakfast. A splendid breakfast over, and, after filling our pipes, we were busy doing up the ranch and its surroundings, lest some object of interest might have escaped our attention during the evening.

We soon learned that two new and important recruits had arrived during the night, and, as they were to form a very important factor in the outfit, I will devote a few lines to a description of who they were and what function they were to perform. One was “Bill,” known as the “Panama Kid,” who was a practical “cowboy” and an experienced “packer” — the latter avocation is a trade, calling or profession distinct from any other in the Rockies, and whose services are indispensable on a hunt such as we were about to engage in. His wages are fixed both by custom and usage, and if he understands his business his services always command his price. The packer furnishes his own outfit — horse, saddle, bridle, blankets, lariat, etc., and gets $3 a day and his grub. His duties are to pack the animals, which is quite a feat, and can only be acquired by long experience and constant practice, and in addition he cooks for the outfit.

The other recruit was Frank, a very estimable young man who had been a sheep herder for years, and who received $2 a day, his grub and a horse to ride. His duties were to assist the packer, picket the animals and do chores generally. Eight pack animals were required to transport our duffel, and it required the combined efforts of Rea, “Kid” and Frank all day Sunday to get every thing arranged for the start on Monday morning. Bush, Weber and myself concluded to try our horses, which had been assigned us by the guide, and they were saddled up. Warrior, Rea’s favorite hunting horse, was assigned to the writer. He was a noble fellow, almost white, and as gentle as he was good, and more will be said of him hereafter. Bush drew Wardrobe, a fine, wiry, jet black horse, smaller than Warrior, but a trump also. Weber got Buckskin, a somewhat tricky, fractious cayuse, and smaller still than Wardrobe, as” Weber was the light-weight of the party, only tipping the beam at 125.

— Shongo.
— — — —

A Hunt In The Rockies In Three Parts — Part II
August 18, 1892

1892HR3

The day was all that could be desired, warm, clear and pleasant. We followed the Shotgun down to where it empties into a branch of the Snake River, three and a half miles below the ranch, and then went down the Snake about two miles, crossed over, and came up the right bank on top of the bluff to the forks, thence home. Ducks, geese and swan fluttered up at every bend in the stream, but as we were only on a pleasure trip we only carried our side arms. We got back to the ranch about 4 P. M. , delighted with our trip and the performance of our horses, and so sore from our first ride that we were much more comfortable standing than sitting. Weber, our German recruit, said he was not sore, but the saddle was. Our guide and the boys, “Kid” and Frank, had in the meanwhile arranged the pack saddles all in a row and placed to each one what belonged to it, which includes the saddle padding, tie ropes, double front and rear girths for saddle and girth for pack, also lariat or picket rope for horse. In another row opposite the saddles and their regalia were arranged the various articles of household and kitchen furniture to be pack«d on each saddle. These sundries consisted, in addition to our three carry-alls, of two wall tents, two large leather paniers, in which the bedding was to be packed in order to keep it dry in case of rain, one Dutch oven, one large iron pot for boiling and making “boss” game stews, two frying pans with handles, one shovel, one mattock, one double-bitted axe, one pole axe, one bag with potatoes and onions, two bags flour, one bag with mess pork, one with salt, one with roasted coffee and tea, one coffee mill, one sack containing horse shoes, nails of all kinds, tools, etc., including copper and annealed wire of different sizes, also several Newhouse traps for small fur-bearing game, a box containing canned grapes, peaches, cherries, jellies, condensed milk, etc.; a mess box also containing coffee-pot, knives, forks, spoons, tin plates and cups, Royal baking powder and pepper; in addition, many other small necessities too many to enumerate. As the whole outfit was furnished by our experienced guide, nothing was wanting to make our comforts as complete as possible.

1892HR4Ready For The Start.
Prom an amateur photograph.

After moving around, observing the preparations which had been made for the start in the morning, we were informed that there would be a circus in the neighborhood of the corral before long, and if we were interested we would be dead headed, and would be allowed choice seats. The “Kid” and Frank were about to lasso, throw and shoe a rebellious cayuse whose feet were tender, and fears were entertained that he might give out on the hunt without shoes. We gladly accepted the kind invitation, and were much amused and highly entertained at witnessing the performance, which was entirely new to us. Kid was not long in casting a noose over the animal’s head, and although he objected to the fullest extent of his ability, it was not long until Frank had a slip knot around one of his ankles, and in shorter time than it takes to write it he was down and ready for the operation of shoeing. Then came supper, and after that a friendly smoke and a general trading of some very large hunting and fishing stories, the truth of which I could not vouch for, except those I spun myself. We also repacked our carry alls, and very solemnly discussed the forest fires which were raging all over the country on both sides of the valley. We all turned in at an early hour in order to be up in good time, that we might get as early a start as possible.

Monday morning, Oct. 7. — There were no laggards this morning — all on deck at break of day. A royal breakfast and coffee that, as “Nessmuk” said once to me as he extended an invitation to join him at Tarpon Springs, Florida, “takes you by the throat.” All hands to the helm, and in two hours we were ready to photograph the start. Our outfit consisted of eight pack animals, six for riding and four extras in case of accident, eighteen in all. We made a short ride across the valley to the timber line, and encamped about 4 P. M. in the lava beds, which our guide informed us extend from the geysers in the Yellowstone Park, following the general range of mountains, at the foothills of which we were, some 400 miles. The weather has been lovely since our arrival in Idaho, although our guide informs us that no rain has fallen during the whole summer. The drought and the presence of forest fires on all sides of us lead us to fear that the smoke and fire have already driven or will drive the game from their usual haunts, and make them restless and nervous even if they can be located.

As we camped in a cabin or shack and the time required to put up tents was spared us, supper was soon prepared and disposed of, and all hands, except the packers (who do no hunting) took a whirl up the mountain side afoot, anxious to find out whether the game signs were fresh or not.

1892HR5Camp Kipler.
Prom an amateur photograph.

In this particular locality there are but two kinds of timber growth, pine and quaking aspen. Some of the latter are as much as 20in. in diameter, while the pine seldom grows to be more than 1ft. The altitude at this point is about 6,400ft. above sea level. The water from a small spring seeps out from under an immense lava bed, some 150yds. below the shack, and furnishes water for our party, though the shovel had to be used vigorously in order to get a sufficient supply for our thirsty animals. Along the course of the moist ground several old game water holes are plainly marked with the hoof and claw prints of the elk, deer, antelope, bear and wolverine, some dried up and hard, others where there was still some moisture quite fresh and looking as if they had been made but a day or two before our arrival.

None but those who have experienced the excitement of the chase can form any idea of the sensations experienced by seeing fresh signs of new game, and in a brand new country. But the fire cast a gloom over the venerable weather-beaten face of our guide, and had a tendency to dampen our ardor more than once, especially when we could satisfy ourselves that the fresh tracks were made when fleeing from the fiery element.

Tuesday morning, Oct.8. — We all returned to camp last evening about dusk and had quite a tramp. Plenty of recent signs of elk, but not a hair in sight; grouse and sage hens until you could not rest; but now we were after bigger game, and having had satisfaction shooting small game, we paid no attention to them. Everybody well and in as good spirits as could be expected under the circumstances: and by the way, when I speak of spirits I don’t mean spirits of wine, inasmuch as we took only one quart of whisky with us, which was sealed, and said seal was not to be broken except in case of sickness or some other important occasion of equal emergency. We concluded to insert the latter clause for fear none of the party would get sick, and we might want to celebrate at the close of the hunt.

Wednesday, Oct. 9. — Mounted yesterday morning at an early hour and crossed a spur of the range through a low divide, riding about five hours. Had several light showers of rain. Game signs no fresher than day before. During last night it began snowing, and at sun-up this morning it was still falling. This gladdened our hearts, for two reasons, and very good ones; snow is the best thing out in which to track game, and puts out fire better than rain.

Camp Rea, on Rea’s branch of Snake River Valley, Idaho, Oct. 10. — We broke camp and headed for this point, which is at the foot of the range just crossed, and made camp by 2 P. M. Snow about 6in. deep. Leaving the packers to put up the tents, we divided up — Rea and Bush going south and Weber and I going north. Rea and Bush came up to a bull moose, and after following him for about six miles were obliged to return without getting an opportunity to administer a hypodermic of lead. No other signs of game seen, as most of the ground had out recently been burned over. The writer got into camp just before sundown, and out of the little stream just in front of our tents yanked a fine mess of trout for all hands in less than half an hour, with a brown-hackle. Supper over, we filled pipes and held a pow-wow, determining to push on in the morning in search of some country where the fire had not disturbed the habitudes of the “monarchs of the glen.”

Camp Kepler, on Split Creek, Rea’s Park, Oct. 11. — We pitched our camp in this magnificent grove of tall pines near the above-named little stream, which is not more than 4ft. wide, and from 12 to 15in. deep, and strange to say, the stream quietly disappears in a fissure in the earth not more than a mile from camp. The distance traveled yesterday was about eighteen miles. Rea’s Park is a large area of meadow land, surrounded by high mountain peaks, mostly treeless with well-wooded foothills and flats, and contains many thousands of acres, well set with buffalo grass, and through it wind the glittering waters of the tortuous Snake River. Deep, dark canons open out upon the entire plain, and through nearly all of them ripple beautiful streams of clear, pure, cold mountain water, which have their origin either from the snow-capped peaks or springs. These sparkling rivulets meander through the meadow lands, their banks fringed with water willows and their depths inhabited by speckled beauties, finally emptying into the Snake, that prince of rivers and the angler’s paradise.

The march through this splendid country was simply delightful. The weather was all that could be desired. The sun shone brightly, and the air was just cold enough to be bracing and exhilarating. The little streams were full of mallard, black and teal duck, and by the time we arrived in camp we had fowl enough for days. The honk of the wild goose and the peculiar piping sound of the beautiful swan could be heard in all directions and at all times during the day. The arms of civilization had not yet extended to this region, though the said arms are getting very long in America; but frequently we came upon tepee poles and Indian sweat boxes, showing where some poor red devil had been first warmed up to the boiling point with red-hot stones, and then treated to a cold plunge bath in the chilling waters of the beautiful streams always close up. Poor fellows! They had no business to be sick, and they would not then have been subjected to so heroic treatment, and in the majority of instances violent death. But it is the same old story — all manner of man kind must be doctored in strict accordance with some chosen plan.

Here and there also we noticed where hunters, trappers, or prospectors had camped at some time, from the fact that the marks of the axe or the picket pins to which the horses were tied could be seen. It is sad to notice throughout this whole territory the marks of that almost extinct species of American game, the buffalo. His bleaching bones, horns and old wallow holes were ever present, reminding us of the useless and wanton destruction of that noble game animal — gone never to return to his accustomed haunts.

As before stated, the game signs all indicated that they had traveled southeast, being driven in that direction by the forest fires. The snow, which but three days ago was several inches deep in the valley, has all disappeared, except on the mountain tops, which are still covered and reflect the rays of the sun, producing in the rarified atmosphere a magnificently weird picture never to be forgotten. The air during the afternoon has been so warm and balmy that the buffalo flies seem to have arisen from among the smouldering remains of their majestic namesakes, and to be trying to form a dress parade. They manifest an unusual amount of industry when on the bite, and insist upon creeping into our ears and nostrils, or investigating our eyes.

Oct. 12. — This was a cold, frosty morning. The sun came up clear and the day is warm. To-day is Sunday; we rest, write and darn our clothes. Rea says he is not tired and will go in search of fresh meat. Even this has been a grand, eventful day for us in this far-from-home wilderness. Rea returned to camp empty-handed about the middle of the afternoon. We cleaned our guns, slept, traded hunting and fishing stories, and the packers repaired the saddle pads and other paraphernalia pertaining to the outfit, and baked a supply of bread in the Dutch oven. My last act just before the sun went down was to sit astride a log which lay across Split Creek, and wash my handkerchiefs. Although only four feet wide and from twelve to fifteen inches deep, while thus engaged I counted eighteen trout flitting by, and not one of them was less than ten inches in length. We have trout baked, broiled, boiled and fried, and strange to say, we never tire of them. This evening we enjoy the camp fire, as the nights are cold and frosty. Rea’s reconnoitre during the day satisfies him to a certainty that the game has gone south, and the order was given the packers to be up before day light in readiness for an early start.

As we have had five days’ experience on the march, I must be pardoned for devoting a few words in relation to our faithful animals, the Rocky Mountain “cayuses.” No beasts of burden could be better adapted to the wants of the plainsman, prospector, hunter or ranchman. They can live wherever a goat can manage to subsist, by pawing away eighteen inches of snow, if necessary, in order to crop the buffalo grass which abounds in most of the region through which we traveled. “Warrior,” the horse which I ride, is strong, gentle, sure-footed and understands his business. I have ridden him both up and down mountain sides as steep as the roof of a house, and I never knew him to stumble or make a mis-step. He will pick his way through a windfall, stepping from one log to another, and intelligently trying each one to ascertain how strong it is before putting his whole weight upon it — leaping over the high ones, and breaking as few sticks as many men who think themselves still-hunters.

I ride up to a flock of ducks or geese, and as they rise shoot from the saddle, and I am positively sure that while I take aim or have the arm in position to fire, he holds his breath. It is not necessary, most of the time, to use the reins to guide our animals; all that is necessary is to sway the body slightly to the right or left as the case may be, and they obey. When left to themselves on the march, they follow in single file, and the one in front usually picks out the best footing in the most difficult and uneven ground. What has been said of “Warrior” can well be applied to “Wardrobe” and “Buckskin,” ridden by Bush and Weber respectively.

During our stay in this camp we scoured the country in all directions, and on many occasions found gameyards and water-holes at the foot of canons tramped up like sheeppens, and all signs not later than ten days or two weeks; the trails all going south in the direction of the Teton range and Jackson’s Hole country.

Camp Misery, Oct. 14. — This camp was named from the fact that it is located on a divide between a meadow and lava bed. We arrived here about 3 P. M., after having marched about ten miles over very rough, poorly watered country, and but little feed for our stock ; in fact, our present camp site afforded the first opportunity to graze our horses during all the day’s march. About half a mile east of camp, on a small branch of Warm River, we found a beaver dam inhabited by one family of that interesting rodent. We set three traps along the breast of the dam, but as it was dark before we were done they were smart enough not to repair so recent a break in the dam, and the consequence was that when we came to look them up this morning they were as we left them. Had we remained another night, we would have caught one or two of the cunning dam-builders without doubt. The signs of moose were very abundant, as evidenced by the fact that the tops of all the willows which line the banks of the stream were clipped off, and the tracks of the ungainly game could be seen every where in the soft soil.

Warm River, Wednesday Morning, Oct. IS. — Yesterday we made about twelve miles through a country composed of lava beds, scrub pine wind-falls, and here and there small patches of prairie. All the streams were dried up, and our animals suffered for water. We arrived here about 3:30 P. M. and were obliged to go into camp on account of not being able to make the next water before dark. We are near the head of the stream, and on the right bank. The water is so warm that there are few, if any, fish in it at this point, and it was never known to freeze over. It is about fifty feet in width, and the water in some localities is quite deep. During most of the day’s march yesterday, especially when we were on high ground, we could see the Teton Mountains in Wyoming, looming up to the south of us, and about fifty miles distant. The “Old Man” of the range, over 13,000 feet above sea level, especially appeared like a cloud ; and when the sun shone upon its snow-covered top, it resembled the fabled cloud said to have a “silver lining,” but on the outside.

1892HR6After a hearty lunch we were off in different directions in search of fresh meat, and by sun-down when all had reported we had seven grouse, five hares, twelve ducks and seven squirrels. Yesterday evening after the tents were pitched, beds made and the stock attended to, the packers made a bean-hole, and the consequence was we had some very fine beans for breakfast this morning.

By the way, it might be interesting to some were I to describe the method of producing Boston baked beans in the wilderness. The trick is simple enough if you know how, and are in possession of the following ingredients, viz.: The beans, salt pork, salt, two or three tablespoonfuls of molasses, a metal stewing pot, with a good closely-fitting cover, and a spade or other instrument with which a hole two feet deep by eighteen inches in diameter can be made in the earth. Put the beans in the pot, interspersed with layers of thin slices of pork, add water sufficient to cover them and no more; then dig the hole, in which kindle a fire first with dry wood and keep it well filled with green hard wood if it is to be had. The fire should be kept up from early evening until bed time, if two or three hours all the better, which affords a good chance for any of the party whose turn it is to tell a whopper. When it is time to retire the coals are shoveled out of the hole, the molasses and pepper are added to the contents of the pot; and it is set in the bottom of the pit. The live coals are filled in around it and over the lid, and the whole covered to the depth of five or six inches with the earth which was taken out in making the excavation ; the burning faggots and those of the regular camp fire are placed over the grave, and there you leave it until morning. When breakfast is nearly ready, the pot is unearthed, and you will be sure to have No. 1 baked beans — tender, rich and finely flavored, and an agreeable change while on the march.

— Shongo.
— — — —

A Hunt In The Rockies In Three Parts — Part III
August 25, 1892

Oct. 19, Camp on Robinson’s Fork. — After leaving our lovely camp on Warm River, en route for this point, we were obliged to work our way through gorges, scale mountains and cut trails through thickets. This stream is about half the size of Warm River, and its bed is composed of boulders, some of which are quite large and furnish ideal pockets for myriads of trout. The water is several degrees cooler than Warm River, but strange to say, not more than 60ft. from our camp boils up a spring, the water of which is as cold as ice water. We are about fifty miles from the nearest habitation.

On Thursday, the 17th, and the day after arriving here, Rea and the writer left with two days’ rations to look up game signs, returning yesterday morning, the 18th. We traveled over a large extent of country, ascending one of the highest ranges composing the continental divide, and in our ascent we went up places so steep that small rocks, starting to roll, would gain such velocity that they would jump from 20 to 60ft. at a bound before reaching the bottom of the canyon. Our trusted cayuses never missed a step. Warrior would nip bunch grass when descending places so steep that he seemed to be standing on his head. Our camp is within about fifteen miles of the Park line, and while on our scout yesterday and day before we were not more than eight miles from the Park line. Up to yesterday afternoon the weather was of the same character, heavy frosts at night and quite warm during the day. In the afternoon about 8 o’clock it began snowing, which was followed in half an hour by rain.

During our absence of two days Bush and Weber have been amusing themselves fishing and shooting small game in the neighborhood of the camp, and they have been quite successful, as is evidenced by a supply of fresh meat and several pelts on stretchers and tacked against trees near by. Yesterday evening on our return toward camp we struck a fresh elk trail, and this morning Rea, Bush and Weber started in pursuit, I concluding to remain in camp to write up my journal, repair some tears in my wardrobe, and arrange for an early march.

Fall River, Wyoming, Thursday Morning, Oct. 22. — Saturday afternoon about 4 o’clock Rea and Weber returned to camp and reported having found a freshwashed water hole by elk and moose, and we at once started for the vicinity, with blankets and provisions for two days. The game did not materialize, though we remained in ambush until long after dark. Weber and I were at the blind before daybreak and on the lookout. Rea scoured the hills and saw an elk, but he was too far off to get a shot. He killed a pine martin and shot a lynx, but too far back, and he was lost. We returned to camp about noon, empty-handed, solely on account of having no snow by which we could track the game.

During the night a bull elk came within 75yds. of our bivouac, and kept us awake by disturbing the stillness of the night with his peculiar whistle, well known to hunters where the wapiti abounds. The only water we could get had to be taken from the water hole which we had come to watch, and it was so saturated with the excrement of the animals visiting it that when our coffee was ready our friend of German descent could not drink it, neither could Rea and I without tasting more of the animal than the coffee flavor.

We spent all of Sunday afternoon getting ready to move early on Monday morning. I set two traps along the fork, and in the morning I had a fine specimen of the pine martin, which I carefully skinned for setting up, and it now adorns a secluded spot in my sanctum. Monday morning we were astir early, and made this camp about 4 P. M. We are camped in a beautiful canyon through which Fall River flows. Yesterday evening we caught in a short time all the trout we wished, and some of them weighed as much as 2lbs. They are of the salmon variety. Yesterday it rained all day and was somewhat unpleasant, until about 8 P. M. it cleared up, and to-day the sun is shining bright and warm. Six of the fifteen miles we traveled yesterday was through a burned district, and no signs of game were to be seen except what was made before the fire. We are heading for Jackson’s Hole on Like Wyoming, and as we will get an early start and have but about twenty miles, we hope to make it to-day. Bush, the mighty angler, is out whipping the stream, and by the time the packers are ready to start I expect him in with as many trout as he can take care of.

Tuesday Evening, Oct. 22. — As I expected, Bush came in with a fine string, and they tasted good for supper. We had some rain to-day, but it cleared off during the afternoon. To-day we passed over what is known as the Continental Divide, which puts us east of the grand old Tetons, which still loom up into the clouds, looking as grand and majestic as they did thousands of years ago, no doubt. On our march to-day we passed through what is known as the Teton Range, and at one point one of the spurs seems to have been cut abruptly off, leaving a beautiful meadow of say a hundred acres where the base of the mountain would have been. Imagine a spur of mountains ending in a perpendicular wall a thousand feet high, with here and there a stunted jack pine clinging to the rocks, its rootlets sucking an existence out of the interstices. Along the base meanders a small stream alive with trout, and soaring above its rocky summit were a dozen eagles, keeping watch over their favorite hatching places.

We are camped on the right bank of the Snake River, Wyoming, about six miles west of Jackson’s Hole, celebrated for the size of the trout caught in it and the seemingly inexhaustible supply.

Wednesday Morning, Oct. 23. — We had intended to take up our line of march for the lake this morning, but after a consultation Rea and myself concluded to take a hunt, the other boys, Rush and Weber, electing to remain in camp and fish at leisure.

Friday Morning, Oct. 25. — Here I am in camp alone — no. not altogether alone, for within 10ft. of where I sit are two members of that peculiar bird family well known to hunters and prospectors as camp robbers, picking up bits of meat, and just at this moment they are quarreling about a choice morsel. Although these birds are called robbers, no true hunter will harm them. More than once have I sat on a log or stone eating my lunch in the wilderness, not conscious of any living thing near me, when — as if by magic — one or a pair would appear, and frequently within a few feet of me.

As I was the sole occupant of our camp last night and of necessity my own cook and chief “bottle washer.” I have just finished a royal breakfast — good coffee, hot biscuit, and elk steak of my own killing. The history of this hunt in the Rockies, marred by the presence of almost universal forest fires, and the absence of snow, which was due over a month ago, only proves again that perseverance is always crowned with a certain degree of success, even under the most unfavorable circumstances.

Now to Wednesday’s hunt, which will explain why I am alone in camp. But before I proceed further it might be well to call attention to the locality in which we were encamped, Uintah county, Wyoming.

Jackson’s Hole, in Like county, is a continuation of that region beginning with the Washburn Range in the Yellowstone National Park, and continuing south and southeast, embracing the Teton Range, Wyoming Mountains and Wind River Range, for a distance of about 180 miles to the Sweet Water Mountains in southwestern Wyoming. I am fully convinced that there are more mountains, mountain gorges, deep canyons, high snowclad peaks, beautiful lakes and less park land here than any other section in which we have traveled. Directly east and across the Snake from our camp ran a range north and south, cut through with a deep canyon. We determined to make the summit, which could be seen covered with snow from the little valley below — the snow line being about midway between the summit and the foothills at the base, through which the Snake rippled over the pebbly bottom toward the lake.

An early start and a fearful ride through thickets, over high rocks and around canyons in an unbroken wilderness, brought us to the highest point of the range by 11 A. M. Here we dismounted, dropped our reins, and gently moved in the direction of the bluff or point where we were in a position to get a view of the country below us. We did not advance more than 50ft. until we were enabled to see over the whole top of the range — a country on top of the mountains. Below us was a scoop-out or basin, as near as we could calculate about two and a half by three miles in diameter, with a ridge or hog-back running through it from northeast to southwest. This basin was composed of small hills, open parks and clumps of stunted pines, with here and there a boulder, the general elevation being between 8,000 and 9,000ft. From our location we could see into nearly every nook of the territory composing the peculiar cup-shaped cavity.

For several minutes we scanned every part of the picture with our natural eyes, and just as I was about removing my field glass from its holster I thought I caught sight of four small objects which seemed to move, though they seemed not larger to the eye than a half-grown sheep, but dark in color. I said, “George, I’ve found them; look just this side of the divide, emerging from that clump of pines — what are they?” and handed him the glass. His practiced eye was not long in solving my enigma. “Elk! Game at last! See, they are still coming out of the clump of pines — 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18! Now for business!” One fine old bull with magnificent antlers, thirteen cows and four spring calves: they are our meat: we are entitled to it, and we need it. Keep cool and your powder dry, we will out-general them sure, if we can get down off this mountain and into the basin on the other side of the little divide. There we will leave our horses and slip on to them, and the battle will begin. They will get rattled and we may be able to drive them into the rocks beneath our feet, and bag the whole band. No time is to be lost! The top of the range was bald, that is to say without trees along the edge of the precipice, and for a distance varying from 50 to 200yds. to the timber line, tolerably well covered with bunch grass, and that with about 6in. of snow.

We were soon mounted, and after a brisk ride of about two miles, all the while on the lookout for a place to descend, we came upon the tracks of two elk. After following their trail for some 300yds., we were not surprised to find them good guides, as we suspected they had business in the basin, and they knew well where they could descend. Though very steep, we knew where elk could get down a cayuse could also.

Dismounting, we landed safely in the basin, and on the east side of the divide, after which we soon found a clump of trees in which to leave our horses. They were soon secured with the picket ropes. “Now,”‘ says George, “we will take off our coats, but all the ammunition we have must go along, for if we came up to that band of elk there will be a regular old-fashioned serenade, and that is what we want — follow me.”

Stealthily, though as rapidly as was prudent, we descended the west side of the divide, slipping from one clump of trees to another and pick over one little gulch to the top of another, until we came to their trail, which indicated that though being pursued they knew it.

Soon they turned to our left, toward the rocky range from the top of which we discovered them. “That is what we want,” whispered George, “we will bear off to the west and head them off.” To our right was a gulch running in the right direction. Hurrying down it 100yds. we crept up to where we could get a view of the situation. The guide was some 30ft in advance of me, and creeping on his stomach: suddenly he dropped his head and came running back. “I got sight of them just above us, and about 200yds. distant, and from the way they act I am convinced that they have winded us, but they are unable to locate us, as the currents of air in these basins have no regular course, one moment the elk would get a whiff of air from us, the next would be as like as not vice versa. Now we will follow this depression and get nearer, as we must make sure work.”

In a few minutes more we had by crawling on hands and knees gained our place of attack, and peering over the rise, our whole band was in full view at about 100yds., bunched or huddled together as closely as they could get. What a picture for a hunter! Eighteen of the noblest game in the Rockies, each one trying to see, hear or smell danger, which they felt was present, but no one of them being able to solve the mysterious disturbance of the atmosphere, and to complete the picture and make it still more interesting, on the opposite side of the herd from us towered the antlers of the only bull, who stood in a cowardly position, protected by the presence of the band of cows between him and our unerring rifles. “Have you got your wind yet,” asked the guide as I lay fiat in the snow on his right: “when you have, make sure work of that big cow in front. I’ll take care of the big one in front of me: perhaps my .45-90 will go through her and kill or wound another. When you are ready say fire, and off she goes.”

“Fire,” and the two cows fall. Still the herd stand, and quickly two more shots go into the band, both hits, and now they scamper up the mountain, which I omitted to mention was thinly wooded up to within about 200yds. of the rocky ledge, the point from which we first sighted them.

“Now come on, we will drive them to the rocks,” and off goes the giant, sixty years of age and six feet tall, bounding up the steep mountain like an antelope in pursuit. Were it to save my life I could not have followed him at his pace. In time I, too. got there, and I shall never forget the spectacle that met my gaze. Under two immense boulders as large as a 12ft. wall tent, at the very top of the mountain and some 200yds. from the timber line where we were, stood half of what was left of the band, including the bull. Some 50yds. lower down were the remaining half. We opened fire again, and it was not long before all save the four spring calves had shared a common fate.

Just as we had finished, a trapper named Joe Kemp, attracted by the firing, came to us and rendered valuable assistance in removing the entrails from the fourteen elk. It was 2 P. M. when we began, and at 5 P. M. we had succeeded in getting the bodies out from among the rocks and slid down to the foot of the range. By 5:30 we were ready to start down the mountain, a task which we feared would be not only dangerous but impracticable in the dark. Each of us strapped a hindquarter of elk behind his saddle for our hungry companions. Our new helper went with us, and after many detours over a terrible country, we at 10:30 reached the snow line, when the darkness of the night and the roughness of the route prevented further progress. We could do no better than build a fire and bivouac for the rest of the night, and without water for ourselves or horses.

In the morning, as soon as it was light enough for us to see our way, we started for camp, being obliged to follow the bottom of a gorge and in many places cut logs in order to make it possible to get through. Arriving at 9:80 A. M., we soon gladdened the hearts of our companions with the tale of our hunt, and at once set about organizing the pack train and getting it off to the scene of the killing.

Fortunately, within a mile of our camp the only other inhabitants of the section for many miles were in the trapper’s camp, Joe and his companion. A day or two before our arrival two men with a wagon had brought in their supplies for the winter, and were waiting to get meat and hides for a back load to Ricksburg, Wyo., as near as I can tell, about 105 miles from where we are located.

1892HR7Hides And Horns.
Drawn from an amateur photograph.

At 1 P. M. I had the satisfaction of seeing the whole outfit off for the top of the mountain, consisting of 9 men and 17 horses — 5 of the horses ridden by our party, and 12 to be used for packing the hides, horns and meat. Someone had to remain in camp, and the writer preferred to fill that position, and that accounts for my being alone.

Sunday Morning, Oct. 27.—The skinning out and packing in the meat, heads, horns and hides of fourteen elk proved to be more of a task than was first supposed, and our people did not get back to camp until Saturday at 2 P. M. The hides we kept and as much of the meat as we could make use of on our march home, and the rest we gave to our trapper friends, who were glad for so valuable a back-load. During my lonely vigil in camp I had full satisfaction with the rod and line, fishing in the Snake, and was not obliged to go more than a few hundred yards from the magnificent pool just in front of our quarters. The largest specimen weighed 3 1/2 lbs., caught with a small spoon bait. He made a good fight, and became the subject of a photograph, also of the process of skinning. While up the mountain the outfit came in sight of another herd of twenty-six elk, most of which could have been killed, but we had all that could be taken care of, and there was no object in pursuit except wanton destruction, and that ingredient did not enter into our composition.

The antlers of the bull elk proved to be of unusual size and perfect in every particular. It took me two hours yesterday to prepare the head for transportation on the animals, as it had to be sawed through its center and the flesh carefully trimmed off, our German artist making a good picture of the operation during its progress.

Yesterday evening we built a fire on the point of a small peninsula in the river, and tried the experiment of fishing by firelight. In three-quarters of an hour we caught 26 very fine trout by casting the line down stream as far as we could and then reeling up, when scarcely a single cast failed to get a strike, and mostly a fine trout.

To-morrow morning (Monday) the trappers’ team will start for their destination, and if the snows do not come they will get through inside of a week. This will afford us the first opportunity of sending out mail since leaving the ranch, and by arrangement we are to deposit the letters in a Royal Baking Powder can at the end of a log two rods north of the trappers’ camp, they being up the mountain bringing down the balance of the meat which they were unable to transport yesterday.

Rea’s Ranch on the Shotgun, Idaho, Nov. 2. — We arrived here yesterday at 4:80 P. M., after a continuous march of six days. We did no hunting or fishing, except the catching of a few fish as we needed them, and picking up a few ducks and an occasional wild goose while on the march.

The only incident worthy of note occurred one morning as we were nearly ready to take up our line of march. Three swans came flying along; Bush, who happened to have his gun in his hand, made the remark that he would have swan steak broiled for his supper, and as he made the remark he stepped a few feet from the fire, took aim and fired — and to the utter astonishment of all present the last swan in the row toppled and fell dead to the ground just 210 steps from where he stood. Swan invariably fly in single file and he averred that he aimed about 4ft. in front and 3ft. above the first swan. Upon examination it was found that the ball had passed through the neck 2in. behind the head. This was one of the most remarkable chance shots on record, at least in my experience, as the ball did its work not less than 16ft. further back than where it was aimed.

All hands were now busy attending to the hides, photographing the horses and their riders and arranging for the departure of Bush and Weber, who started for home next day. I remained a few days until the hides were in a condition to ship, when Rea and I took up our line of march to Beaver Canyon, where they were crated and shipped by freight East. As I write the sightless glass eyes of the bull, two cow elk and a black-tail buck appear to be looking down upon me from the walls of my office, and continually remind me of my most remarkable outing in the Rockies.

— Shongo. Lancaster, Pa.

1892HR8

source: George Rea 1892 Forest and Stream.pdf
[courtesy Neal Wickham]
—————–

Further Reading

George Rea

by Neal Wickham

“By 1892, George Rea had acquired enough fame that Forest and Stream, the nation’s premier outdoor magazine, sent reporters to Glen Rea to write an article about Rea and his ranch.

Rea’s real fame would come 8 years later when Rea defended Teddy Roosevelt’s honor as a sportsman in the national press after opponents in the 1900 election accused Teddy of shooting a trapped bear.

This is a great read as it’s very descriptive of Idaho in the 1890’s including a good description of a large group of Bannock also on a hunting trip.”

source: Facebook
— — — — — — — — — —

The frontiersman and Army scout, George Rea, who passed through the Island Park area in 1877, guiding Howard and his troops in pursuit of Chief Joseph and his people, and returned to settle on Shotgun Creek, has a pass, a peak and a post office named for him.

Rea’s post office was one of the stage line stations of the Bassett lines from Spencer to West Yellowstone, Mont., with the Arangee Co. Hotel as a stage stop.

Excerpted from: Fremont County History
— — — — — — — — — —

George Rea was the third settler of Island Park. He built his home in the Shotgun Valley just a few miles south of Henry’s Lake. George Rea not only operated the first cattle ranch and trout farm in Island Park, but he was a successful hunting guide. His most famous customer was President Theodore Roosevelt, whom he guided on several occasions through Island Park and the Yellowstone country. The George Rea had one of the very first private fish farms/hatcheries in the State of Idaho on his homestead in the Shotgun Valley.

excerpted from: History of Island Park, Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

Harriman State Park Of Idaho And The Railroad Ranch: A History

In 1872 [Yellowstone] the country’s first National Park. The early descriptions of Colter and Bridger had been confirmed, and the whole country became enamored by the wonders of the Park. Experienced outdoorsmen like Leigh, Bridger and George Rea made comfortable livings serving as Yellowstone guides.

George Rea was the first homesteader in Island Park. In 1877 Rea joined General O.O. Howard in his pursuit of the Nez Perce Indians, and greatly admired the Shotgun Valley which Howard’s troops passed through. In 1878, following the end of hostilities, Rea returned and filed a homestead claim there, establishing a ranch named “Glen Rea.”

excerpted from:
—————-

Link to Idaho History Page (table of contents)
Link to Deer Hunting
Link to Elk Hunting
Link to Idaho Hunting Stories
Link to The Carlin Party Tragedy
———————–

Idaho History May 29, 2022

Idaho Elk Hunting

1898

Sportsman Edward Maberly

by Evan Filby – South Fork Companion

In 1894, Maberly graduated from a dental college located in Kansas City and practiced briefly in Nebraska. He moved to Boise in 1895.

An “ardent sportsman,” Maberly helped organize a state-wide sportmen’s organization. Through that body, he urged the passage of laws for wiser fish and game management. He sent a photograph of elk in the Teton foothills to Recreation magazine, with the statement that the herd numbered “some 1,500” and had just been shooed away from stacks of hay in the valley.

1898Elk-acaption: Maberly Elk photo. Recreation magazine, 1898.

He went on, “We rarely see so large a band of elk now; yet there are enough left to stock a vast territory if properly protected and judiciously hunted.”

Maberly served several terms as President of the Intermountain Gun Club. He won many awards at shooting contests in Boise and around the Northwest, remaining competitive well into his sixties.

References: E. H. Maberly, “Elk in the Teton Foot Hills,” Recreation, Vol. VIII. No. 2, G. 0. Shields, Publisher, New York (February 1898).

excerpted from: Sportsman and Idaho Dentistry Pioneer Edward Maberly
— — — — — — — — — —

1903

Elk hunting

1903ElkHunting-a

A hunter sits from a post high above the ground with a rifle waiting for elk. From Stonebraker photo collection.

source: William Allen Stonebraker Photographs, Digital Initiatives, University of Idaho Library
— — — — — — — — — —

1909

The Elusive Wapati

By Mike Demick, Staff Biologist Monday, March 24, 2014

In 1909, the state of elk populations in Idaho was so alarming a moratorium on elk hunting was declared in parts of the state. What had happened to once plentiful herds of elk in Idaho is the story of western expansion across North America. Lewis and Clark described vast herds covering the grasslands as they made their way west in 1805. As settlers began changing the landscape with farms and ranches, and unregulated market hunters decimated populations through hunting, wildlife like elk disappeared except in secluded parts of the Rocky Mountains. Alarmed by the rapid disappearance of wildlife, national leaders such as Theodore Roosevelt and Idaho’s own Emile Grandjean took action. Roosevelt’s efforts led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park; Grandjean’s determination helped establish a 220,000-acre game preserve in the Payette River drainage west of the Sawtooth Mountains. Elk herds protected in Yellowstone National Park would later be transplanted to preserves to restore elk in Idaho and throughout the West.

Idaho’s elk population today is a direct result of elk transplanted from Yellowstone National Park. Elk were first moved to Idaho in 1915 by railcar and other transplants happened until 1940. Since then, elk have flourished in Idaho and other intrastate transplants have been conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game to establish elk in unoccupied range. Today, an estimated 107,000 elk roam the state from the forests of North Idaho to the sagebrush country in the south. To learn more about Fish and Game’s current Elk Management Plan, check out this IDFG video:

To read more about Idaho’s elk population and other 75th Celebration stories, visit the Fish and Game website at (link):

source: Idaho Fish and Game
— — — — — — — — — —

“Live-captured Northern Range [Yellowstone] elk were the source for most elk transplant efforts throughout North America. More than 13,500 live elk were shipped from the Northern Range inside YNP to Canada, Mexico, and 38 US states.”

source: History and Status of Wild Ungulate Populations on the Northern Yellowstone Range
— — — — — — — — — —

1915

Game Laws for 1915

By Theodore Sherman Palmer, William Frederick Bancroft, Frank L. Earnshaw 1915

Game Refuges and Preserves

… Legislation affecting refuges was enacted in at least 14 States, and included not only provisions for new refuges, but changes to boundaries and elimination of several of those already created. … Idaho established the Lewiston Orchards preserve in Nez Perce County and the Black Lake game refuge in Adams and Idaho Counties (which was stocked with 50 elk from the Yellowstone National park), and renewed protection for five years on big game and game birds in seven counties in the southeastern corner of the State.

New Laws Passed in 1915

Idaho — Eight acts: Creating the Black Lake game preserve in Adams and Idaho counties (ch. 9); protecting quail in Lemhi County for four years (ch.33); closing season for five years on big game, quail, and Mongolian pheasants in Bannock, Bear Lake, Cassia, Franklin, Oneida, Power, and Twin Falls Counties (ch. 72); prohibiting hunting of mountain sheep and of females (and young under 1 year of age) of deer and elk (ch. 90); closing the State to elk hunting except for male elk in Fremont, Bonneville, Teton, and Bingham Counties (ch. 90); requiring written consent to hunt elk inclosed [sic] and posted lands (ch. 152); petitioning Congress to create the Sawtooth National Park.

source: Google Books
— — — — — — — — — —

Historical Perspective

Accounts from trappers and miners in the 1870s and 1880s indicate that elk occurred in the zone but were not as numerous as deer. Excessive use by livestock during the late 1800s and early 1900s severely damaged the Boise River and Big Wood River watersheds and reduced the area’s ability to support high numbers of elk. Additionally, heavy unregulated hunting by miners, market hunters, and local settlers drastically reduced big game populations during the late 1800s.

By 1905, it was difficult to find camp meat. Elk had been all but eliminated and deer observations were rare in the Boise River Basin and Big Wood River drainage.

In 1915, a reintroduction effort began with a release of elk from Yellowstone National Park into the Boise River drainage just above Arrowrock Dam. In 1930, the elk population in the Soldier Mountain area was estimated at 135 head. Reintroduction efforts continued in 1935 and 1936 with elk releases near Ketchum in the Big Wood River drainage.

Elk were abundant in McCall Zone prior to European settlement in the late 1800s. The proliferation of mining due to the gold rush in the late 1800s and early 1900s led to widespread slaughter of these animals to supply meat and hides for mining camps. As a result, elk became increasingly rare to see, and at one time were thought to be eliminated from the area. Remnant populations relegated to the more remote rugged portions of the zone survived. Translocation of elk from Yellowstone to places in McCall Zone such as New Meadows occurred in the late 1930s.

source: Idaho Department of Fish and Game
— — — — — — — — — —

1915IdahoElk-aFish and Game (Courtesy photo, Idaho Department of Fish and Game) “Import elk from Yellowstone 1915. In 1915 Idaho Fish and Game began importing elk into Idaho from Yellowstone National Park.” (via pinterest)
— — — —

“Grangeville Globe,” March 4, 1915

19150304GGShip Two Carloads of Elk Into State From Montana

The settlers over In the Chamberlain Basin and Mallard Creek sections will be surprised to learn that the state has just had 50 elk shipped in from the National Perk and Jackson Hole country for the purpose of “propagating and perpetuating the species” and that corrals and feeding grounds have been prepared for their reception over in the Black lake country. The few settlers in the sections mentioned have had some experience with elk during the past few years, as well as with the state officials and game warden’s department, which has taught them a sad and expensive lesson along that line.

Edward C. Harpison lives on Mallard Creek, some 25 miles south of Elk City, where he owns a ranch from which he has been trying to earn a living. The elk, which are abundant in that country form in herds and break down his fences and overrun his crops, not infrequently destroying his season’s labor. They come in at certain seasons and mingle with his domestic cattle and tramp out his meadows from which he cuts hay for his own animals. In severe winters he has fed and preserved the elk and has thus helped to carry out the efforts of the state which has had laws enacted preventing the killing of the same by hunters.

Mr. Harpison was out to Grangeville last season and was a guest of the local Commercial club at the regular weekly luncheon while here. Mr. Harpison related some of his experiences in dairying and “elk raising” which were very interesting. When the elk became so numerous under his fostering care as to be burdensome and destructive of crops, Mr. Harpison applied to the state asking that in view of the part he had taken in preserving the elk In that section, that he be supplied by the state with sufficient wire to fence his place against the elk invasions, but his petition was ignored. Yet the state can go to the trouble and expense of shipping elk in from another state, building corrals and employing persons to care for and feed them, but cannot see the wisdom or economy in co-operating with the pioneer settler who has helped protect and preserve the elk already here, and who has suffered loss and expended labor in doing so. This is all wrong in principle, as anyone with the least bit of sense or fairness must see, and should be corrected. The ‘Weiser Signal’ of last week contains the following account of the arrival of the recent elk shipment at that place and the interest shown in the same:

Two car loads of elk direct from their native health in the National Park and the Jackson Hole country were shipped Into Weiser Monday night and were transferred to the P. & I. N. Tuesday noon and taken to Council. While the animals were in this city there were more than 500 people visited the two cars and inspected the animals. In order to ship them in stock cars they had to be dehorned and much of their beauty was spoiled for the sight seers. The horns would have been shed shortly anyway and the loss of them is only for the time being. By the coming autumn they will be spread again in all of their seven or eight feet of glory.

Most of the animals were two year [olds but some were three. In all there] were 50 of which 15 were males and 35 female.

The intention of the man in charge was to have the elk taken off at Council where they are to be crated and then hauled over to The Bear river country and around through the Black Lake country. Corrals and feeding grounds have been prepared and there is little doubt about the elk ever straying far from the grounds where they will winter the first year.

Council Record: The 60 elk for the Black Lake preserve arrived Tuesday evening in two cars attached to the passenger train, and nearly the whole town was down at the depot to see them. They were taken to New Meadows to unload and two of them escaped and took to the hills at that point. From there they are to be driven to the preserve via Little Salmon and the head waters of Deep creek.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 04 March 1915.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

Note: The position of State Fish and Game Warden was created in 1899. (Idaho Blue Book)

source: Transcribed and posted to ID AHGP:
[ht SMc]
— — — — — — — — — —

Elk Hunting in Idaho

Timeline by Idaho Fish and Game

1915ElkTransport-a
1915: Elk transplanted to Idaho from Yellowstone Park.

1921: Women required to buy hunting and fishing license.

1938: Idaho’s first successful voter initiative passes creating the Idaho Fish and Game Commission and establishing Commission Districts.

1947: Controlled hunts first used to limit the number of sportsmen hunting a given area. Game preserves are opened to hunting. The Idaho Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit established at the University of Idaho.

1976: First general bucks-only deer and bulls-only elk hunting season.

1978: Burdette Prince property bought, to become part of Craig Mountain WMA. 11,527 acres of deer and elk range.

1997: Nancy Hadley Hanson of Sandpoint became the first female member of the Fish and Game Commission. A reorganization of elk hunting seasons was announced for public input, with implementation in 1998. … Commission proposes a fee increase on deer and elk tags to fund enforcement, wildlife surveys, a mandatory hunter report card and telephone survey.

1998: A system of 28 elk hunting zones was established, requiring hunters to choose a single hunting area and decide between an “A” and “B” tag defining season dates and weapons. Deer and elk tags fees were increased by $6. Mandatory hunter harvest reports were required from all deer, elk, and antelope hunters. A new elk license plate was offered to Idaho motorists.

excerpts from: Fish and Game History
— — — — — — — — — —

Elk Herd Challis Idaho

ElkHerdChallisIdaho1-a

Undated photo postcard

source: The Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
———————–

Further Reading

Link to Deer Hunting
Link to Idaho Hunting Stories
Link to The Carlin Party Tragedy
Link to Idaho History Table of Contents
————-

Idaho History May 22, 2022

Mysterious Death at Cabin Creek

Orlando Mel Abel

(Lower Big Creek)

Cabin Creek Area Map

MapCabinCreek-a

“Cabin Creek is listed in the Streams Category for Valley County in the state of Idaho. Cabin Creek is displayed on the “Vinegar Hill” USGS topo map quad.”

source: TopoZone Valley County, Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

Cabin Creek

The Caswell Brothers, Lu, Ben, Dan and Cort established the Cabin Creek ranch 15 miles west of the mouth of Big Creek where it joins the Middle Fork of the Salmon. The Caswells sold the ranch to John Conyers in 1902 and returned to mining at Thunder Mountain. In 1910, Conyers sold the ranch to O.M. Ables [sic] and John Routson. Ables [sic] eventually patented the land in 1913. Two other homesteads were established before 1920: Elizabeth Bellingham and Archie Bacon.

O.M. Ables [sic] met with a mysterious death in 1920, after sufferings a blow to the head. A bloody hay knife was found in a nearby beaver dam, but no one was accused nor convicted. The Payette Lake Star reported a story in Dec. 1919, that Mr. Ables [sic] was gored to death by a bull.

from: “Backcountry Homesteads” by C. Eugene Brock, “Valley County Idaho Prehistory to 1920”, Valley County History Project
— — — — — — — — — —

Mel Abel

In December 1919 Mel Abel was found dead at his ranch. “Four men were sent to retrieve the body. It took them 19 days, using skis and snowshoes to reach Cabin Creek and pull a sled with the body back to civilization.”

from: Ron Water’s review of “Cabin Creek Chronicle”

MelAbelBody-aMel Abel’s body (Idaho Historical Society)
— — — — — — — — — —

Orlando Mel Abel

Abel and Routson bought the Cabin Creek place in 1910, but disagreements caused Routson to move up to the Yardley/Beal/Moore Ranch. O.M. (Orlando Mel) Abel retired from the Rail Road and was a 32 degree Mason. He protested his sister’s filing on the upper Cabin creek homestead. He was killed in 1920.

The Masons hired men to bring Abel’s body to Cascade. They were Claude Jordan, Glen Morris, and Johnny Williams from Big Creek.

from: “The Big Creek Area”, by Catherine M. Gillihan, “Valley County Prehistory to 1920” by the Valley County History Project
— — — — — — — — — —

Idaho County Free Press. February 05, 1920, Page 1

19200212ICFPAbel1High Railroad Man Murdered on Big Creek, Claim

19200212ICFPAbel2Body Of Official Hidden In Stack Of Hay, Is Report From Valley Co.
O. B. Able, Prominent Mason of San Jose, Cal., Is Said to Have Met Foul Death
Killing Is Declared to Have Occurred on Big Creek, Just Across Idaho County Line

O. B. Able [sic], a prominent railroad official of San Jose, Cal., and a high Mason, is reported to have been foully murdered on Big creek, in Valley county, just across the Idaho county line, and his body hidden in a hay stack. Reports of the killing were received by way of Cascade, from which town a party has set out to penetrate the mountain wilderness and determine whether the story of the killing is authentic, and whether the body of Able is in such condition that it can be taken to Walla Walla, Wn., for burial.

The place were Able is declared to have met death is ninety miles north and east of Cascade, and at this season of the year is to be reached only by use of snowshoes and sledges.

First Report of Death

Six weeks ago word was received in Cascade that Able was killed by being gored to death by a bull, but recent developments indicate that he was murdered. Name of the alleged murder has not been revealed.

Dr. Ben F. Hall, a Mason, of Walla Walla, last week was sent to Cascade to investigate the killing of Able.

Able was prominently connected with railroad affairs in the west, and had offices in San Jose, Cal. For perhaps seven years he had owned a ranch in the Big creek country, in the almost inaccessible interior of Idaho, and was accustomed to spend his winters on the ranch, caring for his purebred cattle, of which he was a breeder. He went to his ranch last fall.

Several weeks ago word was received at Cascade that Able had been killed by a bull. Rigorous winter weather, however, prevented those who were said to have found the body from packing it to Cascade.

Sister Demands Probe

Recently a sister of Able [sic] arrived at Cascade from San Jose, and arranged for a crew, headed by Dan Drake and John Williams, of Knox, to start for the interior on snowshoes and bring out the body. The crew at last reports had not returned to Cascade, though long overdue.

Since departure of the searchers from Cascade, the murder theory has been advanced, perhaps due to rumors received at the Valley county seat from the interior country.

Walla Walla Masons, who were well acquainted with Able, have assumed the burden of the investigation for the fraternity.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 05 Feb. 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Idaho County Free Press. February 12, 1920, Page 1

19200212ICFPAbel3Abel’s Body Taken From Hiding Place in Big Creek Region
Corpse Of Rancher And Rail Road Man Conveyed To Walla Walla

Mystery surrounding the death of O. M. Abel, railroad man and rancher, whose body was found in a stack of hay, on Big creek, in Valley county, just across the Idaho county line, has not been cleared.

Abel was believed by some to have been murdered, while others are of the opinion he was gored to death by a bull.

In a telegram received by the Free Press, late Wednesday from the Cascade News, at Cascade, it is said the body of Abel had been removed to Cascade and from there transported to Walla Walla, Wa., for burial.

Text of Telegram

“A letter signed by three men, one of whom found the body,” the telegram reads, “says death of Abel is believed to have been caused by a bull. No inquest was held in Valley county. The body was taken from here to Nampa and prepared for shipment from there to Walla Walla, Wa., for burial. In an autpsy [sic] was held at Nampa, we have not been able to learn the facts. The body was turned over at Cascade to a representative of Abel’s Masonic lodge and the dead man’s sister.”

Abel was a friend and old school mate of L. M. Harris of this city. The article in last week’s Free Press concerning the death of Abel was the first word Mr. Harris had received of the tragedy.

Harris Has Photograph

Mr. Harris and Abel resided in Villisea, Ia., in their younger days. They attended dances together and were the best of friends. Mr. Harris has a photograph taken of Abel many years ago.

After Abel acquired the ranch on Big Creek, Mr. Harris received letters from him.

“I am not satisfied with the story that Abel was killed by a bull,” asserted Mr. Harris, Wednesday. “I know he had trouble with ranchers in the Big Creek country over the grazing of livestock, and I am of the opinion that he was murdered.

Once Lived in Baker

Abel left Iowa in the 90s, and engaged in railroad work in the west. He was for a number of years located at Baker City, Ore.

If Abel was murdered, as is the opinion of many familiar with the difficulties he had with ranchers in the Big Creek country, an effort is being made to cover up the matter. Probably the manner in which he met death will never be known.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 12 Feb. 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Idaho County Free Press. February 19, 1920, Page 1

19200212ICFPAbel4Blame Stranger For Abel Death; Rancher Slain By Blunt Instrument
Struck Three Times Over The Forehead and Once Near Ear Examination of Body Shows
Corpse, Frozen Solid, Thawing When Taken to Undertaking Parlors in Nampa

That O. M. Abel, rancher and railroad man, who met mysterious death in the Big creek section, just across the Idaho county line in Valley county, was killed by four blows from a blunt instrument, inflicted by a stranger with whom Abel had trouble, is the belief expressed following examination of the body recently in an undertaking establishment in Nampa. The body, frozen, was packed from Abel’s ranch on Big creek ninety miles to Cascade, and thence was taken to Nampa, for preparation for transportation to Walla Walls, where it was buried. Early reports were that Abel had been gored to death by a bull.

Warrants For Arrests

Reports reaching the Free Press within the last few days declare a case has been built up around circumstantial evidence, and that warrants have been issued for arrests in connection with the killing of Abel.

Dr. Ben F. Hill, who was sent to Cascade by Masons of Walla Walla to investigate the killing and take charge of the body, met at Cascade the party of men who went to Big Creek to remove the body. The body was thawed out in the establishment of a Nampa undertaker, and after eight hours was in perfect condition, appearing as though life had become extinct only a few hours before.

Information given authorities in south Idaho indicates that Abel was murdered, instead of having been killed by a bull. It is reported that an old-time mountaineer, residing near Abel’s cabin, told of an altercation between Abel and a stranger, who entered the Big creek country last summer on the pretense of cooking for fire fighters. The man was seen leaving Abel’s cabin on the day of Abel’s death.

Relates “Bull” Story

On the same day the man went to the nearest neighbor’s place and said that Abel had been killed by a bull. Two men then went to Abel’s ranch and found the body just inside the open gate of the feedyard. Investigation showed that death was caused by a narrow blunt instrument, with which Abel had been hit three times over the forehead, and one blow over one of his ears had pierced the skull. A hayknife, laying near where the body was discovered, was believed to have been the weapon used to kill Abel, as its width exactly corresponds with width of indentations on the victim’s skull.

Warrants are out for arrests, which it is expected will be made within a few days. Abel was a high Mason.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 19 Feb. 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Idaho County Free Press. April 08, 1920, Page 1

19200408ICFP3On Death Of Abel

While in the mountain country [taking the federal census], Mr. Davis had the opportunity of informing himself on the mysterious killing of O. M. Abel, last winter, on Big creek. Mr. Abel, a rancher, was reported to have been killed by a bull, but circumstances pointed to murder. The bull, which is said to have gored Mr. Abel to death, was a yearling and was dehorned, said Mr. Davis. A man in the employ of Mr. Abel was arrested and taken to Cascade, seat of Valley county, for a hearing. Rumor has it in the mountains that more than one man was implicated in the killing of Abel.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 08 April 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Oakley Herald. April 09, 1920, Page 1

In The Gem State

19200409OH2
C. A. McDermand has been arrested charged with the murder of O. M. Abel, who was found with his head beaten to a pulp on December 15 near Deep Creek [Big Creek] McDermand denies killing Able.

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 09 April 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Bull or Murder?

[Archie] Bacon had been living on and homesteaded above Abel on Cabin Creek, but went out to educate his two girls, Ruth and Mary. Ed James, a famed cougar hunter and guide, moved onto the place with his wife.

Ed James was accused of Abel’s murder.

Ed James said every time Abel passed that bull he would jab it with pitch fork or shovel, and the bull pawed the ground every time Abel approached. James said Abel was the meanest man that he ever met.

from: “The Big Creek Area”, by Catherine M. Gillihan, “Valley County Prehistory to 1920” by the Valley County History Project
——————

Further Reading

Valley County Idaho Prehistory to 1920” by the Valley County History Project Link: book at Amazon:
Link: Cabin Creek History
Link: Big Creek – Edwardsburg History (Table of Contents)
——————-

Idaho History May 15, 2022

A Stibnite Story

John D Nicholson

by Bob Clarkson

During the years that I worked with Johnny, he related quite a bit about himself to me. However, many of the details and dates have slipped from my memory.

He was of Icelandic origin and in many respects was an unusual personality. He possessed a lot of talent and was a very intelligent person – but with a weakness. That weakness prevailed during young manhood in the days of moonshine and bootlegging, perhaps with a measure of gambling fever thrown in.

Anyway, that is the substance of his college days and perhaps for a time after, finally leading to his sinking quite far down into the gutter. Some of his classmates at the University of Idaho College of Mines, like Otto Brown and Jim Lange, sometimes commented on Johnny’s particular and sort of resourcefulness in getting through college – with poker winnings.

I don’t have dates available, but he was in and around the Cascade area during the middle twenties. He was first married to John Croco’s daughter and worked with his father-in-law for a time mushing dog team service into the back country. A son was born of that marriage. The Croco girl was his “one and only”, but her untimely death apparently led to still more drinking and the subsequent wrath of her family. Little was known of his son.

Johnny told me this story of taking a sled load of moonshine along with the mailsack into Deadwood Mine for the holiday season. Cy Garber was then running the camp and got wind of the plan. On the day Nicholson was scheduled to arrive, Cy was ready and waiting up the trail. He stopped the outfit, checked the contents of the load, removed the mail, and proceeded to bash the jugs of booze against a big granite boulder. Then Cy allowed as how the likes of Nicholson had better not show in those parts ever again and sent Johnny and his dogs a-packin’ with an empty sled and pocketbook!

Johnny used to worry that Cy would remember that occasion when he came to Stibnite from Kellogg some years later.

In those earlier years, he is credited with helping Hennessy stake his claims on the East Fork above Sugar Creek – he and Hennessy must have been a pair!

It was probably after that time when he graduated from Shadel’s cure in the alcoholic sanitarium of that name in Seattle.

He often spoke admiringly of an uncle in Minnesota who was a mechanical genius, a very successful inventor of early food packaging machinery (the first of which was a measuring and wrapping device for Blue Goose cheese, all done mechanically.)

It was shortly before returning to Stibnite that he was married to Lucia. They were a pair, to say the least, and it was interesting to contemplate how much different personalities got along so well together.

It must have been after Shadel’s, and, of course, prior to returning to Stibnite, that he put in a hitch as a design engineer for Boeing in Seattle (the early World War II years). One of his constant complaints with us was that the project was always finished before his drawings could be completed!

Nevertheless, Johnny was a rare person! Invariably had his thoughts working to organize something for pleasure or service to others in need.

That year when work was somewhat off, he took leave, so that he and Lucia could winter in Bear Valley. The desire was to have a winter of solitude, Johnny to fur trap and write, at both of which he was adept. Another objective was to soak out some of the old poison in the hot spring flowing nearby their lodgepole cabin.

That winter of ’46/’47 made some interesting story material in itself.

Another time he organized and carried out a project to restore, with an appropriate bronze marker, some semblance of dignity to the old Roosevelt Cemetery. With the help of those still around who had knowledge of names and events of Thunder Mountain’s heyday, the bronze marker was obtained and placed at the site. That was done along with other improvements to preserve the historic value of an old goldrush graveyard.

The foregoing is quite typical of Nicholson’s ever-busy mind. That, coupled with his being an insatiable coffee drinker and loving to play the odds, gives one a picture of the person.

From Stibnite, when the decline was settling in, Johnny and Lucia moved on, as mining people do. Their next and final stay was in the Henderson area of Nevada. While there, the drafting tools and slide rule were put aside for retirement, but unfortunately, the latter was of short duration, and a lot of planning went unfulfilled.

Thus it was a keen loss of a special sort of friend to many when Johnny, in words he would likely use, ”cashed in his chips”.
— — — —

JohnDNicholsonBook-aWhite buffalo and Tah-tank-ka by John D Nicholson
Published: January 1, 1941

link: Amazon

from Sandy McRae (courtesy Scott Amos)
— — — — — — — — — —

Stibnite Photos

New-Doc-2018-04-06_7-aCaption: Harry Whithers w/ pole, John Croco, about 1929, lead dog named Streak

New-Doc-2018-04-06_7-b(zoom of above photo)

Stibnite Mine Photos

New-Doc-2018-04-06_2-aStibnite Hospital

New-Doc-2018-04-06_10-a

New-Doc-2018-04-06_6-aMill Machinery

New-Doc-2018-04-06_3-a

New-Doc-2018-04-06_8-a

New-Doc-2018-04-06_9-a(Marked 56-11-2)

photos from Sandy McRae (courtesy Scott Amos 4/6/2018)
————–

Further Reading

Link to Back County Mail Carriers
Link: to Roosevelt Cemetery
Link to Deadwood (part 1 Mining)
Link: to Stibnite History (table of contents)
Link: to Thunder Mountain & Roosevelt history
Link: to The History of Schick Shadel Hospital in Seattle
—————–

Idaho History May 8, 2022

Idaho Hunting Stories

Idaho Newspaper Clippings

Elk Hunting 1903

1903ElkHunting-aA hunter sits from a post high above the ground with a rifle waiting for elk.

source: William Allen Stonebraker Photograph Collection, Digital Initiatives, University of Idaho Library
— — — — — — — — — —

1890

1890TrappingIdahoCity-a1890 Oct – Trapper on Middle Boise in town (Idaho City)

A hunter and trapper from Geo. Alexander’s place, on Middle Boise, was in town yesterday with deer and bear hides, and also muskrat, mink, martin and beaver hiders. One of the black bear hides is of enormous size. Gus Schlosser bought the whole outfit.

Idaho Semi-Weekly World, Idaho City, October 28 1890
source: AHGP
[h/t SMc]
— — — — — — — — — —

Hunting near Big Creek 1903

1903HuntingNearBigCreek-aPack horses have deer carcasses strapped to them.

source: William Allen Stonebraker Photograph Collection, Digital Initiatives, University of Idaho Library
— — — — — — — — — —

1891

1891MooseProtected-aIdaho Moose

The Governor may and probably will sign the bill for the protection of the great American moose in Idaho. But where is the moose? There are hundreds of men who have traveled all over the wildest parts of Idaho since its earliest settlement and have never yet for once feasted their eyes upon a moose track. It is said that one was seen in the Teton basin some years ago but that it had escaped from a traveling show. The crocodiles of the Snake and the royal Bengal tigers of Idaho should come in for their share of protection.
– Boise Democrat.

The Democrat is mistaken. There have been quite a number killed in Idaho, and a few in this county. A good many years ago one was killed on the South Fork of the Payette, not far from Banner, and his big, flat horns remained for a number of years to mark the spot where he fell, and as undeniable evidence of the fact that the animal was a moose. During the summer of the Yellow Pine excitement and the stampede for the alleged gold fields of Long valley, a boy slew a moose near the head of Long valley, and it was said that the animal weighed 1,800 pounds. One passed through Garden valley a few years ago. Dave Bunch, the veteran Nimrod of that valley, got on the track and did not give up the chase until he reached the North Fork. Dave says the animal made a track larger than a big ox’s, and he went through a rugged, rocky country that a footman could scarcely get through. Moose have been seen and killed in different sections of Central Idaho, but they are not very numerous. For that reason it is well that a law has been enacted for their protection. Idaho, although not as prolific in this species of big game as in other kinds, still our young State is not entirely mooseless. These big animals are said to be quite numerous, however, near the head of Snake river, in Idaho. Two were seen between this place and Silver Mountain last fall.

Idaho Semi-Weekly World, Idaho City, February 13, 1891
source: AHGP
[h/t SMc]
— — — — — — — — — —

Stonebraker hunting camp 1905

1905StonebrakerHuntingCamp-aView of the camp with tents and men in the Chamberlain Basin.

source: William Allen Stonebraker Photograph Collection, Digital Initiatives, University of Idaho Library
— — — — — — — — — —

1904

The Prospector and Thunder Mountain News November 12, 1904

Locals

There are a good many parties out hunting just now and venison is not hard to find.

Bud Davis and M. B. Merritt returned the 6th inst. from ten day’s hunting. They each secured two large bucks and saw many mountain sheep, of which latter they could not get in good shooting distance.

source: Sandy McRae and Jim Collord
— — — — — — — — — —

Hunting near Big Creek 1905

1905HuntingNearBigCreek-aTwo hunters hold rifles staring out into the distance. Three horses stand with supplies packed to their backs.

source: William Allen Stonebraker Photograph Collection, Digital Initiatives, University of Idaho Library
— — — — — — — — — —

1905

The Prospector and Thunder Mountain News April 1, 1905

19050401Pg3-txt1headline1a
Idaho’s Game Law.

During the session of the last legislature, considerable attention was given to the fish and game law. The law as it now stands is a good one and all good citizens of the state will unite in upholding it. We are too apt to disregard the value of the wild animals of our forests. There is perhaps the finest hunting ground in the world right here in Idaho. Elk, deer, bears of several varieties, mountain sheep, beaver, martin, grouse and all small game abound in our great mountain fastnesses. Nothing but wanton disregard of all decent and sportsmanlike hunting will ever despoil our forests. The only game which really needs protection at the present time is Elk, deer and mountain sheep.

Three great evils menace the increase, and even the continuance of these fine species of game in this section of the country, namely:

Destruction by cougars,
Wanton slaughter,
And sale of wild game.

The first named is perhaps the worst evil of till. Few people realize the terrible destruction of deer caused by the cougar, or American lion. Many mountaineers estimate that every full grown cougar kills not less than thirty deer each year, and so the wisdom of the late legislature is shown, in offering a bounty of $15 for every cougar killed – the cougar is of absolutely no use – a sneaking, cowardly beast which stealthily crawls upon his prey and springing from his lair sets his jaws in death grip on the throat of his victim.

The second evil, wanton slaughter, is fast disappearing from this section, though we have suffered from it in the past. It seems hardly credible that any man would stand and deliberately shoot a wild deer of the forest for the pleasure of seeing it fall in death throes. Unfortunately such has been the case and right here in Thunder Mountain.

There are men, God grant they are few, so deeply depraved that a living mark is preferable to a target for rifle practice, even though it be the finest specimen of wild game for which they have not the slightest use except the morbid satisfaction of seeing it give up its life.

Last year three fine elk were killed in the Chamberlain Basin – they weighed from 300 to 500 pounds each. Two teeth were taken from each elk and the carcasses were left to rot. The State Game Warden, Van Irons, used every means to bring the dastard who killed them to justice; he failed because the two witnesses who could testify for the prosecution were too cowardly to do so, and left the state.

But perhaps the least excusable and most disgraceful of all the agencies of destruction of wild game animals is claudestine [sic] sale of the meat. We believe there is not a state in the union where deer or elk may be legally sold – there is certainly not one where any attention is given to the preservation of game. No good citizen will sell a deer or elk. It is legally as well as morally wrong; and no man who has respect for himself and interest in his community and those who are to come after him, will, for a few paltry dollars, so degrade himself.

No restaurant or hotel keeper who is honorable and does a legitimate business will serve a piece of deer meat at his table unless it is furnished by his guest.

The state of Maine has the finest hunting and fishing of any or the older states. Why? Because it has the most stringent laws, and because every citizen upholds them.

Maine’s revenue from her game and fish probably amounts to $1,000,000 a year. That amount is brought into the state. A man may leave Boston in the morning and be in the very heart of a great game country at night.

On the shores of Rangely Lake, is situated a hotel property worth not less than $100,000 – the “Rangely Lake House,” which is supported by the fish and game resources. There, a man may be given six months in jail for killing a deer out of season and at the Parsons Hotel on Dead River where the deer may be seen any sunny morning at the edge of the wood, you can not get venison served unless you legally kill it yourself.

The preservation of the game makes revenue to every man in the country, farmer, guide, boatman, liveryman and hotel keeper.

The time is not too distant when the same conditions may exist here if every citizen will do his own honest part in strengthening the arm of the law. We owe it to ourselves; we owe it to those who come after us.
— — — —

On the Middle Fork of the Clearwater River, B. F. Cressler recently had a most marvelous escape from death says the Stites Journal. He was hunting and had chosen a sunny spot on which to eat his lunch. He took a cup of coffee and walked to the edge of a cliff a few feet away where stood a lone fire tree fully 325 feet above the rocks below. Hearing a slight noise he turned and saw a huge black bear eating the bacon he had just left. His rifle stood leaning against a tree very near Mr. Bear who after finishing the bacon, came defiantly toward him. Nothing could be done but climb the tree; this Mr. Cressler did, and did it quickly. The bear came also but with exasperating deliberation. The man had climbed as high as e dared to go. The rocks under the cliff were fully 400 feet below him. He felt pitch on the limb he clasped and with perfect self possession he cut a small limb, split the end and fastened in a piece of the pitch The bear was now within five feet of him; with his only match he lighted the pitch and allowed the scalding drops to fall on the bears face. One burning drop fell into the nostril and the bear, crazed with the pain, raised both front paws to scratch away the fiery torture, lost his hold and fell with a dull thud to the rocks below. Mr. Cressler made haste to desend [sic] and in recounting the adventure modestly said “that was a close call.”

source: Sandy McRae and Jim Collord
— — — — — — — — — —

The Prospector and Thunder Mountain News April 15, 1905

19050415Pg3-txt1headline-aNew Fish and Game Law.
Provisions of Enactment of the Last Legislature Put into Paragraphs

The following is a digest of the fish and game law enacted by the last legislature, which has been prepared in response to numerous inquires from sportsmen:

Licenses under the provisions of this act are of four classes, namely:

1. For a bona fide male resident (over 12 years of age) for six months prior to issuance, costing $1, entitling the holder to fish and hunt all kinds of game subject to the restrictions of this act.

2. For non-residents of Idaho, a big game license, costing $24, entitling holder to hunt the animals hereinafter mentioned, subject to the restrictions of this act.

3. For non-residents of Idaho, costing $5, entitling holder to hunt birds, subject to the restrictions of this act.

4. For non-residents, costing $1, entitling holder to catch fish with hook and line only, subject to the restrictions of this act (required of all non-residents, regard less of sex.)

Females and children under 12, residents of Idaho, are not required to procure license to fish and take game.

All licenses expire January 31 next following date of issuance.

The open season is as follows:

Trout, grayling, bass and sunfish may be caught at any time with hook and line.

Salmon, sturgeon, carp, mullet, sucker, whitefish, Bear Lake trout and charr may be caught with seine, net or spear.

Quail, Nov. 1 to Dec. 1; sage hen, July 15 to Dec. 1; turtle dove, snipe and plover, Aug. 1 to Nov. 1; partridge, pheasant, grouse, prairie chicken and fool hen, Aug. 15 to Dec. 1; duck, Sept. 1 to Feb. 1; geese and swans, Sept. 1 to Feb. 1.

Elk, deer, mountain sheep, mountain goat, Sept. 1 to Dec. 31.

Not more than 20 pounds of trout, bass, catfish, grayling, or sunfish may be caught in any one day, and not more than 30 lbs. to be had in possession at any time.

Unlawful to kill or destroy, or have in possession at any time trout or black bass of less than four inches in length.

Unlawful to take fish by means of any deleterious drug or by means of an explosive.

Snag hook fishing is absolutely prohibited.

The taking of Mongolian pheasants is absolutely prohibited for four years next following the passage of this act.

Unlawful to snare or trap any protected birds.

Unlawful to kill more than 18 of each of the following kinds of birds in one day, namely, quail, sage hen, partridge, grouse, prairie chicken or fool hen.

Unlawful to take in any one day more than 24 ducks, three geese or three swans.

Unlawful to take fish by means of any deleterious drug or by means of explosive.

Unlawful to destroy nest, eggs, or the young birds of any game bird, or to molest such birds or their young, during breeding season.

The hunting or killing of moose, antelope, buffalo, beaver and caribou is absolutely prohibited.

Unlawful to hunt deer, elk, mountain sheep, or mountain goats with dogs or by means of a pitfall, trap or snare.

Unlawful to kill or capture more than one elk, two deer, one mountain sheep, one ibex, and one goat during the open season.

It is unlawful to sell any protected fish or animals at any time of the year.

Unlawful to hunt any song, insectivorous or innocent bird, except English sparrow, magpie or bee bird, at any time of the year.

Unlawful to cause to be set on fire any timber, underbrush, or grass upon the public domain.

Unlawful not to totally extinguish any fire near any forest, timber or other inflammable material, before leaving the same.

The possession of game or fish unlawfully taken is a misdemeanor.

All devices and nets used in unlawfully taking fish or game are subject to confiscation.

Any and all persons violating any of the provisions of this act are guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined in a sum not to exceed $300 and costs, or by imprisonment in the county jail not to exceed six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

– Statesman.

source: Sandy McRae and Jim Collord
— — — — — — — — — —

The Prospector and Thunder Mountain News April 29, 1905

Hunting and Fishing Grounds of Thunder Mountain.

Many inquiries have been received concerning the Thunder Mountain country as an outing ground and in answer to these many questions we publish a brief description of the country from a sportsman’s standpoint. Is safe to say that no other section in the United States presents a more pleasing prospect for the hunter and the angler than does this section of Central Idaho within a radius of twenty-fire or thirty miles from Roosevelt, the metropolis of the district.

In the very heart of the world-famed Bitter Root Range nestles the unique town of Roosevelt with the canyon walls fairly overhanging its streets.

This little city, a mining camp in the midst of one of the world’s richest mineral deposits, is also a center of one of the finest hunting and fishing grounds to be found in any land.

Marble creek, a brook six miles east of town, empties its waters into streams that flow to the sea. The creek is literally full of brook trout from six to ten inches in length.

Salmon trout are also very plentiful; this is a beautiful fish, and one of the best ever eaten, and varies in size from 5 to 22 pounds. Then there is the Red-side trout, weighing a pound to a pound and a half — from eleven to fourteen inches in length. All of these are fresh water fish and in winter go down the creek through the Middle Fork to the Salmon, perhaps even to the Snake river.

The last of July the Steelhead Salmon appears, having completed its long journey from the sea. This is a most remarkable salt-water fish. After maturing in the Pacific Ocean till three years of age, it starts on its inland passage to spawn.

Leaving the salt water and entering the Columbia it seems to have but one instinct: to go up stream to the very limit of depth. It passes through the Columbia to the Snake river, on through the Salmon to the Middle Fork and up Marble creek even to Belleco where the waters are so shallow that the fish’s back often protrudes from the water in its struggles to overcome the inborn instinct, sometime pitiful of reaching the source of the crystal mountain stream which seems to give life and vigor for the close of its thousand mile journey. When this fish reaches the mountain streams it is in fine condition — the meat is hard and delicious. But here the spawning is begun and the fish begin to fight. The males have continued and protracted fights, and shortly after their arrival begin to be wounded in these contests which may be seen from the bank of the stream — the water is thrown into foam in these struggles and the individual fish are rendered unfit to eat; for these reasons the Steelhead is good only upon his arrival.

Few of the Steelheads ever get back to the sea. The spawn is deposited and the little myriads of their young go down the tortuous channel to the sea and after maturing the same process of nature is repeated.

All tributaries of the Middle Fork receive this school as it comes from the lower rivers — the Salmon and Snake. The Monumental creek is now debarred on account of the waters being roiled by the operations of the Dewey mill. Some fish do come up this creek but the majority turn back and go … (page torn) … streams which remain … clear.

Big creek and other streams flowing into the Middle Fork get the full benefit and in return send back their myriads of young Salmon to the sea.

We have mentioned the fish, but for the hunter there is still greater attraction. Moose, Elk, deer, mountain sheep, mountain goats and small game abound.

No moose can be killed — they are protected by law and no true sportsman will kill this “Monarch of the Glen” while its species is being propagated. The legislature this winter placed a time limit of five years in order that the moose be given time to multiply.

Some of the largest elk heards [sic] in the world are within five miles of Roosevelt. This beautiful animal, which is the most perfect of all the horned species, is to be found within a days journey of town.

Deer are very plentiful. This graceful little denizen of the forest is found on every hand. When packers go out in the morning to get the stock, it is not an uncommon occurrence to see the deer among the horses. Thousands of deer are in these mountain resorts, and roam at will over vast ranges of the finest natural deer park in the world.

Mountain sheep are getting scarce. In summer they are found on the highest and roughest crags in this rugged country. Occasionally they are brought in and heads, with horns 13 to 16 inches in diameter, are gathered every year.

Wild goats, too, are hard to get; they live in the very highest altitudes of any animal in the Northwest. For a time in spring they come down to get fresh green grass after they have been living on the (?) of the peaks, but as the grass springs up on the mountain side they climb higher and can be found only on the very tops of high ranges.

The snowshoe rabbit, so called, is the best small game in the county. The thickets are full of them and they are delicious eating.

The above mentioned constitutes all the game animals. Grouse innumerable (?) found in all the woods as there are no sheep herds here to ruin their nests. Coyotes, which generally follow sheep ranges, are scarce in this country though not unknown — stray bands are sometimes heard by the prospector in the hills.

Foxes are not uncommon but most difficult to get. The rugged nature of the country gives them ample hiding, and the hunter seldom gathers one.

Black bears and brown bears are very plentiful. They are found sometimes within a few … (page torn) … to get. J. P. Bradner, of St. Paul, shot two last summer with a six shooter. R. C. Schofield killed a very fine grizzley, a year ago about thirty miles from here. The bear weighed not less than 800 pounds.

The mountain lion, the worst curse of all game destroying animals, is very plentiful. A contemptible, sneaking beast, it destroys vast numbers of deer and rabbits. The State legislature last winter established a bounty of $15.00 on each lion killed and this will lead to their destruction. For mounting or for rugs the mountain lion or cougar is a splendid specimen. They are often 12 or 14 feet from tip to tip and the skin makes a fine souvenir of the hunter’s skill. They very seldom attack man but will kill almost any wild animal of the forest.

In the issue of THE NEWS of April 15 we published a digest of the new game law of Idaho. All true sportsmen are welcome here and they will find royal sport. And by “sportsman” we mean the men who will fish and hunt according to law. That includes every man who is visiting the county; it includes every prospector in the hills. But it absolutely excludes the man who will ruthlessly slaughter the beautiful wild game of our forests. Nothing more like that will be tolerated. Public sentiment can always en-bone law and every man in Roosevelt and every miner and prospector in the hills will stand together in this matter and THE NEWS will give its assistance in bringing to justice any such vandal of the forest.
— — — —

As mentioned on another page, we have frequent inquiries from people on the outside concerning the hunting and fishing grounds here. The postmaster also receives many letters of this nature, and so for the benefit of all, we have endeavored to give authentic information concerning the fish and game of this locality. Roosevelt and the surrounding country is easily accessible from outside points. The trip can be made from Boise in four days over the newly completed wagon road and … (page torn) … through and the drive is a most enjoyable one. Good roadhouse accommodations may be found each evening and there will be no shortage of feed for animals. We have endeavored to give a good list of roadhouses which may be found in the advertising columns with distances shown, and tourists will find no privation or difficulty attached to a journey into this sylvan and virgin wild, where game and fish abound and where the bluest skies and clearest mountain streams give welcome to the dusty traveler. A growing sentiment exists to preserve the game. The State law is such that any true sportsman may gather his fish and game legally and yet see the county grow richer each year in the natural increase of the finest wild game to be found in the world.
— — — —

For much of the information contained in the front page article — the “Hunting and Fishing Grounds of Thunder Mountain,” we are indebted to Chas. L. Myers, one of the pioneers of this district and a very successful hunter and fisherman.

source: Sandy McRae and Jim Collord
— — — — — — — — — —

The Prospector and Thunder Mountain News July 15, 1905

Behind the Times

Recently there appeared in the Boise Statesman an item referring to a communication sent to that paper by a certain citizen of Roosevelt, the burden of which having been a complaint relative to alleged violation of the game laws in this section of Idaho. It was claimed that no deputy game warden was in here and no hunting or fishing licenses could be procured. It was also alleged that elk and deer were being ruthlessly and wantonly slaughtered in open violation of the law.

This no doubt makes fine reading for a person posing as a would-be friend and protector of the game and fish, and who perhaps is so situated that he can leisurely search out the game laws and provisions, and according to their requirement, sit placidly back awaiting their fulfillment and then go forth with a copy of the said laws in one hand and mayhap a rapid fire, smokeless, telescope rifle in the other, to wage warfare on the helpless game for pleasure only. Yes, perhaps.

But what of the rough and ready prospector, of him who penetrates the trackless wiles of these almost inaccessible hills, and blazes and pioneers the way that such as the aforementioned friend and protector might profit and be benefited? These men that cut loose from bases of supplies and are swallowed up for weeks or months in the tangled environment of mountain and forest and rushing steam, and rarely meeting others of their kind, must of necessity carry but scanty supply of provisions, and it has long been a custom of the wilderness to allow them the privilege of taking game at any time as their necessity demanded. This, of course, is not an adherence to the exact letter of the law, but we know of cases in which latitude was sometimes extended by the law to apply to certain conditions.

We do not mean to be understood as upholding the unlawful slaughter of game or of its wanton destruction for sport, but when conditions are such as to render imperative the taking of game and that quickly to maintain life, as is often the case with prospectors, then it should, we believe, be an occasion for the exercise of a little latitude.

As to the impossibility of procuring fish and game licenses at Roosevelt, we can say that the Statesman’s correspondent manifests much ignorance of things most commonly known. Our resident justice of the peace, Jas. McAndrews, is empowered to issue the licenses whenever required. It might be well for the above mentioned correspondent to post up a little before he again attempts to butt in.

source: Sandy McRae and Jim Collord
— — — — — — — — — —

Hunting And Fishing 1915

1915HuntingFishing-a3 men posing with the catch from a hunting and fishing trip. They have all the fish and fowl hanging from a pole. George Edward Tonkin and 2 unidentified men.
Photo: P1998-28-076, George Edward Tonkin, ISA

source: Idaho State Historical Society
— — — — — — — — — —

1919

1919BarHuntingFromPlanes-aBar Hunting From Planes
Shooting of Wild Fowl by Airmen With Machine Guns prohibited.

Washington — Shooting of wild fowl with machine guns from airplanes, the latest device employed by sportsmen along the Atlantic coast, has been forbidden by order of the director of military aeronautics. Instructions have been issued by the director to conduct all flights along the coast wherever migratory wild fowl may be found in such a manner to interfere as little as possible with the birds.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. Page 3 (Moscow, Idaho), 05 March 1919.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Hunting near Thunder Mountain 1926

1926HuntingNearThunderMtn-aA hunter (W.A. Allen Stonebraker) holds the antlers of an elk trophy.

source: William Allen Stonebraker Photograph Collection, Digital Initiatives, University of Idaho Library
— — — — — — — — — —

1920

Idaho and Idahoans

The state game warden will complete his plans for shipment of 200 Wyoming elk into Idaho at a conference to be held with eastern Idaho deputies.

source: The Challis Messenger. Page 7 (Challis, Idaho), 04 Feb. 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

19200214StarvingElk-aSeek To Save Starving Elk
Two Principal Herds in Country in Danger of Serious Depletion
Special Fund To Buy Hay
Officials of Department of Agriculture Making Every Effort to Procure the Needed Feed – Scarcity of Forage

Washington – The two principal herds of elk in the United States – one of which is under the protection of the biological survey of the United States department of agriculture – are in danger of such serious depletion, due to early severe weather and feed shortage, that special funds have been set aside for the purchase of hay for these animals whose home is in and near Yellowstone national park. Department officials are making every possible effort to procure the needed feed despite the serious scarcity of hay and forage in the region. Approximately 40,000 elk roam this section of the country. They are divided into two groups, known as the northern and southern herd, respectively. The latter, which winters in the vicinity of the Jackson Hole, to the south of Yellowstone park, is the one for which the department of agriculture is seeking to make provision.

Ranchmen Slow to Part With Hay

Reports have recently been received from government representatives in the region of Yellowstone national park stating that many elk are destined to starve if the present severe weather continues and if no additional supplies of feed are provided. On the winter elk refuge in Jackson Hole the department has in store approximately 1,300 tons of hay which normally would be sufficient to carry the southern herd through the winter. But cold weather and heavy snows came so early that there is grave danger that the animals will be without feed before many weeks have passed. Ranchmen in the region are confronted with a serious condition and are reluctant to part with any of their hay.

Largest Herds in Country

The northern elk herd is under the supervision of the national park service of the department of the interior, which is also making every effort possible to prevent loss of these animals.

These two herds are the largest elk herds remaining in this country though at one time elk were to be found in large numbers as far east as the Blue Ridge mountains. These animals, like the buffalo and antelope, have now been reduced to a mere fraction of their former numbers. The few herds that remain besides those in the vicinity of the Yellowstone park are relatively small. Loss of many of the animals in the larger herds might be irreparable, say government officials.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. Page 4 (Moscow, Idaho), 14 Feb. 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

State Game Census

The game census of the forests in the fourth district, comprising the states of Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Nevada and Arizona, as been made public. It shows that Idaho is the only state in the district that has all varieties of same listed. The census of this states is as follows: Deer, 20,140; elk, 1,721; mountain goats, 4,275; mountain sheep, 1,018; moose, 200; antelope, 324. Wyoming has 20,256 elk, which is the largest number in any state. Dr. Scarbourough has published a statement to the effect that elk are holding their own very well.

source: The Idaho Recorder. Page 1 (Salmon City, Idaho), 27 Feb. 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Northwest Notes

Game hunting has taken on more the characteristics of a business than of a pleasure pursuit in Idaho, if judged by profits. The West Palisade stockgrowers in the Targhee forest have offered a bounty of $25 a head for wolves.

About 50 per cent of the 40,000 elk in Wyoming are in the Jackson Hole country. Of those less than 7000 were fed in the feed grounds this winter.

source: The Idaho Recorder. Page 3 (Salmon City, Idaho), 19 March 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

2230 Deer and 135 Elk Killed in Idaho, 1919

Idaho hunters in 1919, killed 2230 deer, 135 elk and seventy-seven mountain sheep, according to a report made to Governor Davis by Robert O. Jones, state commissioner of law enforcement.

Discussing the work of the state game department, the report says in part:

“During the big game season, Game Warden Otto M. Jones, instructed all assistant chiefs and local deputies to keep careful check on all big game killed and taken out of their districts. The reasons for so doing were to prevent as far as possible violations of the game laws; that is the killing of more than the limit for one person of large game. It was also desired to have a record of approximately the amount of game killed during the hunting or open season. Various reports now on file with the bureau as received from game wardens and also the forestry service, which cooperated with this department in every respect, indicate that during the year 1919, there were 2230 deer killed in Idaho, 136 elk and seventy-seven goats. These figures of course, are not absolutely authentic.”

source: Idaho County Free Press. Page 1 (Grangeville, Idaho), 25 March 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Demand Change In Game Laws

From all over the state some demands for changes in the Idaho game law so as to permit individuals or associations to propagate fowls and fish. Several Idaho newspapers have taken up the case for the public, pointing out that there should be no legal prohibition placed on the individual or an association raising fowl and fish on their or its own property the same as they can raise chickens. These editors see no interference whatever with the prerogatives of the sportsman. In fact, the avenues for replenishing wild game life are increased, they declare.

The issue was raised in the case of the Idaho Game Breeders’ Association. The state game warden permitted the association to engage fur raising but refused to grant a permit for game birds and fish.

while this does not interfere with the prime objects of the association it might rob it of one of the features as to its Hagerman valley farm, where it had been planned to place wild birds and water fowl as an attraction for visitors.

source: Payette Enterprise. Page 1 (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 01 April 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Idaho State News Items

Game licenses for 1920, valued at four hundred thousand dollars, are being distributed by Otto M. Jones, state game warden, and assistants to his department. The forest supervisors and all deputy game wardens in the state will receive quotas of the licenses, each man being held accountable for the money value of the licenses he receives. The licenses are similar in form to those issued in 1919 and will be issued for the same fees.

source: The Rathdrum Tribune. Page 1 (Rathdrum, Idaho), 02 April 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Local Pick-ups

Deputy Game Warden Heathershaw has received word of a ruling of the state attorney general to the effect that there is no closed season on bear in Idaho and that they nay be taken the year round if the hunter has a regular hunting license and a trapping license.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. Page 5 (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 06 April 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Game Warden Here

W. C. Brooks of Moscow, deputy state game warden, was in Kendrick Tuesday morning. While here he appointed Charles McKeever game license vendor for Kendrick. Heretofore there have been three license vendors but Mr. Brooks says it eliminates considerable work for his office if there is but one vendor in a town. He has cut the number to one even in Moscow.

Mr. Brooks stated that a change in the game laws will require farmers who wish to shoot squirrels to buy hunting licenses. The law now reads that anyone who wishes to carry a gun in field or forest must first procure a license. According to the letter of the law anyone caught carrying a gun without a license is breaking the game laws of the state.

Mr. Brooks says he is going to plant large quantities of trout in the streams of Latah county. He has ordered the limit and expects to distribute them all over the county where they will be likely to thrive. He has ordered nothing but brook trout.

In regard to boys fishing out of season, he says he may have to use drastic measures, as this is one of the hardest problems the game department has to contend with. He expects to visit this territory often this spring and is going to keep a close watch to see that the closed season on fishing is not violated.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. Page 1 (Kendrick, Idaho), 09 April 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

1920CarryLicense-aMust Carry A Idaho License
Game Warden Issues a Warning To All Sportsmen

New and stringent rules put out by State Game Warden Otto M. Jones, require all hunters and fishermen to carry their licenses with them or to chance arrest for hunting or fishing without a license. All deputies have been instructed to ignore the wellworn excuse: “I left my license at home,” and the license and gun or rod must stick together.

W. H. Heathershaw, deputy game warden for Boundary and Bonner counties, states that he will enforce the new rule without fear or favor and that all violators will be prosecuted.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. Page 1 (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 13 April 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

19200416TIR3-aBig Game Census Shows Increase
Plenty of Deer, Elk and Mountain Goats Says Jones

Federal forest service officials, submitting to Otto M. Jones, state game warden, their 1919 game census for southern Idaho, Thursday reported rapid increase in big game in the state.

Here are the present totals reported by forest supervisors of game in the Boise, Cache, Caribou, Idaho, Lemhi, Minidoka, Payette, Salmon, Sawtooth, Targhee and Weiser national forests: Deer, 16,575; elk, 1200; mountain goats, 2861; mountain sheep, 1134; moose, 70; antelope, 284.

In the same territory there were killed during the year 1090 deer, 30 elk and 80 mountain goats.

“Nearly all the supervisors report an increase in big game,” said R. C. Gery, acting district forester at Ogden. This is generally attributed to the game preserves, to destruction of predatory animals and better enforcement of laws.

A continuous closed season for mountain sheep is recommended, however. Mr. Gery said: “In spite of the closed season, the mountain sheep do not seem to be more than holding their own. The total number of sheep is very small considering the area involved and it is evident that a continuous closed season is necessary.”

Other excerpts from the report are here given:

“There is an increase of moose on the Targhee forest and it is hoped that a more rapid spread of this excellent game animal will result. It is apparent that it will survive more adverse winter conditions of snow and forage than either deer or elk.

“On several forests, September 15 is believed to be too early for the deer season to open and one is recommended opening October 15. If the number of hunters continues to increase, a shortening of the season will be necessary, and in that case it could begin October 1 and extend to November 15.

“The present season for elk in the counties adjoining Wyoming was apparently based on the former season in Wyoming and is too long. The supervisor of the Targhee forest recommends a season from October 15 or November 1 to November 15. September 15 is too early for it to open, since it is the running season and too warm for the meat to be utilized.

“It is apparently desirable to make an adjustment of the game preserve in Twin Falls and Cassia counties. The deer range in Nevada, Utah and Idaho, the greater number of them being in Idaho during the summer season. These two counties in Idaho are closed to deer hunting, but there is an open season of ten days in Utah and thirty days in Nevada. Local sentiment will not support protection under these conditions. The law is weakened where residents of Idaho are prohibited from killing deer which may cross the state lines and be killed in Nevada or Utah. It is very probable that a smaller area designated as game preserve in Idaho would allow Idaho residents an equal opportunity with those of Nevada and Utah to hunt and still obtain the objects of the game preserve.

“The condition of game birds is not nearly as satisfactory as that of big game. There is practically a unanimous report that the three grouse – dusky, ruffled and Franklin’s, are decreasing, in most cases rapidly. Wherever protected the sage hens have increased and there is a general belief that the supply can be maintained with a short season and small bag limit.

“The destruction of predatory animals is of particular importance in connection with game production since there is a far greater loss from this source than by poaching, even under very lax enforcement of the laws. On several of the game preserves, the losses of game from predatory animals or eagles is preventing a proper increase. Encouragement should be given to trapping by responsible parties within game preserves.

“In view of the exceptionally high prices of furs, it is probable that the supply of fur bearing animals will be reduced to a point where the production and value of furs obtainable will be much lower than it should be. In the case of predatory animals, this will be beneficial, but it appears that it will be necessary to designate game preserves in order to maintain a supply of fur bearing animals not excessively destructive to game. All the forests report a decrease in fur bearing animals except those generally considered predatory.

“There is reported a very general and decided decrease in the fish supply from all waters except those which are inaccessible. There has been an immense increase in the number of fishermen and the decrease can be expected in spite of the increase in distribution of fish for stocking purposes. The reasons are (1) the heavy fishing, (2) the loss in unscreened ditches and (3) low water resulting from drouths.”

The forestry department recommends increases in the number of game preserves and bird sanctuaries and heavy restocking of fishing streams.

source: The Idaho Republican. Page 2 (Blackfoot, Idaho), 16 April 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Destructive Wolf Killed

A female wolf that has inflicted much destruction on cattle in the Soda Springs district was killed by William E. Cozzens, one of eight hunters employed in the state by the United States bureau of biological survey. In trailing this wolf on the snow, and just before killing her, Mr. Cozzens found where she had killed a calf and made a meal. After finishing the old wolf, he back-tracked and found her den of seven pups, which he destroyed. This month’s total catch of the eight hunters was 82 pure predatory animals, including 57 coyotes, 17 bobcats and eight wolves, according to the monthly report of Luther J. Goldman, predatory animal inspector.

source: The Grangeville Globe. Page 2 (Grangeville, Idaho), 22 April 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

County Seat News Items

Reports received by Don C. Fisher, deputy state fish and game warden, from licensed trappers, of their catches, indicate a successful season, Mr. Fisher asserts. Under the law, trappers are required to report the number and species of animals caught. With high prices for furs, the trappers’ harvest this year had been big.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. Page 4 (Cottonwood, Idaho), 23 April 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

ChangeGameLaw-aChange Game Laws

Movement is on foot according to Don C. Fisher, deputy game warden, to change fish and game laws of Idaho. It is proposed to eliminate the closed season on salmon, to shorten the trapping season from March 31 to March 1, and to provide an all year closed season on quail in central Idaho.

source: Idaho County Free Press. Page 8 (Grangeville, Idaho), 29 April 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

[Editorial]

According to the 1919 game census, submitted to O. M. Jones, state game warden, a rapid increase of big game has been recorded in the state. In eleven counties in the state the census states there are 16,575 deer. Now we do not wish to dispute the figures of the game census, but just how the game department has been able to count the deer so accurately is a mystery. The writer hunted four days last fall and only counted one deer. At that rate it would take quite a while to count the 16,575 deer without duplicating.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. Page 2 (Kendrick, Idaho), 30 April 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Elk For Canada

Edmonton, Alta. — A herd of ninety-two elk have arrived here from Yellowstone Park, Montana, bound for Jasper park. This is a consignment of a large number purchased by the Dominion Parks department from the United States. Two hundred of these animals are already located at the Banff Park.

source: The Idaho Republican. Page 5 (Blackfoot, Idaho), 05 May 1920.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
—————–

More Hunting Photos

Stonebraker Photograph Collection

Ranching, Hunting, and Pack Train Operations in North Central Idaho, 1900-1931

link: to “hunting” photos

This collection consists of 540 photographs from the William Allen Stonebraker Collection, which was donated to the University of Idaho Library in 2003. Stonebraker took photographs in Central Idaho’s remote Salmon River and Frank Church-River of No Return areas at the turn of the twentieth century between 1900 and 1931. The collection contains images of the Stonebraker Ranch and homestead in the Chamberlain Basin, his businesses (dude ranch, pack train and dogsled operations, mining, big game hunting) as well as wildlife, scenic views, and early aircraft operation.
source: University of Idaho Library Digital Initiatives
————-

Further Reading

Link: to Deer Hunting
Link: to Del Davis
Link: to Wilbur Wiles (part 2 cougars)
Link: to Cougar Dave Lewis
Link to The Carlin Party Tragedy
Link: to Idaho History Page (table of contents)
—————-

Idaho History May 1, 2022

The Prospector and Thunder Mountain News August 19, 1905

courtesy Sandy McRae and Jim Collord

[Note: to view the old ads, turn off your ad blocker. There are no commercial ads on this page. Click an ad to start a slide show.]


(link to larger size image of banner)

The Prospector and Thunder Mountain News

Roosevelt, Idaho August 19, 1905 Volume 1 Number 36

19050819Pg1A-Banner

19050819Pg1A-Ad1— — — —

19050819Pg1A-Headline1Sold His Life for $7.50
Charley Hanlen Killed by T. J. Little

Charley Hanlen was killed by T. J. Little at Knox on the 12th inst. at 2 o’clock p.m.

T. J. Little hired My Hanlen here in Roosevelt some time ago and took him over to the Sunshine mine where they were going to do some work and after working three days (allowing a day to go over) and two days after arriving, Mr. Little was telephoned to close the mine down and nail it up. Mr. Little was acting as foreman for the Spears’ American Exchange and had sent the time in and gone over to Knox to wait instructions. Mr. Hanlen really had only two days coming from the company but was allowed time for three days.

They were camped about a half a mile from Knox and were up at town when Hanlen demanded his money and told Little that “he would go down and take the camp and sell the horses.” Hanlen was drinking some and when under the influence of liquor was very abusive. They tried to reason him out of this idea but this he would not listen to.

Little went down to the camp to avoid trouble and Hanlen finally followed him down and before reaching the camp picked up a 44 Winchester rifle which he had secreted a few feet from the tent and informed Little with an oath that “it was all off with him” and begin firing and Little returned the fire with the above result. Mr. Little used a 44 rifle.

One bullet passed over the heart and one under and either one would have proven fatal. Mr. Little has six or seven witnesses which will testify to the correctness of this statement.

An inquest was held immediately and Mr. Little was exonerated by the corner’s jury.

R. H. Hartmen, deputy sheriff, happened out at Knox the first of the week and Mt. Little surrendered himself to the officer and was brought to Roosevelt Wednesday and his preliminary hearing will take place before James McAndrews on Monday. Mr. Hartman is now out summonizing witnesses for the trial.

Mr. Hanlen was buried in Knox. He spent the winter here and no one knows of him having any relatives. He was a man of about 60 years of age and this ends the career of another shiftless being.
— — — —

19050819Pg1A-Headline2
Rich Ore in the Pearl

Manager Douglas of the Pearl Gold Mining Company a few days ago showed us a sample of ore, from a 7-foot ledge recently opened up in their main tunnel, which showed free gold scattered all through it. The ore has the black color and same general appearance as some of the well known pay ore of the Dewey, and no doubt will run well into the hundreds. Mr. Douglas left Sunday for Boise where he took a 100-pound lot of the new ore to have it sampled.

The present tunnel had passed over the lower edge of this rich shoot while being run, and the ore was only discovered a few days ago when men were at work cutting out a deeper water ditch under the track. A winze is being sunk below the tunnel level to prospect the new ledge.

The Pearl property was already considered as one of the most promising groups of the district; it now looks like a bonanza proposition and a shipper from grass roots.
— — — —

19050819Pg1A-Headline3
Cabinet Specimens

Cyanide has been detected in the human system as long as four months after death occurred by poisoning.

The last compartment of the zinc boxes in cyanide plants is frequently reserved for the addition of the necessary cyanide to bring the solution up to strength.

The average hours of labor and wages of Cornish tin miners are eight hours per day and 1 pound sterling per week respectively. Some miners working on contract get 5 to 6 pounds per month.

It is not clearly determined [how] one coal will make good coke and another will not. It is, however, a matter of record in the Appalachian fields that coals approximately similar in chemical composition … (page torn) … in coking.

The sampling of any deposit of mineral containing native metal is a hopeless task, more apt to be misleading than otherwise. In such cases experience will enable a man to pass judgement with as great accuracy as can be obtained by sampling.

In the Lake Superior copper region the use of steam stamps has been brought to a higher state of perfection than at any other place. At the Isle Royal mill, for instance, there is but one stamp and this has a capacity of 550 tons per day. The record for a single day’s run in one of these stamps is 779 tons, while the average in a two weeks’ run was 725 tons per 24 hours of actual running. In the operation of steam stamps of the highest type, the steam pressure follows the stamp for only half the stroke. This develops a velocity of twenty-five feet per second and causes the stamp to fall with a weight equivalent to three or four tons.

In carrying on stoping operations the extraction of ore should begin at the farthest point from the shaft and should not proceed from the shaft outward to the boundary of the property. By the former method the ground can be allowed to cave, the track could be removed when no longer needed, and ventilation would be increased when connection had been established between levels at their end farthest from the shaft. Such a method may delay production until the full length of the drift is run, but it will give better results in the end.

– Mining Reporter.
— — — —

19050819Pg1A-Headline4
Locals

District court convenes on the 28th.

S. S. Whitaker left Wednesday for Elk City.

Mrs. J. Wersing left Friday morning for Boise.

Geo. Stephens has accepted a position at the 20th Century.

George Stonebraker and sons left Wednesday for Ramey Ridge.

The Roosevelt townsite case was to come up at … (page torn.)

J. C. Holsclaw is erecting a building on his lot opposite the Lisenby Hotel.

The boarding house at the 20th Century was opened Wednesday morning.

The frost of Tuesday night begins to mark the approaching of another winter.

Frank Haug, a brother of Bert Haug, arrived on Thursday’s stage from Portland.

The Liberty Consolidated M. & T. Co. received a new supply of hardware last Saturday.

T. C. Ealeston was in town from Boise the first of the week on his way to Wilson creek.

H. A. Sake bought in a pack train load of supplies for the H.Y.-Climax the first of the week.

Mrs. Lue Englebright and little daughter came in Thursday evening from Spokane on a visit.

Mrs. Ed. Myers and children and Mrs. Brown Lewers will leave the first of the week for Meridian to visit relatives.

A new road district has been formed for Roosevelt and is known as No. 46. R. D. Almond has been appointed road overseer.

J. D. Evans, of White Bird, will be in to look after the remains of Francis Steele. He most liekly will call for an inquest to be held as Mr. Steele carried about $7.000 insurance.

James McAndrews received a case of the Idaho Free Traveling Library last Sunday. This is free to all and is a good thing for those who get lonesome and want something to read. The state pays the freight.

J. M. Venable, who has charge of the work on the Mosier group of claims, came in last Saturday evening from Boise, and closed down the work, and left Monday morning for the outside with one of his sons. On reaching Johnson creek he received a telephone message to the effect to still continue work.

On the 9th inst., when it hailed so hard in Roosevelt, there was a cloudburst nine miles below town in the gulch where J. M. Venable formerly had claims located. Where the water came into Monumental the flat is about a half mile in width and heavily timbered and the water backed up for an eighth of a mile and broke trees off which were two feet in diameter.

Fred White, deputy U. S. revenue collector, was in town the first of the week on business.

H. J. Hanson arrived Tuesday evening from Long Valley with a nice bunch of beef cattle.

The Nelson Bros. have secured a contract to put in 600 cord of wood and a lot of mining timber for the Dewey mine in addition to what has been delivered.

The new boiler and a load of large pipe arrived yesterday morning for the Mysterious Slide. This is the first boiler to come into Thunder Mountain over the new wagon road.

Sam Bell returned the fist of the week from Boise and gives out the news that the body of ore recently encountered in the Cheapman group gives values from $4 to $12.35 in gold.

Frank Surprise arrived in town the first of the week from Ahsahka, which is located four miles below Orofino, and will spend a couple of weeks visiting with his brother Joe. They are looking over their mining property and doing some prospecting.

The News received a new supply of type and stationery the first of the week and can turn out neat work. We are now prepared to turn out most any kind of job work and for style and neatness we are able to compete with the larger offices. Give us a call before you place your orders elsewhere.

The Buckhorn Saloon, owned by Crane & LeRoy, was opened last Saturday evening. This is the best and most artistic decorated saloon in Idaho county and would be a credit to a city. With the outlay these gentlemen have been to they deserve praise and patronage.

W. R. Polson was in town last Sunday and reported a good strike on the New York claim near the Summit House, which is owned by Geo. D. Smith. He panned free gold out of some of the rock which was larger than a pin head. Mr. Polson was doing the annual assessment work for Mr. Smith when he made the strike.

Jack Young, who killed Fred Morris recently at Warren over a woman, is being held for murder in the second degree. Young’s bond was placed at $1,500 and as court convenes in a few weeks he did not make an effort to secure bond and was taken to Grangeville for trial. Ruby Walker, the women over whom the trouble arose, was also taken to Grangeville and is being held as a witness.

Ollie Lingo returned Tuesday from Johnny Conyer’s ranch and on his way back happened into a party of hunters on Rush creek. It seems as though they all combined on the bear race and out of seven seen in one day they secured three. Bob Schofield had the narrowest escape of any one of them. He grabbed a limb of a tree and swung himself up just in time to keep an old one from grabbing him as it passed under him. They will be moving up in this section of the country soon as huckleberry season is in full blast.
— — — — — — — — — —

19050819Pg2A-headline1
— — — —

Recent reports circulated over the northwest relative to a supposed change of position assumed by Senator W. B. Heyburn regarding the establishment within this state of immense areas of forest reserve, are denied emphatically and unhesitatingly by the senator. He insists that he has not given up his fight against the creation of such reserves, and that it is his purpose to carry the fight into congress to the full extent of his ability and to continue the same as long as there remains a chance to fight. In closing with his denial of the statements made concerning him, Mr. Heyburn says:

“I have seen no cause whatever to change my views as expressed and acted upon in regard to the creation of forest reserves in Idaho sine I expressed them. I shall continue to act, as I have heretofore indicated, so long as there is a tribunal before which the questions can be urged. This may be a new way of creating a false impression in the mind of the public in regard to my position, but I shall take every occasion to denounce the method as unfair and the persons responsible for it …” (page torn.)

It is a matter pleasing to the citizens of Idaho, who have the welfare of the state at heart, to know that the statements relating to a supposed change of action on the part of Senator Heyburn are thus proven to be false and utterly without foundation. The interests of Idaho are still paramount with him as all may observe. By closing great areas of the state to public settlement will serve to retard that development which is so earnestly desired and which all are so diligently working to accomplish. Forest reserves are all right in their place, but when the best portions of a state that is just becoming settled are closed to the public then the entire commonwealth may enter protest. We back Senator Heyburn.
— — — —

Japan’s and Russia’s peace officers arrived at Portsmouth on the 8th and were taken to the navy buildings where the sessions will be held. The ceremony welcoming the dignitaries was not elaborate, but was sincere. The town was crowded with thousands of strangers and was handsomely decorated. Reimbursement for the expenses sustained in the prosecution of the war and the cession of the island of Sakhalin constitute the main features of the peace conditions given out at their first session on the 10th inst.
— — — —

Mistaking her for a woman who had stolen the affections of her husband, a women in Weiser recently slugged a lady of that place with a beer bottle which she carried concealed in a paper bag. This is a case in which not only “a woman” figured prominently, but it also resolved itself into a proposition of a triangulation of the gentle sex.
— — — —

19050819Pg2A-headline2
The Woman

She belonged to a society for the prevention of cruelty to animals, but she made the poor dressmakers work day and night to get her ball dress ready on time, and then forgot to pay the dressmaker for weeks and weeks.

She belongs to the society for the amelioration of humankind, but she was keen on hunting bargains that were made possible by the toil and suffering of her sisters in noisome sweat shops.

She reprimanded the small boy that threw a stone at a cat, yet she drove a team of horses with docked tails.

She wrote a beautiful article for the local paper advocating the organization of Audubon societies among the boys and girls, then donned a hat containing three stuffed birds and gaily went to the editor’s sanctum to submit the article.

She was the chairman of the committee on social science at the club, and gave the servant girl a cheerless garret with broken and marred furniture.

She was prominent in her church kensington and read a paper deploring the fact that the poor do not attend church more, and while reading it she work silk and satins enough to defray the living expenses of the average workingman’s family for six months.

Something about the inconsistency of the men might be added to this, but space is too limited to make even a start on this subject.

– Ex.
— — — —

It is reported that the Penn-Idaho Gold Mining Company of Boise has filed articles of incorporation for $3,000,000 and will acquire mining property on Big creek formerly owned by D. T. Davis. The property is located on the Independence lode and is said to be first class mineral ground. Considerable free milling ore is known to occur. Through the fall and winter development work will be prosecuted with a view of determining the proper reduction process adapted to the treatment of the ore, and a mill will be erected next summer. The property will be managed by J. B. Eldredge who is also manager of the Independence.
— — — —

Rastus – Ah dreamed ob hebbin las’ night.

Sam – Dat so? Whut did it luk lak?

Rastus – It done luk lak a big chicken cook in de meddle ob er watahmillyun patch.

– Houghton Mining Gazette
— — — —

19050819Pg2A-headline3
Boxing Contest

A four-round boxing contest will take place at the Wellington Cafe next Saturday evening, (the 26), at 7:30, between Jack Dempsey and Kid Lee. A good time is assured and an invitation extended to all. Tickets $1.00.
— — — —

H. H. Hartman, deputy sheriff, is spending the week in this section looking after some important business for the county.
— — — —

Van Welch returned Thursday from his mining property in Yellow Pine Basin.
— — — —

— — — — — — — — — —

19050819Pg3A-headline1
State Will Assist in Building Mining Road

Boise special to Denver Mining Record, August 7. — Governor Gooding has returned from Custer county where he went to look over the proposed road that is so badly needed to open up the rich mining country of Seafoam and Greyhound districts.

As a result of his inspection the governor states that the state will furnish half of the $4,000 which it is estimated the road will cost. The miners there, he says, state they will have to do the rest. Their subscription will have to be in work, as there are few able to make cash subscriptions. To meet this condition the governor states it is proposed to make a contract with the miners to build half the road under the supervision of the state and on a survey made by the state, as it will be necessary to have a road equally good at all points. A guaranty will be required for the carrying out of this part of the undertaking.

The governor does not anticipate the road can be constructed this year, as the people interested are not all there, and it will be necessary for them to get together and organize for the performance of their portion of the work. The survey will be made this year, however.

The proposed road will start at Wagontown on the Ketchum road, cross Vanity summit, run down Vanity creek to Rapid river and pass down the latter stream to Float creek. It will be 12 miles in length. Its construction will not be difficult. This road, the governor states, will eventually become a part of a highway over which travel from the north can reach the south, as it can be continued to Thunder Mountain and make connection there with the road from Warren or with one up the Salmon.

The governor was much impressed with all that region and thinks it will come to the front eventually as a large producer of lead, silver and gold. Four and a half miles of road will make a connection with the Greyhound mine. The traffic of all that section can reach the road with very little expense for road construction. From what he learned of the mines it seemed to the governor that they are destined to become very active. He heard of a number of properties the owners of which have kept up the assessment work ever since 1881. Men would not do that did they not have claims of established value.

The governor took a team to Wagontown and rode horseback over the route of the proposed road. He went up to the Greyhound mine and spent the night with Steve Smith there. The latter is erecting the smelter which he has taken in to work the ores of the Greyhound property, and will have it ready to blow in in about 30 days.
— — — —

19050819Pg3A-headline2
Great Writers not Correct Writers

There is not a single great author in our literature in whose works numerous errors have not been pointed out, or thought to be pointed out. They are charged with violating the rules involving the purity, if not the permanence, of the language. A somewhat depressing inference follows from the situation thus revealed. The ability to write English correctly does not belong to the great masters of our speech. It is limited to the obscure men who have devoted themselves to the task of showing how far these vaunted writers have fallen short of the ideas of linguistic propriety entertained by their unrecognized betters. As a result of these critical crusades there is no escape from the dismal conclusion that the correct use of the language is not to be found in the authors whom every one reads with pleasure, but is an accomplishment reserved exclusively for those whom nobody can succeed in reading at all.

– Prof Thomas R. Lounsbury in Harper’s Magazine
— — — —

Gold is known to occur in association with a great many minerals besides quartz. It is sometimes found in marble (calcium carbonate) without much of a trace of silica; it is found, too, in garnet, in hornblende and chlorite, in pegmatite dykes, in feldspar, jasper and sandstone; in quartzite, granite, diorite, rhyolite, and in an aggregate of mica scales; in epidote, as well as associated with many metals, such as lead, tin, antimony, zinc, iron, quicksilver, manganese, arsenic, selenium, tellurium and rare metals.
— — — —

— — — — — — — — — —

19050819Pg4A-headline1
When You Are in Rome

An American fellow countryman of ours – one A. Bemis by name – appears to have gotten himself into trouble in Halifax and riled the Canajuns [sic] considerably. It is offered by Bemis in extenuation of some ill mannered remarks anent his majesty, King Edward, that he was being pestered by laws that are different from the laws of those portions of the United States where Mr. Bemis has traveled. He says: “I am a Yankee and I’m proud of it.” To be sure. Nobody could take exception to that. It’s a great thing to be a Yankee, and the man who is one should certainly be glad and proud of it. Then he went further: “We licked the British once and we can do it again.” As a matter of fact we licked the British twice. Whether or not we could do it again is neither here nor there, but the average American, of course, is willing to admit that we could. Therefore, up to that point Mr. Bemis played safe and the fielding was faultless. But when Mr. Bemis next opened his mouth he put his foot into it. He said he “would like to see Kind Edward stuck on a wall so he could take his picture.” That wasn’t either nice or ladylike. King Edward is a pretty decent sort of a fellow. He is the first gentleman of Europe. He has a warm spot in his heart for the right sort of Americans, and those Americans who have had the distinguished pleasure of kot-towing [sic] before his majesty express themselves as delighted with him. If we had him in Mexico we would call him simpatico – if such a liberty were permissible. We have no grouch against him at all. He is a thoroughbred, and is only a king by circumstance.

The trouble with Americans like Bemis is, that when they go to Canada, or come to Mexico, or visit any other foreign parts, they usually carry a chip on their shoulders and are always looking for trouble. They use insulting epithets about flags and coats of arms and languages and customs and comestibles, and seem surprised that the people among whom they are sojourning do not take kindly to their boorishness. Americans have been known to want to kick a cohero or discharge a policeman because they wouldn’t or couldn’t respond to their inquiries in English, and many tourists have found it strange that with more than a century and a quarter flown since the Declaration of Independence was spoken in Philadelphia, a great many prominent Mexicans continue to talk the Spanish tongue.

– Mexican Investor.
— — — —

19050819Pg4A-headline2
Tried to Burn Jail

Idaho county narrowly escaped loosing [sic] her jail by fire the first of the month. “Doc” Martin, who is serving a six month’s sentence for larceny was allowed the freedom of the corridor and is supposed to be the cause of the trouble. Jailer Rambo was awakened by the smell of smoke and going into Martin’s cell found his bed on fire. He threw the mattress out and about an hour later on returning with the prisoners’ breakfast again found a fire started in the paper on the partition. Fortunately in both cases the fire was discovered before it gained any headway or serious damage would have resulted as other prisoners were locked in steel cells and could not have escaped. Martin denied having set the fire but there is little doubt but that he was to blame. He is a morphine fiend and at times is hardly rational.

– Free Press
— — — —

19050819Pg4A-headline3
Low Grade Ores

One of the most remarkable points in the progress of mining is the profit that can be made from the treatment of low grade ore, says the Denver Mining Record. The Granby Mining Company of British Columbia has been operating its large copper property on an extensive scale. The ore runs about 1.25 per cent copper and less than $2 in gold and silver to the ton. The ore is naturally found in large deposits and the cost of treatment is very low, owing to the cheapness of fuel and the absence of necessity of costly flux. This is proof, however, that many copper deposits that have heretofore been considered of two [sic] low value to be profitable, may be worked to profit, and it is likely that the success of this company will spur on others interested in low grade copper propositions.
— — — —

For Rent – A good two-story building, in good location. Inquire of Dr. C. T. Jones.
— — — —

19050819Pg4A-headline4
Forfeiture Notice

To C. J. Fry, his heirs or assigns:

You are hereby notified that I have expended during the year 1904 the sum of one (100) hundred dollars in labor and improvements upon the Monk mining claim in the Pittsburg group of quartz claims, situated in the Thunder Mountain mining district, Idaho county, State of Idaho, the location certificate of which is found of record in the office of the recorder of said county, in order to hold said claim for the period ending December 31, 1904, your proportion of said expenditures being fifty (50) dollars for said year, for the one-half interest belonging to you. And if, within ninety days after the service of this notice by publication, you fail or refuse to contribute your proportion of such expenditures as co-owner, together with the cost of this notice, your interest in said claims will become the property of the undersigned your co-owner, under the terms of section 2324, Revised Statutes of the United States.

Dated at Roosevelt, Idaho, May 17, 1905. D. T. Sillivan.
— — — —

19050819Pg4A-headline5
Forfeiture Notice

To E. M. Clements, his heirs or assigns:

You are hereby notified that I have expended during the year 1904 the sum of two (200) hundred dollars in labor and improvements upon the Edmon, Bullion and Amalgan Bar mining claims in the Pittsburg group of quartz mining claims, situate in Thunder Mountain mining district, Idaho co., State of Idaho, the location certificates of which are found of record in the office of the recorder of said county, in order to hold said claims for the period ending December 31, 1904, you [sic] proportion of said expenditures being one (100) hundred dollars for said year, for the one-third interest belonging to you. And if, within ninety days after the service of this notice by publication, you fail or refuse to contribute your proportion of such expenditures as co-owner, together with the cost of this notice, your interest in said claims will become the property of the undersigned your co-owner, under the terms of section 2324, Revised Statutes of the United States.

Dated at Roosevelt, Idaho, May 17, 1905. D. T. Sillivan
— — — —

19050819Pg4A-headline6
Notice of Application of United States Patent

Mineral Application No. 595.
Mineral Survey No. 2014.

United states Land Office, Hailey, Idaho, July 8th, 1905.

Notice is hereby given that S. A. Hindman and Sherman C. Godlove, whose post office addresses are Warren, Idaho have made application for a United States patent for the Buffalo lode mining claim, Mineral Survey no. 2014, situated on unsurveyed lads of the United States in Thunder Mountain Mining District, County and State of Idaho, covering 1200 ft. of the Buffalo lode in a northeasterly direction and 300 feet in a southwesterly direction from the discovery cut, and more particularly described as follows:

Beginning at corner No. one, a post set firmly in the ground and marked 1\2014, from which U.S.L. Monument No. 4 of Thunder Mountain Mining District bears south 11 degrees 23 minutes east 2624.3 feet distant, thence north 12 degrees 40 minutes east 1500 feet to corner No. 2, a post similarly set and marked 2\2014, thence north 76 degrees west 600 feet to corner No. 3, a post similarly set and marked 3\2014; thence south 12 degrees 40 minutes west 1500 feet to corner No. 4, a post similarly set and marked 4\2014; thence south 76 degrees east 600 feet to corner No. one, the place of beginning, containing 20.656 acres and no conflicts.

The adjoining claims are the Golden Chest Fraction lode on the north, the Black Horse lode, Mineral Survey No. 2004 on the east, the Wouderful [sic] lode on the west and the Washington Fraction lode on the south.

The location notice of this claim is recorded at page 499 of Book 14 of Mining Claims in the office of the Recorder of said Idaho county.

N. J. Sharp, Register.
First publication July 22, 1905.
Last publication September 23, 1905.
— — — —

19050819Pg4A-headline7Notice of Application for United States Patent

Mineral Application 596.
Mineral Survey No. 2004.

United States Land Office, Hailey, Idaho, July 8th, 1905.

Notice is hereby given that Thomas Neighbors, whose post office address is Roosevelt, Idaho County, Idaho, has made application for a United States patent for the Black Horse Lode Mining Claim, Mineral Survey No. 2004, situated in the Thunder Mountain Mining District, County and State of Idaho, claiming 1478.70 linear feet along the vein, being 1328.70 feet in a northerly and 1.0 feet in a southerly direction from the discovery shaft, with surface ground 203 feet in width on the west and 143.3 feet in width on the east of the vein at the north end of said claim and situated upon unsurveyed lands of the United States, and more particularly described as follows:

Beginning at corner No. 1, a post set firmly in the ground and marked 1-2004, from which U. S. L. M. No. 4 Thunder Mountain Mining District bears south 10 degrees 50 minutes east, 2680 feet, and running thence north 12 degrees 40 minutes east 1478.70 feet to corner No. 2, a post set firmly in the ground and marked 2-2004; thence south 69 degrees 35 minutes east 346.30 feet to corner No. 3, a post set firmly in the ground and marked 3-2004; thence south 3 degrees 15 minutes east 367 feet to corner No. 4, a post set firmly in the ground and marked 4-2004; thence south 16 degrees 04 minutes west 962 feet to corner No. 5, a post set firmly in the ground and marked 5-2004; thence south 48 degrees 40 minutes west 193.6 feet to corner No. 6, a post set firmly in the ground and marked 6-2004; thence north 69 degrees 35 minutes west 276.2 feet to corner No. 1, the place of beginning containing 13.606 acres, there being no conflicting claims and the names of the adjoining claims are the Buffalo Lode claim, Survey No. 2014 on the west, the Hooptdee Fraction Lode claim, unsurveyed on the north, the Apex and Wisdom Lode claims, unsurveyed, on the east and the Boise Fraction Lode claim unsurveyed on the south.

The notice of location of the said Black Horse claim is duly recorded in the office of the Recorder of said Idaho County at page 37 of Book 22 Mining Claims.

N. J. Sharp, Register
First publication July 22, 1905.
Last publication September 23, 1905.
— — — —

—————–

Images of full sized pages:

link: Page 1 top
link: Page 1 bottom

link: Page 2 top
link: Page 2 bottom

link: Page 3 top
link: Page 3 bottom

link: Page 4 top
link: Page 4 bottom
—————————

Link to Thunder Mountain and Roosevelt index page

Link: Public folder with images of the old newspapers
————

Further Reading

1905, Aug. 12 – T. J. Little killed Charley Hanlen at Knox when Hanlen went to clean out the Little camp and Little protected himself and property. Later Little convinced the court in Idaho City that it was self-defense and he was acquitted. One of Hanlen’s acquaintances was surprised that Hanlen lived as long as he did.

From the Aug. 26, 1905 The Prospector and Thunder Mountain News, Roosevelt ID.

see: Idaho History Aug 4, 2019
——-

Idaho History Apr 24, 2022

The Prospector and Thunder Mountain News July 15, 1905

courtesy Sandy McRae and Jim Collord

[Note: to view the old ads, turn off your ad blocker. There are no commercial ads on this page. Click an ad to start a slide show.]


(link to larger size image of banner)

The Prospector and Thunder Mountain News

Roosevelt, Idaho July 15, 1905 Volume 1 Number 31

19050715Pg1A-banner

19050715Pg1A-Ad1The Robb Mercantile Co.
Sunnyside, Idaho

We handle Armour’s Rex Brand Ham and Bacon.
The Best California Canned and Dried Fruit.
Schillings Best Spices and extracts.
Chase & Sabborns, Lions, and Arbuckles Coffees.
Strong & Garfield Boots, and many other good makes
In fact everything in Miner’s and Prospector’s Supplies at Reasonable Prices.
The Store Where You Get Your Money’s Worth
— —

19050715Pg1B-Headline1The Song Of The Coins
A Word Painting of the Creation

Hold in one hand a silver coin and in the other hand a coin of the yellow metal. As thus they are held both are mute and silent as though they were but fragments of rock. Let one coin, however, gently strike the opposite coin and each will begin to rapidly vibrate, and from them will issue ringing, metallic-like sounds which in most cases fall pleasantly upon the ear. These sounds will often denote to the practiced ear the single spurious piece from among a number of coins looking precisely alike. But giving these two coins the benefit of the question, let us strike them together again, and as the pleasant notes blend in musical harmony let us loose the fetters which may bind our imagination to the prosaic condition of our lives, and thus loosed let it catch the contagion of the music of the coins and in rhythmic measure let it sing the Song of the coins to the music which they produce.

And what a marvelous story we are privileged to hear. Abruptly and at once the Song speaks strange words of creation’s dawn when worlds in vaporous form whirled through the immeasurable vastness of space, ever held in orbits by some mysterious and invisible power. Countless ages passed, and the wild abandon of the glowing globes of vapor gave way to steadier habits, and the elements, many of them, rested in their flight and became as liquids. It was here that the two elements, gold and silver, wooed and mated. (The music of the coins now breathes the sweet tenderness of love.) Other ages passed, and the new world changed, and a thin, quivering crust formed that ever and anon was rent asunder, rendering visible the glowing liquids beneath. Still later the crust thickened and crystallized, and the days and nights were of long duration, so that rains and floods followed the hours of darkness while burning heat was characteristic of the day. Mountain ranges were slowly lifted above the waters, while the metallic elements in solution filled the seams and crevices in their rugged sides and there remain. Often with shock and rush and roar great sheets of molten rock forced themselves up through the overlying crust, and along these contacts the Song tells us that many times there were deposited the precious metals. Vast seas of ice at different periods drifted down from the north and plowed wide valleys through the land. The mountain sides were ground smooth and the fragments of rock were pulverized to dust, while the minerals they contained were left behind to be found in future ages in the beds of streams that once had flowed beneath glaciers.

Until now the music of the coins has been free and full of animation and power as the Song has told of the joy of existence, or it has been tender and dreamful as if nearing the borderland of love. But now it has changed to a harmony of mingled emotions which the song interprets as those of wonder and sorrow and admiration and awe. For the Song now speaks of the advent of strange creatures – an alien band – that spread over the earth conquering and subduing. These beings who called themselves men learned the lessons of nature and used their wisdom to battle with the forces of the earth. Some traversed the hidden places of the world and brought forth the metals of gold and silver which were soon recognized as valuable possessions by reason of certain enduring characteristics and qualities peculiar to them. And from this time gold and silver was forced by the sons of men to play a most important part in the drama of the world’s progress. Empires, nations and states rose, flourished and decayed according as their assets were based upon the valuation of silver and gold. With words pregnant with sadness the Song relates that many times this race of men placed these metals on thrones and worshiped them above all other things. Honor and life and happiness were oftentimes bartered away for these glittering metals which had been content to quietly rest in the cloven faces of the rocks. Then lastly, with a ring of admiration, the Song tells of the later days, how out of the wrecks of the past, new nations have risen; how brave men have pioneered their way into the wildernesses that have in a day as it were become the abiding places of Myriads of happy people, while the gold and silver of the hills and gulches now bears aid to the unfortunate and spreads enlightenment and good cheer throughout the world.

With the utterance of these last measures of the Song the music has risen in one grand note of triumph, then died away, leaving us to marvel as before. For the Song has but hinted at things which are beyond the ken of man, and which with the light of all his learnings, are hidden behind the veil of profound mystery.
— —

19050715Pg1B-Headline2Pushing Developments on Southwest Fork
New Machinery Arriving Daily

The Rambler, Sand Point and Rand No. 4 claims are working three shifts of eight hours each, these properties we find being located on the Southwest Fork of Monumental creek. Many new buildings are being erected and the camp is all alive. On Monday a ten-foot ledge was cut in the Stark tunnel and is showing up very good. Work is also progressing on the Hawk, Sparrow and Eagle claims. Many thousands of pounds of freight have arrived for the companies operating these properties and six more freight teams are expected in from Boise within the next three weeks.

A McArthur sawmill will be installed on the Rand No. 4 this summer and it is expected that the mill will be running before the snow flies. It is the intention of Mr. Weil, the general manager of these properties, to operate a set of freight teams to be owned by the companies operating the above named properties to haul in their heavy freight. Mr. Weil is now on the ground.

Tuesday last many new buildings were started and are being pushed with all possible speed. So many stories have been afloat regarding these properties that we wish to state they are located about three quarters of a mile from the main wagon road to Roosevelt, and up to the present time the companies operating these claims have been compelled to pack in to the camp from the road. This, however, will be changed this summer, when men will be put to work building in from the main road to camp.

The development work on these properties is being rushed as fast as possible. Nearly all the ore is free milling and shows good vales in almost every pan. The trouble with these companies has been a marked reticence whereby much information has been withheld that would have enlightened the public.

Some new ore cars and 2,000 pounds of rails arrived here from Boise last week for these companies.

The Rand No. 4 and the Rambler claims are showing up much better than the other claims with perhaps one exception, that being the Sparrow claim.

Men are being added to … pay roll daily and … [page torn.]
— — — — — — — — — —

19050715Pg2A-headline1— —

Mismanagement is the most potent hammer by which a mining district may be knocked.
— —

It is said that many fatalities are occurring along the line of the proposed Isthmian canal as a result of the prevailing fevers. Smallpox, yellow and chagres fevers are said to be claiming the greatest number of victims.
— —

The First National bank of Topeka, Kansas, as been Devlin with the people’s money and some $3,000,000 are reported displaced. Guess the corn huskers will have to go back to first principles and their socks and bury their money in the cyclone cellar after this. We extend our sympathy. Like them, we’ve got the socks.
— —

The manner in which the daily newspaper have been carrying on a mimic warfare with the hulk of scrap iron which they are pleased to designate as the Kniaz Potemkine, the Russian pirate tub of the Black sea, is amusing to us all and aptly illustrates the fairy tales served out to the gullible anent the Japanese-Russian war. We don’t kick but rather enjoy their entertaining way of taking such long chances at the truth. Keep it [up?] brethren, and may the pirate ship Pot ’em all.
— —

19050715Pg2A-headline2
Quiet Wedding

The marriage of Nash Wayland to Miss Gertrude Pung was consummated last Thursday noon at the residence of the bride’s parents, Mr. and Mrs. L. M. Pung.

The wedding was a very quiet affair. The only persons present were the bride’s parents, Mr. Chas. Hardt, best man, and Miss Martha Riddell, bridesmaid, and Mrs. Nicholas and her daughter, Mrs. Woods. Rev. Chas. Elery officiated.

The bride was attired in a cream silk mulle gown, and the bridesmaid was dressed in white silk trimmed in lace.

After the ceremony the bride and groom took the afternoon train to Spokane, whence they will proceed to Boise and thence to Thunder Mountain where Mr. Wayland has a lucrative business.

Miss Pung is a most estimable young lady, who made many friends while clerking in the post-office for a long time. The News wishes the young couple a happy and prosperous future. — Wardner News, July 1.

The above article refers to our … own townsman, Nash [Wayland] … firm of L. A. … (page torn) … some time the youngest prospector in the early development of the Thunder Mountain section, and together with his father owns many good claims throughout the district. He is in partnership with his father in a thriving general merchandise business here and enjoys a wide acquaintance and popularity through central Idaho.

With the possession of such advantages and with bright prospects ahead, Mr. and Mrs. Nash Wayland set sail out upon the sea of wedded life. May unbroken bliss be theirs, bon voyage and long life.
— —

An offer will be made today by the committee on Fourth of July funds for bids for the construction of a wagon road from town to the cemetery with the sixty dollars remaining in the treasury and not used in the celebration. A road is much needed and this money could not be placed to any better disposal.
— —

R. W. Purdum was in town this week on his way to the mine.
— —

— — — — — — — — — —

19050715Pg3A-headline1An Electric Railway
Thunder Mountain and Big Creek to Be Objective Points for Electric Line from Boise
Big Company To Be Incorporated
Preliminary Surveys Now Being Made, and Construction to Begin this Summer

We have just received information from sources of unquestioned reliability relative to a movement now on foot for the promotion of a large company of influential and wealthy business men soon to incorporate under the laws of Idaho for the purpose of constructing an electric railway from Boise through to the Thunder Mountain and Big Creek districts.

Application will be made this month for a charter of incorporation and the company will be known as the Boise, Thunder Mountain & Big Creek R. R. The company is to be incorporated for $10,000,000, of which $5,000,000 will be preferred and $5,000,000 common stock, the par value of the shares being $100 each.

Among the promoters of the proposed railroad, we are informed, will be some of the best and most substantial men of Idaho and other states, chief among whom being the following named gentlemen:

J. E. Clinton, Jr., cashier of the Bank of Commerce, Boise;
Judge E. M. Gay, of Idaho City;
Victor M., Weil, treasurer of the Liberty and Investor Gold Mines Co., of Boston, Mass.;
Hon. D. H. Moseley, of Boise;
Frank H. Johnson, wool dealer, Boise;
Frank Blackenjer, proprietor of the Capital Hotel, Boise;
Julius B. Stark, silk manufacturer, of Haverhill, Mass.;
Jas. R. Lush of Carlson-Lush Hardware Co.;
R. H. Johnson, lawyer, Boise;
G. W. Fletcher, of Fletcher Hardware Co., Boise;
Hon. E. W. Johnson, president of the Idaho Central R. R., Boise.

The names of these gentlemen, who are well known and who command almost unlimited capital, are sufficient guarantee of the successful carrying out of this gigantic enterprise.

It is the intention of this company to operate a daily service each way from Boise and Roosevelt, both for freight and passengers. One car will be operated daily from each point for passengers, while several cars will be in daily commission for the handling of freight.

We are informed that surveyors are already mapping out the proposed line, and as soon as the incorporation charter is secured a right of way will be acquired and the work of construction begun.

The News chronicles the above information with pleasure and satisfaction. We realize with many others the vast influence that a line of railway will exert toward hastening the development of the unlimited resources of central Idaho – the largest area of undeveloped natural wealth remaining without modern transportation facilities. By the natural order of events a railroad must surely tap this section soon or late, the only question heretofore raised being that of the most advantageous route. Attention of capitalists is being turned this way more today than ever before.

Agents, representing great financial interests, are quietly but carefully looking this field over, and something is to move quickly. We are glad to say that the first move is announced and that the Thunder Mountain and Big Creek mineral districts will be the first to feel the practical benefits of the initial means of real development.

It has been remarked that the Thunder Mountain district could not guarantee a steady tonnage in sufficient quantity to warrant a railroad in building in here. This, we believe, is due to a hasty judgement of the real merits of our district. Upon the advent of a railway hundreds of properties, now lying idle by reason of prohibitive transportation expense, will spring into activity and mills and mining machinery will flow into this district in a steady stream.

The Big Creek district offers tremendous possibilities in the way of tonnage. The true fissure veins of that district, known and proven to be ideal milling and smelting propositions, will furnish an output lasting through generations. Other districts will open and with their quota of output will make of the south-central portion of Idaho county the greatest mining center of modern times.

Straws are borne by the breezes and show the direction of the coming gale. To the observing there are certain indications pointing toward an oncoming whirlwind of development for Central Idaho that promises to be of momentous import. Watch our prophecy fulfilled.
— —

19050715Pg3A-headline2
Slightly Mixed

A telegram was received in Colorado a few days since, directing the proper authorities to arrest a young man who, it was alleged, had run away with his aunt. “I have an order for your arrest,” remarked the officer, addressing the supposed criminal.

“For what?”

“You have been running away with your aunt!”

“My aunt! Why, she’s my wife!”

“But wasn’t she your aunt before she became your wife? You see, we don’t tolerate that kind of goings-on in Colorado.”

“I suppose you never were in Utah?” remarked the young man, after he had completed his survey of the detective.

“No.”

“Well, as you don’t understand the relations of aunt and nephew in that state, I suppose I ought to explain them to you, and then perhaps, you may see your duty plainer. My father married my mother.”

“I suppose so.”

“Then he married her sister,” continued the stranger, without heeding the interruption. “Then he married the sister of his brother-in-law. Then the daughter of his uncle who was a cousin to his first two wives, then he married her sister, who was the widow of one of his first wives’ husbands; then he married her daughter, and a son of this wife married my sister, who was also a widow of one of the other wives’ sons. I suppose you are following me,” interjected the narrator.

“Marry your aunt or your grandmother either, or both of them!”

“And you won’t arrest me?”

“No, you might be your own father.”

– Goodwin’s Weekly
— —

19050715Pg3A-headline3Amusement Hall Concerts
The McCleary Concert Co. to Furnish Evening Entertainments. Change of Program Each Evening

The McCleary Concert company who have been giving very satisfactory entertainments a couple of evenings this week to fairly good houses, have concluded to remain in Roosevelt for some time and will be connected with the Big Amusement Hall where a concert will be given each evening.

An entire change of program is announced for each night, and good entertainments are promised.

This will afford opportunity for an hour’s enjoyment in the evening that should be availed by all. They are good entertainers.
— —

19050715Pg3A-headline4
Warren Stage Robbed

Last Wednesday the stage out of Warren was held up by a lone highwayman and robbed of $1,400 in gold dust and several valuable pieces of registered mail. The holdup took place within three miles of Resort. The shipment of gold dust was being made from the Golden Rule placer mine, and it is probable that a knowledge of this fact by the robber led to the deed.

The robber was concealed behind a boulder and was not seen until he had the stage driver covered. The driver was compelled to cut open the mail sacks, and the highwayman soon had possession of their valuable contents. The passengers on the stage were unmolested. The robber escaped into the hills.
— —

Mrs. Guy McMillan is a recent arrival from Florence.
— — — —

— — — — — — — — — —

19050715Pg4A-Headline1— —

19050715Pg4A-Headline2
Locals

R. C. Schofield came in from Grangeville Thursday.

Deposition will be taken in the townsite case on the 21st inst.

Dr. C. F. Hammer and family came in Tuesday from Chicago.

Mrs. T. J. Thompson came in from Nampa Thursday to join her husband.

Wm. Kreps’ pack train and ore team are making a trip to Long Valley after a supply of hay.

The sale of the H. Y.-Climax sawmill, which we mentioned last week, did not go through from some cause or other.

Joe Surprise and H. P. Brown left Wednesday for the Chicago group of claims to commence the annual assessment work.

H. J. Hanson is on the outside rustling up a drove of hogs and sheep for the home market. He will also bring in a delivery wagon.

W. Q. Connell made a trip to the South Fork last week after Mrs. Connell. They returned Sunday and will make this their future home.

The News’ subscription list is steadily growing. Now is the time to see that your name is on the list so you can get the news of the camp.

George Crawford arrived in town the latter part of last week and has entered into a partnership in the restaurant business with W. H. Courtney.

Ollie Lingo made a trip to Long Valley this week to meet his father and mother and a brother who are coming to Roosevelt. He will also bring in a load of hay.

Mr. and Mrs. Victor Weil arrived in town the first of the week and will remain indefinitely. Mr. Weil is general manager of several companies operating in this district.

C. H. Goodsell, formerly of this place, arrived in town from Spokane Thursday. Mr. Goodsell and S. P. Burr will form a co-partnership in the assaying and surveying business.

In another column will be found the professional card of A. S. Hardy of Grangeville. This is the only attorney from the county seat that solicits a share of the business from this section.

C. E. Bartholomew and wife arrived recently from the outside. Mr. Bartholomew brought in a complete line of hotel and lodging house furnishings for his business which he will start up soon.

J. B. Randell has moved his stock of goods into his new building which presents a neat appearance. He has a good line of hardware and the latest styles in shoes. Among the most important articles noticeable is a fine line of drugs. This has been needed in the camp all winter.

Salmon fishing is becoming quite a fad along Monumental creek, several fish of large size having been caught within the last few days. This week the Stonebraker brothers and Henry Kisinger captured several Chinook salmon in the Southwest Fork that ranged in weight from 21 to 30 pounds, and many more are being caught of lesser weights. A short distance below town some of these fish are caught that weigh from 13 to 21 pounds. These are not fish stories, but are actual facts as we have seen the fish.
— —

19050715Pg4A-Headline3
Mountain Delights

The days and nights that are passing now are the crowning joy of a summer’s stay among the mountains. The warm, sunny days fill one with a sense of voluptuous ease and pleasure, and one feels inclined to lazily wander off and fish. The nights, flooded with the silvery sheen of the full moon, cool and refreshing, with the breezes wafting the incense of fir and pine, entice from the heart sentiments of dreamful indulgence. Nature’s poetry is best interpreted, not by words, but through the senses that convey impressions to the soul. Therefore, the mountains are the mecca for the dreamer, the poet and the philosopher.

A vacation for the summer here among the hills cannot fail to be a source of continual delight to those so fortunate as to be able to avail themselves of such a privilege. The streams abound with fish, good camping sites can be secured and the water is the finest in the world. With a combination like this the body can recuperate new strength, the weary mind find rest, and the soul revel in the fanciful imagery of dreams.

Come, come to the mountains.
— —

19050715Pg4A-Headline4
Ramey Ridge Property

T. G. Thomas arrived in camp from Ramey Ridge accompanied by several other from that district. Mr. Thomas is engaged in quite extensive mining development down there and speaks in glowing terms of the general outlook. He is driving several tunnels on the Mildred claim and reports the showings made so far as highly satisfactory. Tunnel No. 1 is now in 50 feet and has encountered solid ore. No. 2 tunnel, at the left of No. 1, is in 60 feet and has cut into the lead for a distance of 14 feet. The tunnel No. 3 has reached the 100-foot point and it is expected the lead will be cut any day.

Mr. Thomas owns a half interest in the War Eagle group of seven claims. Assay returns have never gone below $41.65 and from that figure have ranged to $250. The ore is free milling and with development is expected to show up in large bodies.

Upon returning Mr. Thomas expects to begin sinking on this group to ascertain the extent of the deposits.
— —

It is reported that the bones of a supposed mastodon were recently unearthed on the Snake river near Swan Falls dam. The bones were discovered in a bed of volcanic ashes in one of the lava fields, and are supposed to be those of a prehistoric animal which had been caught in a volcanic eruption.
— —

19050715Pg4A-Headline5
A Caved Mine

The recent disastrous cave reported as occurring in the United Verde mine workings, at Jerome, Ariz., illustrates in a forcible manner the shortsighted policy of “cheap” extraction of large bodies of ore, even in hard rock, without filling. There are many large mines where the good-standing qualities of the ore and wall rock lead the management to adopt a system of mining which must ultimately result in disaster. The removal of hundreds of thousands of tons of ore from a large vein or deposit, and the attempt to support the walls and overhead ore by means of timber must have a limit even in the best standing ground. It might be permissible for a single stope to be excavated, and the roof and walls supported by a system of timbering without filling. When a series of stopes, one above another, are thus opened, with only shell-like intervals of rock between levels, and element of danger is introduced which should be avoided, but having been created should receive prompt and proper attention, or, as in the case of the United Verde, the ultimate cost may perhaps exceed that of the application of the proper methods in the first place. It is simply another object lesson in mining, teaching the observer how mining should not be done. As a result of this shortsighted policy the United Verde mine is practically closed. The buildings are settling, and it is said the shafts and foundations of the hoists are so much out of line that no hoisting can be done, and it may be several weeks, if not months, before active work can be resumed.

– Mining and Scientific Press.
— —

Subscribe for the News
— —

19050715Pg4A-Headline6
Dig

Quit scraping over the surface of your business chances – quit remaining content with the pay-dirt on the outer edges of your commercial prospects. There is a nugget in every opportunity – if you only delve deep enough to get it.

And don’t merely dig without aim or method. Just as the miner assays his claim before he sinks his shaft, so you should probe each business possibility before you begin to work it. First, locate your claim – you main chance. Then prove it. Then plan your system to work it. Then take off your coat and dig!

– System.
— —

The Scandinavian sky is clouding over. Swedish war vessels are hovering around Norwegian ports and Norwegian troops are moving towards Sweden’s frontier. What ban goin happen nex no fallars can tal. [sic]

– Cleveland Plain Dealer
— —

The Boston Globe describe President Roosevelt as follows: “If Daniel Webster was a steam engine in trousers, Theodor Roosevelt is a dynamo in a frock coat.” Wonder what the Globe man would remark if he would take a peep at the camp which glories in strenuousness and bears the name of the rough rider president?
— —

On July 6 the body of Admiral John Paul Jones was formally delivered to the United States government by France. The ceremonies took place in Paris and were most impressive. At last the mortal remains of one of the distinguished naval heroes of the Revolutionary war will be given a resting place in the land for which he so gallantly fought.
— —

19050715Pg4A-Headline7
For Sale Cheap

A good restaurant, including building and fixtures; in a good location, doing a good business. Business calls party elsewhere and must be s old at once. Enquire at News office.
— — — —

— — — — — — — — — —

19050715Pg5A-Headline1Twentieth Century Notes

Considerable building is in progress on the grounds of the Twentieth Century company above town. A new bunk house is now being enclosed that will accommodate 48 men when completed. Its dimensions are 43×34 feet and is in form of a main hallway and assembly room with three wings for bunks. At the rear an addition will be build for a bath and wash room. The bunk house is a frame building of red fir lumber and when completed will be neat, well lighted and comfortable.

Just north of the new bunk house the old boarding house is being raised and will be moved back to line up with the other buildings. The building is 10×32 feet and will be increased by an addition 14×26 feet which will serve as kitchen and sleeping quarters for the cooks.

This week also began the work of framing the mill buildings. Boilers and machinery are on the way and work will be pushed to complete the mill as early as possible.

Wm. Kreps is putting in for the sawmill 100,000 feet of logs which will be converted into lumber during the summer. Just at present the sawmill is closed down owing to a break in the machinery.

Work is progressing in the two tunnels steadily and rapidly. The Toltac has now reached a distance of about 600 feet and the showing is good.

Two new arrivals at the camp this week were Messrs. Carr and Bisbee, two young men from Cleveland, Ohio, who will spend a summer’s vacation here. The boys walked in from Boise for the novelty of the experience and made the distance in six days.

Fishing is the principal form of recreation with the boys now, and every evening the creek is lined with fishermen. Some good catches are reported. One gentleman whose bait wasn’t good was overheard to remark that if his luck didn’t change he would go down below Roosevelt and try to rope some of the big fish said to be roaming among the jungles.
— —

19050715Pg5A-Headline2Ole Yonson’s Troubles
By Loon Creek Bill

My name bane Ole Yonson; ay bane won Swede and yust com back.

Ay bane work at Yulla Yacket and boss sa ha not suit ma. Ha gef ma time an ay walk down tha bill som. Ay go up Meedle Fork with yackass and pack grub. Ay com bay rock slice and grub an yackass ha go hal-a-hoopin down een reefer. Ay bane brok agen an tank ay get a yob on Mahoney’s deech.

Som tam ay go to Sunnyside for a yob. Ay ax tha boss ay bane a cousin yak, an ha kek ma with hees fut. Ay not go to Sunnyside any more. Ay tank so.

Ay tank ay feesh som. Won mans tal my ay tank bane feesh sen Monumental way hunder tirty poun. Ay feesh tre day and get two feesh 8 inch long. Ay tank ha bane so 2-lag feesh.

Som fallars tal ma ay get a yob to shofal snow at Dewey mine. Ay walk up an tha bane no yob at all. The boss ha tal my tre Swede mans bane want at Twenty Censhur mine an ay tak a walk to there an ha say of ay brak ground. Ay tal heem ay brak twanty aker groun een Long Walley, an ha sa my bane saw wood with ax. Ay cut wood tree day, and tha boss sa ay got time coman. Ha sa ay bane good man an get grub an 2 dollar six bits.

Som day ay go prospect an fallers sy “Ole, ay tank you bane haf good clam. You get ore run two thousand poun to ton.” Ay tank ay go bak Sweden now. Ay bane get plenty money now ay sel ma clam.

Won man sa ha got good hors ha sel ma cheap for tan dollar. Ha sa ha find hors out Beeg crick an ay get heem of ay walk out. Ay pay heem money an ay go out for hors. Ay ride heem to sex mile from Roosewalt an tha hors die standn up. Ay bane lok for faller but ay no find heem. Ay tank my tan dollar bane gon.

Faller say ay get yob on road at Beeg Crik ef ay bane gude double yak mans. Ay tank ay not bane double yak mans or cousin yak mans, too. Ay bane yust won Swede mans an ay tak no yob at all.

Gude-bye; an tank ay write agen som tam.

– Ole
— —

19050715Pg5A-Headline3
$100 Reward

A reward of $100 is hereby offered for the recovery of the body of Francis Steele or for information leading to the recovery of his body. He is supposed to have been lost on the Thunder Mountain trail near Ramey creek or Big Creek and to have perished.
J. D. Evans, Brother of Mrs. Francis Steele.

The prompt payment of the above reward is hereby guaranteed.
F. L. Leonard, Cashier Grangeville Savings and Trust Co.
Grangeville, Idaho.
— — — —

Forfeiture Notice

To Wm. Burg, his heirs or assigns:

You are hereby notified that I have expended during the year 1904 the sum of one hundred [100] dollars in labor and improvements upon the Golden Chest Fraction lode, situated in Thunder Mountain Mining district, Idaho county, State of Idaho, the location certificate of which is found of record in the deputy recorder’s office at Roosevelt, Idaho, also county seat, Grangeville, Idaho, in order to hold said claim for the period ending Dec. 31, 1904, your proportion of said expenditures being the sum of fifty [50] dollars for said year, for the one-half interest belonging to you. And if, within ninety days after the service of this notice by publication, you fail or refuse to contribute your proportion of such expenditure as co-owner, together with the cost of this notice, your interest in said claim will become the property of the undersigned your co-owner, under the terms of section 2324, Revised Statutes of the United States.

Dated at Roosevelt, Idaho, May 20, 1905
Thomas Neighbors
— —

Forfeiture Notice

To C. J. Fry, his heirs or assigns:

You are hereby notified that I have expended during the year 1904 the sum of one (100) hundred dollars in labor and improvements upon the Monk mining claim in the Pittsburg group of quartz claims, situated in the Thunder Mountain mining district, Idaho county, State of Idaho, the location certificate of which is found of record in the office of the recorder of said county, in order to hold said claim for the period ending December 31, 1904, your proportion of said expenditures being fifty (50) dollars for said year, for the one-half interest belonging to you. And if, within ninety days after the service of this notice by publication, you fail or refuse to contribute your proportion of such expenditures as co-owner, together with the cost of this notice, your interest in said claims will become the property of the undersigned your co-owner, under the terms of section 2324, Revised Statutes of the United States.

Dated at Roosevelt, Idaho, May 17, 1905.
D. T. Sillivan
— —

Forfeiture Notice

To E. M. Clements, his heirs or assigns:

You are hereby notified that I have expended during the year 1904 the sum of two (200) hundred dollars in labor and improvements up on the Edmon, Bullion and Amalgan Bar mining claims in the Pittsburg group of quartz mining claims, situate in Thunder Mountain mining district, Idaho co., State of Idaho, the location certificates of which are found of record in the office of the recorder of said county, in order to hold said claims for the period ending December 31, 1904, your proportion of said expenditures being one (100) hundred dollars for said year, for the one-third interesting belonging to you. And if, within ninety days after the service of this notice by publication, you fail or refuse to contribute your proportion of such expenditures as co-owner, together with the cost of this notice, your interest in said claims will become the property of the undersigned your co-owner, under the terms of section 2324, Revised Statutes of the United States.

Dated at Roosevelt, Idaho, May 17, 1905.
D. T. Sillivan
— —

Notice of Publication

Notice is hereby given that on the 17th day of July, 1905, at Roosevelt, County of Idaho, State of Idaho, proof will be submitted of the completion of works for the diversion of one cubic foot per second of the waters of Little Lake Creek, in accordance with the terms and conditions of a certain permit heretofore issued by the State Engineer of the State of Idaho:

1. The name of the corporation holding said permit is Thunder Mtn. Gold and Silver M. & M. Co.

2. The place of business of such corporation is Roosevelt, County of Idaho, St.ate of Idaho.

3. The number of such permit is 1056, and the date set for the completion of such work is July 17, 1905.

4. Said water is to be used for milling and domestic purposes.

5. Said works of diversion will be fully completed on the date set for such completion, and the amount of water which said works are capable of conducting to the place of intended use, in accordance with the plans accompany the application for such permit, is one cubic foot per second.
— — — —

— — — — — — — — — —

19050715Pg6A-Headline1The Deserted Cabin
By Geo. A Stephens

Amid the fragrant, dark-hued firs
That cling to the rugged peaks,
Stands a lone prospector’s cabin
And of day gone by it speaks.
A tale it tells of romance true,
Of the ways of daring men,
Of the search for gold
In the days of old
When the trails were blazed again.

It tells how the brooding silence
Was broken when gold was found,
Of the stampede wild and reckless
To the staked and tented ground.
It tells to me of a city
That was builded in a day,
Where from golden sands
In these far-off lands
Flowed the streams of wealth away.

It tells how our glorious West
Came forth from its savage state,
How the wilderness tribes that roamed
Bowed ‘neath the decree of fate.
It tells me of ranches and homes
In the shadows of the hills,
And of willing hands
That have made these lands
To blossom for him who tills.

It tells of a grand advancement –
The pride of each westerner –
Of sturdy men who “saw it all
And a part of which they were.”
Of some it tells of humble walk
But whose hearts were true as steel
Whose graves mark the trail
Along hill and vale
To this cherished land ideal.

But the tale that the cabin tells
Of pick and shovel and pan,
Is nearer and dearer to me
Then the other deeds of man;
And I sit here fondly musing
By this cabin old today,
Where from placered sands
In these far-off lands
Flowed the golden streams away.
— —

19050715Pg6A-Headline2
Behind the Times

Recently there appeared in the Boise Statesman an item referring to a communication sent to that paper by a certain citizen of Roosevelt, the burden of which having been a complaint relative to alleged violation of the game laws in this section of Idaho. It was claimed that no deputy game warden was in here and no hunting or fishing licenses could be procured. It was also alleged that elk and deer were being ruthlessly and wantonly slaughtered in open violation of the law.

This no doubt makes fine reading for a person posing as a would-be friend and protector of the game and fish, and who perhaps is so situated that he can leisurely search out the game laws and provisions, and according to their requirement, sit placidly back awaiting their fulfillment and then go forth with a copy of the said laws in one hand and mayhap a rapid fire, smokeless, telescope rifle in the other, to wage warfare on the helpless game for pleasure only. Yes, perhaps.

But what of the rough and ready prospector, of him who penetrates the trackless wiles of these almost inaccessible hills, and blazes and pioneers the way that such as the aforementioned friend and protector might profit and be benefited? These men that cut loose from bases of supplies and are swallowed up for weeks or months in the tangled environment of mountain and forest and rushing steam, and rarely meeting others of their kind, must of necessity carry but scanty supply of provisions, and it has long been a custom of the wilderness to allow them the privilege of taking game at any time as their necessity demanded. This, of course, is not an adherence to the exact letter of the law, but we know of cases in which latitude was sometimes extended by the law to apply to certain conditions.

We do not mean to be understood as upholding the unlawful slaughter of game or of its wanton destruction for sport, but when conditions are such as to render imperative the taking of game and that quickly to maintain life, as is often the case with prospectors, then it should, we believe, be an occasion for the exercise of a little latitude.

As to the impossibility of procuring fish and game licenses at Roosevelt, we can say that the Stateman’s correspondent manifests much ignorance of things most commonly known. Our resident justice of the peace, Jas. McAndrews, is empowered to issue the licenses whenever required. It might be well for the above mentioned correspondent to post up a little before he again attempts to butt in.
— —

Our attention as been called to an error in giving the names of the two men who were first to drill in the contest on the Fourth. Instead of being the names of Gourne and Baema, as we were informed, we should have said Cosme and Sanso. This was not intentional on our part, it being a mistake by reason of an unfamiliarity with the names.
— —

— — — — — — — — — —

Images of full sized pages:

link: Page 1 top
link: Page 1 bottom

link: Page 2 top
link: Page 2 bottom

link: Page 3 top
link: Page 3 bottom

link: Page 4 top
link: Page 4 bottom

link: Page 5 top
link: Page 5 bottom

link: Page 6 top
link: Page 6 bottom
——————-

Link to Thunder Mountain and Roosevelt index page

Link: Public folder with images of the old newspapers
—————————-

Idaho History Apr 17, 2022

Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic

Part 102

Influenza “Cures” from Idaho Newspapers 1920
Patent Medicines, Advertising, Home Remedies and Misinformation

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

1920

January 1, 1920

Payette Enterprise., January 01, 1920, Page 2

[Editorial]

What is true of influenza is true of most diseases. Fear, fright, a mental condition, is responsible for most of them. Those cities that declared a quarantine last year on account of the epizootic or influenza epidemic – making a great hullabaloo and frightening emotional people – all showed a larger fatality list than Yew York, where no quarantine was declared and all schools and public meetings went on as usual.

– Rutland (Vt.) News

source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 01 Jan. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

January 15, 1920

The Emmett Index. January 15, 1920, Page 119200115EI2

To Parents

There are a few cases of influenza in this community. Are you willing to help fight this epidemic? If so, take the following precaution: Have the children use Dobell’s gargle twice a day. If unable to procure this immediately, use salt and water – a teaspoonful of salt to a glass of warm water – Minnie C. Pipher, school nurse.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 15 Jan. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

January 16, 1920

The Caldwell Tribune. January 16, 1920, Page 1

19200116CT2
According to latest advices from Dr. F. M. Cole, city physician, the only case of alleged influenza in Caldwell, that of H. G. Morris, resolved itself into a case of smallpox. There is no influenza in Caldwell.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 16 Jan. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

January 29, 1920

The Nezperce Herald., January 29, 1920, Page 1

19200129NH3For Preventing Influenza

The Herald republishes the following article from its issue of November 7, 1918, by request:

Geo. P. Christenson submits the following as coming from a doctor with whom he was well acquainted back in his old home state and whom he knows to be capable and reliable:

Goldfield, Ia., Oct. 9. — Believing I have an effective preventative for grippe or influenza, and hoping it may be considered important enough to warrant publication, I herewith submit my remedy which I have used for years to my own satisfaction.

Let any one go to a drug store and buy a four drachm homeopathic vial and fill it loosely with absorbent cotton. Pour into this vial enough of the ordinary commercial 40 percent formaldehyde to thoroughly saturate the cotton. Stop the vial with a well-fitted cork and you have a remedy that will prevent or destroy any infection that is communicated by inspiration thru the air passages.

Respectfully yours, A. S. Cunningham, M. D.

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 29 Jan. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

General Hospital, Pocatello, Idaho, ca. 1913 (1)

courtesy: The Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

February 10, 1920

The Idaho Republican. February 10, 1920, Page 2

19200210TIR4
Prevent The Flu

The influenza is less dangerous this year than last because people are happier and better nourished. The best health insurance is health.

All disease becomes less dangerous and less frequent in its attacks as all people go more hand in hand with laws of nature. So long as some of the people contract disease just so long will they transmit it to others who are healthy and ought to escape it.

There are reasons for everything, including the flu. Every human body carries around a lot of germs capable of causing disease if their number becomes large enough, and every healthy human body carries also enough anti-disease elements to keep the germs down, unless they be augmented by an incoming horde from the outside.

The powers of darkness work in the dark, and germs live in dirt. The first thing to do to prevent disease then is to prevent accumulations of dirt and waste and let plenty of clean fresh air and sunshine in. Lack of these things breaks down resistance to any disease attack.

Disease and health are as opposite as crying and laughing, as sorrow and joy, as dark and light. Sunshine, joy and health are allies. Disease spreads under the favorable conditions of darkness, unhappiness and foul air by contact just as rot spreads in a barrel of apples. Sickness is the penalty of a disregard for nature’s self-evident rules. And they not only suffer who invite disease, but they also who are nearby.

Altho [sic] in treating all troubles of the lungs plenty of fresh air is always insisted on by the best physicians yet only a small part of the people believe that fresh, cold air is not harmful. There was great uproar in some of the army hospitals two years ago when owing to scarcity of housing space many men were put out-of-doors on verandas and in tents, and yet the death rate of out-door patients was not much more than half that of in-door patients. Even the nurses who caught the flu kicked at being put out of the house and having their lives saved thereby.

When the public is finally convinced of the healing power of fresh air and sunshine public epidemics will lose their kick.

The American public has almost, but not quite, been taught that filth produces typhoid fever, and that form of disease has been reduced to a minimum. At the same time lung diseases, and foremost among them, pneumonia, are in the increase because of filthy air. One of the greatest checks the army put upon epidemics two years back was a thinning out of the men so that only a half dozen should live in one tent instead of nine, ten and twelve. At the same time it was next to impossible for the authorities to make the men leave the cap off their tent peaks at night and their windows open if they lived in barracks. The love of close, stuffy air in inborn in Americans, and possibly in the whole human race, for the French are yet worse. The French death rate is very high too.

The best flu preventions are: Fresh air, sunshine, clean houses, clean clothes, clean bodies and cheerful minds. This will be confirmed by any first rate medical authority.

– F. C. K.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 10 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. February 10, 1920, Page 5

19200210BFH3
Sick Room Necessities at Standard Prices

Kantleek Hot Water Bottles and Syringes
The finest hot water bottle made. We guarantee them for three years.

Fever Thermometers
Absolutely necessary in all sickrooms. standard makes at from $1.25 to $2.00 each.

Atomizers
For use with both oil and water; for spraying the nose or throat we feature the Derilbliss line.

Bed and Douche Pans, Porcelain and Enamel Ware.

Fumigation – Sulfur and Formaldehyde. Do not give the germs a single chance.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 10 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

February 13, 1920

Clearwater Republican. February 13, 1920, Page 4

19200213CR4War is Declared on

Disease And Pestilence

Prepare for the emergency by Securing

Affleck’s Home Medicine Case
(U. S. Patent)

You pay no money now, but are always prepared to meet accidents, disease and epidemics. You never buy anything you don’t use, but always have it for every emergency.

Come in and Let Us Explain

Affleck, The Druggist

“At Ye Sign of Ye Red Globe”
Orofino, Idaho

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 13 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

February 17, 1920

The Idaho Republican. February 17, 1920, Page 5

19200217TIR5
After-the-Flu Cough

or any cough should be treated and eliminated.

It isn’t the cough that carries you off, but the coughing, coughing, coughing.

Good Cough Syrups

Cherry Bark and White Pine
35c and 65c

Kantleek Can’t Leak
The latest in good hot water bottles, seamless and leak-less
$2.00 to $4.75

Palace Drug Store

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 17 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 17, 1920, Page 1

Cheating Two “Industries”

A Star-Mirror reporter overheard the following conversation on the street this morning:

First citizen: — “I had the flu, but I didn’t call a doctor. I watched my temperature, and kept quiet.”

Second citizen — “And cheated some doctor out of a job!”

Third citizen — “And the undertaker, also.”

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 17 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

February 19, 1920

The Filer Record., February 19, 1920, Page 11

19200219FR2— —

19200219FR3Your Catarrh My Lead To Consumption
Dangerous to Use Treatment for Only Temporary Relief

There is a more serious stage of Cararrh than the annoyance caused by the stopped-up air passages, and other distasteful features.

The real danger comes from the tendency of the disease to continue its course downward until the lungs become affected, and then dreaded consumption is on your patch. Your own experience has taught you that the disease cannot be cured by sprays, inhalers, atomizers, jellies and other local applications.

S. S. S. has proven a most satisfactory remedy for Catarrh because it goes direct to its source. Get a bottle today, begin the only logical treatment that gives real results. For free medical advice write Medical Director, 47, Swift Laboratory, Atlanta, Ga.
— —

19200219FR4

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 19 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. February 20, 1920, Page 2

19200220KG4

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 20 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

February 26, 1920

The Nezperce Herald., February 26, 1920, Page 8

19200226NH2What Spreads Influenza?
Doctors, Boards of Health and Newspapers May Spread Influenza by Mental Suggestion

A well known citizen treats this important subject pointedly and interestingly as follows:

Common sense, supporting the doctrine of the church, affirms the golden mean between the extremes of co-called Christian Science (Mind Monism) and the Materialism (Matter Monism). It affirms the real existence of both mind and matter, but it also affirms the superiority of mind over matter. Common sense, confirmed by experience insists that mind is over matter.

Because mind is over matter, a clever doctor can, by mere mental suggestion, make you sick enough to die. Hypnotists can put some persons to sleep by mental suggestion. I have heard of medical fraternity initiations in which the victim almost died under the mental suggestion that blood was gushing from his arteries and veins. On the other hand, even in cases of pneumonia, patients sometimes fight their way back to health by sheer will power.

In view of these generally admitted facts, it is not improbable that much of the influenza epidemic is due to mental suggestion. I do not deny the germ theory. I believe that corn grows only where it is planted. But every farmer knows that corn will not grow, even if it is planted, unless the soil is also fit for it. Now medical men assure us that the pneumococci and other germs are nearly always present in the mouth of everyone. Lowered physical, and probably much more lowered mental resistance, makes the soil fit for the rapid growth of pneumococci. Doctors admit that they know little about the matter. But some of them hold that colds, la grippe, influenza and pneumonia are merely stages in such growth favored by the right mental and physical conditions in the patient.

It is my contention, therefore, that many disease epidemics are greatly promoted, if not even caused by mental suggestion. If newspapers from the very beginning would make no mention of the flu, and if no one started or repeated or exaggerated rumors about it, there would be far fewer persons suffering from such diseases.

Even boards of health are the victims of misguided mental suggestion. To a certain extent they are also, no doubt innocently, contributing to the spread of the disease by mental suggestion.

Doctors and health experts disagree as to the value of the drastic bans. In the fall of 1918, when in the city of New York the flu was a prevalent and virulent as elsewhere, no ban was proclaimed. The death rate there was less than elsewhere. It must make many of the doctors smile in their sleeves to observe how the public, once having worn the yoke of a ridiculous and valueless ban, clamor for the same or a similar yoke upon the reappearance of the flu even in a mild form. Like many other characteristics in our mental life, it makes a man think, if he thinks at all, that this “land of the free” has become the land of bunc.

The present epidemic was only mild all over the country. Except in this or that locality the death-rate was scarcely above the normal. Of course “it is decreed unto all men once to die, and after this the judgement.” But why worry about a death-rate that is scarcely above the normal? What would the public demand and the boards of health decree if we were undergoing a really serious disease epidemic, in which the death would take 10 to 25 percent of the population? I hope that the boards would become hysterical and do nothing. Otherwise we would probably be ordered to burn down our houses and cremate our clothes and our bodies.

If, then, this epidemic is largely due to mental suggestion, it must largely be overcome by mental suggestion. Newspapers should avoid headlines and sensationalism. They should publish the full truth and show that the present death-rate is not so very alarming.

If boards of health were one-tenth as zealous in proclaiming bans on suggestive films in the movies, on suggestive and immoral dances and fashions that corrupt morals and invite the spread of venereal diseases, as they are in giving sensational interviews to newspapers on the flu, they would become veritable towers of moral and physical strength in their respective communities.

(Not be misunderstood or misinterpreted in my intentions, I feel impelled to state expressly and emphatically that this article from start to finish was meant only for general application, not with any particular reference to our local board of health or out local doctors; every one of whom is held by the writer of these lines in the highest and most sincere esteems.) — A Citizen

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 26 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

February 27, 1920

The Rathdrum Tribune., February 27, 1920, Page 3

19200227RT3Seven Flu Preventatives

Eat good, wholesome food.
Chew what you do eat well.
Sleep eight hours every night.
Work ten hours every day.
Boost instead of knocking.
Wear a good pleasant smile
Buy everything to eat and drink at the Ivy Store. – Trueblood.

source: The Rathdrum Tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 27 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Lake View Hospital, Harrison, Idaho ca. 1919 (1)

courtesy: The Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

March 4, 1920

Idaho County Free Press. March 04, 1920, Page 6

19200304ICFP2Why Colds Are Dangerous

It is the serious diseases that colds lead to that makes them dangerous. They prepare the system for the reception and development of the germs of influenza, pneumonia, tuberculosis, diphtheria, scarlet fever, whooping cough and measles. You are much more likely to contract these diseases when you have a cold. For that reason you should get rid of very cold as quickly as possible. Chamberlain’s Cough Remedy will help you. It is widely known as a cure for bad colds.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 04 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

March 17, 1920

The Challis Messenger., March 17, 1920, Page 4

19200317CM2Warning!
Beware of Auto Flu

If your car has a fever, sneezes and coughs, and then lays down – call a specialist. Phone 28, (3 rings) Challis, Ida, specialists in troubleshooting.

Preventative of Auto Flu

See that your car has a full outfit of our new rubbers on its feet. Have it examined and adjusted here and you will be ready for a good, healthy, summer’s work.

Transcontinental Garage
Challis, Idaho
Edwin Woffinden – Albert Woffinden, Mgr.

source: The Challis Messenger. (Challis, Idaho), 17 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

March 18, 1920

The Wallace Miner. March 18, 1920, Page 6

19200318WM2Drinking Water in Mines

The drinking water used by miners underground is of as much importance as that in use on the surface. The water used for drinking purposes underground should be free from filth or contamination. Many diseases are spread in this manner, among which are common colds, influenza, pneumonia and syphilis. Where drinking water is piped underground a simple sanitary device may be arranged by means of a pipe with a union on the end too big to be placed in the mouth. It is better so to place this union on the end of the pipe that the water will not come in an upright stream, but pour out on the side.

source: The Wallace Miner. (Wallace, Idaho), 18 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

March 19, 1920

The Caldwell Tribune. March 19, 1920, Page 11

19200319CT2For colds, Catarrh or Influenza

Do you feel weak and unequal to the work ahead of you? Do you still cough a little, or does your nose bother you? Are you pale? Is your blood thin and watery? Better put your body into shape. Build strong!

An old reliable blood-maker and herbal tonic made from wild roots and barks, is Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery. This “nature remedy” comes in tablet or liquid form. It will build up your body and protect you from disease germs which lurk everywhere. One of the active ingredients of this temperance alternative and tonic is wild cherry bark with stillingia, which is so good for the lungs and for coughs; also Oregon grape root, blood root, sone root, Queen’s root, – all skillfully combined in the Medical Discovery. These roots have a direct action on the stomach, improving digestion and assimilation. These herbal extracts in the “Discovery” aid in blood-making and are best for scrofula. By improving the blood they fortify the body against an attack of grip or colds.

Catarrh should be treated, first, as a blood disease, with this alternative. Then in addition, the nose should be washed daily with Dr. Sage’s Catarrh Remedy.

Send 10c for trial pkg. of Medical Discovery Tablets or Catarrh Tablets to Dr. Pierce’s Invalids’ Hotel, Buffalo, N. Y.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 19 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

March 25, 1920

Idaho County Free Press. March 25, 1920, Page 2

19200325ICFP2She States It Mildly

While suffering with a severe attack of the grip and threatened with pneumonia, Mrs. Annie H. Cooley, of Middlefield, Conn., began using Chamberlain’s Cough Remedy and was very much benefited by its use. The pains in the chest soon disappeared, the cough became loose, expectoration easy and in a short time she was as well as ever. Mrs. Cooley says she cannot speak too highly in praise of this remedy.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 25 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

March 26, 1920

The Oakley Herald. March 26, 1920, Page 4

19200326OH3Facts for Sick Women
Reliable Information

All American women know of the great success of Lydia E. Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound in restoring to health women who suffered from ailments peculiar to their sex, yet there are some who are skeptical and do not realize that all that is claimed for it is absolutely true – if they did, our laboratory would not be half large enough to supply the demand, though today it is the largest in the country used for the manufacture of one particular medicine.

The Facts contained in the following two letters should prove of benefit to many women:

Buffalo, N. Y. – “I suffered with organic inflammation and displacement. When lifting I had such pain and bearing down that I was not able to stand up, and it hurt me to walk or go up or down stairs. I was going to a doctor without any results and he said the safest thing would be to have an operation. I met a lady who told me she had three operations and was not well until she took Lydia E. Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound.

I felt relief after taking two bottles of Vegetable Compound and I kept on with it until I was cured. I always use Lydia E. Pinkham’s Liver Pills and they are fine. Everything used to turn sour on my stomach and the Liver Pills relieved that.” – Mrs. A Rogers, 593 Fargo Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y.

Sacramento, Calif. – “I had organic trouble and had such terrible pain and swelling in the lower part of my side that I could not stand on my feet or even let the bed clothes touch my side. I gave up my work thinking I would not be able to go back for months. My mother advised me to take Lydia E. Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound as it had saved her life at one time, and it put me in a wonderful condition in a couple of weeks, so I can keep on working. I work in a department store and have to stand on my feet all day and I do not have any more pains. I surely recommend your Vegetable Compound to all my friends and you may use these facts as a testimonial.” – Bertha J. Parker, 3320 M. St., Sacramento, Calif.

The fact is, the Best Medicine for Women is Lydia E. Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound.

Lydia E. Pinkham Medicine Co., Lynn, Mass.
19200326OH4— —

19200326OH2Take Aspirin With Water

If your Aspirin tablets have the name “Bayer” stamped on them, they are genuine “Bayer Tablets of Aspirin,” proved safe by millions of people. The name “Bayer” identifies the true wold-famous Aspirin prescribed by physicians for over eighteen years.

Always drink one or two glasses of water after taking the tablets.

Each unbroken “Bayer package” contains proper directions for Colds, Headache, Toothache, Earache, Neuralgia, Lumbago, Rheumatism, Neuritis, and for Pain.

Always say “Bayer” when buying Aspirin. Then look for the safety “Bayer Cross” on the package and on the tablets.

Handy tin boxes of twelve tablets cost but a few cents. Druggists also sell larger packages.

Aspirin is trace mark of Bayer Manufacture Monoaceticacideater of Sallcyllcacid

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 26 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Josephine Hospital, Weiser, Idaho

courtesy: The Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 1, 1920

The Nezperce Herald., April 01, 1920, Page 3

How Diphtheria is Contracted

One often heard the expression, “My child caught a severe cold, which developed into diphtheria,” when the truth was that the cold had simply left the little one particularly susceptible to the wandering diphtheria germ. If your child has a cold when diphtheria is prevalent you should take him out of school and keep him off the street until fully recovered, as there is a hundred times more danger of his taking diphtheria when he has a cold. When Chamberlain’s Cough Remedy is given it quickly cures the cold and lessens the danger of diphtheria or any other germ disease being contracted.
— —

How is Your Complexion?

A woman should grow more beautiful as she grows older and she will with the due regard to baths, diet and exercise, and by keeping her liver and bowels in good working order. If you are haggard and yellow, your eyes losing their lustre and whites becoming yellowish, your flesh flabby, it may be due to indigestion or to sluggish liver. Chamberlain’s Tablets correct these disorders.

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 01 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Nezperce Herald., April 01, 1920, Page 5

19200401NH3Slow Death

Aches, pains, nervousness, difficulty in urinating, often means serious disorders. The world’s standard remedy for kidney, liver, bladder and uric acid troubles –

Gold Medal Haarlem Oil Capsules

bring quick relief and often ward off deadly diseases. Known as the national remedy Holland for more than 200 years. All druggists, in three sizes.

Look for the name Gold Medal on every box and accept no imitation.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

April 2, 1920

The Caldwell Tribune. April 02, 1920, Page 9

19200402CT2Spring Fever
Following Colds, Grip or Flu, Thin, Watery or Poisoned Blood
(By Dr. Valentine Mott)

At this time of year most people suffer from what we term “spring fever” because of a stagnant condition of the blood, because of the toxins (poisons) stored up within the body during the long winter. We eat too much meat, with little or no green vegetables.

Bloodless people, thin, anemic people, those with pale cheeks and lips, who have a poor appetite and feel that tired, worn or feverish condition in the spring-time of the year, should try the refreshing tonic powers of a good alternative and blood purifier. Such a tonic as druggists have sold for fifty years, is Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery. It is a standard remedy that can be obtained in tablet or liquid form. Made without alcohol from wild roots and barks.

Baker City, Oregon: — I was taken with influenza and also had a nervous breakdown. My stomach was so bad I did not retain my food for three or four weeks and I was troubled with sourness and gas. I doctored with my two favorite doctors and a Chiropractor. One day I sent for a copy of Dr. Pierce’s Medical Adviser (price, 50c.), which I read and decided to make a trial of the “Medical Discovery.” At that time I was only able to stay up a few minutes at a time. After taking two bottles I was able to be on my feet all day. I am now able to eat anything without discomfort and never have the dryness in my mouth in the morning nor any bowel troubles. I walk 18 or 19 blocks at a time now and feel no ill effects.” Mrs. Wm. Hoggard, 2630 Church St.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 02 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

April 16, 1920

The Caldwell Tribune. April 16, 1920, Page 10

19200416CT2Needed Protection

Keep your body well nourished and strong and there is little danger. It’s essential that you keep up your resistance. There are thousands of families who would not dream of being without the protection that

Scott’s Emulsion

affords. The right idea is to start in the fall with Scott’s Emulsion and be protected for a strenuous winter.

It’s Scott’s you ask for.

The Norwegian cod-liver oil used in Scott’s Emulsion is super-refined in our own American Laboratories.

Its purity and quality is unsurpassed.

Scott & Brown, Bloomfield, N. J.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 16 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

April 21, 1920

The Challis Messenger., April 21, 1920, Page 2

19200421CM4Weak And Worn?

Has winter left you dull, tired; all worn out? Do you have constant backache, with headaches, dizzy spells, sharp, shooting pains, or annoying kidney irregularities? Influenza and grip epidemics have left thousands with weak kidneys and failing strength. Don’t wait until serious kidney trouble develops. Help the weakened kidneys with Doan’s Kidney Pills. Doan’s have helped thousands and should help you. Ask your neighbor!

An Idaho Case

James N. Thompson, Sixth and W. Idaho Sts., Weiser, Idaho, says: “I was troubled with a dull, constant ache through the small of my back. It hurt me so at times I could hardly keep up. I had always read about Doan’s Kidney Pills, so I got a box to try. I was helped so much I kept on using Doan’s until I was cured. I have never had any return of kidney trouble.”

Get Doan’s at Any Store, 60c a Box
Doan’s Kidney Pills
Foster – Milburn Co., Buffalow, N. Y.
— —

19200421CM5After La Grippe
Troubles of Stomach and Liver

Los Angeles, Calif, — “I will gladly tell of the relief and cure Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery gave me. I was sick with troubles of stomach, liver, etc., and La Grippe with all its attending ailments. When all else failed Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery did the good work. I also took Dr. Pierce’s Pleasant Pellets for biliousness with grand success. I write with gratitude to tell others of the relief that is in store for them. Do not delay but hasten to get the above remedies if suffering from any indisposition.” – Samuel Kalisky, 978 Euclid Ave.

Sick-Headache, Indigestion, Biliousness

Stockton, Calif., – “For constipation, for sick headache, for an inactive liver, for indigestion and biliousness, there is nothing to equal Dr. Pierce’s Pleasant Pellets. I have tried other things but like the ‘Pellets’ best of any.” – Mrs. F. Canfield, 329 S. Grant St.

19200421CM6— —

19200421CM7Bad Breath
Often Caused by
Acid-Stomach

How can anyone with a sour, gassy stomach, who is constantly belching, has heartburn and suffers from indigestion have anything but a bad breath? All of these stomach disorders mean just one thing – Acid-Stomach.

EATONIC, the wonderful new stomach remedy in pleasant tasting tablet form that you eat like a bit of candy, brings quick relief from these stomach miseries. EATONIC sweetens the breath because it makes the stomach sweet, cool and comfortable. Try it for that nasty taste, congested throat and “heady feeling” after too much smoking.

If neglected, Acid-Stomach may cause you a lot of serious trouble. It leads to nervousness, headaches, insomnia, melancholia, rheumatism, sciatics, heart trouble, ulcer and cancer of the stomach. It makes its millions of victims weak and miserable, listless, lacking in energy, all tired out. It often brings about chronic invalidism, premature old age, a shortening of one’s days.

You need the help that EATONIC can give you if you are not feeling as strong and well as you should. You will be surprised to see how much better you will feel just as soon as you begin taking this wonderful stomach remedy. Get a big 50 cent box from your druggist today. He will return your money if you are not satisfied.

19200421CM8

source: The Challis Messenger. (Challis, Idaho), 21 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

April 22, 1920

Idaho County Free Press. April 22, 1920, Page 2

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 22 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

April 23, 1920

The Oakley Herald. April 23, 1920, Page 4

Camphor And Witchhazel Help Weak Eyes

Oakley people are astonished at the quick results produced by simple witchhazel, camphor, hydrastis, etc., as mixed in Lavoptic eye wash. In one case of weak and nearsighted eyes a few days use brought great improvement. In another case it stopped eye pains and inflammation. We guarantee a small bottle of Lavoptic to help ANY CASE weak, strained or inflamed eyes. Aluminum eye cup FREE. W. W. Quillian, Druggist.

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 23 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

April 30, 1910

Montpelier Examiner. April 30, 1920, Page 3

19200430ME2Prominent Folks Testify
After Influenza Heart and Circulation Bad

Baker City, Oregon: — “I was taken with Influenza, January 4th and also had a nervous breakdown. My stomach was so bad I did not retain any food for three or four weeks and I was troubled with gas and sourness. I doctored with my two favorite doctors and a Chiropractic who said my nerves were so badly deranged that I was on the verge of hysteria. My heart was bad and circulation so bad that my limbs were almost paralyzed. One day I sent for a copy of Dr. Pierce’s Common Sense Medical Adviser, which I read and decided to make a trial of Dr. Pierce’s medicines. At that time I was only able to stay up for a few minutes at a time. After taking two bottles I was able to be on my feet all day. I am now able to eat anything without discomfort and never have the dryness in my mouth in the morning or any bowel trouble. The ‘Pleasant Pellets’ and the ‘Medical Discovery’ according to directions, and the salt baths as directed in the ‘Medical Adviser’ were all I used. I walk 18 or 19 blocks at a time now and feel no ill effects.

“Will always recommend Dr. Pierce’s remedies.” – Mrs. Wm. Hoggard, 2630 Church St.
— —

19200430me3Perfect Health is Yours If the Blood is Kept Pure
Almost Every Human Ailment Is Directly Traceable to Impurities in the Blood

You should pay particular heed to any indication that your blood supply is becoming sluggish, or that there is a lessoning in its strong and vital force.

By keeping your blood purified, your system more easily wards off disease that is ever present, waiting to attack wherever there is an an opening. A few bottles of S. S. S., the great vegetable blood medicine, will revitalize your blood, and give you new strength and a healthy, vigorous vitality. Everyone needs it just now to keep the system in perfect condition. Go to your drug store and get a bottle to-day, and if you need any medical advice, you can obtain it without cost by writing to Medical Director, Swift Specific Co., 112 Swift Laboratory, Atlanta, Ga.

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 30 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. April 30, 1920, Page 9

19200430CT2
On The Defensive!

During the aftermath of influenza or its debilitating complications, there is more than ordinary need that you nourish and protect every avenue of your strength.

Scott’s Emulsion

because of its efficient tonic-nutrient properties, daily helps tens of thousands to renewed strength. Those who are fearful or rundown in vitality should use the means that help build up a healthy resistance.

What Scott’s does for others it will do for you. – Try it!

The exclusive grade of cod-liver oil used in Scott’s Emulsion is the famous “S. & B. Process,” made in Norway and refined in our own American Laboratories. It is a guarantee of purity and palatability unsurpassed.

Scott & Browne, Bloomfield, N. J.
— —

19200430CT3How’s Your Blood?
Pimples and Eruptions Mean Bad Blood

People who have impure or impoverished blood should be careful to take only a temperance remedy made of wild roots and barks, such as Doctor Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery is and has been for nearly 50 years. Ingredients printed on wrapper.

The first day you start to take this reliable medicine, impure germs and accumulations begin to separate in the blood and are then expelled through the eliminative organs.

In place of the impurities, the arteries and veins gradually get fresh vitalized blood and the action of this good blood on the skin means that pimples, boils, carbuncles, eczema, rash, acne and many skin blemishes will disappear. Then you must remember that when the blood is right, the liver, stomach, bowels and kidneys become healthy, active and vigorous and you will have no more trouble with indigestion, backache, headache.

Get Doctor Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery to-day at any medicine dealers, in tablet or liquid form, or send 10c for trial package to Dr. Pierce’s Invalids’ Hotel, Buffalo, N. Y.

Oakland, Calif. – “A relative was poisoned, her blood turned to water; the doctors gave her up, said she could never be cured. She finally took Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery, and it cured her. I have had six operations, which left me in a nervous state, with loss of sleep and appetite. Doctor Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery and Pleasant Pellets cured me. I gained 30 pounds.” – Mrs. Mae Trudow, 4034 Sutter Street.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 30 April 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

St. Alphonsus Hospital, Boise, Idaho

courtesy: The Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 14, 1920

The Caldwell Tribune. May 14, 1920, Page 5

19200514CT2
For Colds, Catarrh or Influenza

Do you feel weak and unequal to the work ahead of you? Do you still cough a little, or does your nose bother you? Are you pale? Is your blood thin and watery? Better put your body into shape. Build strong!

An old reliable blood-maker and herbal tonic made from wild roots and barks, is Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery. This “nature remedy” comes in tablet or liquid form. It will build up your body and protect you from disease germs which lurk everywhere. One of the active ingredients of this temperance alternative and tonic is wild cherry bark with stillingia, which is so good for the lungs and for coughs; also Oregon grape root, blood root, sone root, Queen’s root, – all skillfully combined in the Medical Discovery. These roots have a direct action on the stomach, improving digestion and assimilation. These herbal extracts in the “Discovery” aid in blood-making and are best for scrofula. By improving the blood they fortify the body against an attack of grip or colds.

Catarrh should be treated, first, as a blood disease, with this alternative. Then in addition, the nose should be washed daily with Dr. Sage’s Catarrh Remedy.

Send 10c for trial pkg. of Medical Discovery Tablets or Catarrh Tablets to Dr. Pierce’s Invalids’ Hotel, Buffalo, N. Y.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 14 May 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
——————

Whiskey for Influenza

1918 Influenza Rx for Whiskey

1918RxWhiskeyFritz-b

“A prescription from December 1918, in [the] middle of Spanish Influenza pandemic. This doctor/drug store was in Malad, Idaho. But this was common across the U.S. at this time. Also, was a legal way to get alcohol during prohibition.”

courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

The Nezperce Herald., February 05, 1920, Page 4

How to Get a Drink

Collector Edwards has announced the rules under which liquor may be procured, for medicinal purposes, under the revised, revamped, and reinforced prohibition amendment. The complete proceeding follows:

1. Patient develops a slight cold.

2. Speaks to wife about it; expresses opinion that hot whiskey might cure it, and suggests hurry call for the doctor.

3. Wife suspects faking, and administers white pine syrup and hot lemonade.

4. Patient develops grippe.

5. Wife becomes alarmed and sends for family physician.

6. Family physician satisfies self that patient is not camouflaging, but calls in nine other physicians, as required by law, to verify his findings and indorse [sic] the prescription for a half-pint.

7. Bertillion expert is called to take finger prints, foot prints, nose prints and breath prints of patient, all of which must be affixed to prescription for purposes of identification.

8. Patient is then required to fill out whiskey prescription questionnaire, giving date of birth, color of father’s hair, number of cousins who where addicted to drink, date on which he took first sip of intoxicating liquors, number of times arrested for drunkenness, complete list of every colds, etc., etc., etc.

9. Patient develops Spanish influenza.

10. Physicians then send finger prints, questionnaire, etc., to Washington to the Senate committee for the investigation of prescriptions for colds in the head and lungs.

11. Committee will summon patient to Washington for a Congressional hearing.

12. Congress will hold two-weeks’ quiz, and then require a two-thirds vote before prescription can be endorsed.

13. Patient will develop diphtheria.

14. Senate and House will finally endorse prescription, but send it to the War Department, Navy Department, Post Office Department, and Committee on Indian Affairs for filing purposes.

15. Patient will then return to home town on a stretcher, and present finger prints, prescription and photographs, questionnaire and Congressional papers to druggist.

16. Druggist will then require eleven good-character witnesses.

17. Druggist will then notify local revenue agents that prescription has been presented, and revenue agents will require carbon copy for card indexing.

18. Patient will develop pneumonia.

19. Druggist will go to cellar to fill prescription and find that his stock is exhausted.

20. Anti-Saloon League will raid drug store.

21. Patient will expire.

— New York Globe.

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 05 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 11, 1920, Page 5

Texas Whiskey to Be Pure

Austin, Texas. — Whiskey, under the new prohibition law, is classed as a drug, and R. H. Hoffman, pure food and drug commissioner, has announced that he is “going after” retail druggists who are watering their whiskey. The law requires that medicinal whiskey be 44 to 50 per cent ethyl alcohol, he said, and druggists are now paying $1.70 a gallon, plus a $3 tax, for whiskey and selling it for $2 a pint, or $16 a gallon. Mr. Hoffman is of the opinion that they make enough profit without adding water to their stock.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 11 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Grangeville Globe. February 12, 1920, Page 4

Can Prescribe Whiskey
Doctors and Druggists Required to Secure Permits

The Bureau of Internal Revenue has issued a statement relative to the regulations governing the use and procurement of intoxicating liquors for medical purposes.

Both the physician who prescribes and the pharmacist or druggist who sells liquor for medical purposes must have a permit. Application for the permits should be made to the Federal prohibition director. In States where prohibition directors have not been appointed application should be made to the Collector of Internal Revenue. In the case of residents of the District of Columbia application should be made to Collector of Internal Revenue, Joshua W. Miles, Baltimore, Md.

Blank forms – 1403 – for prescribing liquors are being printed and distributed among Federal prohibition directors assistant directors and collectors of internal revenue. Where such blanks are not yet available, physicians holding permits may issue prescriptions on blanks regularly used by them.

Following is the Bureau’s statement:

“Any physician duly licensed to practice medicine and actively engaged in the practice of such profession may obtain a permit to prescribe intoxicating liquor and may then issue prescriptions for distilled spirits, wines or certain alcoholic medicinal preparations for medical purposes for persons upon whom his in attendance in cases where he believes that the use of liquor as a medicine is necessary. In no case may spirituous liquor be prescribed by one or more physicians in excess of one pint for the same person within any period of ten days.

“No specific limitation is placed upon the quantity of wines which may be prescribed for medical purposes. The regulations merely require that no prescription be issued for a greater quantity than is necessary for use as a medicine. Physicians who do not hold permits to prescribe intoxicating liquor are under no circumstances permitted to issue prescriptions.

“All prescriptions for intoxicating liquor are required to be written on prescription blanks prescribed by the regulations (Form 1403), and to be provided by the Bureau, except that in emergency cases physicians may use their regular prescription blanks provided the same contain the date of issue, amount prescribed, to whom issued, and directions for use, stating the amount and frequency of dose.Pending an adequate supply of the official blanks being printed and distributed to directors and acting directors, physicians holding permits have been authorized to issue prescriptions on blanks regularly used by them.

“Prescriptions for intoxicating liquor may be filled only by registered pharmacists who hold permits authorizing them to do so, or who are employed by retail druggists holding such permits. Pharmacists and druggists holding such permits will procure their supplies of intoxicating liquor from manufacturer or other persons holding permits authorizing them to sell liquor.

“Persons to whom prescriptions for intoxicating liquor are issued by physicians may procure the liquor prescribed through pharmacists or druggists holding permits without obtaining a permit.

“Physicians may also obtain permits entitling them to procure not more than six quarts of distilled spirits, wines or certain alcoholic preparations during any calendar year for administration to their patients in emergency cases where delay in procuring liquor on a prescription through a pharmacist might have serious consequence to the patient.

“Provision is also made in the regulations for issuing permits to hospitals and sanatoriums to enable them to procure intoxicating liquor to be administered for medicinal purposes to patients at such institutions and also for issuing permits to manufacturing industrial, and other establishments maintaining first aid stations, authorizing them to procure liquor for administration to their employees for medical purposes in emergency cases.

“All applications for permits above referred to should be made on Form 1404 in triplicate and forwarded to the local Collector of Internal Revenue.

“Section 27 of the National Prohibition Act provides that any intoxicating liquor seized under section 25 or section 26 thereof, and subject to be destroyed, may upon application of the United States Attorney, be ordered by the court to be delivered to any person holding a permit to purchase liquor. All liquor seized under such sections of law may be diverted through regular channels for medicinal purposes under the procedure above described.

“Any intoxicating liquor seized under Federal Law prior to October 28, 1919, if not claimed within sixty days from such date, may likewise upon order of the court be delivered to any person holding a permit to purchase and be diverted to medicinal or other non-beverage purposes.”

Complaints of exorbitant charges for liquor for medicinal purposes which place dispensers thereof in the class of profiteers will be investigated.”

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 12 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. February 13, 1920, Page 2

[Editorial Page]

Whiskey gets another jolt! A prominent physician in the east says that whiskey does not assist in any manner in fighting the flu. He goes on to show that according to statistics there were 71 deaths from alcohol pneumonia during this dry year as against 230 during the preceding wet year. If the good doctor would only be fair and give both sides of the question he could make these figures look less favorable by giving the total number of those who died of thirst during the past year.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 13 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Challis Messenger., February 25, 1920, Page 2

19200225CM4Would Fight Flu With Whisky
Representative Sabath Proposes Temporary Suspension of Dry Measure.

Washington. — Representative Sabath, Democrat, Illinois, has offered a resolution declaring that whisky is needed as a “cure for influenza, which is alarming [sic] increasing,” and proposing suspension for ninety days of provisions of the national prohibition law requiring special permits and reports from druggists, doctors and others as to the use of liquor for medicinal purposes.

The resolution declared its purpose was to the “end that whisky may be prescribed and obtained for medicinal purposes without unnecessary hindrances and delay.”

source: The Challis Messenger. (Challis, Idaho), 25 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Emmett Index. February 19, 1920, Page 2

A Chicago doctor says whiskey will cure “flu” sufferers who have faith in it. If it’s a matter of faith, then castor oil will do as well and it’s cheaper.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 19 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Clearwater Republican. February 27, 1920, Page 5

19200227CR2No Liquor In Idaho

Boise, Idaho, Feb. 21. — The Sunnybrook Distillers company of Chicago has written to ask Attorney General Roy L. Black whether or not druggists or pharmacists in the state of Idaho may dispense liquor on a physician’s prescription provided they comply with the federal requirement. “They cannot do so.” The attorney general replied.

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 27 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Idaho County Free Press. March 04, 1920, Page 1

Can’t Sell Rum in Idaho, Even on U. S. Permit

Druggists in Idaho are not permitted to sell whiskey or other intoxicating liquors for medicinal purposes, under the federal permit system, according to a ruling issued by Roy L. Black, attorney general at Boise

Despite the prohibition amendment to the U. S. constitution, the government allows pharmacists to dispense liquors on a prescriptions from physicians, in states where the state laws to suppress the liquor traffic are not more drastic than federal regulations.

The question involving right of physicians to prescribe intoxicants in Idaho, and druggists to fill the prescriptions, was placed before the attorney general, who replied positively:

“They cannot do so under the Idaho law.”

Therefore, old-time imbibers in Idaho, who thought they could again quench their thirst from the cup that cheers, have suffered a decided setback.

Louis Williams, internal revenue collector for Idaho, has asserted that the state law governs, and that, in Idaho, the bone dry law, which is more severe in its terms than the federal law, abrogates that provision of the federal act relating to dispensing liquors on a physician’s prescription, for the state prohibits such action, and can prosecute offenders.

Governing provisions of the state law are cited as Sections 2604 and 2649, Chapter 125, complied statutes 1919 edition.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 04 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. March 09, 1920, Page 1

19200309BFH2No Liquor On Prescriptions

The national prohibition law has practically no effect in Idaho so far as actual theoretical prohibition of the use of intoxicating liquor is concerned, according to a recent article in the Boise Evening News. This is brought about by the fact that the Idaho law makes it a felony even to possess liquor, so that there is no way in which the thirsty Idaho citizen may take advantage of the few exceptions under the federal law by which one may possess liquor.

Where the state law is stricter than the federal law, the state law takes precedence, says Lewis Williams, the collector of internal revenue, when the question was propounded to him recently.

The possession clause in the Idaho law leaves no chance of any exception by which one may have liquor in his possession, says Attorney General Roy L. Black.

It is possible, by reason of the difference between the state and federal laws, for the operator of a still in Idaho to stand trial on two charges, one in the state courts for having liquor in his possession and the other in the federal courts for operating a still without license.

Not even when one is sick can he get liquor on the prescription of a physician. This question was recently raised by the Sunny Brook Distillery Co., of Chicago, in a letter to Attorney General Black, who made the following reply:

“Under yours of the 13th inst you submit the following question: May druggists or pharmacists in the state of Idaho dispense liquors on physician’s prescriptions provided they comply with the federal requirements?

“Answering same will say that they cannot do so under the Idaho law.

“You will find the Idaho statutes set forth as Chapter 126, new Idaho compiled statutes, 1919 edition, being sections 2604 to 2649. These are lengthy and I have no pamphlet which I can send you, but you can find them in your public library perhaps.”

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 09 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Idaho Republican. March 26, 1920, Page 11

19200326TIR3Hippocratean

First doctor: Did you have a large flu practice during the epidemic?

Second doctor: About a hundred gallons, I should say. And you?

First doctor: Oh, two or three hundred cases.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 26 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
————————

Patent Medicines

Pluto Water

PlutoWater-a

Description
The indications or uses for this product as provided by the manufacturer are: Purgative, laxative

Maker
French Lick Springs Hotel Company

Physical Description
silica (drug active ingredients)
iron and aluminum oxides (drug active ingredients)ammonium chloride (drug active ingredients)potassium chloride (drug active ingredients)sodium chloride (drug active ingredients)magnesium sulphate (drug active ingredients)sodium sulphate (drug active ingredients)calcium sulphate (drug active ingredients)calcium carbonate (drug active ingredients)

source: Smithsonian National Museum of American History
— —

Pluto Water

Pluto Water was a trademark for a strongly laxative natural water product which was very popular in the United States in the early 20th century. The water’s laxative properties were from its high native content of mineral salts, with the active ingredient listed as sodium and magnesium sulfate, which are known as natural laxatives. The water’s high native content of mineral salts generally made it effective within one hour of ingestion, a fact the company emphasized in their promotional literature. Company advertisements stated the laxative was effective from a half-hour to two hours after ingestion. The water was an extremely popular product. In 1919, it took 450 railroad cars to transport the bottler’s output.

continued: Wikipedia
— — — — — — — — — —

Calcidin Tablets

Calcidin1-a

Patent Medicines; Drugs; Non-Liquid
Abbott Alkaloidal Company

source: Smithsonian National Museum of American History
— —

Calcidin2-a

For years, the A.A. Co. had grown exponentially, using its own grass roots campaigns to convince doctors to embrace alkaloidals. This had included increasingly over-the-top editorial claims and eye-catching advertisements like the one below for Calcidin, featuring a skeletal grim reaper strangling a child. CROUP KILLS. CALCIDIN SAVES LIVES. Wallace Abbott sometimes offered his own commentary with that ad, writing, “Dear Doctor, I know this is a gruesome illustration, enough to give one the shivers; but, well, you have seen it more than once. You know how it is yourself, and I don’t want you to forget.”

source: Made In Chicago Museum
— — — — — — — — — —

Dr. A. Boschee’s Syrup of Tar and Wild Cherry

BoscheesSyrup-a
The indications or uses for this product as provided on its packaging:

For coughs due to colds, soothes throat, promotes expectoration

Physical Description

alcohol 1.75% per fluid oz. (drug active ingredients)
morphine sulp. 24/100 grain per fluid oz. (drug active ingredients)

source: National Museum of American History
— — — — — — — — — —

Dr. Pierce’s Alterative Extract or Golden Medical Discovery

DrPiercesAlterativeExtract-a

Description

The indications or uses for this product as provided on its packaging:

For the cure of all severe, chronic or lingering coughs, bronchitis, laryngitis, weak lungs, bleeding from lungs, public speaker’s sore throat, hoarseness and suppression or loss of voice. A remedy for torpor of liver (generally termed “liver complaint” or “biliousness”) and for habitual constipation of the bowels. For loss of appetite, indigestion and dyspepsia, and for general nervous disability or prostration, in either sex. An alterative, or blood purifier; valuable in all forms of scrofulous and other blood diseases. For skin diseases, eruptions, pimples, rashes and blotches, boils, ulcers, sores, and swellings, arising from impure blood.

Physical Description
pure water (drug active ingredients)
borate of soda (drug active ingredients)
golden seal root (drug active ingredients)
queen’s root (drug active ingredients)
stone root (drug active ingredients)
black cherrybark (drug active ingredients)
bloodroot (drug active ingredients)
mandrake root (drug active ingredients)
glycerine (drug active ingredients)

source: Smithsonian National Museum of American History
— —

Dr Pierce’s Irontic Tablets

DrPiercesIronticTablets-a

Patent Medicines; Non-Liquid

Each Table Contains
Ex. Nux Vomica 1/48 Grain
(Strichnine 1/640 Grain)
Iron Pyrophosphate
Ext. Cimchona

Manufactured Only By Pierce’s Medicines, Inc.

source: Smithsonian National Museum of American History
— — — — — — — — — —

Foley’s Honey and Tar Compound

FoleysHoneyandTarCompound-b

Foley’s Honey and Tar Compound bottle, ca. 1895, St. Albans
Contributed by St. Albans Historical Society

Foley’s popular “cough syrup” retailed during the late 1800’s until the mid-1960’s. It was made in Chicago, Illinois and boasted that it was “sold everywhere. “ O. W. Bigelow sold it in his store in St. Albans in the late 1800’s. During the 1918 influenza epidemic newspaper ads touted the mixture as the answer to those suffering from the flu. In the early days the syrup of 7% alcohol, along with other ingredients, was given to infants with a dose being five to ten drops.

source: Maine Memory Network
— —

Foley & Co., Chicago, IL

Posted on December 3, 2014 by Jessica

Foley & Co. of Chicago made a range of medicinal products starting in the 1870s, the most well known of which was Foley’s Honey and Tar Compound.

According to the Pocono Record,

“The use of Foley’s cough syrup was long-lived — it was retailed during the late 1800s until the mid-1960s. In the early days, Foley’s concoction was 7 percent alcohol mixed with a special solution of pine tar and honey, terpin hydrate, sodium benzyl succinate and gum arabic. The recommended dosage for adults was one teaspoon; for children, a half teaspoon; for infants, five to 10 drops, according to the directions on the label of another undated bottle. Foley’s mixture cleared the throat of phlegm and mucus, stopped the tickling, opened the air passages for easier breathing and coated inflamed surfaces with a soothing medicine, according to an advertisement published in The Evening Independent of St. Petersburg, Fla., in 1919.

Another ad in the Evening Independent boasted that Foley’s Honey and Tar was “sold everywhere,” which may be true since ads for the product can be easily found in old newspapers throughout the country. Even the Stroudsburg Daily Times carried an ad in 1889, promoting the “wonderful value” of the compound. Although newspaper ads for Foley’s Honey and Tar were common, the number grew during the flu epidemic of 1918, touting the mixture as the answer to those who were suffering.”

There isn’t much written history about the founder of Foley & Co or the inventor of Foley’s Honey and Tar but records do show that two men, John B. Foley and Harry B. Foley, were associated with the business. …

Around the turn of the century, there was a great deal of negative press surrounding patent medicines, which brought about passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. In an attempt to dispel some of that negative association, Harry B. Foley wrote an article for Western Druggist, a trade magazine widely read by pharmacists and drug store merchants. Foley tries persuade retail druggists that patent medicines are a great deal for them commercially, as well as protecting them from any unhappy customers.

“A store that makes a specialty of selling no-secrets [non patent medicines] soon loses the confidence of the people and they will trade with the druggist who pushes advertised proprietary medicines, and if they are not satisfied, they do not hold the druggist responsible.”

excepted from: Artifacts from the Old Main building of Illinois State University
— — — — — — — — — —

Gold Medal Haarlem Oil Capsules

GoldMedalHaarlemOilCapsules-a

A diuretic to the kidneys

Gold Medal Haarlem Oil Co.
United States: New Jersey, Jersey City

Physical Description
sulphuretted oil of turpentine (drug active ingredients)
linseed oil (drug active ingredients)
oil of peppermint (drug active ingredients)

source: National Museum of American History
————————–

Further Reading

Influenza Pandemic Mortality In America and Europe During 1918 and 1919

1918-1919DeathChart-a

courtesy Justin Smith
source: History of Boise November 24, 2019 (FB) used with permission
see: Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1) for context
— — — — — — — — — —

The Great Ad-Demic: How Spokane’s businesses advertised in newspapers during the 1918 pandemic

By Daniel Walters Sep. 14, 2020

HorlicksMmaltedMilk-aDecember 11, 1918, Spokesman-Review ad

In 1918, the world was hit with one of the worst pandemics in American history. There was a shutdown then too.

While theaters and churches were closed in Spokane by order of the local health officers, restaurants and department stores largely continued to operate and continued advertising. Even as the death toll rose, the Spokane Daily Chronicle and the Spokesman-Review continued to pump out papers celebrating the virtues of toupees, Shredded Wheat, and Lucky Strike (“It’s toasted!”).

John Barry’s The Great Influenza: The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History, argues that newspapers shamefully underplayed the deadliness and the terror of the epidemic, largely shrugging it off as nothing more than the “nothing more or less than old-fashioned grippe.”

“As terrifying as the disease was, the press made it more so,” Barry writes, “They terrified by making little of it, for what officials and the press said bore no relationship to what people saw and touched and smelled and endured. People could not trust what they read. Uncertainty follows distrust, fear follows uncertainty, and, under conditions such as these, terror follows fear.”

The result in the pages was a rah-rah-we’re-all-in-this-together-chum mix of reasonable guidance (stay away from crowds! don’t put pencils in your mouth!), false assurances, and a steadily increasing death toll. If anything, it closely mirrored the tenor of the cheerleading “win one for our boys!” coverage of World War I, which was ending just as the epidemic ramped up in the fall of 1918.

In some cities, Barry writes, that even could even extend to wartime-level censorship.

“In Phoenix, even after the war ended, the ‘Citizens’ Committee’ that had taken over the city during the emergency continued to impose silence, ordering that ‘merchants of the city refrain from mentioning the influenza epidemic directly or indirectly in their advertising,'” Barry writes.

While there was no such order in Spokane, the number of advertisements that explicitly referenced the pandemic seemed to decline as it progressed. During the months following October 1918 in Spokane, however, numerous department stores, pharmacies and manufacturers found ways to turn the epidemic into profit.

Treatments and Snake Oils

Even before the pandemic hit, pharmacies were churning out a steady stream of advertisements promising miraculous results from emetics, weight loss drugs, and laxatives.

So once the Spanish flu began killing dozens of people in Spokane, savvy advertisers began tailoring their pharmaceutical message to the epidemics, hawking a slew of cures and tonics with names like “Wilson’s Solution or Anti-Flu” under newspaper-style headlines like “Has Deadly Influenza Germ Been Conquered?”

While this “terrible epidemic is on” another ad proclaimed, don’t “leave the house without a bottle of Mentho-Laxene handy.”

A particular big player in the local ad game was Joyner’s Original Cut-Rate Drug Stores, which sold their own branded Joyner’s Cold and Grip Capsules as a cure for influenza.

“Most of us, these busy days can not afford, if it can be avoided, to lose a week or more of work so it is all the more necessary that at the very first sign of grip or influenza that counteracting treatment should be taken,” Joyner’s insisted.

For coughs, they claimed “Glycerol Lobelia” was “absolutely harmless, but works like magic.” Foley’s Honey and Tar, similarly, was “just what every suffer of influenza or la grippe needs now.”

Denver Mud — a cream applied to the skin to open up the capillaries — purported to help people avoid the danger of pneumonia from flu.

Maybe the goofiest anti-influenza recommendation from Joyners was a bottle of Oil of Hyomei — made of alcohol, liquid paraffin and a lot of oil of eucalyptus — and a small rubber inhaler. Users were directed to drip a few drops of the oil into the inhaler and then breathe through the inhaler once every half hour.

“Every particle of air that enters your breathing organs will thus be charged with an antiseptic healing balsam,” Joyner’s insisted in Spokane newspapers. “A few cents spent now may easily prevent serious illness and save you many dollars and help stamp out the spread of the disease.”

Even back in olden times, doctors considered it quackery: In 1912, the Journal of the American Medical Association scoffed that “this mixture never cured anything, unless it was impecuniosity in its exploiter.”

Some ads were initially indistinguishable from straight news articles by the small “advertisement” disclaimer at the top: A Spokane Daily Chronicle item headlined “Influenza Claims More Victims Than German Bullets” turns out into an advertisement for Taniac tonics and laxative tablets sold by Murgittroyds’s.

Murgittroyds’s also sold Flu Mask of Antiseptic Gauze (“superior to the ordinary cheesecloth masks”) for 25 cents, to be paired with aromatic antiseptic drops.

But maybe the most successful ad campaign came from Vick’s VapoRub, which dedicated numerous ads in Spokane newspapers to celebrating the ways that the vapors could open up the linings of air passages and “throw off germs.”

“Vicks VapoRub advertisements in hundreds of papers danced down the delicate line of reassurance while promising relief, calling the epidemic, “Simply the Old-Fashioned Grip Masquerading Under a New Name,” Barry writes.

The ad campaign boosted sales by 300 percent.

“When the Spanish flu hit the U.S. from 1918 to 1919, Vicks VapoRub sales skyrocketed from $900,000 to $2.9 million in just one year,” the Vicks VapoRub website proclaims today. “Sales increased so dramatically that the Vicks plant operated day and night to keep up with orders.”

But did the VapoRub itself work? Over a century later, the verdict still isn’t entirely clear. The Mayo Clinic argues that Vicks’ isn’t actually effective for decongestion — it just makes it feel like your nasal passageways are being cleared because of the bracing sensations it creates.

For some young children, Vicks may even be dangerous — though another recent study is more encouraging.

Public Service Announcements

Responsible Spokane advertisers, of course, knew that a lot of the pharmaceutical ads were irresponsible. And so they ran their own rebuttals:

“Do not ‘fall’ for the many advertised ‘SURE CURES’ for influenza, or so-called tonics to build up body resistance,” an ad for the Crescent department store cautioned amid all the other ads for sure cures and body resistance. “Remember, FRESH AIR, REGULAR MEALS, and ABUNDANT REST are what are needed.”

This public service announcement, of course, had its own capitalist incentives: The flu advice was under an illustration of a handsome woman hawking “Charming Georgette Crepe Blouses for only $8.76.”

The Owl Drug co-published a PSA that advised, among other things, to “keep your bowels open. Intestinal congestion invites disease.” But it also sold brand names disinfectants like Platt’s Chlorides” and reminded readers that “all Owl Drug Co. salesmen are especially informed as to get able to give you advice on sanitary measures.”

Other ads were straight PSAs: On Oct. 22, 1918, 30 different Spokane businesses — including candy stores, dairies and four different undertaker companies — joined forces to fund a full-page ad in the Chronicle featuring the advice of the Spokane Health Department:

19181022SC
October 22, 1918 Spokane Chronicle
(link to full size ad)

In one sense, it sought to reassure, reiterating the idea that the Spanish flu wasn’t some scary new disease, “just the old-fashioned grippe.” But at the same time, it highlighted just how deadly the disease could be with a succession of recommendations.

A century before Make Your Own COVID-mask tutorials popped up on YouTube, these ads advised how to “Make Your Own Spanish flu” masks with four to six folds of cheesecloth or gauze.

“These masks must be kept clean, must be put on outside the sick room, must not be handled after they are tied on and must be boiled 30 minutes and thoroughly dried every time they are taken off,” the advertisement advised.

The announcement also served as a help-wanted ad, sounding the alarm for more nurses to volunteer to fight the epidemic.

And when the 1918 presidential election was approaching, the Wentworth Clothing Houses took a specific election-era tack, printing a health department notice pleading with voters to avoid influenza-spreading crowds by voting early.

“Crowds at polling places are just as dangerous as crowds in other places,” the Wentworth ad insisted.

Spokane’s John W. Graham and Co. used the same language, while also stressing that, according to the Council of National Defense, Christmas shopping should be spread out and focused on the early hours to avoid congesting stores and streetcars.

TelephonePSA
The PSA from the Home Telephone and Telegraph Company had an additional ask: Don’t use the telephone unless you absolutely have to.

The coronavirus may have slowed down internet speeds, but Spokane telephone companies had a bandwidth problem of a different sort: Turns out those rows of telephone operators packed close together got sick, handicapping the company.

“The larger number of operators now absent because of illness makes it necessary for us to appeal to our people to restrict the use of the telephone,” the ad reads “helping the service of war industries, hospitals and stricken homes of our cities.”

Not every advice the local businesses gave amid the pandemic was accurate or helpful. The Whitehouse Company gave “‘Flu’ Hints” before describing the wool winter fashions: “Do not get in a panic if a nurse or attendant on an influenza case comes near you. He or she will not give you the disease while they themselves remain well.”

The Influenza Angle

Other local businesses, however, found a way to use the epidemic to sell more than just drugs.

Life insurance companies used the looming threat of death to paint an image of orphaned children and widowed women

“What if things go wrong?” A Nov. 10, 1918, Western Union Life ad read, “Suppose you should die — of Spanish influenza and other ailments — could your wife pay the mortgages without your income?”

Horlick’s Malted Milk touted its “REAL Food-Drink” as the perfect “diet during and after INFLUENZA, and claimed it had been “endorsed by physicians everywhere.”

And clothing retailers worked with this simple pitch: Keeping warm can keep you from getting sick, right? So why not sell the latest fashions on the basis of their flu-fighting powers?

“Men avoid the flu by wearing good shoes that will keep your feet dry and warm,” Dolby’s Clothing explained.

“In a flu epidemic an ounce of preventive is worth a pound of cure,” Hart Schaffner & Marx Clothes Shop explained in their ads for young men’s overcoats.

Another key tactic to prevent getting the flu? Imperial Coffee from Gray Manufacturing in Spokane, of course.

“It’s helpfulness as a preventative in infections and epidemical diseases under physicians’ orders is well-established,” the ad explained.

Of course, plenty of ads during the 1918 pandemic didn’t have anything to do with the flu at all.

“DON’T risk disappointing someone who expects and needs Corona,” an ad in November of 1918.

Of course, back then “Corona” didn’t refer to disease or beer. It was a personal typewriter that was all in the vogue in 1918.

“Order your gift Corona now if you wish it for Christmas,” the Corona Typewriter Sales Company advised in Spokane.

excerpted from: Inlander
— — — — — — — — — —

How the 1918 Pandemic Frayed Social Bonds

The influenza pandemic did long-lasting damage to relationships in some American communities. Could the mistrust have been prevented?

Noah Y. Kim March 31, 2020 The Atlantic

continued: The Atlantic (1 free click)
———————–

Science Papers:

“The Medical and Scientific Conceptions of Influenza”

by Molly Billings, June, 1997

link: Stanford University
— — — — — — — — — —

The State of Science, Microbiology, and Vaccines Circa 1918

John M. Eyler, PhD

link: National Library of Medicine – NIH
—————————-

Acknowledgments:

Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

Search Terms: Idaho Newspapers 1819-1920 “Influenza”
link:
— — — — — — — — — —

The Mike Fritz Collection at History of Idaho

Old photos of Idaho towns, schools and hospitals
link:
————————–

Parting Shots

1918LaGrippeFr-a

Likely 1918 France. No info, from unknown source.

Found on Twitter:
— — — — — — — — — —

1955 Film “Sniffles & Sneezes”


—————————-

Back to Table of Contents
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 63)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 64)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 65)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 66)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 67)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 68)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 69)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 70)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 71)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 72)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 73)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 74)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 75)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 76)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 77)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 78)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 79)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 80)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 81)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 82)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 83)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 84)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 85)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 86)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 87)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 88)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 89)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 90)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 91)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 92)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 93)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 94)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 95)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 96)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 97)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 98)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 99)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic Ads (Part 100)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic Ads (Part 101)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic Ads (Part 102)