Category Archives: Weekly History

Idaho History July 25, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 65

Idaho Newspaper clippings December 4-31, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 4

The Grangeville Globe. December 04, 1919, Page 2

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Spanish Birth Rate

Now it is in Spain that they are beginning to worry about the rising death rate and the falling birth rate. Dr. Gomez Ocana presents in El Siglo Medico (Barcelona) statistics for several years, showing that in 1912 the death rate was 21.6 per 1,000 population, and that by 1917, before the advent of the pandemic of influenza, it had risen to 26.16. And the birth rate fell from 31.60 per thousand in 1912 to 29.2 in 1917.

Official figures for 1918 are not yet available, but in the city of Madrid the death rate rose in that year to 30.37, while the birth rate fell to 26.70. The figures for 1918, however, are abnormal because of the pandemic.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 04 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Grangeville Globe. December 04, 1919, Page 8

Local Happenings

T. M. Atwood was in the city today from his home in the Winona country, being called here to look after some cattle that had been brought out from the hills. Mr. Atwood stated that his better half, who recently suffered a severe attack of influenza, was now slowly convalescing, being able to be up for a portion of the time.

T. B. Fuller is very ill at his home in this city. Mr. Fuller recently returned from a deer hunt and was taken ill a few days thereafter. His case baffles his physician. He is in an unconscious state a great part of the time.

(ibid, page 8)
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Main Street Looking East, Rigby, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 5

Clearwater Republican. December 05, 1919, Page 2

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World Happenings of Current Week

Miss Emma Penninger of Stockton, Cal., has been asleep for seven days. She wakes from her slumber every morning for about an hour. At that time she is given a glass of milk for nourishment. Her strange malady followed influenza.

There is no law, says a Paris dispatch, or decree preventing the removal of nearly 20,000 American dead from the “interior zone,” but the red tape involved in getting the authorization of mayors and departmental prefects in each individual case makes it necessary to devise a plan to get authorization from the government if the 20,000 Americans are to be removed.
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Soldiers’ Hat Cords

The colors of the cords on the hats of soldiers stand for distinctive branches of the army. Blue is for infantry; yellow, for cavalry; red, for artillery; red and white, for engineer corps; salmon and white, signal corps; maroon, medical corps, black and red, ordinance corps; buff, quartermaster corps; gold and black, commissioned officer.

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 05 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. December 05, 1919, Page 1

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G. A. R. Meets Saturday

The annual meeting of the local G. A. R. post will be held Saturday afternoon at the Masonic hall at 1:30 p.m. Last year, there was no annual meeting because of the influenza epidemic. This year, it is regarded as vital that all members possible attend. Election of officers will be the chief item of business.
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Cold Winter Looms Ahead
Coal Shortage Promises to Become Vital Factor Here

“Well, Santa ought to get here all right, now” remarked one of Caldwell’s quite juvenile citizens Thursday afternoon while he watched the snow come down.

If it were not for the seriousness of the coal situation, more Caldwell people and maturer ones would be enjoying the first real touch of winter the past week has uncovered. Frosty mornings and occasional flurries of snow, beginning last week and continuing with variances ever since, have made people dig into their coal cellars and many of them view with alarm the increasing difficulty of replenishing their precious supply.

No Suffering

So far as known, no real suffering has so far been experienced, according to Mayor Grant Ward. In general, people are conserving their store where the supply is limited and eagerly racing to dealers at every report of the receipt of a car or two. Some coal is still coming in at infrequent intervals. Last week, four cars were gobbled up almost before knowledge that they were here was generally disseminated. Farmers took the major portion, the cars being surrounded by every conceivable variety of vehicle and coal was actually piled direct into the tonneau of automobiles.

Several business blocks are short of coal and one or two concerns that require large amounts are reported to be on the verge of closing down for the time being. Thus far, however, no place of business has been obliged to suspend operations.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 05 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Riggins, Idaho (2)

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 7

Evening Capital News., December 07, 1919, Page 2

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Asks Construction Hospitals To Care For Wounded Men

Washington, Dec. 6. — The construction of a complete chain of government hospitals to care for the wounded was asked today by Surgeon General Blue, appearing before the house appropriations committee.

Blue estimated the cost at $85,000,000 and the capacity at 23,000 beds.
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To fortify the System Against Grip Take Laxative Bromo Quinine Tablets which destroy germs, act as a Tonic and Laxative, and thus prevent Colds, Grip and Influenza. There is only one “Bromo Quinine,” E. W. Groves signature on the box. – Adv.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 07 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Street Scene at Rupert, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 9

Evening Capital News., December 09, 1919, Page 4

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19191209ECN2
How Science Now Makes Up For Dangerous Blood Losses
By Dr. Leonard Keene Hirshberg
A. R., M. A., M. D. (Johns Hopkins University)

There are many measures available nowadays to check aggravated nosebleed, loss of blood from the lungs, severe bleeding of the new-born, bleeding stomach ulcers, or any other extreme degree of hemorrhage.

If the “bleeder” happens to be a person whose blood does not clot, this may be due to heredity, diet with much citric acid, or to bile and jaundice.

On the other hand, certain infections with hemolytic bacteria, germs which have the uncanny power of dissolving blood corpuscles and delaying the clotting power of the blood, often predispose to hemorrhages. Certain races of influenza, pneumonia, tuberculosis and typhoid bacilli develop and unpleasant quality of dissolution of blood.

To treat states of hemorrhage such as any of the above, injections of blood serum, globulin, gelatin and lime have all been displaced whenever it is possible by the direct transfusion of some healthy person’s blood. Among the discoverers and practical applicators of this method stand Dr. Alexis Carrel, Dr. Bertram Bernbeim and several other American Physicians.

Professional Blood Suppliers

Men and women are almost always to be found ready to sacrifice their blood for the purpose. Others receive compensation for it and leave their names and telephone numbers at hospitals. These persons who part with a pint and even more of their blood every three months for transfusion to the veins of another are likely to become a recognized economic class in consequence of the improved technique and wider knowledge concerning the operation which have resulted from study and experiment. Only five years ago this transfusion of blood was a rare operation, resorted to only as a last resort. Now at hospitals, in spite of the difficulties inherent in the conditions, it is almost commonplace.

Two discoveries have served to overcome the difficulties formerly encountered in the transfer of blood from one person to another and to explain the failures which sometimes marked the attempt.

The first discovery was that mixing the blood with a suitable solution of citrate of sodium prevented the tendency of the blood to clot immediately on being exposed to the atmosphere and did not prevent the recipient from obtaining all the benefits of the transfusion. This clotting tendency of the blood had been previously overcome to some extent by using a vessel coated with paraffin, a method which at least delayed the clotting, but is not absolutely certain and presents technical difficulties even in practiced hands.

The second and even more important discovery made about the same time, also by American research students, was that the blood of certain individuals will not mix with that of others, but instead that the fluid part of the one type of blood attacks and destroys the corpuscles of the other. The usual effect of this was simply the destruction of the corpuscles of the transfused blood, but occasionally the effect was so violent that the small amount of blood given was enough to destroy the corpuscles of the recipient with fatal consequences.

Races with Death

It was found possible to classify individuals into four groups which exist in constant proportions., Of these, the smallest groups comprising about 1 per cent., cannot give blood to any except persons of their own group, although they may safely be given any blood. The second and largest group, comprising 44 percent., possesses blood which may be given to anyone without bad effects. The other two groups, of 15 and 40 percent., respectively, are mutually antagonistic. That is, their blood can only be given safely to the members of their own group or of the first group.

The immediate effect of blood transfusion on a patient dying from loss of blood is most startling. Within 10 minutes of beginning the transfusion the patient shows signs of returning to life, his breathing from a series of deep sighs becomes normal, his pulse strengthens and his gray face regains its natural color. In hospitals transfusion is likely to be a real race with death, the margin of time being sometimes as narrow as 15 minutes.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 09 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Street Scene, Roseberry, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 10

Evening Capital News., December 10, 1919, Page 3

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Charity Ball Again On Social Calendar

Boise’s annual charity ball, suspended last year because of the influenza epidemic, is back on the job and will be held some time next month. It was decided at the regular monthly meeting of the Associated Charities Tuesday afternoon in the Mayor’s office.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 10 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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(ibid, page 12)
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Birdseye View, Roberts, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 12

The Idaho Recorder. December 12, 1919, Page 10

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Mrs. Teresa Nagel

This well beloved lady, whose long life had been spent mostly in the Salmon country, died at her home five miles south of this city on Tuesday morning last, December 9, far advanced in age, probably an octogenarian. Mrs. Nagel was the mother of a large family but mothered also a great many other besides her own children. Her home was the seat of a generous hospitality and unfailing bounty. There are two Nagel children, Mrs. Ed Hulick and Mrs. Mel Manfull. The latter made her home with the mother and father at the Nagel ranch. Other children are the the Durand boys, the sons of a former husband, and one daughter. The sons are Frank, Albert, Victor and Gus Durand and the daughter Mrs. H. B. King. One of her granddaughters is Mrs. Sterling Price of Salmon.

Mrs. Nagel was a lover of flowers. In the early days among the pioneers it was a saying that her garden and home could always be drawn upon for the floral offerings at funerals, no matter what season of the year. Numerous families bereft of members in years past feel obligations to her for these offering and for them will hold Mrs. Nagel in Kindly memory.

The old lady was a sufferer a year ago from an attack of influenza from which she never entirely recovered. The funeral took place Thursday afternoon from the home.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 12 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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(ibid, page 9)
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Shoshone Journal. December 12, 1919, Page 5

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19191212SJ2Odorous Epidemic

“A friend of mine has kept himself and his family immune from influenza in a district sorely smitten by eating spring onions.”

– Glasgow (Scotland) Evening Post.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 12 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., December 12, 1919, Page 2

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[Editorial Page]

Portland schools are closed because of an epidemic of small pox in the Oregon metropolis. This dread disease is becoming common throughout the northwest and we may have a scourge of that instead of the “flu” this winter. Well, almost anything is preferable to another visitation of influenza.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 12 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street South, St. Anthony, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 13

Evening Capital News., December 13, 1919, Page 1

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19191213ECN2
Health Of The Nation Better Than Year Ago
Surgeon General Blue in Report Shows Death Rate Below Average – Credit Is Due to Prohibition

Washington, Dec. 13. — Health conditions throughout the United Sates have greatly improved during the last year, Surgeon General Rupert Blue, head of the public health service informed the United Press today.

This improvement he said, is due in part to prohibition and to the lessons of hygiene learned in the war. Relief from the war strain also helped to reduce sickness he believes. A number of Spanish influenza cases are being reported.

Latest reports to the surgeon general from all sections of the country he said, show the death rate to be below the average. Whether this condition is only temporary, he could not say. The week ending Nov. 15, the last reported showed the number of deaths per thousand population below the previous average except in Toledo, Ohio; Rochester, N. Y.; Richmond, Va.; Nashville, Tenn.; Grad Rapids, Mich.; and Fall River, Mass. In all the other leading cities the number of deaths is from 1 to 6 per thousand below average.

Reports of only 332 deaths from influenza, last week reached the surgeon general, against 20,000 for the week last year when the scourge was at its height, he said.

Small pox has appeared in Detroit, Buffalo, Niagara Falls, and other cities along the Canadian border. Blue said Quarantine has been applied in some localities and officials here do not fear further spread of the disease.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 13 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Grand Avenue, St. Joe, Idaho ca. 1913

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 14

Evening Capital News., December 14, 1919, Page 4

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19191214ECN2
What You Ought to Know and Do About Whooping Cough
By Dr. Leonard Keene Hirshberg
A. B., M. A., M. D. (Johns Hopkins University)

The affections and ailments which help to spoil the joy and happiness of little ones are many and various. Of these not the least is the bacterial infection of the windpipe and lung canals with its characteristic, convulsive coughs and “whoop.”

A long-drawn inhalation called a “whoop” is associated with this “catching disease,” hence its name, “whooping cough.” It is directly contagious from person to person. You may catch it, no matter how old you are, if you have not been vaccinated with the anti-pertussis vaccine.

In the winter, because children with it go to school and come home indoors in closer contact with other youngsters, whooping cough is very prevalent and often fatal.

To treat whooping cough lightly, as some mothers do, is the result of ignorant, unobservant, hand-me-down ideas. It is a serious malady and kills many of the strongest children unless attentive, diligent precautions are carefully carried out.

Slow in Development

In one year in England there were over 7000 deaths from it. Animals, especially pets, are subject to it. The microbe associated with it is a mischievous blood-brother of the influenza bacillus.

You may meet a person with whooping cough and boast for a week or 10 days that you “never caught it at all.” That boast, like the boast of those who don’t believe in smallpox, in that week may cause a disease to be spread broadcast, because it takes seven to ten days for these diseases to develop after exposure to them.

You cannot, however, catch up with sentimental errors, therefore millions of people will insist that you never caught it at all.

Symptoms and Remedies

Whooping cough at first begins as a ordinary “cold,” with running nose, watery eyes and later a slight cough. It is then that is is spread all around. After two weeks the “whoop” is hears.

Vomiting sometimes takes place at the end of a paroxysm of coughing. These may occur half a dozen times a day or as often as every half-hour. Pneumonia is also a frequent complication.

Children with whooping cough must be kept from school and playmates. They should not appear in public, but must be kept in bed if there is the least fever or vomiting.

Give them plenty of sunlight and fresh air by keeping the window open and blinds up. Be sure the little patients are carefully protected from drafts and exposure.

Whooping cough vaccine is excellent as a preventive as well as a treatment. It is not an experiment, as its value is now attested by medical skeptics, who are enthusiastic about it.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 14 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Birds Eye View of St. Maries, Idaho ca. 1912

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 16

Bonners Ferry Herald. December 16, 1919, Page 1

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Mrs. L. C. Felch Passes Away
Died Monday Morning at Hospital – A Victim of Pneumonia

Mrs. L. C. Felch died Monday morning at the Bonners Ferry hospital of pneumonia. The body was taken to Ashland, Oreg., this morning by Mr. Felch, where the funeral services and interment will be had.

The deceased was born February 3, 1879. She had made her home here with her husband for many years and had a wide range of acquaintances who join in mourning her death and in extending heartfelt sympathy to the bereaved husband and relatives.

Mrs. Felch took sick with a severe cold a few weeks ago and this developed into pneumonia. Her condition became so serious on Saturday that she was brought to the Bonners Ferry hospital. She suffered an attack of the Spanish influenza last winter and had never fully regained her health and soon succumbed to the attack of pneumonia.

The deceased has a sister and other relatives living at Ashland and will be buried beside her mother in the cemetery of that city.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 16 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street Looking East, Salmon, Idaho ca. 1912 (1)

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 18

The Emmett Index. December 18, 1919, Page 8

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19191218EI2“Flu” Epidemic Will Be Milder
If There is Recurrence It Will Not Be as Severe as Last Winter
No Positive Preventive
Previous Attack Brings Immunity in Percentage of Cases – Enforcement of Sanitation and Avoidance of Personal Contact Necessary Precautions.
(Authoritative Statement Issued by United States Public Health Service.)

Probably, but by no means certainly there will be a recurrence of the influenza epidemic this year.

Indications are that should it occur, it will not be as severe as the epidemic of the previous winter.

City officials, state and city boards of health, should be prepared in the event of a recurrence.

The fact that a previous attack brings immunity in a certain percentage of cases should allay fear on the part of those afflicted in the previous epidemic.

Influenza is spread by direct and indirect contact.

It is not yet certain that the germ has been isolated, or discovered, and as a consequence there is yet no positive preventative, except the enforcement of rigid rules of sanitation and the avoidance of personal contact.

A close relation between the influenza epidemic and the constantly increasing pneumonia mortality rate prior to the fall of 1918 is recognized.

It is now believed that the disease was pretty widely disseminated through out the country before it was recognized in its epidemic state. This failure to recognize the early cases appears to have largely been due to the fact that every interest was then centered on the war.

Above are the important facts developed by the United States health service after a careful survey and investigation of the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, carried on in every state and important city, and even in foreign countries.

No one of the many experts of the service would make a more positive forecast of the all-important question, Will there be a recurrence? All agreed, however, that a recurrence was not unlikely, and in the face of the known facts, that it would be wise to be prepared, more with a view of being on the safe side than actually anticipating danger.

The following excerpts from the government report are published for the benefit of the public and health officers in the hope that this will serve to set at rest the daily publication in the newspapers of statements, which on one hand are calculated to lull the public into a sense of false security and on the other to unduly cause alarm.

Contrary to the opinion expressed frequently during the early weeks of last year’s pandemic by a number of observers, the studies of the United States public health service indicate that the epidemic was not a fresh importation from abroad. Careful study of the mortality statistics of the United States shows that there were a number of extensive though mild forerunners of the pandemic during the previous three or four years. The epidemic was generally of a mild type and has since been almost forgotten. It occasioned, however, a noticeable increase in the recorded death rate from pneumonia.

Rise in Mortality

In the spring of 1918 there was another sharp rise in the mortality rate from pneumonia. In the larger cities of the Atlantic seaboard these increases occurred during January, February and March. In the rest of the country, especially the central and western states, the increases occurred in April, a month during which pneumonia mortality is generally on the decline. This increase was sufficient to indicate a strong departure from the normal. The increased mortality rate extended into May and in some areas longer.

This occurrence has, it is believed, a definite significance in relation to the influenza epidemic. In the United States in the spring of 1918, a number of definite local outbreaks of influenza were observed:

The rise in mortality from pneumonia, this very similar type of disease, in the spring of 1918 is so sudden, so marked and so general throughout the United States as to point very clearly to a definite relation. Everything indicates that the increased mortality from pneumonia in March and April of 1918 was the consequence of a beginning and largely unnoticed epidemic of influenza, the beginning in this country of the pandemic which developed into the autumn of that year.

In the British cities the epidemic manifested three distinct waves – the first and slightest in point of mortality occurring in June and July, the the second and most severe in November, the third in February and March. Data, which need not be cited here in detail, indicate that the course of the epidemic in western Europe generally was similar. In the United States the epidemic developed more largely in a single wave during September, October and November.

The prevalence of a serious epidemic of influenza was first recognized in and around Boston in September of 1918. Within about two weeks it was general in the Atlantic seaboard, developing a little later among the cities further west. Rural districts were usually attacked somewhat later than large interests in the same sections.

In the cities east of the line of the Appalachians the excess mortality from pneumonia and influenza during the weeks ended September 14, 1918, to March 1, 1919, was approximately 5.6 per 1,000; in cities between the Rocky mountains and the Appalachians 4.35; and in those of the Pacific Coast 5.55 per 1,000.

Concerning the important question of immunity conferred by an attack of influenza, the evidence is not conclusive, but there is reason to believe that an attack during the earlier stages of the epidemic confers a considerable, but not absolute immunity in the later outbreaks.

Transmitted by Contact

In general the pandemic of influenza was largely similar to that of 1889-90 in its development, first a mild form, later on a severe world-wide epidemic, in the rapidity of its spread and its high case incidence. It has however been notably different in a much higher mortality, especially among young adults. Such evidence as has been gathered confirms the conclusion previously reached that it is transmitted directly and indirectly by contact. It appears, probable, however, that the infection was already widely disseminated in this country sometime before a serious epidemic was recognized.

Despite the fact that there is still some uncertainty as to the nature of the micro-organism causing pandemic influenza, one thing is certain, that the disease is communicable from person to person. Moreover, judging from experience in other diseases, it is probable that the germ, whatever its nature, is carried about not only by those who are ill with influenza, but by persons who may be entirely well. Everything which increases personal contact, therefore, should be regarded as a factor in spreading influenza.

Much was heard last winter of the use of face masks. Though the use of suitably constructed masks will reduce the interchange of respiratory germs through inhalation, it must be remembered that there are many other paths by which such germs are transmitted from person to person. Soiled hands, common drinking cups, improperly cleaned eating and drinking utensils in restaurants, soda fountains, etc., roller towels, infected food – these are only a few of the common vehicles of germ transmission. The use of face masks appears to make people neglect these other paths of infection, and so the use of face masks has not been attended with the success predicted for them. If we would be more successful in combating influenza greater attention must be paid to the factors just enumerated.

The question of most practical and immediate interest is the probability of recurrence in the near future. Recurrences are characteristic of influenza epidemics; and the history of the last pandemic and previous ones would seem to point to the conclusion that this one has not yet run its full course. On the other hand this epidemic has already shown three more or less distinct phases and has been more severe, at least in mortality, than the three-year epidemic of 1889-92, facts which justify the hope, though not the conclusion, that it has run its course already.

Recurrence is Likely

It seems probable, however, that we may expect at least local recurrences in the near future, with an increase over the normal mortality from pneumonia for perhaps several years; and certainly we should be, as far as possible, prepared to meet them by previous organization of forces and measures for attempted prevention, treatment, and scientific investigation.

There should be no repetition of the extensive suffering and distress which accompanied last year’s pandemic. Communities should make plans now for dealing with any recurrence of the epidemic. The prompt recognition of the early cases and their effective isolation should be aimed at. In this connection, attention is called to the fact that the cases may appear to be just ordinary colds. A recent extensive outbreak of what were regarded as “summer colds” in Peoria, Illinois, proved on investigation to be an epidemic of a mild type of influenza. Experience indicates that these mild epidemics are often the starting points of more severe visitations. Hence every effort should be made to discover as early as possible any unusual prevalence of “colds.”

For municipalities operating on a budget basis, it is important that all delay in providing the necessary financial support to the health authorities in dealing with a recurrence of the epidemic be avoided by setting side an emergency epidemic fund. This may prove of the greatest value in carrying out important preventive measures in the early days of the epidemic, at a time when their beneficial affect is greatest.

The most promising way to deal with a possible recurrence of the influenza epidemic, is to sum it up in a single word. “Preparedness.” And now it is the time to prepare.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 18 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Sand Point, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 19

The Kendrick Gazette. December 19, 1919, Page 6

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19191219KG2
Statistics Show Nation Healthier Than Usual
Mortality Lows and Health Conditions Better than Past Summer Than in Any Corresponding Period in Recent Years

The health statistics of the leading cities of the United States, and for the insurance companies, show that the mortality has been lower and health conditions in general more favorable during the last summer than during any corresponding period in recent years. Public health workers attribute much of this low mortality to the cool, comfortable weather prevailing throughout the summer and to the fact that the influenza epidemic of last fall and winter caused the premature deaths of many persons suffering from chronic diseases. These deaths would have occurred under ordinary conditions throughout the spring and summer of 1919, health workers say.

The figures available in the records of a leading life insurance company, industrial department, during the months of July, August and September, this year, show exceedingly low mortality rates from the acute infectious diseases of children, measles, scarlet fever, whooping cough and diphtheria, as compared with the corresponding months of previous years. Typhoid fever shows a low death rate. This is encouraging because it is a sign of sanitary progress throughout the country. Diarrhea and enteritis, infantile intestinal diseases which have their maximum incidence during the summer in the eastern and central part of the United States, showed this year one of the lowest rates on record. The diseases and conditions associated with child bearing also indicate improvement over the figures for preceding summers. Beginning with the month of September, there was a slight increase in the death rate for influenza and pneumonia, not enough, however, to warrant the conclusion that the epidemic conditions of last year would be repeated.

Public health officials, and the health service of the life insurance companies, are watching carefully the current mortality returns with a view to controlling, so far as possible, any unfavorable mortality situation, should it arise. The United States public health service has suggested that local and state health departments outline an adequate program for the control of epidemics of respiratory disease. The life insurance companies are urging their policy holders who have had influenza or pneumonia to consult with their family physicians frequently in order to combat any of the effects of such diseases upon the heart, kidneys or lungs.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 19 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. December 19, 1919, Page 30

19191219CT1

Canyon County Women Get Together On Big Things
In Spite of Handicaps, Community Work Progresses Under Direction of Farm Bureau During Past Year

By Miss Louise Riddle, County Home Demonstration

Farm bureau for women has made much progress in the past year in spite of all the adverse conditions. At the time, when organization should have been in progress the influenza prevented all meetings, so nothing could be done until spring. Only a few meetings could be held between the time it was possible for people to gather together and the time when spring work became so urgent that time could not be given for meetings.

However, in spite of all these things eighteen communities have been organized during the past year and these have been doing splendid work along all lines of interest in the demonstration program.

During the past year the program was based on five projects, three major and two minor. The major projects are clothing, poultry and health and child welfare. This last includes nutrition, health crusade, physical examination of school children, home nursing and sanitation. The minor projects are production and preservation, a project which is practically completed in this county and efficient homes, one that is really just beginning. This project includes household conveniences, accounts and home yard improvement.

Hold Regular Meeting

In each community there is now a leader for each project with sub-committees for health, in contrast to one leader for all the work in each community for last year. Last year only occasional meetings were held, when some specialist was in the county, perhaps. By the present plan of organization each community holds a regular monthly meeting. It was proven during the past year by the work that Wilder has done and the interest the women of Wilder have taken in farm bureau that this is the means by which such an organization as this lives and grows. The regular meetings and discussions furnish a stimulus for better work. …

Health and Child Welfare

How much does your child mean to you? Do you want to make him a perfectly healthy normal child?

All efforts in this project tent toward improving conditions for the children of today when they reach young manhood, one-third of them will not be as afflicted and so far below normal as not to be fit to help their country. One should be well in normal times to do all he can for himself and his country. It should not take a war to point out to us that the youth is far below par in health. Yet it did take a war to show us that. Every effort is now being made to improve the health of the little ones to point out the defects and to put them in condition to improve the coming generation.

Should Interest All

Every mother should take an interest in the health crusade and urge her child to do all the “chores” each day.

Every mother should be present at the physical examination of her children and do all she can to carry out the recommendations made. Up to date eight schools in the county have been examined. Others will be examined as soon as time and weather permits.

Every mother should strive to feed her child the foods that the child should have for his best development and eliminate other foods.

Every mother should urge that a hot lunch should be served each day in the school her children attend.

The things mentioned here are the things emphasized this past year as part of the health work. They are the things that will be emphasized the coming year. …

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 19 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Shelley, Idaho

ShelleyFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 20

Evening Capital News., December 20, 1919, Page 4

19191220ECN1

The Boise Coal Situation

If the coal shortage situation in Boise was of such a critical nature that it was necessary to commandeer the surplus supply held by some consumers to provide fuel for those actually without and who could not keep warm because of that fact, there would be no serious nor valid objection from anyone. But the situation is not that serious. Nor does it appear to be critical enough to pass an ordinance that would place a penalty on those who took the precaution during the summer months to store coal. If their supply is not absolutely needed, why attempt to regulate and shorten their business hours?

No one will doubt but what the city coal commission, comprised as it is of prominent citizens who have only the best interests of all the people of Boise at heart, has attempted to handle the coal shortage situation in a way that would prevent suffering and so that those who have no coal may be able to secure it. But the commission and the city council should take into consideration that many people now without coal could have stored fuel in the summer and fall and those who did store it last fall, are not among the applicants for permits.

A year ago there was a very serious disturbance in business circles caused by the influenza epidemic. The authorities considered it best to take every precautionary step with the result that some classes of business were forced to shut down in their entirety at great financial loss, the theatres in particular. It is unwise to bring about another business disturbance at this time unless there has developed a situation of a very critical nature.

No such situation exists in Boise at the present time with regard to the shortage of coal. It is especially unwise to attempt to regulate business hours during the Christmas holiday rush and the people generally will not approve the act.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 20 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Rail Street, Shoshone, Idaho ca. 1909

Shoshone1909Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 21

Evening Capital News., December 21, 1919, Page 32

19191221ECN1

19191221ECN2

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 21 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Silver City, Idaho ca. 1909

SilverCity1909Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 23

The Daily Star-Mirror., December 23, 1919, Page 1

19191223DSM1

Mining Convention at Spokane

Spokane. — The mining industry is so closely interwoven with the prosperity of the Inland Empire that considerable interest is certain to be shown in the Northwest mining convention in Spokane, February 16-21 at the Hotel Spokane. The influenza ban last year prevented the convention, but this year’s gathering will be of special interest owing to the marked increase recently in the mining development of the country.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 23 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Soda Springs, Idaho

SodaSpringsFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 25

Evening Capital News., December 25, 1919, Page 4

19191225ECN1

The Heirs Of Mars

From the popular American point of view the great victories of the war were the offensives beginning at Chateau Thierry and St. Mihiel; from the medical viewpoint the greatest triumph was the defeat of germ and vermin-born diseases – epidemics. To date not a single one of these diseases has got a foothold on our shores. Typhus, the great scourge of previous wars, has been absolutely conquered in this war by systematic inoculation.

So great were the improvements made during this war in sanitary devices – water filters, sewage systems, ice boxes, fly traps, incinerators and what not – that those used even in the Spanish-American war look clumsy and primitive by comparison. A way of controlling completely the vermin in laundries and dry-cleaning establishments, a thing unknown before, was discovered. The influenza epidemic was kept under control by wholly new devices for isolating each soldier at night. The very architecture of barracks and buildings of all kinds has undergone an improvement with regard to their health-protecting location and construction.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 25 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Payette Enterprise., December 25, 1919, Page 2

19191225PE1

19191225PE2Pestilence Caused By War
Generally Understood that the Influenza Epidemic Was a Direct Result of Great Conflict

Sufficient time has not yet elapsed to determine the indirect effects of the recent eruption of Mount Kloet in Java which wiped out over a score of villages and killed thousands of the natives, but recollections of Krakatoa’s volcanic outburst in 1883 which within six weeks sprinkled its fine lava dust over the whole world, has given an interesting suggestion to certain members of the medical profession. During the closing year of the war an influenza epidemic raged in many parts of the world. The manner of its outbreak in different countries indicated that the germs of the disease had been conveyed by the currents in the air. The theory, therefore, has been broached that the poison gases with which many sectors of the fighting area where drenched were carried by the wind in every direction, causing the influenza outbreak in Spain, Germany, England, France, South America, Australia, Africa, Asia, as well as in the United States and some of the Central American countries. That the influenza is a corollary of the war is undoubted. Any similar gigantic conflict, is argued, would be attended with a similar widespread pestilence – another reason why every effort should be made to avert wars in the future. — Leslie’s.

source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 25 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Emmett Index. December 25, 1919, Page 2

19191225EI1

[Editorial Page]

19191225EI2
Oranges are a prophylactic against influenza, says a medical writer. Upon seeing the germ in the road you throw it an orange, thus taking its mind off business, while you slip up another street.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 25 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Soldier, Idaho in the Winter, 1909

Soldier1909Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 30

The Idaho Republican. December 30, 1919, Page 1

19191230TIR1

New Auctioneer Comes to Town

W. O. Orr is a new auctioneer is Blackfoot, who has arranged to hold an auction sale at the Hesse Feed Yard on Saturday the third of January. The announcement is in this issue.

Mr. Orr went overseas from Loveland, Colo., during the war and was blown up in battle while operating a tank. He was reported dead and when his family received the notification, Mrs. Orr and the four children went to stay temporarily with relatives and took influenza on the way and all died within three days.

Mr. Orr was carried unconscious from the battlefield, continued delirious a long time due to a piece of shrapnel in the forehead, and after many months he arrived home fully recovered, only to find that he was alone in the world. The Elks had attended to the last rites for his family, and he has spent much of the time since his discharge traveling and lecturing in the interest of the fund for the relief and care of the orphans of fallen soldier.

Mr. Orr is looking for a business location where he can sell and erect silos and may adopt Blackfoot as his home.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 30 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Maine Street, Spirit Lake, Idaho looking west from 3rd, Oct. 9, 1916

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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December 31

Evening Capital News., December 31, 1919, Page 4

19191231ECN1

19191231ECN2
Tonsillitis — Some Things You Ought to Know About It
By Dr. Leonard Keene Hirshberg
A. R., M., A., M. D. (Johns Hopkins University)

The smallest hair threw its shadow. A trifle may be the straw to break the camel’s back. A small bacterium may down a half-million persons with influenza. Thus tonsillitis is often foolishly looked upon as a trifling ailment.

The tonsils inside the mouth at the angle of the jaw are seldom as bad in men, women and children who were nourished on mother’s milk as they are in those fed upon cow’s milk and other non-human fodder.

Large tonsils and adenoids are not “trifling” affairs. They are so prevalent all over the world that in America they are blamed upon the dry, warm houses, and in England upon the damp, cold ones.

Mouth breathing, pigeon breasts, snoring, running noses, earaches, running ears, rough, nasal tangs to the voice, deafness, headaches, foul breath and other very commonplace conditions are traceable to tonsils and adenoids, which, if troublesome, ought to be removed before the child is 2 years old.

It is a waste of time and often criminal to delay the removal of adenoids and tonsils and entirely rely upon the application of solutions to the throat of a child, who is only too glad of an excuse to avoid a complete and once-for-all treatment.

To be sure, when there is a fever, an active inflammation and infection in the tonsils, treatment is necessary until the active trouble has subsided. Gargles and application of iodine, alkaline such as compound tincture of [?] are helpful. Cod liver oil internally, milk, cream, fruits, cereals and soft vegetables are a diet that is well taken when tonsillitis is active. … [rest of article unreadable]

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 31 Dec. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Stites, Idaho

StitesFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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Further Reading

A Brief History of Blood Transfusion Through the Years

March 10, 2016 By Kristin Garcia Stanford Blood Center

As early as the 17th century, blood has been used as a therapy for a variety of ailments. Over the years, there have been many great advances and it is no wonder this precious resource is so valuable. Here is a look at some of the bigger milestones related to blood transfusion over the years.

1628 English physician William Harvey discovers the circulation of blood. Shortly afterward, the earliest known blood transfusion is attempted.

1665 The first recorded successful blood transfusion occurs in England: Physician Richard Lower keeps dogs alive by transfusion of blood from other dogs.

1818 James Blundell performs the first successful blood transfusion of human blood to treat postpartum hemorrhage.

1840 The first whole blood transfusion to treat hemophilia is successfully completed.

1900 Karl Landsteiner discovers the first three human blood groups, A, B and O.

1902 Landsteiner’s colleagues, Alfred Decastello and Adriano Sturli, add a fourth blood type, AB.

1907 Blood typing and cross matching between donors and patients is attempted to improve the safety of transfusions. The universality of the O blood group is identified.

1914 Adolf Hustin discovers that sodium citrate can anticoagulate blood for transfusion, allowing it to be stored and later transfused safely to patients on the battlefield.

1932 The first blood bank is established at Leningrad hospital.

1939-1940 The Rh blood group is discovered and recognized as the cause behind most transfusion reactions.

1940 The US government establishes a nationwide blood collection program.

1950 Plastic bags allowing for a safer and easier collection system replace breakable glass bottles used for blood collection and storage.

1961 Platelet concentrates are recognized to reduce mortality from hemorrhaging in cancer patients.

1970 Blood banks move towards an all-volunteer donor base.

1972 The process of apheresis is discovered, allowing the extraction of one component of blood, returning the rest to the donor.

1983 Stanford Blood Center is the first blood center to screen for AIDS contaminated blood, using a surrogate test (T-lymphocyte phenotyping) two years before the AIDS virus antibody test is developed.

1985 The first HIV blood-screening test is licensed and implemented by blood banks.

1987 Stanford Blood Center is the first in the country to screen donors for Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I), a virus believed to cause a form of adult leukemia.

1990 A specific test to identify Hepatitis C is introduced.

2002 West Nile Virus is identified as transfusion-transmissible.

excerpted from:
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Whooping cough

Whooping cough, also known as pertussis or the 100-day cough, is a highly contagious bacterial disease. Initial symptoms are usually similar to those of the common cold with a runny nose, fever, and mild cough, but these are followed by weeks of severe coughing fits. Following a fit of coughing, a high-pitched whoop sound or gasp may occur as the person breathes in. The coughing may last for 10 or more weeks, hence the phrase “100-day cough”. A person may cough so hard that they vomit, break ribs, or become very tired from the effort. Children less than one year old may have little or no cough and instead have periods where they do not breathe. The time between infection and the onset of symptoms is usually seven to ten days. Disease may occur in those who have been vaccinated, but symptoms are typically milder.

Pertussis is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is spread easily through the coughs and sneezes of an infected person. People are infectious from the start of symptoms until about three weeks into the coughing fits. Those treated with antibiotics are no longer infectious after five days. Diagnosis is by collecting a sample from the back of the nose and throat. This sample can then be tested by either culture or by polymerase chain reaction.

Prevention is mainly by vaccination with the pertussis vaccine. Initial immunization is recommended between six and eight weeks of age, with four doses to be given in the first two years of life. Protection from pertussis decreases over time, so additional doses of vaccine are often recommended for older children and adults.

continued: Wikipedia
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Tonneau

A tonneau was originally an open rear passenger compartment, rounded like a barrel, on an automobile and, by extension, a body style incorporating such a compartment. The word is French, meaning ‘cask’ or barrel, cf. “tun”.

Rear entrance tonneau

Early tonneaus normally had a rear-facing hinged door, but single and dual side doors were soon[when?] introduced.

When the street was muddy or dirty the car could be backed up to the curb so tonneau passengers could exit directly onto the sidewalk.

see link for photos
excerpted from: Wikipedia
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“Eruption of Mount Kloet in Java”

On May 19, 1919, an eruption at Kelud killed an estimated 5,000 people, mostly through hot mudflows (also known as “lahars”). More recent eruptions in 1951, 1966, and 1990 have altogether killed another 250 people. Following the 1966 eruption, the Ampera Tunnels were built (top and bottom) on the southwestern side of the crater to reduce (not drain completely) the water of the crater lake and thus reduce the lahar hazard.

see link for 1919 image
excerpted from: Wikipedia
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 63)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 64)

Idaho History July 18, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 64

Idaho Newspaper clippings November 20-28, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 20

Evening Capital News., November 20, 1919, Page14

19191120ECN1

19191120ECN2What Science Now Has to Say About Influenza Dangers
By Dr. Leonard Keene Hirshberg
A. B., M. A., M. D. (Johns Hopkins University)

You may be at present intensely concerned about influenza and wish to know what has been discovered about it, as well as what you can do to ward it off and to do away with it.

Influenza will, perhaps, ever be with us. Facts, however, indicate that it will not be as complicated and as fatal as it was in October and November, 1918.

After malign epidemics of measles, smallpox, scarletina and yellow fever those infections remain “in our midst,” but in a less severe form. Similarly will it be with Influenza.

It has been found upon investigation of last year’s millions of victims that only about 7 per cent of those exposed to its depredations fell ill with the distemper. While the mortality rate from influenza and the pneumonia complication ran as high as 60 to 75 per cent in some localities, only 7 per cent of the total population really had the malady. This means that at its worst some 93 in every 100 Americans escaped its clutches.

Dr. Franklin C. Gram, the acting health commissioner of Buffalo, found that there is very little to fear from tuberculosis as a sequence of influenza. Among some 33,880 victims there were only eight with tuberculosis. That is the number you would ordinarily look for among any normal group. There are few remnants of the disease left after recovery.

The complications were pneumonia, loss of hair and ear troubles, but there were few after-claps. Restoration to health is practically certain and complete in most instances.

Drs. A. G. Love and C. B. Davenport, in a very recent number of the Archives of Internal Medicine, show that children and individuals who are city bred and who live in crowded, congested quarters appear able to resist influenza better than rural residents.

It seems that at least 25 per cent more victims of influenza, 10 per cent more pneumonia and 30 per cent more sickness in general occurred in rural communities than in urban districts. This curious, unexpected situation is contrary to that expected from the popular belief in and praise of country life. Perhaps it is due to the fact that congestion and dirt breed disease early and the weaklings are thus killed off and eliminated in city life before adult age is reached.

While it is perhaps cruel and heartless to expose infants to the early deaths so common in the thickly populated sections of big cities, there are many facts to show that those who survive to the twenties are more resistant to dirt, disease and microbes than many who in babyhood and youth were protected from all such exposure.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 20 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Grangeville Globe. November 20, 1919, Page5

19191120GG1

Make It 10,000
Lewiston Chapter, American Red Cross Spending Thousands

When the citizens of Idaho, Lewis and Nez Perce Counties give their dollars for membership in the Red Cross, it must not be forgotten that several thousands of these membership dollars will be spent in these three counties during 1920.

In the first place, the splendid Public Health program now being started by the Red Cross will soon be under way in the Lewiston Chapter. Two nurses have already been engaged and in addition to this public health work, the Chapter has employed a graduate nurse for each of the three counties to give instruction in Home Hygiene and Care of Sick. Every community in the chapter jurisdiction will have this wonderful opportunity to better public and individual health conditions, at no expense to those taking the courses. Your membership dollars help pay for this greatly needed work.

Another branch of Red Cross activity now being conducted by the Lewiston Chapter in behalf of returned service men of the three counties, is the Home Service Section.

Your Dollars Aid in Home Service

Up to the present time the Home Service Section of the Lewiston chapter has attended to over 400 cases of soldiers and sailors in Lewis, Idaho and Nez Perce Counties, 88 of these men were disabled in some manner, and are receiving special attention Ten of them are tubercular; fourteen have received treatment in hospitals; many have received financial aid for their families. In all these cases the Lewiston Red Cross chapter has supplemented and aided the government in every possible way. A trained secretary is employed to give assistance in all cases of need. The secretary keeps in touch with all service men who have needed advice or aid, and with all families in similar need. This work is supported entirely by your Red Cross dollars, and will continue until the last man returns home from service, or from the hospitals.

The Red Cross Canteen

Although the numbers are dwindling gradually, eight, ten, twelve or more service men are returning each week, and are being met at the train by a uniformed Canteen worker. Until the last boy returns Lewiston Chapter will see that the returning men are cared for and all their needs satisfied, when they reach Lewiston to stay, or pass through to their homes in the three counties.

The Junior Red Cross is another of the branches of work that is being continued with greater emphasis than ever. There are almost 3,000 junior workers in the three counties.

These are some of the reasons why the people of our district have a special interest in seeing the 10,000 membership mark reached. We want to know that all the advantages of the American Red Cross may be available to our people now, as well as in time of great emergency, such as was experienced in the influenza epidemic of last year.

Idaho, Nez Perce and Lewis Counties have 8800 members of the American Red Cross.

Make it 10,000. All you need is a heart and a dollar.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 20 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Quartzburg, Idaho

QuartzburgFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 24

Evening Capital News., November 24, 1919, Page 10

19191124ECN1

19191124ECN2Twins Born To Wife Of Service Man Who Died Of Influenza

Twins, a boy and a girl were born last Thursday to Mrs. Fields Caldwell at her home, 1143 River street. Mr. Caldwell was in the service, contracted influenza and died some months ago of pneumonia.

Mrs. Caldwell has two other children but is especially proud of the twins her one great regret being that her husband did not live that he might enjoy them with her. Mother and babies are getting along well and she is planning for the future with a happy, glad heart, bravely willing to make the sacrifice necessary to raise her kiddies, although alone in the world.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 24 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., November 24, 1919, Page 6

19191124DSM1

19191124DSM2Disease is Ever Lurking at This Season Waiting for a Victim too Weak to Combat It

Use precautionary methods at this season and guard your system against attacks of disease.

Colds, Coughs, Grippe, Influenza, Tonsillitis and other cold weather ailments should be treated promptly and with remedies that are known to be effective.

We carry all of the popular preparations known to medical science and we can suggest a good one for use in any special case.

If seriously ill consult your physician – but when preventive measures are sought – see us.

“Better Be Safe Than Sorry”

Corner Drug Store – C. E. Bolles, Proprietor

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 24 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Rathdrum, Idaho Main Street, South Side ca. 1915

Rathdrum1915Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 25

The Idaho Republican. November 25, 1919, Page10

19191125TIR1

Moreland

Placards from the Children’s Home at Boise have arrived. They are asking for a Thanksgiving offering large enough to offset last years’ lack of offering caused by the influenza epidemic. This is a very worthy cause and should receive loyal support.

Dr. Patrie was here on official business last Monday. He paid the school a visit and left instructions as how to protect the children from contagion. While here he quarantined the homes of Mr. Thompson and Mr. Furniss for chickenpox.

The teaching of patriotism is not forgotten by our school faculty. You should hear and see the children sing “America,” “The Star Spangled Banner,” and “Idaho,” from memory; take the pledge to the flag and repeat “The American Creed.”

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 25 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Reubens, Idaho

ReubensFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 26

Evening Capital News., November 26, 1919, Page 2

19191126ECN1

19191126ECN2

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 26 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Rexburg, Idaho (2)

RexburgFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 27

The Grangeville Globe. November 27, 1919, Page5

19191127GG1

Winona News

(Special Correspondence)

Mrs. T. M. Atwood, who has been very sick with the influenza is convalescent.

J. S. Adair who has been very sick for the past two weeks is improving.

Mrs. Rome Morris is seriously ill.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 27 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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View on Main Street, Richfield, Idaho ca. 1910 (1)

Richfield1910Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 28

The Rathdrum Tribune., November 28, 1919, Page1

19191128RT1

19191128RT2
Classify Diseases
State Experts Investigating Pneumonia Germs

Boise, Idaho. – Preparations for an extensive study of pneumococci, the bacteria which causes croupous pneumonia, are under way at the state bacteriological laboratory. Dr. Paul A. Mader, state bacteriologist, said Friday that an effort will be made to classify every case of pneumonia found in the state this winter.

Three important results are expected to come from this investigation, the first affecting most intimately the patient and the physician in charge. By examining samples of the bacteria developed in the patient’s body, the state expert will discover to what class of pneumonia it belongs. If it should happen to belong to a class for which a serum has been discovered, the state will suggest the use of that serum to save the patient’s life.

Another result will be the value of the investigation in the anti-influenza campaign now being waged in the nation. Since pneumonia is often a result of influenza, study of the pneumonia bacteria may bring to light new and interesting facts relative to the still mysterious malady, influenza.

The third result will be purely scientific. It is not generally known, according to Doctor Mader, that there are several different kinds of pneumonia. As a matter of fact, however, there are five separate and distinct types of the disease, a serum having been perfected for only one. There is also an atypical pneumonia which requires still different consideration.

source: The Rathdrum Tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 28 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Evening Capital News., November 28, 1919, Page1

19191128ECN1

19191128ECN2Sergeant York’s Wife Pines For Mountains

St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 28. — The wife of the “war’s greatest hero” wants to go home to Tennessee.

And so Sergeant Alvin C. York today considered cancelling his speaking engagements to take his little mountain wife back to the Tennessee hills away from the smoke and grime of the big cities, which physicians think contributed to her present illness with influenza.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 28 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Evening Capital News., November 28, 1919, Page 4

19191128ECN3How Bacteria Are Employed To Save You From Their Kind
By Dr. Leonard Keene Hirshberg
A. B., M. A., M. D. (Johns Hopkins University)

“Doctor,” asked a patient of mine recently “do you advise the serum to prevent influenza-pneumonia?”

“You are like many others,” I said. “You say serum, but you mean vaccine.”

“What is the difference?” quoth he. “One poor layman cannot be expected to know.”

“Well, a serum is what its name implies – blood with the clot removed. Mixtures used to prevent diseases such as typhoid, flu-pneumonia, whooping cough, smallpox, rabies and others are all vaccines compounded of microbes that are made poisonless.”

“What do you mean? How can the deadly typhoid microbe be made poisonless?”

“Well,” I replied, “I’ll pass over your erroneous English. By a microbe is usually meant an animalcule. The little demons of most infectious diseases are bacteria. These are vegetable creatures, no animal.”

To make bacilli poisonless advantage is taken of the discoveries of a great Frenchman, Louis Pasteur and a great Englishman, Almoth E. Wright.

Bacteria and microbes cause much of the severe sickness in the world. They make you sick by their rapidity of breeding and by the poisons called “toxins,” which these hordes of microscopically small plants discharge.

Many of them manufacture an internal poison, called “endotoxin.”

This latter one is loosed on the victim in whose blood and tissues the bacilli are at work. They are more easily attacked and destroyed by the human fabric than is the endotoxin.

Antibodies of Combat.

This poison is really incorporated in the meshes of the microbes and bacteria themselves. It is part and parcel of every manjack of them. To be rid of the endotoxins the bacteria themselves much be annihilated.

However, the very presence of both these toxins in man is enough to make his living texture generate and manufacture material to combat them. These are called antibodies which are antidotes to them. Just as we overproduced poison gas and ammunition once we got started to fight, so the living animal produces more antibodies than it needs.

The exotoxin, which is solvent thing and discharged externally by the bacteria, produces an antibody like itself, dissolved in the serum of the subject that was sick or inoculated with the germs.

This antibody can be obtained then by bleeding the subject, sterilized, bottled and used in other persons’ blood in an emergency to give them temporary immunity.

Ways to Immunity.

This is a serum or antitoxin of which there are only a few, such as diphtheria and lockjaw. The bacilli of those diseases produce both kinds of toxins, endo and exo.

Unhappily, it is not possible to separate the exotoxins from the endotoxins of the influenza, smallpox, pneumonia, whooping cough, hydrophobia, typhoid and other germs. There is no antitoxin or serum of these – only vaccines.

The way the endotoxins of these are used is to utilize the whole bacterium of microbes. These are killed and injected into the flesh of those of us who are alert and practical enough to protect ourselves against these plagues.

Dead bacteria have almost as much of the toxins in them as the live ones, but they cannot keep on replacing what is lost. They can be injected, therefore, in small numbers so they cannot produce disease, yet still be capable of stirring your flesh and blood to make enough antibodies to keep you immune three to five years.

To be free and safe from those ailments, you must be re-inoculated as they do in the hospitals, the army and the navy, namely every couple of years.

If you inoculate yourself with a toxinless mixture of five billion influenza bacilli, hemolytic cocci and pneumonia cocci, you may escape epidemic influenza and pneumonia and yet “catch cold.” If you do, a bacteriologist will examine the “cold” and make a vaccine of the particular bacillus at fault. You can then give yourself an injection of these killed and thus escape a return of this annoyance.

(ibid, page 4)
—————

Further Reading

The American’s Creed

posted by William Tyler Page

I believe in the United States of America as a government of the people, by the people, for the people; whose just powers are derived from the consent of the governed, a democracy in a republic, a sovereign Nation of many sovereign States; a perfect union, one and inseparable; established upon those principles of freedom, equality, justice, and humanity for which American patriots sacrificed their lives and fortunes.

I therefore believe it is my duty to my country to love it, to support its Constitution, to obey its laws, to respect its flag, and to defend it against all enemies.

– Written 1917, accepted by the United States House of Representatives on April 3, 1918.

source: US History
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Soldiers at the Great Northern Depot, Rathdrum, Idaho

SoldiersRathdrumFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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Sergeant York

Alvin Cullum York (December 13, 1887 – September 2, 1964), also known as Sergeant York, was one of the most decorated United States Army soldiers of World War I. He received the Medal of Honor for leading an attack on a German machine gun nest, gathered 35 machine guns, killing at least 25 enemy soldiers and capturing 132 prisoners. York’s Medal of Honor action occurred during the United States-led portion of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive in France, which was intended to breach the Hindenburg line and force the Germans to surrender. He earned decorations from several allied countries during WWI, including France, Italy and Montenegro.

continued: Wikipedia
— — — — — — — — — —

A look at how east Idahoans handled a pandemic a little over a century ago

Dec 22, 2020 Brittni Johnson, EastIdahoNews.com

1918IdahoRedCross-aCourtesy The North End

It was December 1918 when a heartbreaking obituary was posted in The Teton Peak Chronicle about two young mothers who had contracted a lethal disease.

Pearl Willard, 26, and Myrtle Foster, 24, lay on their death beds in separate homes in St. Anthony, but their last thoughts were of each other.

“A peculiar incident occurred just before the death of these two sisters who lived about two blocks from each other,” the newspaper article stated. “Just before she died, Mrs. Myrtle Foster said: ‘Come on, Pearl, and go with me.’”

According to those who were at the other bedside, Pearl replied, “Yes, Myrtle, I’m coming.”

Myrtle died at 12:15 a.m., and Pearl followed at 1:10 a.m.

Former Brigham Young University-Idaho student Diana Victoria Lucier, wrote a 2008 Spanish flu report, and said the deaths of these two women left a total of seven children motherless, and both women left behind 2-month-old babies.

Today, the world faces its own pandemic from COVID-19, but it’s worth noting that this isn’t the first time the world, or eastern Idaho itself has weathered a severe or global illness.

A little over a century ago, eastern Idahoans were dealing with a major health crisis of their own.

The origins of Spanish flu

It was near the end of World War I when a killer flu strain began to infect people in different parts of the world. In the United States, the virus — also known as the 1918 influenza pandemic or “Spanish flu” – was first identified in military personnel in spring 1918.

It’s not clear where the Spanish flu originated, but the damage it left behind was devastating enough the CDC says it “was the most severe pandemic in recent history.”

The virus infected around 500 million people worldwide which was about 26 percent of the globe’s population, according to the CDC. The virus claimed the lives of millions of victims. The death toll is estimated to be between 20 million to 50 million people worldwide — more than all of the soldiers and civilians killed during World War I. Due to a lack of medical record-keeping, other estimates run the death toll as high as 100 million.

About 675,000 Americans died, and overall, nearly half of the influenza-related deaths during the pandemic were in young and healthy adults ages 20 to 40 years old.

On a local level, 55 people died in Fremont County, 52 died in Jefferson County, and Madison County tallied 58 deaths, Lucier said. She added that the average age at death in the three counties was 26 and a half years old. Local historians are unsure how many deaths occurred in the other heavily populated counties, such as Bonneville or Bannock.

“The mortality rate of the flu was incredibly high, and if you walk through any cemetery and collect some data on death dates, you’ll see an uptick in mortality rate at the time of the Spanish flu,” Chloe Doucette, Senior Director of Programs and Engagement at the Museum of Idaho, told EastIdahoNews.com. “Rose Hill Cemetery in Idaho Falls is no exception.”

Lucier said at the time, the death rate from influenza made it “almost impossible to secure caskets.”

“We did very little embalming then. Most of the time the bodies were laid out on slabs of ice with cloths for the viewing and then buried in wooden boxes,” said Bill M. Hansen, who worked for undertaker William Yager in Fremont County during the pandemic, according to Lucier’s report. “I didn’t like the business much, and I dreaded to go to a home to pick up a body.”

The Spanish flu symptoms were similar to those of the typical flu, such as fever, aches and tiredness, but many people developed pneumonia as well. Dark spots would appear on victims’ cheeks before their faces would turn blue from lack of oxygen in their blood, and they’d suffocate as their lungs filled with fluid, according to the History Television Network.

Many Idahoans caught the Spanish flu, and although the total number of how many died is unclear, Doucette said because the flu was so deadly and cities in Idaho were still pretty small in 1918 to 1920, most people were personally affected by the death of someone due to the virus. Along with infections and deaths, the pandemic caused social and economic issues in communities.

Spanish flu hits Idaho

It was late September 1918 when the Spanish flu arrived in the Gem State, according to HannaLore Hein, the state historian with the Idaho State Historical Society. Hein said few records exist from that period that discuss what the state did and what the counties attempted to do. Based on the available records, she said that around the time the virus appeared in Idaho, the United States surgeon general issued a plea.

“The U.S. Surgeon General was starting to really ask states to pay attention to what was going on and to start collecting information about the case numbers, the transmission rates, where cases were originating and things like that,” she said.

Within the first couple of weeks, after Idaho reported its first influenza cases in Canyon County, Hein said the State Board of Health, which makes policy decisions for Idaho, met about the issue.

“By mid-October… they came down with some pretty clear mandates as to what needed to happen to try to curb the spread of this disease,” Hein said.

Because there was no vaccine to protect against influenza and no antibiotics to treat secondary bacterial infections associated with influenza infections, control efforts worldwide were limited to non-pharmaceutical interventions, the CDC said.

Those interventions included isolation, quarantine, good personal hygiene, use of disinfectants and limitations of public gatherings, which the CDC noted: “were applied unevenly,” across the country.

Mandates put in place to slow the spread

“It is foolish for any locality to dally along until the community is infested and several deaths occur.”

To slow the spread of the disease in Idaho, the State Board of Health put several mandates in place, according to Hein. She said the board asked people to avoid things like dry sweeping train cars, train stations and public buildings because health officials thought that would stir the dust and get people sick. They also banned the public from drinking out of the same cup, which was sometimes done at restaurants or train stations.

In early October 1918, Idaho’s State Board of Health issued a statewide order banning all public assemblies in the hope of containing the virus, Doucette said. She said there was a resurgence of the disease towards the end of 1918, which was due, largely in part, to public celebrations of the end of the war. She said celebrations like this took place in Idaho, as well as across the nation, and more people got sick because of them.

On Oct. 11, 1918, the Pocatello Tribune said, “Edict of the State Board of Health closing all places of public assemblage should not unduly alarm the people. It is a measure of precaution rather than one of necessity.”

The paper added that “while it will work a material hardship on many individuals and institutions, it perhaps is a wise plan to at least keep the situation well in hand, and determine the exact status of the so-called Spanish influenza in this community.”

A few days after that publication, the Idaho Statesman reported 90 cases of influenza on Oct. 13, 1918, in Idaho, and on Oct. 23, 1918, the number of statewide confirmed cases jumped to 1,711.

On Oct. 31, 1918, The Rexburg Standard printed a letter written by Dr. Joseph Walker — who the paper said was “well known in Rexburg” — where he explained the impact gatherings had on the virus spreading.

“As to its treatment: The best treatment is not to get it. To avoid it, one must avoid all chance of associating with people who might have it, as it is a crowd disease and is conveyed from one to the other by means of droplet transmission,” he wrote.

Not long after his piece ran in the paper, The Rexburg Standard said in a November 1918 issue that a state quarantine was going to be lifted Nov. 24, 1918. This would allow all churches and theaters to re-open that day, “unless county or city health officials forbid the reopening.”

As part of the state quarantine, The Rexburg Standard also noted that school would be back in session Nov. 25, 1918. It’s not clear how many times schools might have shut down and for how long because The Rigby Star and The Rexburg Standard said a month later that school would also resume Dec. 30.

“Every precaution possible in the school will be taken to prevent any exposure to the influenza,” The Rigby Star states. “Parents are asked to co-operate by not letting their children attend school on any day when they show symptoms of the ‘flu’ and teachers will promptly isolate from the school any suspected case.”

Along with those mandates already mentioned, Hein said the State Board of Health also put together a mask mandate, and stores began selling face coverings.

An article in The Rexburg Standard published Nov. 7, 1918, with the headline “Gas Masks Prevent Flu” explained that in Idaho Falls and St. Anthony, wearing a mask was “made compulsory by the city authorities.”

It’s documented that during an American Public Health Association meeting in Chicago, that they talked about how the value of a mask is a “mooted question” but the “weight of opinion seems to be in its favor.”

How did eastern Idahoans respond to the mandates?

How Idahoans responded to the mandates “varied across the state,” Hein said.

“In some locations, people were welcoming of these decisions,” she mentioned. “In fact, in some places, the idea to close schools, the counties made those decisions maybe even before the Board of Health required it.”

Lucier said The Teton Peak Chronicle in St. Anthony ran an article condemning Fremont County for not closing its schools as Rexburg leaders did.

“The Rexburg Council saw the wisdom of closing the schools,” the article states. “It is foolish for any locality to dally along until the community is infested and several deaths occur before any steps are taken to prevent the disease from spreading.”

Doucette has yet to find a first-person account addressing any sort of public outrage or demonstration concerning the restrictions, but she said it’s likely that there was some pushback.

“Early articles all say something to the effect of ‘don’t panic,’ and there is evidence that people were getting restless (and) having financial trouble because of business shutdowns,” she said.

During the fourth week of October, Lucier said Rexburg put up a 75-foot “Liberty Flag Pole.” Many people ignored the rule of public gatherings but wore their gauze face masks to watch the raising of the flag pole. Then on Nov. 11, Rexburg received word that the armistice had been signed. To celebrate, Lucier said, citizens built a large bonfire and danced around it while wearing their masks that night.

1919BYUProvoMasks-aBrigham Young University students wearing fask masks in Jan. 1919 after classes had been canceled from Oct. to Dec. 1918. | Courtesy L. Tom Perry Special Collections, UAP 2 F-092

But on the other hand, there were people like those in Challis who were so fearful of getting the flu that Doucette said locals tried to keep the flu out by positioning armed guards at the city’s entrance to keep strangers and travelers out. The story goes that the postman eventually brought the disease in.

In east Idaho, many communities did not allow passengers to disembark if they were non-residents or had traveled to hot spots, according to an Idaho State Journal article, which also mentioned stations from Driggs to Idaho Falls were closed.

“I think that there is good evidence to suggest that because people saw the impact of the flu firsthand, they took complying with safety measures seriously for the most part,” Doucette stated.

In Rexburg, the local newspaper wrote that the “flu situation is very serious,” and despite precautions, the virus had “broken out again” in the city more seriously than ever before.

The Idaho Republican, the Blackfoot newspaper, was also feeling the virus’s effects. The paper published an article Dec. 6, 1918, that informed the community that more influenza cases were reported within city limits during that past week than at any previous time.

However, the paper hints that the city was following directions by health officials because later on, the newspaper article reads, “Thanksgiving Day was quiet here as everybody stayed at home most of the day.”

Esther Thomas, a home economics student at the University of Idaho in 1918, painted a picture in her journal that indicated being in quarantine was a lonely time.

“Still nothing doing. I am almost desperate. Make some sheets,” she wrote. Followed by an entry the next day that said, “Make some more sheets. Desperation increases. What will become of me?”

The virus needed to finish running its course — and how long that would take was unknown — before life would return to “normal.”

Life after the pandemic

With phrases such as “laid to last rest,” “death found its way in” and “it is painful for us to record so many deaths” scattered across local newspapers, other words such as “recovering nicely” and “in good health again” are also mentioned.

Doucette said because the Spanish flu was so contagious that many people became infected with the disease and then either died or developed an immunity to that particular strain of flu by about 1920. When the pandemic came to an end after roughly two years, one-third of the world’s population had caught the virus.

“That caused much of society to go back to normal, but ‘descendants’ of the Spanish flu virus (mutated strains of it) have continued to exist and affect our society,” Doucette said. “The flu pandemics that occurred in the ’50s, ’60s and in 2009 were all descendants of the novel 1918 virus.”

Even though it was a “horrendous experience,” Hein’s agrees that life eventually went back to normal because the virus mutated.

“(What happened back then) is very similar to what we’re watching happen right now,” Hein said. “It’s been quite interesting to see so much of history cycling through again.”

source: © 2015 – 2021 EastIdahoNews.com, LLC. Used with permission (Nate Eaton)
Note: contains lists of influenza deaths in Jefferson County Idaho 1918-1919. Also several newspaper clippings.
—————

Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 63)

Idaho History July 4, 2021

Idaho Railroads – Payette Branch

Emmett to McCall

Idaho Northern and Pacific Railroad – Oregon Short Line – Union Pacific – Thunder Mountain Line

Map Oregon Short Line 1936

1936MapIdahoOSL— — — — — — — — — —

Payette Valley Railroad Train Crossing Payette River

TrainPayetteRiver-a

“The lettering on the side of the coach indicates that picture is Payette Valley Railroad near Payette, Idaho, crossing the Payette River. The engine fits in with one they bought from the Oregon Short Line, originally Union Pacific. This railroad ran from Payette to Emmett Idaho and was built by Eccles or Nibley interests in Utah. Line absorbed by Oregon Short Line in 1914. Line built in 1906. Identification by Arthur Peterson, Pocatello, Idaho.” Source: Utah State Historical Society

Publisher Digitized by J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah. Digital Image © 2008 Utah State Historical Society. All Rights Reserved.

source: Utah State Historical Society w/copyright info
[h/t Justin Smith]
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1902 Emmett Depot

1902EmmettDepot1-a

Mural commemorating the arrival of the railroad in 1902
photographed by Madonna Colburn in 2015

source: Gem County Historical Society and Museum
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The New Railroad Reaches Emmett

The Emmett Index April 3, 1902

First Idaho Northern Trains Arrived Here Last Saturday

The Completion of the Enterprise Marks the Beginning of the Progress of Emmett and Surrounding Country

The railroad has come at last. The unfamiliar sight of a steam horse, snorting in over the streets, is one of great interest to our citizens.

With the arrival of the railroad all realized that our bands of isolation are broken and now it is a fair field and no favors. Emmett has cause for congratulation. Her future was assured when the last spike of the Idaho Northern was driven. The long distance by stage has heretofore kept many investors from Emmett, but these annoyances are not a thing of the past.

Men of wealth have been long in taking advantage of our resources. It was not until Colonel Dewey, that broad minding and public spirited citizen, conceived the project of a railroad to Emmett that we could hope for development of the country. It is ours now to demonstrate and verify the Colonel’s faith in us. Let us work together for the advancement of Emmett and the Idaho Northern. The success of either means the success of both. The one is linked to the other by ties of interest. Long live Colonel Dewey, the Idaho Northern and Emmett, the garden spot of the valley.

It is fitting that our citizens take some formal observance of the day. It is the birth of a new and progressive town. Suitable exercises should be held commemorative of the event. Never in our history has occasion offered better opportunity for saying grace. Citizens, call a holiday. Give a royal welcome to the first to come over the new road. See that an excursion from neighboring towns be given on a certain day. Few towns and people know that the road is completed. See that they know it. It is to your interest to do so. More people will come to you then.

Organized an excursion. Look to it that it is well advertised and give the excursionists a royal time when they arrive, plenty to eat and plenty of amusement.

Many a man that sees the richness of Emmett, its grasses and trees, water and timber, will cast his fortune with us.

The month of March, 1902, is a red letter month for Emmett, and henceforth Emmett people will date events from the day the railroad came.

Three cheers for Emmett, Hurrah! Hurrah! Hurrah!

source: Idaho AHGP
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Oregon Shortline Depot, Emmett

OregonShortlineDepotEmmett-a
photo by SMc

source: Gem County Historical Society and Museum
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Idaho Northern Railroad, Long Valley, Idaho

RailroadLongValleyFritz-a

“42 feet of Rock to be moved with 16,375 lbs. of Powder. Idaho Northern Ry. Long Valley Ida.”
By AMLEY [?] – Caldwell, Ida

From: the Mike Fritz Collection – History of Idaho

“This is visible from the highway just upstream (north) from Smith’s Ferry, right in there where the highway narrows. No parking along the road! It is the outcrop with the tunnel.” – Bob Hood – Idaho History Group
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The Idaho Northern

“The Idaho Northern Railroad, a part of the Oregon Short Line and a subsidiary of the Union Pacific, completed a rail line all the way to McCall by 1914. The first train arrived in McCall on June 20 and regular service from the Treasure Valley to McCall began July 19th of that year.”

by Duane L. Petersen, Valley County, The Way it Was, D & D Books, Cascade, Idaho, 2002

from: Idaho AHGP – Valley County
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The Thunder Mountain Line History

The history of the Thunder Mountain Line dates back to more than a century ago. The prospects for the railroad were originally to serve the Thunder Mountain Mining District, which was full of gold and ore. The current roads could not handle the incoming freight for these areas. Prospectors were filling the Long Valley area as mining districts and camps were forming. Gold fever soon spread and an entrepreneur named Colonel W. Dewey formed a railroad syndicate due to the suspected wealth in the areas.

TML1-a

Railroad tycoons were at war for a route to the Pacific Northwest and West Coast to gain control of the region for their railroads. The three tycoons at war were James Jerome Hill (who just completed the Great Northern, had control of the Northern Pacific, the Chicago and Northwestern, and the Burlington), Edward Harriman (who controlled the Union Pacific), and Jay Gould (who had control of the Rio Grande and Missouri). The Idaho Northern was incorporated on December 18, 1897 by Colonel Dewey and presumed later to be in the camp of the Union Pacific.

TML2-a

The chartered railroad was expected to reach as far south as Paradise Valley, Nevada, as far north as Spokane, Washington, as far east as Butte, Montana, and as far west as Williamette Valley in Oregon. The railroad surveyed and completed tracks into Emmett on March 29, 1902. The Idaho Northern’s claims north of Emmett had expired in 1906 and the Chicago Northwestern jumped in and filed claims down the Salmon, Boise and South Fork of the Payette Rivers. Control of the Chicago Northwestern had swung from Hill to Harriman and back to Hill. Harriman passed away and when the C&NW’s claims ran out in 1910, a new war began between Frederick Weyerhauser (a close friend of Harriman) and Hill. Weyerhauser owned huge tracts of land along the Payette and Boise River and it became obvious railroads were needed due to the costs of driving logs down the river. The Union Pacific counter claimed everything the C&NW had claimed in 1906. Surveying began in 1910 to an area outside of McCall and grading was finished to Banks by April 1912. The railroad had hired 2,500 men to assist in the grading and building of the railroad.

TML3-a

The railroad was built to Smiths Ferry on July 10, 1913 and an inaugural run was made in August 1913 and regular service began later that month from Nampa. The railroad was completed on July 1914 with regular service beginning to McCall on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. The trains were mixed with freight, mail, and passengers. Many people were excited to have access to the mountain lakes and rivers for their vacations.

Small towns and depots were established along the railroad tracks to support the local timber industry. Smaller logging railroads reached into the rich timber valleys and connected with Idaho Northern’s main line. The Union Pacific operated this branch line as part of their Oregon Short Line Division until the Idaho Northern and Pacific Railroad purchased the railroad in 1993. Until recently, the railroad had continued to be supported by the timber industry.

source: w/photos

Note: The Thunder Mountain Line stopped running January 2016.
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Railroad between McCall and Emmett, Idaho

RailroadMcCallEmmett1-a

RailroadMcCallEmmett2-a

Photos courtesy Robert D Austin Jr.
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1910 Payette River Canyon, Idaho O.S.L. Ry

1910PayetteCanyon-a

Payette River, Payette Canyon between Emmett and Smiths Ferry, Idaho c. 1910 ID-B-0005, WaterArchives.org

source: Gem County Historical Society and Museum and WaterArchives.org
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The Emmett Index. August 07, 1913, Page 4

19130807EI1First Train To The Ferry
Some 400 Excursionists Enjoy a Ride Over the Scenic Idaho Northern.

Sunday morning about 60 of Emmett’s citizens took advantage of the first excursion and a ride on the first passenger train to go over the extension of the Idaho Northern to Smith’s Ferry a distance of 60 miles, each one prepared for the outing in the mountains with lunches, guns, fishing tackle and creel, field glasses, cameras and other concealed weapons for use in case of rattlesnakes being encountered. The excursion train, coming from the main line by way of the Payette Valley railway, brought picnickers from Nyssa and Ontario, Ore., via Payette. It arrived on time, but the special carrying the Caldwell, Nampa and Boise excursionists was late, and after Its arrival and the necessary switching done in combining the two trains and getting headed for the north, made the train over half an hour late leaving Emmett. The two small engines that pulled into Emmett with the P. V. train were displaced by a six-wheeler off the main line.

We started at last. Slowly climbing Pickett corral hill at the head of the valley — passing through the tunnel at the top of the hill with the usual sensation felt — especially if your best girl were occupying the same seat with you — Payette river about 100 ft. below the track peacefully flowing to west as our train wended its way east to Montour, the first stop. Taking on the waiting quota from Sweet and vicinity, we move on toward our next stop at Horseshoe Bend, where the passenger list was increased a goodly number. Here another big six-wheeler engine was attached to the front end — double-header now —- one engine with a hot box, which had to be cooled and taking on water delayed the train another half hour. But this time was occupied by expectant anglers catching grasshoppers in the adjoining fields. Say, if they had been up on those butte ranches, the poor grasshoppers would have been carried up into the mountains, (and most all of them turned loose) and used for trout bait. Finally getting away from the Bend where we crossed the Payette river to the north side and following the river grade all the time, we keep getting closer to the pine-clad mountains which can be seen in the distance. Passing through a fine farming country all the way to the real base of the mountains. The mill at the mines in the Horseshoe Bend district was in sight on the right, showing activity in the mining line. Several gangs of men and teams were noticed repairing washouts on the irrigation and power canals. Leaving the valley, the next stop was at Waverly, where several passengers boarded the train, and then puffing and steaming the engines slowly pulled the train of seven coaches and one baggage car up the continuous grade and made the next stop at Banks, a station named in honor Merle Banks, who granted a free right-of-way through his land at this point. But after securing the right of-way, Mr. Dewey saw fit to change the name of the station from “Banks” to “Mareno,” a name that did not appeal to Merle’s mother a-tall. She said: “There were too many old bucks round there now of that breed and wouldn’t stand for it.” So she took the matter up with the new regime and headed off “Mareno” and replaced “Banks” for him to butt into.

All stations have neat depots and out houses. Banks is a kind of division, having in addition to the depot, etc., a two-stall round house, a turn table and a water tank. Several more pleasure seekers boarded the train at this point. Move on again — more grade — more engine work — for about half a mile, where we recross the river to the south side again. At the bridge a number of men got off with lunches, fishing outfits, etc. And a little farther, at the “Forks” — that is where the South Fork enters the North Fork — several unboarded with blood in their eyes, vowing vengeance on the poor trout. Here we enter the notorious Canyon of the North Fork of the Payette river, where the water is “white” all the time. It must be a magnificent and awe-inspiring to see this mountain stream at flood height, when the snow clad mountains are shedding their winter mantle, and the grand old Payette river is struggling to entangle its frigid burden from the rocks and jammed timber, and get it down to a place where it can shake the foam off its surface and once more take on the appearance of common water. The track follows the river grade all the way through the canyon about a hundred feet above the bed of the river, which at this time of the year is at its low water mark . Through the canyon the mountain sides are covered with a dense growth of pine timber. The state wagon (Boise automobile) road is on the opposite of the river. Here, about half way through the canyon, the engines got thirsty, so we stop at “Bat” creek, a small mountain stream right out of the heavy timber, that fairly leaps down its stepped bed — the steps as natural as though cut by hand, a flight of about 50 feet to the railroad track where it ducks under the roadbed and dives into the river. Ever see this before? Here is a string of V-shaped troughs leading over a small butte to a point on the mountain side, tapping the little mountain stream above the steps, and conveying the water below to the engines. Several of these watering stations were noticed along the route.

Everybody that was thirsty drank water right out of Bat creek, smacking their lips and exclaiming; “Right off the Bat.” Here kodaks were busy too, and the more adventurous climbed the mountain sides and lingered in the shade of the pines, until whistled in for another pull at the grade.

This sure was a free and easy excursion. A party from Payette, headed by Judge Kenwood, consisting of about 12 people from 7 years up, got off in the canyon. The “Big Eddy” is the next stop. The Eddy is very docile at this time of the year, mostly sand bars. The surfacing crew is here. After a short stop we pulled on. Another tunnel. “Smith’s Ferry.” Two and one-half hours late. Train will leave 5:30. So with grub baskets there is a scurrying of feet, rounding up kids, and a rush made for the shade on both sides of the river for lunch, after which a scattering everywhere enjoying themselves among sighing pines, (some of them didn’t sigh — they were dead ones — others had to sigh on account of the cuddling of young males and females under their spreading boughs.) breathing in the fragrant air, — pineiferous odoriferous it is called. Neat place this Ferry — small hotel, tennis court, blacksmith shop, stage station and finest drinking water, but who wants to drink water on an excursion The foundation for the depot is laid and the station will soon be completed. Track is laid 5 miles above the Ferry.

The return trip was made without accident, arriving about 10 o’clock.
D. E. S.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 07 Aug. 1913. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

Transcribed by Gem County Historical Society and Museum
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Banks, Idaho

RailroadBanks2-a

RailroadBanks1-aRoundtable at Banks — other side of the Payette River.

Photos courtesy Robert D Austin Jr.
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Recalling UP’s Idyllic Idaho Northern

Posted by Kevin Keefe on Thursday, February 28, 2019

RailroadSmithsFerry-aLegendary photographer Dick Kindig produced a nearly perfect winter photo when he captured Union Pacific 2-8-0 No. 284 bringing McCall–Nampa mixed train 386 down the road’s Idaho Northern Branch on December 31, 1947. R. H. Kindig

… my all-time favorite winter photograph, the one you see here, showing Union Pacific’s train 386, a mixed train heading south along UP’s idyllic Idaho Northern branch. The great R. H. “Dick” Kindig got the shot near Smith’s Ferry, Idaho, on the last day of 1947. The photo was published in a Photo Section in January 1992 Trains, and authors Jeff Brouws and Wendy Burton used it again in Railroad Vision (Quantuck Lane Press, 2015), a book featuring significant images from the Trains collection.

Everything about this photograph is nearly perfect: the graceful arc of the track following the Payette River’s North Fork; the clouds of smoke and steam pouring from stout 2-8-0 No. 284; the classic mix of freight and passenger cars, with a baggage-RPO on the end; and all those beautiful snow-dappled conifers. It resembles one of those rather precious photo freights we see so often today — except this is a real common-carrier train, just doing its job.

The Idaho Northern branch has a fascinating history. The line originated in 1900 as the Idaho Northern Railway, eventually stretching for 130 miles north from Nampa through the southwest corner of the state until it reached McCall, at the northern end of the Long Valley. By 1912 the railroad had been absorbed by the Oregon Short Line (OSL). The OSL was already a subsidiary of Union Pacific and was fully merged into UP in 1987.

South of Cascade was the most rugged part of the branch, along the Payette River, where the tracks contended with endless curves and a steady grade of 1.75 percent, with some portions at 3 percent. Helper engines were stationed at Banks. This is the section that includes Smith’s Ferry. After 1941, all the UP locomotives in this territory were converted from coal to oil, out of concern for forest fires.

1947UP6043Kindig-aOn the same day he shot mixed 386 near Smith’s Ferry, Kindig caught Consolidation 6043 on northbound mixed 385 near Horseshoe Bend, Idaho. R. H. Kindig

I used the word “magical” above to describe the Idaho Northern branch, and it’s obvious to me that both Kindig and Griffiths made a similar assessment. Check out Kindig’s photo of the line’s mixed train, also taken December 31, 1947, showing 2-8-0 No. 6043 rolling near Horseshoe Bend with 10 cars. Or consider this entry from Griffiths, showing 2-8-0 No. 530 throwing a towering column of exhaust into the air at Banks in January 1949.

1949UP530Griffiths-aUP Consolidation 530 forges north with a short train 385 at Banks, Idaho, on January 27, 1949. H. R. Griffiths

excerpted from:
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c. 1910 Horseshoe Bend Depot

1910HorseshoeBendDepot-a

source: Railroad Stations in Idaho
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Railroads vs. Appendicitis

The Emmett Index. January 09, 1919, Page 4

Have Railroads anything to do with appendicitis? Does the approach of a railroad train bring the dread affliction? Do the two travel together? Those questions are questions that should be studied by medical societies and physicians generally. Dr. G. E. Noggle who has returned to Caldwell to practice medicine after an absence of 15 years, says prior to the coming of the railroad a case of appendicitis was never known in Long Valley; and that hardly had the railroad reached Smith’s Ferry than a case developed. Dr. Noggle practiced medicine in the Long Valley country for 10 years before the railroad arrived and he ought to know. Dr. Noggle does not attribute appendicitis to the railroads. He does not claim that there is any relationship between the two. He cites the facts as curiosities only.

– Caldwell Tribune

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 09 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Smiths Ferry

On the Idaho Northern Branch line at Smiths Ferry is an old box car that had been turned into a bunk house for railroad employees and a section house. This is all located next [to] the tracks near the wye track.

At one time at mile post 88.5, just past the Rainbow Bridge there was a cabin for section crews made out of old bridge timbers and half of a railroad car body. Railroad maintenance crews referred to this location as “eighty-eight and a half.” Until the early 1960’s, a worker often stayed in this cabin in the winter because the line through the steep canyon areas had to be walked every morning to make sure a snow slide hadn’t blacked the track. The standard walk for the man stationed at 88.5 was to Cabarton and back (just over 4 miles each way). Another man walked between Smiths Ferry and 88.5 cabin. It was mandatory for each walker to complete their route and call in their report before 7am. Being winter, this was long before daylight. if even one all-clear report was not called in , no trains could run and the whole line would be in chaos.” – Eriks Garsvo

[h/t SMc]
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Further Reading:

Oregon Short Line Railroad
History at Wikipedia link:
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Idaho Northern and Pacific Railroad
History at Wikipedia link:
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Back to History Page

Idaho History June 27, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 63

Idaho Newspaper clippings November 13-17, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 13

Jerome County Times., November 13, 1919, Page 1

19191113JCT1

19191113JCT2People Should Safeguard Themselves Against “Flu”

The frequency with which communications are being sent the Department of Public Welfare for information relative to influenza denotes conclusively the citizens of Idaho are wide awake to the possibility of the return of “Flu” in epidemic form.

Each day brings forth the following questions:

1. Has the “Flu” made its appearance in Idaho?

2. Will we have a return of last year’s epidemic of Flu?

Question 1 may be answered by the statement that isolated cases of influenza have occurred throughout the state, a total of nine cases having been reported from four counties but there is no evidence of its return in epidemic form.

Question No. 2 is far more difficult to answer. Not even a seer could foretell how you and your neighbor consider a “cold.” Flu begins as a “cold.” Infection is spread broadcast hours before the patient feels ill enough to call a physician.

A study of the sequence of events in a typical outbreak of influenza, supposing that each case infects only three others, will prove highly instructive and will shed light on the subject. At this rate 729 persons would be infected at the end of thirteen days.

source: Jerome County Times. (Jerome, Idaho), 13 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Filer Record., November 13, 1919, Page 1

19191113FR1

19191113FR2
Must Avoid Recurrence of Influenza Epidemic

E. E. Laubaugh, M.D., Chief Bureau of Public Health Service, Department of Public Welfare, Boise, says:

If we are not to have “Flu” you must observe the following:

1. Consider all colds as “Flu colds.”

2. Complete isolation of patients with “Flu colds.”

3. Keep away from those with colds.

4. Make the fellow who insists he just has a “Slight cold” cough into his handkerchief.

5. Wash your hands frequently and don’t put them to your lips or mouth.

6. Gargles have little or no merit and wash the protective secretions from the throat.

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 13 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Filer Record., November 13, 1919, Page 11

19191113FR3

(ibid, page 11)
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Priest River, Idaho ca. 1915

PriestRiver1915Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 14

The Rathdrum Tribune., November 14, 1919, Page 1

19191114RT1

19191114RT2Endless Chain Not Mystical
Doctor Fighting Influenza Explains How Curative Serum Went From Patient to Patient

The prevalence of influenza and pneumonia with their high death rate makes it imperative to resort to heroic methods of treatment rather than to follow the accepted ones only. The lack of serum or other specific remedy for influenza, writes Dr. Charles R. Humbert in the Medical Record, together with the inability to obtain antipneumococcus serum forced me to use convalescent serum.

The Endless Chain

[?] a well known fact that persons convalescing from pneumonia have anti-bodies in their blood streams. As soon as the patients’ condition permits, therefore, they are bled as much and as frequently as possible.

Serum is prepared and treated, and is placed in stock. When another patient comes in with pneumonia, treatment is begun. When convalescence set in the above procedure is repeated. It is a cause of one gives serum to two, two gives serum to three and so on, the procedure becoming endless.
— —

[Armistice Day]

Armistice day, Nov. 11 was observed to some extent thruout [sic] the state in conformity with Governor Davis’ proclamation declaring it “a holiday to be observed by the people in a spirit of thankfulness and joy and prayer.”

source: The Rathdrum Tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 14 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Rathdrum Tribune., November 14, 1919, Page 2

[Editorial Page]

The state health board is sending out advices that it is up to the citizens of the state to prevent an epidemic of influenza this winter, by taking proper care of the “slight colds”. All colds, we are told, should be considered “flu colds” until it is positively known they are not.

(ibid, page 2)
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Main Street, Pine, Idaho (1)

PineFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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The Caldwell Tribune. November 14, 1919, Page 9

19191114CT1

19191114CT219191114CT3Is Influenza To Run As An Epidemic Again This Winter
While Only Nine Cases Have Been Reported In Idaho, Dr. Lanbaugh [sic], In Analyzing Situation, Issues Warning

Boise – The frequency with which communications are being sent the Department of Public Welfare for information relative to influenza denotes conclusively the citizens of Idaho are wide awake to the possibility of the return of influenza in epidemic form.

Each day brings forth the following questions:

1. Has influenza made its appearance in Idaho?

2. Will we have a return of last year’s epidemic of influenza?

3. What steps should be taken to prevent a recurrence of last year’s epidemic?

4. What merit is there in the use of prophylactic vaccines against influenza?

Question No. 1 may be answered by the statement that isolated cases of influenza have occurred throughout the state, a total of nine cases having been reported from four counties, but there is no evidence of its return in epidemic form.

Question [2] is far more difficult. Not even a seer could foretell how you and your neighbor consider “a cold.” Influenza begins as “a cold.” Infection is spread broadcast before the patient feels ill enough to call for a physician.

A survey of the sequence of events in a typical outbreak of influenza, supposing that each case infects only three others, will prove highly instructive and will shed light on the subject.

1st day. 1. (Primary) case.

The original or primary case comes to town with a slight cold.

2nd and 3rd days. 3. (Secondary) cases.

The primary case begins to feel sick.

Secondary cases begin to have slight colds.

4th and 5th days. 9. (Tertiary) cases.

Primary case sends for physician.

Secondary cases begin to feel sick.

Tertiary cases begin to have slight colds.

6th and 7th days. 27. (Fourth Series).

Primary case goes to bed.

Secondary cases send for physician.

Tertiary cases begin to feel sick.

Fourth series of cases begin to have slight colds.

8th and 9th days. 81. (Fifth Series).

Primary case reported as pneumonia.

Secondary cases go to bed.

Tertiary cases send for a physician.

Fourth series of cases begin to feel sick.

Fifth series of cases begin to have slight colds.

10th and 11 days. 243. (Sixth Series).

Primary case dead.

Secondary cases begin to have pneumonia.

Tertiary cases go to bed.

Fourth series of cases send for a physician.

Fifth series of cases feel sick.

Sixth series of cases begin to have slight colds.

Health officer gets the first reports of a few of the worst cases. Rumors that everybody in town has a cold. Outbreak is really at its height.

12th and 13th days. 729. (Seventh Series).

Funeral of primary patient.

Secondary cases begin to die.

Tertiary cases begin to have pneumonia.

Fourth series of cases go to bed.

Fifth series of cases send for a physician.

Sixth series of cases feel sick.

Seventh series of cases begin to have slight colds.

Health officer gets a number of reports of cases.

Health officer, Red Cross, and other public health agencies begin to get busy. The number of new cases begin to diminish on account of the lack of susceptible persons.

Now let us repeat our question:

“Will we have an recurrence of last year’s epidemic?” The answer is to be found in your answer to the question: “How are you and your neighbors going to manage the ‘slight colds?'” Your physician arrives on one of the most communicable dis-[…] to assist and the health authorities come along with a whoop and a hurrah after the battle is lost. Their efforts are almost wholly confined to the saving as much as possible out of the wreck.

Mr. Citizen you hold the answer. Instead of asking the health authorities, “Shall we have influenza?” the health officers are asking you “Shall we have influenza?”

The third question has been largely answered in the discussion of the second. We know we are dealing with one of the most communicable diseases and it starts as “a cold.” Fortunately all “colds” are not “influenza colds,” but your physician or no one else can tell an “influenza cold” from an ordinary “cold,” therefore every cold, no matter how mild, must be considered an “influenza cold,” if we are not to have a recurrence of influenza.

After our experience of one year ago, it would be superfluous to discuss what we should do. The citizen with a “cold” has a plain duty, to immediately call his physician and completely isolate himself.

The fourth question is rather difficult of a general answer. Your physician will have to determine whether or not you should be given a vaccine. There still remains considerable doubt as to whether the causative agent of influenza has been discovered and it can readily be understood the utter futility of giving a vaccine if we don’t know what vaccine to give. Don’t misunderstand this statement. I am speaking of influenza and not the complication of influenza. There is a rational scientific basis for giving vaccines to prevent the serious complications of influenza, but this vaccine must be carefully selected, after a complete investigation of the causative agents producing these complications. They vary in different localities. Your physician will have these facts and act on them accordingly.

In conclusion, if we are not to have influenza you must observe the following:

1. Consider all colds as “influenza colds.”

2. Complete isolation of patients with “influenza colds.”

3. Keep away from those colds.

4. Make the fellow who insists he has just a “slight cold” cough into his handkerchief.

5. Wash your hands frequently and don’t put them to your lips or mouth.

6. Gargles have little or no merit and wash the protective secretions from the throat.

From E. E. Laubaugh, M.D., Chief, Bureau of Public Health Service, Department of Public Welfare, Boise, Idaho.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 14 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Placerville, Idaho

PlacervilleFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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The Daily Star-Mirror., November 14, 1919, Page 3

19191114DSM1

Addressed Modern Woodmen

A. G. Pate, a member of the board of audit of the Modern Woodmen of America, attended the regular meeting of the local camp last night and delivered an interesting address. The local camp is making a drive for new members and already has a strong membership. The Modern Woodmen have gone through the trying period of the war in good condition, having paid more than $5,000,000 death claims last December, mostly due to deaths from influenza and war losses. The order paid all death claims of soldiers killed in action, although its charter does not provide for this.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 14 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Pioneerville, Idaho July 3rd, 1917 (1)

PioneervilleJuly031917Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 17

Evening Capital News., November 17, 1919, Page 3

19191117ECN1

19191117ECN2

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 17 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., November 17, 1919, Page 4

19191117DSM1

19191117DSM2Racking Routine

Life with most of us becomes too much a matter of routine. Household duties, office work and other obligations often cause people to overlook their health. As a result – the run-down condition become serious before relief is sought.

Nyals Tonic Hypophosphites

Will build up your health promptly and give you a store of energy which will enable you to ward off serious cold-weather ailments such as Grippe, Tonsillitis and Influenza and the serious complications which usually follow.

This tonic will increase appetite, aid digestion, re-vitalize the nervous system and give your system a chance to store up vitality.

Price $1.00

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 17 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Further Reading

Hypophosphite

noun hy·​po·​phos·​phite
Medical Definition of hypophosphite
: a salt of hypophosphorous acid
especially : one (as the sodium salt) used as a source of assimilable phosphorus

source: Merriam-Webster
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Fellows’ Compound Syrup of Hypophosphites, Fellows Co., New York

Old Main Artifact Posted on June 26, 2014 by Jessica

Fellows’ Compound Syrup of Hypophosphites was widely marketed to physicians, not consumers, as a remedy for many illnesses. It was a commercial success, even though it contained strychnine, a potent poison, and likely made its customers sicker.

Fellows Compound Syrup of Hypophosphites was invented by James Fellows who worked with his father as drug merchants in St John, New Brunswick, Canada.

According to blogger Mary Fran Stotler, “James along with his father were listed as drug merchants in St John in 1850. He worked in his chemist’s shop at 56 Germain Street in St John. Together they established “Fellows & Company” producing household remedies such as Fellows’ Worm Lozenges, Fellows’ Speedy Relief, Fellows’ Dyspepsia Bitters, Fellows’ Golden Ointment, Fellows’ Leemings’ Essence and Fellows’ Balsam Liverwort & Colts Foot. It was here that James developed his formula for the well known, “Fellows Compound Syrup of Hypophosphites.” Patented and internationally recognized as an effective remedy, it is listed in many medical books of the period as “an excellent recuperative tonic”. An advertisement found in International Clinics Quarterly, Vol 3 dated 1905, Fellows Syrup was used “in the treatment of anemia, neurasthenia, bronchitis, influenza, pulmonary tuberculosis and wasting diseases of childhood, and during convalescence from exhausting diseases.” In the ad, there is a reference to the ingredient Strychnine, which is an exceptionally bitter tasting and extremely powerful poison. It acts on the central nervous system, causing powerful convulsions. It was used in some medications in the late 1800’s. In an article in the Canadian Illustrated News dated December 16, 1871 , it mentions that James himself had been a victim of “secondary stage”, pulmonary consumption and use of his own preparation had cured him. Following the death of his father, James moved to London, England where he lived with his family. From there, through a judicious system of advertising and an energetic method of doing business, he established a most flourishing and lucrative business in the sales of his Syrup of Hypophosphites. He returned to St. John on several occasions, renewing old acquaintances. But his failing health made him an invalid and he died in 1889. The St John Globe records him as a man of fine presence, affable and courteous and of a most friendly disposition. ”

This passage in Mary Fran Stotler’s blog also appears on a genealogy page but no direct sources are cited, other than the mentioned articles, and other records about James Fellows’ life seem to be unavailable.

Interestingly, the sentence from the above passage “Patented and internationally recognized as an effective remedy, it is listed in many medical books of the period as “an excellent recuperative tonic” is misleading. While it may have appeared in many medical books, this is by no means a guarantee of it being an “effective remedy”. Many dishonest purveyors of ineffective or harmful concoctions (aka nostrums) routinely published their own advertisements and favorable articles in medical journals to misinform doctors as well as patients.

According to James Harvey Young, author of The Medical Messiahs: A Social History of Health Quackery in Twentieth-Century America, “Being the chameleon-like creature that it is, quackery continued growing during the late 19th century by taking advantage of orthodox medicine’s promising prospects as well as its persisting weaknesses. For one thing nostrum makers began to simulate the methods by which medical and pharmaceutical science kept the profession informed of new developments, turning the doctors themselves into unwitting allies in the campaign to reach the public. Articles were planted in medical periodicals reporting exciting therapeutic advances. The names of the new remedies had a scientific lilt, and complex (if nonsensical) formulas were revealed. Reprints were mailed to doctors, who soon were visited by detailmen, talking as knowingly as did the agents of reputable pharmaceutical manufacturers. The truth was, however, that the first prescription which a doctor wrote for products like Fellows’ Syrup of Hypophosphites was apt to be the last. When the sufferer looked at the printing on the carton and the pamphlets packed within it, he found enough medical advice in vigorous, down-to-earth, and frightening prose to let him dispense with a doctor. As late as 1915 Fellows’ proprietary syrup was still being promoted exclusively to physicians, with not a cent spent on direct advertising to the consumer, but 90 per cent of its sales were over the counter without a prescription.”

continued:
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Before Vaccines, Doctors ‘Borrowed’ Antibodies from Recovered Patients to Save Lives

Dave Roos April 1, 2020 History.com

Doctors first tried injecting patients with blood plasma in the early 1900s. The method has been used against diphtheria, the 1918 flu pandemic, measles and Ebola.

In 1934, a doctor at a private boy’s school in Pennsylvania tried a unique method to stave off a potentially deadly measles outbreak. Dr. J. Roswell Gallagher extracted blood serum from a student who had recently recovered from a serious measles infection and began injecting the plasma into 62 other boys who were at high risk of catching the disease.

Only three students ended up contracting measles and all were mild cases.

The method, while relatively novel, was not new to science. In fact, the very first Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine was awarded in 1901 to Emil von Behring for his life-saving work developing a cure for diphtheria, a bacterial infection that was particularly fatal in children. His groundbreaking treatment, known as diphtheria antitoxin, worked by injecting sick patients with antibodies taken from animals who had recovered from the disease.

1890VonBehring-aNobel Prize winning German bacteriologist and physiologist Emil Adolf von Behring, right, uses a syringe to inject a guinea pig held by lab assistant, circa 1890. Stock Montage/Getty Images

How ‘Convalescent Plasma’ Treatment Works

Von Behring’s antitoxin wasn’t a vaccine, but the earliest example of a treatment method called “convalescent plasma” that’s being resurrected as a potential treatment for COVID-19. Convalescent plasma is blood plasma extracted from an animal or human patient who has “convalesced” or recovered from infection with a particular disease.

“Convalescent plasma has been used throughout history when confronting an infectious disease where you have people who recover and there’s no other therapy available,” says Warner Greene, director of the Center for HIV Cure Research at the Gladstone Institutes. “There must be something in their plasma—i.e. an antibody—that helped them recover.”

Convalescent plasma interacts differently with the immune system than a vaccine. When a person is treated with a vaccine, their immune system actively produces its own antibodies that will kill off any future encounters with the target pathogen. That’s called active immunity.

Convalescent plasma offers what’s called “passive immunity.” The body doesn’t create its own antibodies, but instead “borrows” them from another person or animal who has successfully fought off the disease. Unlike a vaccine, the protection doesn’t last a lifetime, but the borrowed antibodies can greatly reduce recovery times and even be the difference-maker between life and death.

“Convalescent plasma is the crudest of the immunotherapies, but it can be effective,” says Greene.

Plasma Treatments Cut Spanish Flu Fatalities in Half

After von Behring’s antitoxin was distributed worldwide to treat diphtheria in 1895, doctors experimented with the same passive immunity technique for curing measles, mumps, polio and influenza.

During the pandemic influenza outbreak of 1918 known as the “Spanish flu,” fatality rates were cut in half for patients who were treated with blood plasma compared to those who weren’t. The method seemed particularly effective when patients received the antibodies in the early days of their infection, before their own immune systems had a chance to overreact and damage vital organs. In the 1930s, doctors like Gallagher used convalescent plasma effectively against measles.

continued:
— — — — — — — — — —

The Spanish Flu Was Deadlier Than WWI

History Channel

In 1918 the Spanish Flu killed at least 50 million people around the world and was the second deadliest plague in history – after, well, the plague in the 1300s. But how exactly did a flu virus cause such massive death and destruction across the world?


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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)

Idaho History June 20, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 62

Idaho Newspaper clippings November 4-11, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 4

Evening Capital News., November 04, 1919, Page 7

19191104ECN1

In The Panhandle Of The State

Lewiston – The annual report of the officers of the Lewiston chapter of the American Red Cross shows that the membership of the chapter, comprising Nez Perce, Idaho and Lewis counties, is now 8,769. Lewis county has [1,796], Idaho county 2,794 and Nez Perce county 4,179. During the influenza epidemic of a year ago the chapter expended over $8,000 in relief work in the three counties. Several hospitals were maintained and trained nurses secured from coast points to aid the stricken communities. The grand total of articles manufactured by the women of the chapter, including garments, hospital supplies and surgical dressings is 128,429. The canteen department reports that 1,265 returning soldiers and sailors were served with lunches at the depot. The junior Red Cross has 86 auxiliaries and 2,664 members in the three counties.

Lewiston – Women and girls of high school age from all over Nez Perce county are to have the privilege of taking a home nursing course under the instruction of a specially trained Red Cross nurse employed by the Lewiston Red Cross chapter.

Wallace – A mass meeting was held here Wednesday night to discuss the daylight saving system. About 40 residents were present and voted in favor of adopting mountain time. this would mean that instead of turning the clock back next Sunday one hour Wallace time would not be changed and Wallace would have the same time as is used in Missoula. It would also change the departure and arrival of all O. W. R. A. & N. trains one hour later and the city would have the same time as the Northern Pacific. In other words, the time situation would be exactly reversed from what it is now. The opinion of the meeting was not unanimous and the resolution calling on the city council to go on record as favoring mountain time was made with the proviso that that time is adopted throughout the district.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 04 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. November 04, 1919, Page 5

19191104BFH1

Local Pick-ups

Miss Katherine Egan is convalescing from an attack of the Spanish influenza.

William (“Buddie”) Kinnear has been quite sick the past week with influenza but is now reported as improving.

Mrs. A. B. Ashby is critically ill at her home with Spanish influenza. Drs. Fry and Faucett today reported her conditions somewhat improved.

The schools of Independent School District No. 4 began today the serving of soup and hot lunches. This service is in charge of the domestic science department of which Miss Dorothy Spurling is in charge.
— —

News Notes From Leonia

The two little Fuller children have been taken from the Curley Creek school in Montana, to Leonia, Idaho, to complete the required number of children needed to keep the Leonia school going. Five of the six pupils in the Leonia school belong in Montana districts.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 04 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Market Day at Peck, Idaho ca. 1911

Peck1911Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 5

Evening Capital News., November 05, 1919, Page 8

19191105ECN1

Charities Body Joins City Welfare Plans
Miss Bray Named Superintendent at Annual Meeting – Red Cross to Be Asked for Appropriation for Social Service

Further co-operation in the city welfare work is assured by the action of the Associated Charities of Boise in its annual meeting Tuesday night, when Miss Elizabeth Bray, city welfare director, was chosen as superintendent of the organization. A resolution was also passed authorizing a committee to urge upon the executive board of the Red Cross an appropriation for public health and welfare work.

The meeting was held at the mayor’s office in the city hall, Charity work on the last year and plans for the year to come were discussed. Miss Bray told the members what she has learned in her investigations since assuming her office and made recommendations bearing on the employment of a regular social service worker.

Treasurer Charles M. Kahn reported total expenditures during the year of $4,931, and total receipts of $5,465. An additional fund raised by the Commercial and Rotary clubs brought in $2,600, of which $1,000 has been used. Disbursements were heavier than usual because of the influenza epidemic last winter. …

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 05 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Challis Messenger., November 05, 1919, Page 2

19191105CM1

19191105CM2

source: The Challis Messenger. (Challis, Idaho), 05 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Street Scene, Pierce, Idaho

PierceFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 6

Evening Capital News., November 06, 1919, Page 16

19191106ECN1

Monthly Review of County Agent Work in This State Given by University Extension Department

The extension department of the University of Idaho, headquarters in Boise, has issued a monthly review of the activity of county agent work in various counties in the state. …

Bannock

Livestock – The livestock co-operative shipment from two communities did not turn out so well as expected on account of the poor condition of stock and flood of Kansas City market. A loss of about $2 per head below local prices was sustained in this venture. State and federal veterinaries have been assisting in the control of the influenza among the horses, a number having died from the results of this disease, but it seems to be checked by the use of the serum and many are demanding the vaccination of their animals. …

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 06 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Filer Record., November 06, 1919, Page 11

19191106FR1

19191106FR2Surgeon General Blue On The “Flu”

19191106FR3“Flu” cost 500,000 lives in the United States. Will it come back this year? This question, being asked by thousands of scientists and millions of laymen throughout the world, is discussed by Surgeon General Blue of the Public Health Service in an official bulletin, in which it is said that the plague probably will reappear, but not in as severe a form as last winter.

“Probably, but by no means certainly, there will be a recurrence of the influenza epidemic this year,” said General Blue. “Indications are that should it occur it will not be as severe as the pandemic of the previous year. City officials, state and city boards of health, should be prepared in the event of a recurrence. The fact that a previous attack brings immunity in a certain percentage of cases should allay fear on the part of those afflicted in the previous epidemic.

“Influenza is spread by direct and and indirect contact. It is not yet certain that the germ has been isolated or discovered, and as a consequence there is yet no positive preventive, except the enforcement of rigid rules of sanitation and the avoidance of personal contact.[“]

General Blue says that evidence points strongly to infected eating and drinking utensils, especially in places where food and drink are sold to the public, as being one of the modes of transmission of this disease.

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 06 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., November 06, 1919, Page 3

19191106DSM1

19191106DSM2‘Flu’ Spread By Handshake
Dirtier the Atmosphere, the More Immune One is to Disease, Says Colonel Vaughn.

St. Louis, Mo. – There is no indication of an epidemic of influenza this winter, according to speakers at the convention of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States here.

One method of spreading the disease is by handshaking, it was said.

Col. Victor C. Vaughn [sic], in an address, declared the dirtier the atmosphere and the more bacteria one breathed, the more immune he would be to disease. This was proved, he said, by statistics complied during the war, which showed that the greatest death rate from disease was among men from rural districts.

“The city-reared man,” he asserted, “is accustomed to breathing filthy air, while the country-bred man is not, and consequently a foul atmosphere will affect the latter sooner than the former.”

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 06 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Nezperce Herald., November 06, 1919, Page 1

19191106NH1

Death of Leander Smith

Leander R. Smith, who came to the Mohler section from Omaha, Neb., some two weeks ago to visit his parents, Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Smith and his sister, Mrs. Harley Brannon, died on October 31 from the effects of an attack of influenza suffered by him a year ago

The funeral was conducted from the home of his parents at 11 a.m last Sunday by Rev. Geo. H. Ellis, and the remains were laid to rest in the Nezperce cemetery.

The deceased was born near Leslie, Iowa; 36 years ago, and besides his parents, leaves a brother and two sisters, all of whom were at his bedside except the brother, whose home is in Kansas City, Mo.

The bereaved family has the sympathy of the community in this sad experience which so untimely came to them.

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 06 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Plummer, Idaho ca. 1912

Plummer1912Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 7

Evening Capital News., November 07, 1919, Page 3

19191107ECN1

Tuberculosis And The Christmas Seal Sale

By M. S. Parker

In some of the states of the Union nearly one-fifth of the deaths caused by preventable diseases during the first six months of this year resulted from the dread disease tuberculosis, notwithstanding the epidemic of influenza that swept over this country during the early months. Idaho had its full portion of mortality from that cause. During the past few years hundreds of citizens of the Gem state have fallen victims of tuberculosis and the situation is worse now than ever before, being augmented by influenza.

And severe as was the epidemic, influenza caused but a little less than twice as many deaths the first half of this year in most sections of the United States as did the “great white plague.”

Officials everywhere are emphasizing this appalling fact in urging wholehearted support by the citizens of the annual Christmas Seal sale, the purpose of which, in the main, is to raise funds with which to fight tuberculosis, indeed a very humanitarian purpose, and there should be generous response to the appeal among the people in every walk of life.

Funds raised through the sale of millions of seals to be offered the public as health investment this fall will be used during the coming year, not only to fight tuberculosis, but other preventable diseases as well. Idaho’s allotment of the $6,500,000 fund to be raised throughout the nation in the campaign headed by the National Tuberculosis association is not large and I am sure the state will make a very gratifying showing.

It may be assumed that the general public does not fully realize the menace of tuberculosis because the disease is not surrounded by so many dramatic features as was the influenza epidemic which was given such very general publicity.

The people must be brought to realize that tuberculosis is not only one of the greatest enemies of the human race but that it can be prevented and can be cured, if treatment is not too long delayed.

The campaign against tuberculosis as well as other preventable diseases must be carried into every county in Idaho next year but only by generous purchase of Christmas Seals can it be done, at least in a manner that the situation demands. Citizens of Idaho, don’t fail to meet your share of the responsibility in this important matter.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 07 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Cottonwood Chronicle. November 07, 1919, Page 1

19191107CC1

Red Cross Wants 10,000
Membership of Idaho, Nez Perce and Lewis counties 8800

When the citizens of Idaho, Lewis and Nez Perce Counties give their dollars for membership in the Red Cross, it must not be forgotten that several thousands of these membership dollars will be spent in these three counties during 1920.

In the first place, the splendid Public Health program now being started by the Red Cross will soon be under way in the Lewiston Chapter. Two nurses have already been engaged and in addition to this public health work, the Chapter has employed a graduate nurse for each of the three counties to give instruction in Home Hygiene and Care of Sick. Every community in the chapter jurisdiction will have this wonderful opportunity to better public and individual health conditions, at no expense to those taking the courses. Your membership dollars help pay for this greatly needed work.

Another branch of Red Cross activity now being conducted by the Lewiston Chapter in behalf of returned service men of the three counties, is the Home Service Section.

Up to the present time the Home Service Section of the Lewiston chapter has attended to over 400 cases of soldiers and sailors in Lewis, Idaho and Nez Perce Counties, 88 of these men were disabled in some manner, and are receiving special attention Ten of them are tubercular; fourteen have received treatment in hospitals; many have received financial aid for their families. In all these cases the Lewiston Red Cross chapter has supplemented and aided the government in every possible way. A trained secretary is employed to give assistance in all cases of need. The secretary keeps in touch with all service men who have needed advice or aid, and with all families in similar need. This work is supported entirely by your Red Cross dollars, and will continue until the last man returns home from service, or from the hospitals.

The Red Cross Canteen

Although the numbers are dwindling gradually, eight, ten, twelve or more service men are returning each week, and are being met at the train by a uniformed Canteen worker. Until the last boy returns Lewiston Chapter will see that the returning men are cared for and all their needs satisfied, when they reach Lewiston to stay, or pass through to their homes in the three counties.

The Junior Red Cross is another of the branches of work that is being continued with greater emphasis than ever. There are almost 3,000 junior workers in the three counties.

These are some of the reasons why the people of our district have a special interest in seeing the 10,000 membership mark reached. We want to know that all the advantages of the American Red Cross may be available to our people now, as well as in time of great emergency, such as was experienced in the influenza epidemic of last year.

Idaho, Nez Perce and Lewis Counties have 8800 members of the American Red Cross.

Make it 10,000. All you need is a heart and a dollar.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 07 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Residence Section of Potlatch, Idaho ca. 1911

Potlatch1911Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 8

Evening Capital News., November 08, 1919, Page 8

19191108ECN1

Don’t Disregard A Cold

The influenza and pneumonia that swept the country a year ago were proceeded [sic] by an epidemic of colds. Foley’s Honey and Tar will check a cold if taken in time, and will also stop a cough of long standing. It promptly gives relief, soothes and heals. Mrs. Geneva, Robinson, 88 N. Swan St., Albany, N. Y., writes: “Foley’s Honey and Tar is the best cough medicine I ever used. Two bottles broke a most stubborn lingering cough.” It loosens phlegm and mucous, clears air passages, eases hoarseness, stops tickling throat.

– Adv.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 08 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Preston, Idaho, January 1913

Preston1913Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 10

Evening Capital News., November 10, 1919, Page 3

19191110ECN1

Gooding College Campaign
One Hundred Fifty Thousand Dollars For Men’s Dormitory
Starts Today — Let’s Go

19191110ECN2The Intermountain Empire

Gooding College is located on the main line of the Oregon Short Line, just half way between Granger and La Grande. It is the only Methodist college between Denver and the coast and has only one other school, offering full academic and collegiate work, within a distance of 250 miles. It assists worthy young men and women with work and furnishes scholarships to returned soldiers. It had an increase of four hundred per cent in enrollment last year and never lost a day on account of the influenza. It is better than ever this year with night classes for adults, a Rural Life School, a Summer Session and an Epworth League Institute.

Study the map and ask yourself, “How can I invest my money in any other place where it will do as much for humanity and the Kingdom of God as it will in this popular school of the Inter-Mountain people?”

For further particular address Charles Wesley Tenney, President, Gooding, Idaho

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 10 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street Looking North, Pocatello, Idaho ca. 1914

Pocatello1914Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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November 11

Bonners Ferry Herald. November 11, 1919, Page 1

19191111BFH1

19191111BFH2
Mrs. A. B. Ashby Passes Away
Died Thursday After An Illness Of Eleven Days With Influenza And Meningitis
Funeral Sunday Afternoon
Was Prominent and Respected Matron of This District

Mrs. Maggie Ashby died last Thursday evening at her home in the south part of town, death being due to an attack of meningitis resultant from Spanish influenza which was contracted October 26th.

The funeral services were held at the Ashby home Sunday afternoon at 1:30 o’clock and were conducted by Rev. G. H. Wilbur, pastor of the Union church, who spoke words of cheer and comfort to the mourning family and relatives of the deceased and gave a brief obituary. Several hymns were sung by a choir composted of Mrs. G. H. Wilbur, Mrs. F. A. Shultis, Mrs. Belle Bishop, Miss Mildred Jarvis, J. W. Stewart and W. F. Kinnear.

The funeral was attended by a host of the friends of the deceased and her family and the most beautiful floral tributes were banked on and about her coffin, expressive of the great respect and love felt for her by all her acquaintances. Interment was had in the Bonners Ferry cemetery.

The deceased is survived by her husband, A. B. Ashby, station agent of the Great Northern Railway Co., four children, Lester, aged 16, Gladys, aged 14, Geraldine, aged 10 and Shirley, aged 6 years; her father and mother, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Harvey, of Marshalltown, Iowa; two brothers, George Harvey, of Marshalltown, Iowa, and Calvin Harvey, of Bonier, Iowa, and Calvin Harvey, of Bonier, Iowa; four sisters, Mrs. Ida Shumway, of Newport, Wash., Mrs. Emma Welcho, of Iowa Falls, Iowa, Mrs. Maude Ashby, of Seattle, Wash., and Mrs. Mabel Ritchie of Hillyard, Wash. Mrs. and Mrs. Walter Shumway, of Newport, Wn., Mrs. Robert Ritchie and Mrs. S. W,. Ashby were here to attend the funeral and Mrs. S. W. Ashby will remain for a time to help take care of the Ashby home.

The pallbearers were Tom Nicholson, J. T. Bush, L. N. Brown, S. W. Biggar, J. B. Brody and Ray Homesley.

The deceased was 42 years of age and was born at Marshalltown, Iowa, on April 16, 1877. She became the bride of A. B. Ashby at Iowa Falls, Iowa on October 7, 1901. The couple came west in 1906 and have made Bonners Ferry their home since 1908.

The deceased was a loving and faithful wife and mother. Her first thoughts were always for her home and her family and she was a true helpmate to her husband in his efforts to make a comfortable home for his children. The deceased had a charming personality and made friends readily and was always anxious to extend a helping hand to anyone in trouble. She was a faithful member of the Union church Ladies’ Aid society and whenever her home duties permitted, took an active part in all social events and matters pertaining to the public welfare.

In the death of Mrs. Ashby this district has lost one of its most beloved and respected matrons. The entire community is united in mourning her death and in extending condolences to the bereaved relatives.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 11 Nov. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Further Reading

Victor C. Vaughan

Wikipedia

Victor Clarence Vaughan (October 27, 1851 – November 21, 1929) was an American physician, medical researcher, educator, and academic administrator. From 1891 to 1921 he was the dean of the University of Michigan Medical School, which rose to national prominence under his leadership.

He also served as president of both the American Medical Association and the Association of American Physicians, founded multiple medical journals, and was a leader in standardizing state medical licensing exams throughout the country. Serving with the U.S. Army during the Spanish–American War and World War I, he was instrumental in helping the military cope with the threats of typhoid fever and influenza. …

World War I

Even with his distaste for war, Vaughan termed the delay in the United States joining World War I a “national disgrace”. He and all five of his sons were commissioned in 1917. The Council of National Defense created the General Medical Board on April 2, 1917, and Vaughan was appointed to its executive committee along with Gorgas (by then the Surgeon General of the Army), three other officers, and five doctors: Surgeon General William C. Braisted, Surgeon General Rupert Blue, Admiral Cary T. Grayson, Franklin Martin, F. F. Simpson, William J. Mayo, Charles H. Mayo, and William H. Welch.

Gorgas had successfully lobbied Congress to remove a prohibition on reserve medical officers being promoted above major, and Vaughan was soon promoted to colonel and put in charge of the communicable diseases division. Disease was a major problem with the early mobilization effort; measles was the leading cause of mortality in the army during 1917, and from September 1917 to March 1918 the death rate for pneumonia at the most populous army camps was twelve times that of the general population. Vaughan, Gorgas, and William H. Welch toured camps, finding overcrowding and poor facilities, and the publicity surrounding Gorgas’s reports led Congress to hold hearings that led to increased medical staffing and some improvements in conditions. But the largest challenge the military faced was influenza.

The outbreak of influenza, first at Camp Kearny in December 1917, and then at Camp Funston in March and April, became a major issue when thousands of troops became ill at Camp Devens in September, with nearly 750 dying. Vaughan and Welch were dispatched there to investigate. Vaughan observed that this strain of influenza, rather than attacking the very young and very old, was killing men in prime physical condition, leading him to warn, “If the epidemic continues its mathematical rate of acceleration, civilization could easily disappear from the face of the earth.” By the time the epidemic ran its course, over a million troops were afflicted with influenza, and 30,000 of them died; 675,000 people died in the United States as a whole.

excerpted from: Wikipedia
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Hill’s Cascara Quinine Cold Tablets

HillsCascaraQuinineColdTablets-aphoto source: The Smithsonian National Museum of American History

Whitehall Pharmacal Company

Patent Medicines; Drugs; Non-Liquid

The indications or uses for this product as provided by the manufacturer are: Recommended for the relief of the following discomforts usually associated with colds: nasal stuffiness and discharge, headache, muscular aches and pains, neuralgia and neuritic pains, constipation, and that hot, flushed feeling.

Physical Description
acetophenetidin, 2 grs. per tablet (drug active ingredients)
cascara sagrada (drug active ingredients)
quinine sulfate (drug active ingredients)
aloin (drug active ingredients)
aspirin (drug active ingredients)
ephedrine sulfate (drug active ingredients)

source: The Smithsonian National Museum of American History
— —

Cascara Sagrada

Rhamnus purshiana. Family: Rhamnaceae

Cascara sagrada was first used by the American Indians. It means “sacred bark.” It’s made from the bark of a tree found in the northwestern U.S.

The bark contains anthraquinone glycosides. This acts as a cathartic or laxative. Cascara may help relieve constipation. But in 2002, the FDA marked laxatives that contain cascara sagrada as category II agents. This means they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for over-the-counter use. Manufacturers had not done the studies to show the safety of cascara sagrada.

excerpted from: University of Rochester Medical Center Health Encyclopedia
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Foley’s Honey and Tar Compound

FoleysHoneyandTarCompound-aFoley’s Honey and Tar Compound bottle, ca. 1895, St. Albans
Contributed by St. Albans Historical Society

Foley’s popular “cough syrup” retailed during the late 1800’s until the mid-1960’s. It was made in Chicago, Illinois and boasted that it was “sold everywhere. “ O. W. Bigelow sold it in his store in St. Albans in the late 1800’s. During the 1918 influenza epidemic newspaper ads touted the mixture as the answer to those suffering from the flu. In the early days the syrup of 7% alcohol, along with other ingredients, was given to infants with a dose being five to ten drops.

source: Maine Memory Network
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Foley & Co., Chicago, IL

Posted on December 3, 2014 by Jessica

Foley & Co. of Chicago made a range of medicinal products starting in the 1870s, the most well known of which was Foley’s Honey and Tar Compound.

According to the Pocono Record,

“The use of Foley’s cough syrup was long-lived — it was retailed during the late 1800s until the mid-1960s. In the early days, Foley’s concoction was 7 percent alcohol mixed with a special solution of pine tar and honey, terpin hydrate, sodium benzyl succinate and gum arabic. The recommended dosage for adults was one teaspoon; for children, a half teaspoon; for infants, five to 10 drops, according to the directions on the label of another undated bottle. Foley’s mixture cleared the throat of phlegm and mucus, stopped the tickling, opened the air passages for easier breathing and coated inflamed surfaces with a soothing medicine, according to an advertisement published in The Evening Independent of St. Petersburg, Fla., in 1919.

Another ad in the Evening Independent boasted that Foley’s Honey and Tar was “sold everywhere,” which may be true since ads for the product can be easily found in old newspapers throughout the country. Even the Stroudsburg Daily Times carried an ad in 1889, promoting the “wonderful value” of the compound. Although newspaper ads for Foley’s Honey and Tar were common, the number grew during the flu epidemic of 1918, touting the mixture as the answer to those who were suffering.”

There isn’t much written history about the founder of Foley & Co or the inventor of Foley’s Honey and Tar but records do show that two men, John B. Foley and Harry B. Foley, were associated with the business. …

Around the turn of the century, there was a great deal of negative press surrounding patent medicines, which brought about passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. In an attempt to dispel some of that negative association, Harry B. Foley wrote an article for Western Druggist, a trade magazine widely read by pharmacists and drug store merchants. Foley tries persuade retail druggists that patent medicines are a great deal for them commercially, as well as protecting them from any unhappy customers.

“A store that makes a specialty of selling no-secrets [non patent medicines] soon loses the confidence of the people and they will trade with the druggist who pushes advertised proprietary medicines, and if they are not satisfied, they do not hold the druggist responsible.”

excepted from: Artifacts from the Old Main building of Illinois State University
————–

The Great Influenza Outbreak of 1918

It was an unusual pandemic in the United States involving the H1N1 virus which infected 500 million globally resulting in the loss of 50 to 100 million.

[This has interesting oral history from elders that were alive during the pandemic.]


——————

Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)

Idaho History June 13, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 61

Idaho Newspaper clippings October 20-31, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 20

Evening Capital News., October 20, 1919, Page 2

19191020ECN1

Viscount Astor Is Dead At Son’s Home

London, Oct. 20. – The body of Viscount Astor, who died of heart disease Saturday was laying today in the home of his son, Waldorf Astor, in St. James Square.

Although the Viscount had been in ill health since an attack of influenza last year, his death was unexpected, it was said. He walked about the grounds as usual Friday. He died in bed Saturday morning.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 20 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main St. Looking West, Oakley, Idaho ca. 1914 (1)

Oakley1914Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 21

The Daily Star-Mirror., October 21, 1919, Page 1

19191021DSM1

19191021DSM2
Prepare Against Return Of The Flu
Athletic Director of University of Idaho Issues Some Good Rules

“In time of peace prepare for war” is the belief of W. C. Bleamaster, athletic director, and others in charge of the health of the great student body of the University of Idaho. There is no influenza here, nor near here, but they are preparing to combat or rather to prevent it again getting a foot hold in the big school. Athletic Director Bleamaster has issued the following set of rules which people outside the university, as well as those inside, will do well to follow:

“Keeping Fit”

No doubt this winter will bring a recurrence of the Flu, and it will be well for the students and faculty to take every precaution in order to safeguard against this disease.

The study rooms, library and class rooms should be well ventilated. It should be the duty of the faculty member in charge of class rooms to see that this rule is followed. The temperature should not exceed 65 degrees F.

Keep your feed dry and warm.

Dress according to the outside weather and temperature.

Do not sit in class rooms in damp clothing or wet shoes.

Do not wear too heavy clothing indoors. Wearing sweaters indoors is one of the most common causes of “colds” among students.

Sleep with windows open.

High tight collars and neck bands induce congestion and sore throat.

Be regular in your habits; eat slowly; masticate thoroughly; avoid an excess of protein diet; do not eat between meals; avoid an excess of candy.

Do not eat cold lunches during the winter months; get warm food at noon hour, if only a plate of soup.

Practically every cold is preceded by constipated bowels or torpid liver.

Drink plenty of water between meals and breath deeply of fresh air.

Lack of proper physical exercise and over eating create favorable conditions for colds.

Avoid draughts [sic] when fatigued.

Prevent sudden chilling of body after exercise.

Anxiety, worry, dissipation, or excess of any kind lowers the vitality and decreases the resistive power.

All “colds” are more or less contagious.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 21 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., October 21, 1919, Page 3

City News

Mr. and Mrs. G. R. Beckman and Mrs. Roy Holman and son, Royal, returned last evening from a motoring trip to Spokane. Mrs. Holman visited with Mrs. J. Crerar, who with her daughters are living in Spokane since the death of Mr. Crerar last winter in Montana of influenza. Mr. and Mrs. Crerar were former residents of Moscow.

(ibid, page 3)
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Orofino, Idaho

OrofinoFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 23

Evening Capital News., October 23, 1919, Page 1

19191023ECN1

Legislature Will Lose 13 Members; New Basis Needed
Light Vote at Last Election Works Against Several Counties in Computation House Membership

Reapportionment of the basis of representation in the legislature is being discussed as a probably consideration of a special session of the legislature should Governor Davis call a session for ratification of the national woman suffrage amendment.

Thirteen counties will lose a representative in the house of representatives of the next state legislature as the result of the light vote cast at the last election and failure of the last legislature to make a reapportionment. The representation is based upon the total vote cast for candidates for governor. For each 2,500 or fraction exceeding 1,000 votes a county is allowed one member of the house.

Vote Very Light

Because of the influenza epidemic the vote was extremely light last election and every county that had more than one representative on the basis of the former election will have one …

(Continued on Page Two)

less in the next legislature than at the last session, with the exception of Twin Falls county, which mustered enough votes to maintain its representation of three members.

This will result in a membership of 54 in the next house. The membership of the house at the last session was 64. Three new counties were created, each of which will have a representative. One senator is allowed each county, making a membership in the next senate of 44.

Not Affect Extra Session

Should the special session be called the same members and officials would serve as served last winter.

Counties which will lose a representative unless a new apportionment basis is made and the membership each will have in the house are as follows: Ada, 4; Bannock, 2; Bingham, 1; Bonner, 1; Bonneville, 1; Canyon, 2; Fremont, 1; Idaho, 1; Kootenai, 2; Latah, 2; Nez Perce, 1; Shoshone, 2; Washington, 1. The other counties excepting Twin Falls with 3, and including the new ones – Caribou, Clark and Jerome – will each have one representative.

Failed Reapportion

A bill was introduced in the house and passed at the last session making the basis each 1,500 votes and fraction over 800 to the representative which would have left the membership the same for each of the counties affected by the light vote at the last election, but the measure failed to pass the senate.

It is recognized by all the state officials that should the special session be called the matters to come before it must be narrowed to the smallest possible limit – not more than one item if possible. The members will be asked to come at their own expense. The principal purpose would be to ratify the national woman suffrage amendment. It would take a two-thirds vote to do this.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 23 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Wallace Miner. October 23, 1919, Page 1

19191023WM1

19191023WM2Precautions Against Flu

Dr. J. R. Bean, county health officer, speaking for himself and the health officers of Wallace and Kellogg, spoke upon the probable recurrence of influenza and the necessity of taking precautions now to prevent it. He read the suggestions prepared by the health officers covering prevention and treatment of the malady and strongly urged all members of the board of trade to cooperate with the health authorities in their efforts to avoid another flu epidemic. Dr. Bean also stated that the physicians of the county were agreed that vaccination to prevent flu was desirable; that while it did not always prevent contracting the disease it rendered it less virulent, and statistics show that few cases result fatally after vaccination. Physicians of the county are now supplied with the serum. Those who feel unable to pay the expense will be served free by the city and county health officers.

source: The Wallace Miner. (Wallace, Idaho), 23 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Wallace Miner. October 23, 1919, Page 2

[Editorial Page]

Might As Well Die

(Cincinnati Enquirer)

Reading what to do and what not to do in order to escape the influenza and other troubles tends to produce a mental condition of hopeless perplexity. It isn’t much use trying to live any more. What with the biologists the bacteriologists, the chemists, the prohibitionists and the rest of the alleged scientific outfit making their never-ending investigations, we’re hard put to it to know which way and how to dodge our multiplying enemies.

We’ve listened to and heeded the slogans of “swat the fly” and “bust the mosquito”‘ we’ve cut out all the best foods, and have been coerced into cutting out all the best drinks; we’ve learned to drink our water boiled and filtered, and we avoid close physical contact with even our best friends for fear of acquiring influenza or other pestilential microbes.

Now comes a doctor person who insists that even our freshly laundered handkerchiefs are alive, swarming with microbes which are eager and willing to infest us to our lasting injury.

Well, if we have reached the point where we can neither eat nor drink, nor wear our clothing without danger, and must in addition blow our proboscides or sneeze into a piece of absorbent cotton, as the doctor insists we must do, we might as well die.

Use absorbent cotton for such purpose? Perish the thought! Welcome, ye microbes! We’ll never adopt any such unaesthetic common, low-down habit as that. Who’d want to wave a bunch of absorbent cotton at his sweetheart or his wife? Why, the very mashers would refuse to flirt with such an unpoetic substitute for the ancient and sentimental handkerchief.

(ibid, page 2)
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The Filer Record., October 23, 1919, Page 11

19191023FR1

Boschees’ Syrup

In these days of unsettled weather look out for colds. Take every precaution against the dreaded influenza and at the first sneeze remember that Boschees’ Syrup has been used for fifty-three years in all parts of the United States for coughs, bronchitis and colds, throat irritation and especially for lung troubles, giving the patient a good night’s rest, free from coughing, with easy expectoration in the morning. Made in America and kept as a household panacea in the homes of thousands of families all over the civilized world. Try one bottle and accept no substitutes.

– Adv.

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 23 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., October 23, 1919, Page 1

19191023DSM1

Epidemic of Hiccoughs

San Francisco. – San Francisco newspapers have given space recently to a discussion among medical men here as to the cause of a local epidemic of hiccoughs.

Some physicians attributed it to the too emphatic “kick” in substitutes for liquor and others said the paroxysms were caused by an “attenuated influenza germ.”

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 23 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Oreana, Idaho

OreanaFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 24

Cottonwood Chronicle. October 24, 1919, Page 5

19191024CC1

Your Red Cross Calls Roll Armistice Week
Membership Rather Than Money Is Asked to Complete War Relief

19191024CC2Red Cross Chapters, branches and auxiliaries in the Northwestern Division, comprising Alaska, Idaho, Oregon and Washington, will participate in the Third Red Cross Roll Call November 2 to November 11, Armistice Day. The American Red Cross, the greatest relief organization in recorded history, the mobilized heart-action of the American people,” will engage in no more “drives” for huge sums for war relief, but will continue its annual roll-call, which is simply the occasion on which the American people express their belief in the ideals and work of the Red Cross by enrolling as members. “All you need is a heart and a dollar.”

For five reasons, say the leaders of the Red Cross, this Third Red Cross Roll Call should enroll every loyal and public spirited American citizen among the millions of members of the organization that served our boys at home and overseas, saved the morale of France and Italy in our early days in the war, relieved the millions of refugees, fed the starving babies of Europe, saved whole nations from extermination, stood as next friend to those families in America whose dear ones were in the service, threw its tremendous resources into the fight against influenza, dealt with great national disasters of flood and fire, and now carries on to do its part to serve America and to make the war worth having been won.

These five reasons are:

1. The War Task of the Red Cross is Not Yet Fully Performed.

To men still in service, and to their families at home, to discharged soldiers not yet fully adjusted to the routine of civilian life, to 30,000 boys suffering or convalescing in Military or Naval hospitals, the American people still give cheer, comfort and service through their Red Cross.

In certain portions of the Old World the American Red Cross still feeds and clothes the undernourished and ragged babies, cares for the aged and the infirm, and assists the people of these disease-ridden, famine-stricken, war-ravaged countries to organize their own resources. Since the signing of the Armistice, this work has steadily declined but is not by any means fully completed.

2. The Rec Cross is the Disaster Relief Agent of the American People.

The speed and efficiency with which the Red Cross met emergency needs at Corpus Christi illustrated the value of nationwide Red Cross organization. In case of disaster, whether it be forest fire in the Northwest or a great Mississippi Valley flood, the first effective relief will hereafter come from nearby communities, working through their Red Cross Chapters.

3. In Case of Epidemic Local Red Cross Organization is Indispensable.

During the influenza epidemic, Red Cross action and co-operation saved three thousand lives, because the Red Cross was fully organized in every community in the United States. Against a possible recurrence of influenza this winter and against a danger of epidemic in the future, continued universal membership in the Red Cross is essential.

4. Red Cross peace program Calls For Universal Support and Co-operation.

The American Red Cross is still an emergency organization. It must be realized that there is such a thing as a continuing disaster. 300,000 babies under one year of age die every year because of ignorance; thousands of mothers die unnecessarily in child-birth; it is still possible for an epidemic like the influenza to take a toll within a compass of a few weeks five times greater than the losses of our nation in a year and a half of war; hundreds of thousands of people in the prime of life die in the United States every year from wholly preventable diseases. This is nothing short of a disaster which is a continuing one and will be permanent unless the people co-operate with one another to use the knowledge and wealth already in existence to bring the nation into a better day. The Red Cross through its millions of members comprising every element in every community, many of them themselves victims of the foes that cut short human life and rob it of its sweetness, can serve nation and community as can no other agency in supplementing, rein forcing, and supporting well-directed efforts for the conservation of the most precious things in the world, human life and happiness.

5. American Has Set the pace in a World Red Cross Movement

The League of Red Cross Societies of all nations has been formed through the inspiration of the Red Cross achievement of the United States. This League has no executive power whatever over the Red Cross of any nation, but will extend into every nation the benefits of a national, voluntary Red Cross society on the American model, to deal with problems of health and child welfare and to cope with the relief problems that are so pressing over so great a part of the earth’s surface. through these organizations many nations will meet their own problems which would otherwise be appealing to America for relief and assistance. The United States, whose people have shown the world how thus to rise out of despair into hope, must keep the Red Cross banner floating high. The success of failure of this great world movement of practical idealism will depend largely upon the manner in which the American people answer the Third Red Cross Roll Call.

19191024CC3The Red Cross Button is the most widely worn button in the world. Thirty million men and women and children in the United States now wear this emblem of countless good deeds accomplished. For the third year in America comes universal opportunity to wear it.

There are many instances of how this button, bearing upon a white background a tiny cross, has been worn and treasured. One morning in a distant northwest county, a man whose ruddy, optimistic countenance was clothed with ruddy beard, asked the Red Cross chairman if he had another button like the one he wore. The chairman gave him his own. “I have twelve children,” explained the man. “I gave my button to the twelfth, a new arrival, this morning. When I have anything good the whole family must come in on it.”
— —

19191024CC4— —

Red Cross Girls Feed Thousands of Doughboys

Since the armistice, twenty-five canteens, operated by Red Cross Chapters in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington have dispensed 23,379 gallons of coffee, and 224,236 dozen sandwiches, to soldiers, sailors, and marines en route. The hospitality of these canteens was accepted nine hundred thousand times, often by men who would have gone hungry but for the Red Cross service thus rendered. Figures show that these men, though the courtesy of the Red Cross, drank 8,497 gallons of iced drinks; used 6,663 bars of soap, and 37,713 paper towels; ate 57,491 chocolate bars, 16,629 pounds of candy, 14,754 dozen cookies, 74,913 dozen doughnuts, 9,488 dozen hot rolls; wrote 436,400 post cards furnished and stamped by the Red Cross; and to their own discomfort during a certain period, wore 12,250 influenza masks. All this, to say nothing of 22,956 full meals.

During this time 1847 sick men were aided by the canteen, seventy-nine of them being removed from trains as too sick to travel, and receiving immediate hospital attention.

Canteen work is nearly over, but the Red Cross still has vitally important work to do. Every membership in the Third Red Cross Roll Call will be a vote of confidence in the American Red Cross.
— —

“It’s a Long Way to Tipperary,” but the Red Cross is there.
— —

19191024CC5

At the present time in the Northwestern Division alone – comprising Alaska, Idaho, Oregon and Washington – there are 750,868 Red Cross members. Alaska has 13,562; Idaho, 103,055; Oregon, 263,614; Washington, 390,637.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 24 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. October 24, 1919, Page 5

19191024CT1

19191024CT2

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 24 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Meridian Times., October 24, 1919, Page 3

19191024MT1

Inland Northwest

Influenza is showing a slight increase in Montana, according to reports received by Dr. John J. [?]ppy, state epidemiologist, nineteen new cases coming to the attention of his office during the past week, compared with ten the week previous.

The state board of pharmacy and the state board of health are to unite in a campaign against the drug evil in Montana.
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19191024MT219191024MT3Relief Ship Held Up By Arctic Ice
Attempt to Reach Mission in Northernmost Alaska Again Fails.
Reach Within 69 Miles
Dr. Marquis Brings Back Pitiful Tales of the Havoc Wrought by Influenza – Whole Villages Are Wiped Out

Newport. – Turned back by an impenetrable ice-field within 69 miles of his goal, Dr. John A. Marquis, general secretary of the board of home missions of the Presbyterian church of the United States, was forced to return to New York without reaching his destination at Point Barrow, Alaska, the northernmost mission in the world operated by the Presbyterian church.

Dr. Marquis left New York June 23 and sailed from Seattle July 7 to Nome, where he boarded the United States coast guard service steamer Bear, to reach Point Barrow, but for the second time within two years this doughty little craft with its hardy crew was unable to buck the terrific ice jam of the arctic. For eight days the sturdy boat battled, but finally on August 15 it was forced to turn back. The supplies for Point Barrow were unloaded at Point Hope, 350 miles south of that town. From here it is expected that sledges will be able to carry some of them to the needy people at Point Barrow.

“Last year,” says Dr. Marquis, “the Bear was able to get within 25 miles of Point Barrow, but the steady winds this year had forced the ice masses down farther south than they had been for years.

Ice at Latitude 70 1/2

“Massive fields of ice were reached when we were at latitude 70 1/2 degrees, Captain P. H. Uberroth, U. S. N., in charge of the Bear, declared the ice was the worst known since 1826.”

Dr. Marquis went to Alaska to see about the appeal from the people there for the erection of a hospital at Point Barrow and also to study the opportunities for Presbyterian mission and school work generally in Alaska, particularly since the influenza epidemic last year wrought such havoc. He returns with interesting stories of the work and with pitiful tales of the terrible havoc wrought by the “flu,” which in sections wiped out whole villages.

On leaving Seattle July 7, Dr. Marquis took passage to the Aleutian islands and thence to Nome. At Nome passage was taken on the Bear and for six weeks Dr. Marquis was on this government vessel. From Nome Dr. Marquis went to St. Lawrence Islands and thence to Siberia. Leaving Siberia, the next stop was at the Diamede islands, and then to Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point of the American continent, about four hours west of Seattle.

Upon this trip the vessel’s coal supply ran low and the Bear had to put back from Cape Prince of Wales to Nome for recoaling. Leaving Nome the vessel began its journey to Point Barrow. Kotzebue sound was entered and stop was made at the village, where the Society of Friends had excellent missions, and then the Bear went north to Kivalina, where no mission fields are established, but which a few missionaries visit at intervals. From this point Dr. Marquis went to Point Hope, which until recently was one of the most famous whaling stations in the arctic regions. From there the great but futile attempt northward was made toward Point Barrow.

Dr. Marquis on his return trip gave special study to the conditions as left by the influenza epidemic. As a result he bring back with him pitiful stories of the terrible ravages wrought by the epidemic among the Eskimos.

Whole Villages Wiped Out

In Nome alone, says Dr. Marquis, over 50 per cent of the Eskimo population was wiped out almost overnight, and in other sections of the country whole villages of igloos were swept away. In one town of 300 only thirteen adults were left alive, and small villages of twenty igloos or so with all inhabitants frozen stiff. In one case one little girl and a baby were found alive in a village. This child had kept herself from freezing to death by remaining wrapped up in bed with the baby beside her. The condensed milk which sustained her life she also took to bed with her. There had been no fire in the villages for days and the temperature was 50 [?[ degrees below zero.

According to Dr. Marquis, the Eskimos showed practically no resistance to influenza and went down almost without a fight. Among the foreigners the mortality was about the same as in similar communities in the United States.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 24 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Street Scene, Parma, Idaho ca. 1914 (1)

Parma1914Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 28

Evening Capital News., October 28, 1919, Page 8

19191028ECN1

Chest Colds, Coughs and Sore Throat Go Over Night
Begy’s Mustarine Is Better Than Liniments, Plasters, Poultices or Hot Water Bottles – Does the Work in Half the Time

19191028ECN2Remember the terrible Influenza Epidemic last year.

The demand for Begy’s Mustarine was so enormous, that stocks in retail stores and wholesale warehouses disappeared with amazing speed.

Get a box now – or two boxes, you can’t tell what will happen.

But just as soon as your throat gets sore or you feel that tightening in the chest, Rub on Begy’s Mustarine, for nothing on this earth will subdue inflammation, and prevent congestion, quicker than this great and first improvement on the old fashioned Mustard plaster.

It’s the quickest pain killer known, so be sure when you even suspect pleurisy, bronchitis or tonsillitis, to use it freely.

It won’t blister not even the tenderest skin – it can not blister.

But it’s hot stuff, and contains more concentrated non-blistering heat, than any other counter-irritant in existence.

That’s why it goes right after pains and aches, soreness and swellings, no matter where located and ends all the misery and distress so quickly, that sufferers are joyfully astonished.

Use Begy’s Mustarine always in the yellow box, to ease the pain of rheumatism and gout.

Just rub it on for a lame muscle, sore feet, stiff neck, cramps in the leg, sprains and strains.

Get out the box promptly when you have neuralgia, neuritis, lumbago, backache, headache, earache, toothache, or any ache anywhere.

Be sure it’s Begy’s Mustarine – made of real yellow mustard and other pain-destroying ingredients. Druggists announce return of money if it doesn’t do as advertised. One box equals 50 blistering Mustard plasters.

S. C. Wells & Co., LeRoy, N. Y.

[Adv]

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 28 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. October 28, 1919, Page 1

19191028BFH1

May Organize Chapter Here
Red Cross Meeting To Be Held Thursday Evening At The K. P. Hall
Red Cross Workers Interested
Big Membership Drive Scheduled for Week of November 2 to 11

Is the Bonners Ferry auxiliary of the American Red Cross to be disbanded and are the people of Boundary county to no longer participate in Red Cross work except what may be done by the home service branch or shall an independent chapter be organized in this county in which every citizen shall have a membership and a voice in its management?

These questions will be answered once for all at a meeting to be held at the K. P. hall on Thursday night of this week at eight o’clock when Mrs. Burns, of Seattle, Wash., will be present to give a short address and to assist in any organization plans. Mrs. Burns is an excellent speaker and she will tell the people of this county who attend the meeting of the future plans of the American Red Cross organization.

The officers of the Bonners Ferry auxiliary and prominent Red Cross workers are all anxious to see an independent chapter organized in this county but no attempt will be made in this line unless there is assurance that a large majority of citizens will take an active part in the work of the chapter. It is therefore hoped that a large crowd of people interested in Red Cross work will be out Thursday night. A program will be rendered in addition to the speaking and the business session.

Officers of the Red Cross auxiliary have been advised that if a chapter is organized here that all monies that have been paid by the Bonners Ferry auxiliary to the Sandpoint chapter in the way of membership fees will be returned here.

The third annual Red Cross Roll Call drive will be made in this country the week of November 2 to 11 under the direction of Mrs. L. N. Brown, who has been named chairman of the drive. Mrs. Brown will name an executive committee today and will meet with it at once to make appointments of the district chairman and arrange for a thorough canvass of the county for Red Cross memberships. This year only adult memberships will be solicited and the object of the drive in this county will be to secure 1000 members for the Red Cross. Last year the number of members secured was a little below this mark.

Booths will be established at the postoffice and in several of the stores of the city during the drive week and the ladies in charge of these booths will receive renewals and new memberships in the Red Cross.

Headquarters for the drive for the week of November 2 to 11 will be at the Commercial Hotel lobby.

The Red Cross has nothing to give but service in its after-the-war program.

First, the Red Cross is going to complete its war program one hundred per cent. This includes help to soldiers and sailors and their families. In a single month the Red Cross home service has helped 466,031 families of American soldiers and up to July 1st, 1919, the total of 800,000 district families had received service of various kinds.

The Red Cross has assumed responsibilities in Europe which must be carried through. Especially in Eastern Europe the aim of the Red Cross is to aid these peoples to get on their feet and shoulder their own burdens. The Red Cross cannot and will not leave babies and mothers to die when the tragedy can be prevented. This does not mean the pouring of money and supplies into stricken Europe, but the establishment of organizations with the proper training and equipment to meet the needs that exist over there.

Second, the Red Cross is to be the permanent disaster relief agent of the United States. It now has fifty units spread throughout the country ready to give relief at a moment’s notice.

Third, the Red Cross is now making plans for the building up of the vitality of the country. The objective is to prevent and cure disease and stop needless death.

Fourth, the Red Cross is the most effective agency for fighting epidemics like the influenza. A course in home nursing is now prepared and ready to be taught in each community. To a certain extend this will enable the people to take care of themselves, but should the need arise the local and national organizations are ready to step in and do whatever is necessary.

Fifth, to show the world that the Red Cross has not only started the greatest humanitarian movement that the history of civilization has ever seen but that it is going through with it in a one hundred per cent finish.

There is a provision in the League of Nations, assented to by all powers, that the Red Cross organizations of the different nations are the most effective means of building up the health of the world. This means that the consensus of opinion of the great powers is simply this; The Red Cross must not only go on but it should and must become a permanent organization. if the Red Cross is worth while, then it is worth while to become a member and if it is worth while to become a member then join in the Roll Call, November 2 to 11th.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 28 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Paul, Idaho

PaulFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 30

The Wallace Miner. October 30, 1919, Page 6

19191030WM1

19191030WM2
Major Quigley Tells Board Of Influenza In The Army

At the weekly luncheon of the board of trade last Monday …

Major Quigley Talks

Dr. F. I. Quigley, major in the medical corps of the United States army during the great war, gave a brief address narrating his experience and observations in connection with handling the influenza in the army. From the time he completed his training at Fort Oglethorpe, Major Quigley was in command of base hospitals both in this country and in France, and his description of how the medical corps of the American army handled not only the flu, but every other emergency in the service aroused much interest. The hospital equipment and facilities provided for the army in France were a revelation to the allies and were the subject of continuous investigation by representatives of foreign medical army officers. Major Quigley’s address was instructive and interesting both from the standpoint of handling the flu and in giving his hearers an insight to the marvelous provision made by Uncle Sam for the care of sick and wounded. …

source: The Wallace Miner. (Wallace, Idaho), 30 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Emmett Index. October 30, 1919, Page 8

19191030EI119191030EI2Bares Secrets Of Sleep Sickness
Chicago Man Recovers and Tells His Experiences
Symptoms Of The Malady
Persistent Series of Illusions During Periods of Wakefulness One of the Peculiarities of Disease – Beach, Flowers, Castles and Sea Mark Six Months’ Visions of Chicago Legislator – Under Sleep Spell

After hovering under death’s wing for more than six months as a victim of sleeping sickness, former Alderman Theodore K. Long, now a member of the Illinois legislature, returned to Chicago from Battle Creek, Mich., and told for the first time the symptoms of the strange malady.

“Less than 10 per cent of those who contract sleeping sickness live to tell their experience,” he said.

The principal symptom of sleeping sickness he described as a persistent series of illusions during periods of wakefulness.

Beaches – Chimes – Flowers

“I imagined I was at the seaside, and could see hundreds of men and women in bathing,” he continued. “Of course, I had other illusions, but beach scenes predominated.

“Sometimes I could hear the ringing of what seemed a million cathedral chimes.

“Again, I saw wonderful examples of architecture, castles, battlements.

“Sometimes I wondered through fields of flowers, but, curiously, they had no perfume.

“And no matter what I saw, I could always hear the sound of the surf as it broke against the shore, and sooner or later I found myself on the beach again.

“In Springfield about seven months ago, while I was engaged in legislative work, I first noticed my health was not normal.

“I suffered from an intolerable languor.

Under a Spell of Sleep

“Try as I would I could not resist the desire to go to sleep.

“I would be compelled to go to bed at any time of day the spells struck me, and I would sleep from 12 to 14 hours.

“When I awoke I would not be rested, but felt as though I had done a hard day’s work.

“Finally I was compelled to give up my official duties and come to Chicago. I went to St. Luke’s hospital, where my case proved a riddle to attending physicians.

“Finally it was diagnosed as encephalitis, or African sleeping sickness and I was confined to bed for 14 weeks. It is a direct effect of influenza, and I have no doubt the germs spread by the tsetse fly of Africa in some manner have found their way to this country.

“After suffering from influenza, the body is especially subject to attack by the sleeping sickness germ.”

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 30 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Nezperce Herald., October 30, 1919, Page 7

19191030NP1

One Year Ago Today

Over Here

The influenza epidemic had just passed its crest. Fifteen citizens of this community had passed into eternity. The hospital had held as many as 57 patients at one time; hundreds of others were sick at their homes. Less than a half dozen families in the community were unaffected by the plague.

In such a time who came to our aid? Who sent doctors and nurses? Who instituted our hospital and furnished equipment? Who saved many lives?

19191030NP2

Over There

The great war was drawing to a close. Our boys were driving back the Hun in France and Belgium. The hours of terror and anguish were almost over. Four of Nezperce’s bravest sons had died on the battlefield; many others were lying in hospitals.

Who cared for our boys in hospitals and prison camps? Who supplied the necessities of life to the people of devastated Europe? Who helped millions of war’s victims? Who earned the name of the “Greatest Mother in the World?”

It Is an Honor to Become a Red Cross Member
Is Is the Privilege of Every American
All You Need is $1; You Have a Heart

This Space Contributed by Nezperce Trading Company

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 30 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Payette, Idaho ca. 1916

Payette1916Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 31

The Idaho Recorder. October 31, 1919, Page 1

19191030IR1

Idaho Planning Extra Session

The prospects of the fifteenth Idaho legislature being called in extra session to ratify the woman’s suffrage amendment has stirred great interest in Idaho’s political circles. Under Governor Davis’s plan it would be an inexpensive session to the state, because members would not only pay their own way to Boise to attend, but they would agree not to accept the per diem wage of $5. The only expense that would be attached to the session would be rental of a public building in which the legislators could meet and the hire of such clerical forces as would be necessary.

The pioneer legislative halls of this state, in which many battles were fought, important legislation was passed and exciting scenes enacted, are no more. That building in which they were located has been torn down to make way for the wings of the new capitol. The state is therefore without legislative halls and would have to secure a public auditorium in which to convene the session extraordinary.

Deemed Important

Governor Davis believes that ratification of the Susan B Anthony amendment is of sufficient importance to call the legislators together, if they will agree to come without pay. If they should not agree to this, there will be no special session. There is a general movement under way to get most of the western states to hold sessions extraordinary for one day merely to give formal approval of the amendment.

Governor Stephens of California is really responsible for the plan, although Governor Davis said he has had it under consideration for some time. The proposal to convene the Idaho legislature, while not at all definite, will pave the way for an expression from the people. If there is no serious objection, and there does not appear to be any, the legislature will likely meet here some time in November

So far as Idaho is concerned, woman suffrage ceased to be an issue in this state long ago. Shortly after the state was admitted into the union the right of franchise was given to women for the past twenty or more years they have voted.

During the fight before congress to pass the Susan B. Anthony amendment an attempt was made by national suffrage leaders to divide the women of the state in their support of Senator William E. Borah, whom they bitterly attacked because of his stand that woman suffrage was a state issue and not a national one and that therefore he opposed the amendment.

They succeeded in dividing the women to some extent, but they failed to affect the vote of the senior senator, for he led the Republican ticket at the last election.

Unusual Situation

It is proposed that in the event the legislature is convened in extra session there be incorporated in the call a provision authorizing the members to pass an apportionment bill that will straighten out representation by counties for the legislature that meets in 1920. The last legislature failed to pass an apportionment bill, with the result that the legislature apportionment is left on the same basis that it was two years ago.

This means that representation in the house of representatives will be reduced at least ten votes, giving the lower assembly fifty-four members to forty-four in the senate, whereas in the last session it had sixty-four members.

The reason for this situation is the influenza situation a year ago, which kept thousands of voters away from the polls. The last reapportionment law provides that there hall be one representative in the house for every 2500 votes cast at the preceding general election and one representative for every fraction of 1000 or over. The shrinkage in the vote reduced the fractions, with the result that many counties which had more than 1000 votes but not 2500, find that on the last returns they had less than 1000.

Forgotten in Senate

The house realized that this situation was serious and rafted and passed a reapportionment bill. When it reached the senate, however, it was put away by some committee and forgotten. The legislature adjourned without making the apportionment. This does not affect the present legislature which will be called in extra session, but it does affect the legislature to be elected in 1920.

Counties which lost a representative unless a new apportionment is made and the apportionment they have in the next regular session of the legislature are; Ada, four; Bannock, four; Bingham, one; Bonner, one; Bonneville, one; Canyon, two; Fremont, one; Idaho, one; Kootenia, two; Latah, two; Nez Perce, one; Shoshone, two; Washington, one. The other counties, excepting Twin Falls with three, not including the new ones – Caribou, Clark and Jerome – will each have one representative.

These counties which are credited with four had five, those with two had three and those with one had two, and it is one of the objects of the proposed reapportionment to place them on that basis of representation.

Passes in House

The bill that was introduced in the house and passed during the last session, but failed in the senate, which proposed to give each county one representative for every 2500 votes, and in the event of a fraction of 800 or over, another representative. While the failure to pass the bill will cause the loss of thirteen representatives to as many counties, representation in the house is only reduced ten, because the three new counties created are each entitled to a representative and one senator.

Because of the rapid increase in counties in this state during the past ten years, the senate is almost as large as the house of representatives, in so far as numbers are concerned. Each county under the law is entitled to one senator and there are now forty-four counties.
— —

Call To Duty In Supporting The Red Cross Organization

Frank H. Havemaun, Chairman of Third Red Cross Roll Call, Salmon, Idaho.

Dear Sir: As war time division manager and as chairman of the advisory committee of the northwestern division of the American Red Cross, I wish to express to you personally my appreciation of the work you are doing to make the Third Red Cross Roll Call a success in the Lemhi county chapter.

The United States will lose many of the benefits of winning the war if the American Red Cross does not continue in every community with practically universal membership.

The war revealed conditions seriously affecting the public health and vitality. The Red Cross is the only organization big enough to take the lead in improving these conditions. In case the Influenza epidemic occurs, the cooperation of a fully organized American Red Cross will save hundreds of thousands of lives, some of them in your community, that will otherwise be sacrificed. Remember, the epidemic last year took five times as many lives as we lost in a year and a half of war.

Universal Red Cross membership will continue to save lives and relieve suffering after every great disaster, like the one at Corpus Christi, and will make special collections of funds as such times make necessary.

Other nations, inspired by our example, are organizing Red Cross societies to meet their own problems of relief, disease and disaster, so that they can stand on their own feet without constant appears to Americans. They will be watching the success of the Roll Call to see whether such an organization can endure in times of peace.

Everybody wants to join the Red Cross, the greatest of all welfare organizations and the only one that finances a great peace-time program wholly from the proceeds of membership at one dollar each. The success of the Roll Call in your chapter depends entirely upon the completeness of your organization and your publicity. I wish you the fullest measure of success.

Sincerely yours, C. O. Stimson.
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Red Cross Friends Line Up November 4

The Red Cross Roll Call will come along next Tuesday afternoon at 2 o’clock on Main street. Early in the afternoon the bugle call will be sounded to remind all citizens to assemble at the appointed place ready to respond to the call of names. After the enrollment all 1920 members will be admitted free to the Grand theater where a Red Cross film will be shown.
— —

There’s no disaster too big for Red Cross relief.
— —

Carrying Millinery Style Down The River To Lewiston

A young matron of Salmon, who is a leader in fashion particularly with reference to the smart hats she wears, was bereft of her bonnet the other day when her automobile went dashing over the Salmon river bridge. The beautiful hat was lost even before its wearer had worn it two days, but it nodded its plumes over the waves just as proudly as if worn on the pretty head of its owner, the envy of all beholders on the shore all the way down to Lewiston as a missionary of fashion in all the benighted regions below.
— —

Stage on Winter Schedule

The Salmon-Leesburg-Forney stages began the winter schedule on Tuesday last and yesterday’s trip marked the beginning and use of bob-sleds on the Leesburg summit. Manager Ferrill Terry reported Wednesday on the way home he encountered two feet of snow, which indicates the necessity of winter-time means of getting through.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 31 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Cottonwood Chronicle. October 31, 1919, Page 1

19191031CC1

Has Membership Of 8769

The annual report of the officers of Lewiston chapter of the American Red Cross shows that the membership of the chapter, comprising Nez Perce, Idaho and Lewis county is no 8769. Idaho county has 2795, Lewis 1795, and Nez Perce county 4179. During the influenza epidemic of a year ago the chapter expended over $8000 in relief work in the three counties. Several hospitals were maintained and trained nurses secured from Coast points to aid the stricken communities. The grand total of articles manufactured by the women of the chapter, including garments, hospital supplies and surgical dressings is 128,429. The canteen department reports that 1265 returned soldiers and sailors were served with lunches at the depot.

The junior Red Cross has 86 auxiliaries and 2664 members in the three counties.

Cottonwood is an auxiliary of the Lewiston Chapter to which all articles made by the Red Cross workers here were sent.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 31 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Meridian Times., October 31, 1919, Page 1

19191031MT1

Charley Onwiler Has Serious Accident

Charley Onwiler met with a serious accident Sunday morning at his ranch just east of Meridian. He was nailing a board when a rusty nail hit his left eye with force enough to cut a deep gash in the eye ball, one-fourth of an inch in length. A delicate job of surgery was performed at a Boise hospital in sewing up the injured member, and the doctor has hopes of saving the sight of the eye, although it is doubtful. It may be necessary to remove the eye to save a sympathetic effect on the other, but Charley’s many friends hope that this will not be done. How the wound heals will determine the future action in the matter.

Charley is an optimistic sort of a fellow but his bad luck this year is a little more than his share. He had the appendicitis and the flu, but we know Charley pretty well and think his grit and energy will carry him through all right.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 31 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
——————–

Further Reading

Dr. A. Boschee’s Syrup of Tar and Wild Cherry

BoscheesSyrup-a

The indications or uses for this product as provided on its packaging:

For coughs due to colds, soothes throat, promotes expectoration

Physical Description

alcohol 1.75% per fluid oz. (drug active ingredients)
morphine sulp. 24/100 grain per fluid oz. (drug active ingredients)

source: National Museum of American History
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Smearing the Mustard on the Skin

By Roger M. Grace Thursday, March 3, 2005 Metropolitan News-Enterprise

Etched on a clay tablet in cuneiform (picture writing) is this medical advice from ancient Sumer (now Southern Iraq):

“Sift and knead together, all in one turtle-shell, the sprouting naga plant and mustard; wash the sick spot with quality beer and hot water; scrub the sick spot with all of the kneaded mixture.”

Dated at around 2100 B.C., the tablet is said to contain the world’s oldest known prescription.

Through the succeeding centuries, mustard came to be utilized for medicinal purposes in a variety of forms. Among them were mustard plasters, mustard poultices, and mustard baths, already discussed here. Add to the list mustard-based liniment (liquid or semi-liquid applied to the skin to relieve pain or as a counterirritant), mustard salve (greasy gook applied to sores and wounds) and mustard ointment (salve spread on the skin).

Such mustard-based agents were used by the Greeks and Romans to counteract a variety of maladies. They were employed by American Indians to treat rheumatism. Mustard-based preparations were marketed in Europe and were imported by colonists in the New World.

Makers of mustard-based preparations ascribed versatility to their products. An ad in the Edinburgh (Scotland) Weekly Journal on June 3, 1801, for example, represented that Whitehead’s Essence of Mustard “has frequently succeeded in curing the most desperate Cases of Rheumatism, Rheumatic Gout, Lumbago, Sciatica, Head-ach, Numbness, Palsy, and Complaints of the Stomach, after the best advice and every other Medicine has failed.” …

Bufferin, introduced Nov. 7, 1949, was touted as an advancement over regular aspirin because its buffering agents precluded stomach upset. Likewise, rub-on compounds containing mustard and buffering ingredients were heralded four decades or so earlier as modern replacements for mustard plasters because they eliminated blistering.

Taking major credit for buffered mustard was a New Yorker. Typical of his ads was one in the March 26, 1910 edition of the Newark (N.J.) Advocate which said:

“The man who put mustard plasters out of business had to invent something better, for mustard plasters have been used for aches, pains and other afflictions for scores of years and have given relief to millions.

mustarine-a“But when J. A. Begy, the well known chemist, of Rochester, N.Y. compounded, after years of experiment, a preparation which he named Begy’s Mustarine, he gave to the world something so much quicker in action than mustard plasters, that medical authorities recognized its supremacy at once.” …

Mustard-based products intended for external use are on the market in the U.S. yet today, billed as “natural” remedies.

excerpted from: Copyright 2005, Metropolitan News Company
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American Red Cross

History and Organization

Clara Barton established American Red Cross in Dansville, NY, on May 21, 1881. She became its first president. Barton organized a meeting on May 12 of that year at the house of Senator Omar D. Conger (R, MI). Fifteen people were at the meeting, including Barton, Conger and Representative William Lawrence (R, OH) (who became the first vice president). The first local chapter was established in 1881 at the English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Dansville.

Jane Delano (1862–1919) founded the American Red Cross Nursing Service on January 20, 1910.

continued: Wikipedia
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1919 Corpus Christi Hurricane

The hurricane exacted its greatest toll on Corpus Christi and the city’s immediate vicinity. Nearly all of the 284 verified fatalities were residents of Corpus Christi; 57 bodies were recovered in the city proper while 121 were found at nearby White Point, the highest death toll of any locality from the hurricane. The Houston Post reported a “conservative estimate” of $20 million for the total monetary loss from Corpus Christi, approximated by “prominent business men and other trained observers”. Squalls from began to impact the city on September 12, and the Gulf waters continued to rise until the storm passed on September 14. Corpus Christi was positioned within the right-front quadrant of the hurricane as it made landfall, which typically contains the storm’s strongest winds and highest storm surge. Winds ranging between 70–110 mph (110–180 km/h) buffeted the city for roughly 17 hours between September 14–15, accompanied by a 16-foot (4.9 m) storm surge — the highest on record in Corpus Christi’s history. The surge submerged some areas under 15 ft (4.6 m) of water.

The hurricane destroyed over 900 buildings in and around Corpus Christi. The downtown area and North Beach were devastated. All city businesses below the promontory were impacted, with some destroyed. Along the city’s beaches, 900 homes across 23 blocks between Star Street and Dan Reid Street disintegrated, leaving little trace of their former presence aside from sporadic debris. Few structures remained intact on North Beach, with only three structures partially surviving; among these was the Spohn Sanitarium, where four people were killed. Homes were razed along the beach, with their residents carried by the storm surge into Nueces Bay; many drowned in the bay while others survived as the waves carried them to White Point. Beach erosion carved a new coastline 50–200 ft (15–61 m) inland between North Beach and Caroll Street. Bluffs along Corpus Christi Bay near Corpus Christi and Portland recessed as far as 100 ft (30 m). Catastrophic damage occurred in downtown Corpus Christi where flooding reached a maximum depth of 11.5 ft (3.5 m). Industrial and public plants along a six-block stretch of the downtown waterfront were destroyed. Beyond the immediate waterfront, the Houston Post reported that “every commercial establishment’s first floor was wrecked, and in some cases the entire building rendered useless, over a corresponding area two blocks wide.” Floodwaters maintained a depth of 8–9 ft (2.4–2.7 m) in some of the buildings that remained standing. The surge deposited debris en masse in the downtown district, including 1,400 bales of cotton as well as large lumber reserves; piles of debris reached as high as 16 ft (4.9 m).

source: Wikipedia
——————

Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)

Idaho History June 6, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 60

Idaho Newspaper clippings October 1-18, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 1

Evening Capital News., October 01, 1919, Page 3

19191001ECN1

19191001ECN2
Horses Stricken By Influenza In M’Cammon Region
State Bureau of Animal Industry Sends Deputy to Vaccinate Stock – Epidemic Said to Be Serious.

Influenza has broken out among the horses in the McCammon section. The epidemic has reached serious proportions, according to information received today by Dr. J. D. Adams, director of the bureau of animal industry in the state department of agriculture.

The McCammon country is one of the principal horse growing sections of the state.

Will Vaccinate

Dr. M. M. McCoy, live stock sanitary inspector, has been ordered to go from Gooding to McCammon to vaccinate all horses in the infected region, and to take any other precautions necessary to control the epidemic.

The influenza affects horses much the same way that humans are affected by it, according to Dr. Adams. It runs into pneumonia and the fatality rate is very high.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 01 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Nampa, Idaho ca. 1917

Nampa1917Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 2

Payette Enterprise., October 02, 1919, Page 2

19191002PE1

[Editorial Page]

Seattle Oct. 1. — Public recognition of their services in helping to stem the tidal wave of influenza which occurred a year ago has been accorded to two men who devised the prophylactic serum used with great effectiveness throughout the Northwest. Both are physicians who were in the naval service and stationed at Bremerton, Washington, from where they conducted their fight on the flu epidemic.

Dr. D. H. Nickson, who was Lieutenant J. O. Medical Corps, U. S. N., has just been appoint assistant professor of pathology at the University of Washington, the creation of which position is in reality the fore runner of a medical department for this institution, being now the regular academic preparation for medical training. The other medical man with whom Dr. Nickson worked at the Naval Station, is Dr. E. D. Hitchcock, who was Lieutenant M. C. U. S. N., and has just been appointed director of the Hygienic Laboratory of the [? page faded]… Montana State Department of Public Health. These men, working together supplied prophylactic “flu” serum that was used in practically all the northwestern cities, by various state boards of health and in the naval service.

Dr. Nickson, who has specialized in bacteriological study during and since his medical collage course, was bacteriological instructor in 1914 at the University of Washington and for the last four years has been pathologist for the Physicians Clinical Laboratory at Seattle, where scientific diagnosis of diseases is carried on for the medical profession. Dr. Nickson was graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1913. He volunteered for service when the U. S. entered the war and was assigned to duty in the Bacteriological Laboratory of the 13th Naval District, which Laboratory was under direction of Lieut. Hitchcock and where the work was to look after general health, sanitation, food, water supply and the control of epidemics that might arise in the camp. On September 25th, 1918, influenza broke out in the camp. Drs. Hitchcock and Nickson immediately began an investigation, started experiments and made a vaccine that proved entirely satisfactory in controlling the outbreak at Bremerton Navy Yard. This vaccine was then given by the naval authorities to city and state governments, by whom it was used, especially in Seattle, with marked success.

source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 02 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Naples, Idaho ca. 1912

Naples1912Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 3

Evening Capital News., October 03, 1919, Page 9

19191003ECN1

Nurses Hear Address By Miss Eldredge
Representative of American Association of Nurses Honored Guest at Banquet at Owyhee Hotel

A 52-hour week for student nurses with paid employees on the wards to do a certain amount of the work in which there is no educational advantage was urged as a law for Idaho, in an address to the Idaho State nurses association Thursday night at the Owyhee hotel by Miss Adda Eldridge, interstate secretary of the American Nurses’ association.

Members of the association, student nurses and a number of retired nurses, who followed their profession during the influenza epidemic last winter, dined at the hotel. The attendance was largest in the history of the association and great interest was manifested in the address of the speaker which dealt primarily with the high calling of the profession, its aims and some of the things which it was hoped to accomplish for the betterment of nurses.

Miss Eldredge pointed out that the nurses association was not a union in any sense, that it aimed at standards, not wages. She gave a history of what had been accomplished by nurses since the graduation of the first trained nurses in 1873. Linda Richards, who is still living and a resident of Lowell, Mass. “The first nurses association,” she said, “was organized in 1893 and now there are associations in all but three states of the Union, Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico. In all the states where associations exist there are laws for the registration of nurses setting forth a minimum standard of education.”

The speaker pointed out the value of organization to the profession and especially mentioned the American Nurses association, the National League of Nursing Education and also the publication of the American Journal of Nursing, the official organization of the associations, which she stated, had the largest circulation of any purely technical magazine in the United States.

She spoke on the funds of the American Nurses association, the Robb Memorial Scholarship fund, the relief fund, now over $25,000, and the loan fund to the memory of Isabel McIsaacs, who visited Idaho and helped organize the state association.

This morning Miss Eldredge spoke at St. Margaret’s hall and this afternoon, addressed the nurses at St. Luke’s hospital. She left this evening for Portland and will then go to Arizona to assist in the organization of an association in that state.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 03 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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American Falls Press. October 03, 1919, Page 3

19191003AFP1

19191003AFP2
Will The Flu Return

Authoritative statement issued by the U. S. Public health service.

Probably, but by no means certainly, there will be a recurrence of the influenza epidemic this year.

Indications are that should it occur, it will not be as severe as the epidemic of the previous winter.

City officials, state and city boards of health, should be prepared in the event of a recurrence.

The fact that a previous attack brings immunity in a certain percentage of cases should allay fear on the part of those afflicted in the previous epidemic.

Influenza is spread by direct and indirect contact.

It is not yet certain that the germ has been isolated, or discovered, and as a consequence there is yet no positive preventative, except the enforcement of rigid rules of sanitation and the avoidance of personal contact.

A close relation between the influenza epidemic and the constantly increasing pneumonia mortality rate prior to the fall of 1918 is recognized.

It is now believed that the disease was pretty widely disseminated through out the country before it was recognized in its epidemic state. This failure to recognize the early cases appears to have largely been due to the fact that every interest was then centered on the war.

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 03 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Partial View of New Meadows, Idaho ca. 1917

NewMeadows1917Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 5

Evening Capital News., October 05, 1919, Page 11

19191005ECN1

W. C. T. U. Plans Work For The Coming Year

“More work next year,” is the slogan of the Ada county white ribboners. The report made at the convention, just closed, showed how seriously the influenza had interfered with their plans last year. Twenty departments of work are planned for the year, each under the supervision of a competent superintendent. The election of officers resulted in all the old officers being re-elected. …

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 05 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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New Plymouth Garage, New Plymouth, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 7

The Daily Star-Mirror., October 07, 1919, Page 4

19191007DSM1

Sunday Services In Moscow Churches

Methodist Episcopal Church

Sunday was a big day at this church. It was rally day for the Sunday school and there was the largest attendance since the influenza interrupted the work a year ago. Two new classes were organized. One under prof. Chenowith who teaches “Social Principles of Jesus” and a Teacher Training Class under Dr. W. A. Allen. Both classes promise to be large. …

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 07 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Newsome, Idaho

NewsomeFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 8

Evening Capital News., October 08, 1919, Page 8

19191008ECN1

19191008ECN2
Board Of Health Warns Against Flu
Authorities Nervously Await Recurrence of Dreaded Epidemic

Medical authorities seem to be of the opinion that this country will again be visited by the dreaded scourge of influenza, and have already taken steps to warn the public as to the precaution that should be observed.

The Board of Health of the state of Connecticut has had large placards printed and widely distributed containing the following advice, which will be found valuable in any locality, its purpose being to avoid, if possible, a recurrence of this dreaded epidemic.

19191008ECN3How to Avoid the Flu
1. Don’t inhale any person’s breath.
2. Avoid persons who cough and sneeze.
3. Don’t visit close, poorly ventilated places.
4. Keep warm and dry.
5. If you get wet, change your clothes at once.
6. Don’t use drinking cups or towels that others persons have used.
7. For the protection of others, cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze.
8. Clean your teeth and mouth frequently.
9. Don’t spit on the floor.

In addition to the above, the Health Commissioner of New York City, in an interview in the New York Times, predicts a return of influenza, warns everyone to guard their health carefully, and those who are weak, he advises to build up their strength to better be prepared for the attack.

The medical profession practically admit their helplessness, and health authorities are nervously facing the situation. They can only advise that precautionary measures be adopted that will prepare the system for the attack.

They are advising that the system not be permitted to get into a rundown condition, but that it be kept in a healthy, vigorous state so that if will be prepared to better withstand the danger of influenza. The blood is the most vial force of life; therefore, it follows that upon the condition of the blood depends largely the condition of the entire system.

Every organ, nerve, muscle, tissue and sinew of the body is dependent upon the blood supply for nourishment, and as it circulates through the system pure and rich and free from all impurities, it furnishes these different members of the healthful properties needed to preserve them and enable them to perform their various duties.

So long as the blood remains free from infection, we are liable to escape disease, but any impurity in this life-giving stream acts injuriously on the system and affects the general health. Disordered blood comes from various causes, such as a sluggish condition of the circulation, imperfect bowel and kidney action, indigestion, etc., but whatever the cause the blood must be purified before the system is in such a robust condition that it is able to ward off disease. …

S. S. S., the fine old purely vegetable blood remedy, is a valuable agent in building up the system, and giving it that robust and vigorous vitality that is so essential as an aid in resisting influenza, and other dangerous ailments. A course of S. S. S. will prove to you its great efficiency, as it has in so many cases of impaired and impoverished vitality. It is sold by all druggists, and is worth many times its cost in building up and strengthening the system, and giving it a robust vigorous and healthy circulation that is so important in helping to ward off the attacks of disease.

You can obtain without cost free medical advice by writing to Chief Medical Adviser, 151 Swift Laboratory, Atlanta, Ga.

[Advertisement for “S.S.S. vegetable blood remedy.” *Note* this product is still available.]

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 08 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Post Office, Newman, Idaho (1)

NewmanFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 9

Payette Enterprise., October 09, 1919, Page 4

19191009PE1

19191009PE2Her One Precious Memory
It Was Not Dread of Influenza That Led Spinster to Dwell on Kissing Episode

The spinster waited two or three hours to be admitted to the presence of the man who visited their town once a month to retail good advice and his own proprietary medicine to the come-ons.

At last she was admitted.

“Yes, yes,” said the brusque doctor.

“I want to know if influenza can be transmitted by kissing?”

“Beyond a doubt, madam.”

“Well a man with a pronounced case of influenza kissed me.”

“So! How long ago was this?”

“Well – let’s see. I think it was about two months.”

“Why, madam! No harm can come to you now from the exposure. It is quite too late.”

“I knew it,” she sighed, “but I just love to talk about it.”

— Philadelphia Ledger

source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 09 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Newport, Idaho Ferry

NewportFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 10

Evening Capital News., October 10, 1919, Page 3

19191010ECN1

19191010ECN2
State Department Running Well Within Appropriations Members Of Cabinet Report To Governor Davis
Largest Road Program in State’s History Under Way – Receipts in Game Department Already Exceed Last Year’s Figures by $15,643 – Law Enforcement Department Lists Professional Men in State to Aid in Fighting Influenza – Deposits in State Banks Jump $9,000,000

… “The requirement of the payment of a $2 renewal fee from every professional man and woman in Idaho,” said Commissioner Jones, referring to the work of the bureau of license, “has caused considerable comment, but as the purpose of this particular law has been explained and the good results shown, the attitude has generally become very favorable.

Have Valuable List

“Under this requirement of the law, the department of law enforcement through its bureau of license, has a correct list of every professional man and woman licensed by it practicing in the state. Such a list would have been especially valuable last year in the great epidemic of influenza, and the possible recurrence of such an epidemic or outbreak of some other epidemic as bad, makes the keeping of such a list imperative.” …

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Recorder. October 10, 1919, Page 5

19191010IR1

For The Public Welfare

Mrs. R. S. Stringfellow returned last Friday from Boise, where she attended the Northwestern Tuberculosis conference. Of her visit she writes; Delegates were in attendance from the states of Utah, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Washington, Nevada and Wyoming, and a most interesting and helpful session was held. The Idaho state medical association was meeting at the same time and a number of joint sessions were held with the medical experts addressing the delegates on topics related to the care and prevention of the great white plague. Among the doctors who addressed the meetings were Dr. Phillip Jacobs of New York, who is assistant secretary of the National Tuberculosis association; Dr. Orville W. McMichael of Chicago, a physician who has had years of experience in combating the disease; Dr. Mabel Parks, of Seattle, head of the school medical inspection board in that city; and Dr. Raymond Cary of Monrovia, Cal.

All the speakers emphasized the thought that right living is the keynote in the fight against tuberculosis, as well as other communicable diseases, such as influenza, etc. The educational work of the different health agencies is of great importance bringing the facts about healthful habits before the public forcefully. Preventive work is also of the highest value, and the public health nurse is an indispensable factor in this line of work.

Since the influenza epidemic swept this country a year ago, this public has awakened to the necessity of this health agency, and it has been almost impossible for the training schools and other agencies to keep up with the demand for trained public health nurses. A number of counties in Idaho have engaged a county health nurse, as a step in the right direction.

Public health agencies are winning full co-operation from physicians in all parts of the country, as they do not seek to supplant medical attention, bur urge people to secure proper medical advice, whenever needed. One of the slogans of the anti-tuberculosis association, is a physical examination once a year for every person, whether apparently in good health or not. This is in order to head off incipient consumption or other disease, which is likely to get a foothold in the system, unknown to the victim.

The Red Cross Seal sale in December is the means of providing funds for the state and national association to carry on their valuable work in their fight against the spread of tuberculosis. Idaho is in advance of some of the other western states, in that she has made provision, by an act of the last legislature, for the erection of two sanatoriums for the care of tuberculosis. These must be maintained by the state association, the salaries of their public health nurses must be paid, and the educational work carried on by the funds raised through the sale of the gay little Christmas stickers so much in demand at the holiday season.

Mrs. Stringfellow has been a appointed to have charge of the seal sale for Lemhi county, and has already begun the preliminary work of organization, with a view to putting the county at the head, as is usual with Lemhi in all philanthropic enterprises.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier Examiner. October 10, 1919, Page 2

19191010ME1

19191010ME2Influenza Breaks Out Among Idaho Horses

Boise, Oct. 6. — Horse growers of Idaho are warned by Dr. J. D. Adams, director of the state animal industry bureau against possible outbreaks of influenza among horses. One such outbreak has been reported from the McCammon section. The disease affects horses much the same as humans running into pneumonia and resulting in a high rate of fatality. Horses in infected regions are being vaccinated by agents of the state department of agriculture.

The entire Hagerman valley and Lewis and Idaho counties have been quarantined for sheep scabies. The disease continues to spread over the state, its distribution being facilitated by the cold damp weather, according to Dr. Adams.

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. October 10, 1919, Page 1

19191010CT1

High School Huskies Out
Football Practice Doesn’t Wait For Educational Work To Start

Local high school huskies have been pursuing the elusive pigskin industriously for two weeks in spite of the fact that high school has not officially opened. In order to round the team into shape, Coach French has been putting a good sized squad through their paces every afternoon, the young athletes in many instances sacrificing substantial additions to their summer earnings to devote time to football practice.

Other towns in the Boise valley have opened their high schools and football practice has been under way for at least two weeks. Several games are scheduled for Saturday. Caldwell, of course, cannot have a game until school opens and considerable practice has been given the squad. It was in order to offset as far as possible the earlier organization and practice of neighboring teams which Caldwell will meet this fall that Coach French has undertaken to lead his cohorts through strenuous exercise before school opens. …

Last year, until the influenza epidemic completely obliterated any hope for a successful season and necessitated abandonment before the work was well under way, Caldwell gave promise of cleaning up the other schools of the Boise valley. Nampa was severely drubbed in the season’s opener to the tune of 58-0 and prospects looked bright for a continuation of victories through the season. …

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Shoshone Journal. October 10, 1919, Page 1

19191010SJ1

19191010SJ2Influenza Reappears In Fourteen States
More Than 300 Cases Reported to Public Health Service; No Signs of Epidemic

More than 300 cases of influenza are reported to the public health service this week by 14 states, but the disease has not yet reached the proportions of an epidemic in any state. The service announced Saturday that the cases reported generally were of a mild type.

States reporting, and the numbers in each follow: Alabama, 20; Arkansas, 14; California, 51; Florida, 22; Georgia, 23; Kansas, 31; Kentucky, 13; Louisiana, 5; Maine, 5; Massachusetts, 62; Montana, 4; New Jersey, 20; New York, 31; Washington, 8.

Surgeon General, Rupert Blue says: “The fact that the cases are of a mild type would seem to be a hopeful sign. However, it is too early to make a forecast with any degree of certainty. The wisest thing to do is for every person to avoid contact with those affected, to keep away from crowds and crowded places, to be on the lookout for the first symptoms and when these appear to go directly to bed and summon a physician.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 10 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Marketing Sheep. Newell, Idaho

NewellFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 13

The Daily Star-Mirror., October 13, 1919, Page 1

19191013DSM1

Mexican Peons Are Being Sought
About Two Hundred Escaped From Employers In South Idaho Beet Fields

Federal immigration officers and police, sheriff and labor union men throughout the northwest are looking for about 200 Mexican peons who escaped from their employers in the sugar belt of southern Idaho and are believed to have been scattered throughout the north west. …

This is one of the results of the labor shortage during the war. The shortage of laborers in the sugar belt of southern Idaho and northern Utah was so great that the industry was threatened. Congressmen and senators from northwestern states united in a plea to the government to suspend the literary test, which would bar Mexican peons from entering the United States, in order that a lot of laborers might be brought to relieve the shortage. This was done and several thousands of the poorer class of Mexican laborers were brought to Idaho, Utah, Oregon and Washington, where the Mormon church is heavily interested in sugar production. It was agreed with the employers and the federal government that these imported laborers should be paid the same wages as had been paid for similar work done by American citizens. It was also agreed that the companies employing these Mexicans should pay their railroad fare to the place of employment and after this employment had ended they were to be returned to Mexico without expense to this government. The original contracts with these peons was for one year (1918) but the labor shortage continued and the congressmen and senators united in asking the immigration authorities to permit them to remain this year.

That the Mexicans were much disappointed in conditions is certain. They are said to have been ignorant, knowing absolutely nothing of climatic or other conditions here. They had little clothing. A government inspector, who visited their camps said: “The men had a pair of cotton breeches and a cotton shirt. That was all the clothing they needed in the warm climate of Mexico. They were attracted by what appeared to them to be enormous wages, but did not realize that they would not work more than about half of the year. Many brought all of their relatives, including even the grandparents. The railroad fare and other expenses of these was paid by the companies and it is doubtful if the Mexicans with large families ever got out of debt. A visit to their camps last winter during the influenza epidemic showed pitiable conditions. Families slept on bare floors or perhaps had one blanket and some straw under them. They had not been accustomed to cold weather and were not prepared for it. …

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 13 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Nezperce, Idaho 1911

Nezperce1911Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 14

The Daily Star-Mirror., October 14, 1919, Page 4

19191014DSM1

19191014DSM2Maybe the Next Batch of Pets Will Be Skunks

Portchester, N. Y. — It will not be possible to keep goats in tenement houses hereafter if the board of health has its way. After pigs were barred from dwellings during the influenza epidemic last fall, families adopted goats as pets. According to Sanitary Inspector Bitz, the animals are kept on second, third and even fourth floors. He suggests that they be licensed, the same as dogs.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 14 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Store, Hotel and Post Office, North Fork, Idaho (3)

NorthForkFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 15

Evening Capital News., October 15, 1919, Page 2

19191015ECN1

19191015ECN2

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 15 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Haying on the O’ Ransom Ranch at Nicholia, Idaho 1911

Nicholia1911Friz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 16

The Grangeville Globe. October 16, 1919, Page 3

19191016GG1

Quite Comfortable, Thank You

A comfortable widow is Mrs. Amada Jackson, colored. She is drawing three $57.50 pensions, or $172.50 a month, for the loss of three husbands during the war, and will draw that amount for 20 years. Mrs. Jones’ husband died of spinal meningitis soon after entering the service and taking out a $10,000 insurance policy. The widow married one Smith. He took a maximum life insurance policy in her favor and was killed in action. Then Mrs. Jones-Smith married Private Jackson, a returned soldier, who also named her in a $10,000 policy. Influenza made her a widow a third time in less than two years. The war risk bureau declines to make known her address, doubtless fearing that she would be inundated with offers of marriage.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 16 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., October 16, 1919, Page 7

19191016DSM1

Young and White Headed

Cheyenne, Wyo. — Sergt. J. W. Roberts, formerly of Des Moines, has white hair today, though he is not out of his twenties. Roberts was recently discharged from the army at Fort Russell. In 18 months overseas he participated in several battles and was wounded in each, receiving five rifle wounds in the legs. On top of all this he came home to find that his father, mother, wife and two children had succumbed to the influenza during the epidemic last winter. Now he is working with the Union Pacific Railroad company here as a crossing switchman.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 16 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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July 4th, Notus, Idaho 1911

Notus1911Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 17

Evening Capital News., October 17, 1919, Page 5

19191017ECN1

The Little News Of Boise
Brief Items For Busy Readers

Watchman Sick

William H. Stafford, a night watchman at the state capitol, is sick at his home, having collapsed while on duty Wednesday night. He was found unconscious on the floor of a corridor by Paul Davis, head of the law enforcement bureau, who called a doctor and resuscitated the stricken man. Doctor Forney says Mr. Stafford is suffering from the effects of a touch of influenza and that he will be fully recovered in a few days.

Home Service Swamped

The clerical force in the Home Service office of the Boise Red Cross is mowed under. A large share of the service rendered by the office to former soldiers and sailors is in preparing their applications for vocational training or for compensation. In the latter case duplicates of the discharge certificate must be prepared. So many casuals are consulting the office that it is getting behind with the work.Typists who can volunteer their services regularly for an hour or two each day would be a welcome assistance to the work, says Mrs. Olive Thompson, the secretary.

Health Film Shown

“The End of the Road,” a moving picture designed to aid in combating the social evil, was given a private showing at the Pinney theatre Thursday afternoon under the auspices of the state board of public welfare. Members of civic clubs, the W. C. T. U. and the Ministerial association were spectators by invitation. Dr. Ernest E. Laubaugh, head of the health bureau, introduced the film with explanatory remarks.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 17 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. October 17, 1919, Page 7

19191017CT1

19191017CT2Influenza Outbreaks Among Horses Feared
Idaho Stock Growers Warned That Possibility Exists – McCammon Section Reports Disease

Boise – (Special) – Stock growers of Idaho are warned by Dr. J. D. Adams, director of the state bureau of animal industry against possible outbreaks of influenza among horses this winter. One such outbreak has been reported from the McCammon section. The disease affects horses much the same as humans, running into pneumonia and resulting in a high rate of fatality. Horses in infected regions are being vaccinated by agents of the state department of agriculture.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 17 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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American Falls Press. October 17, 1919, Page 5

19191017AFP1

19191017AFP2Physicians To Fight “Flu”

Boise. – An organization of 100 physicians is being perfected by J. K. White, public welfare commissioner, as a precaution against a possible recurrence of influenza in Idaho this winter. so far there has been no indication of the return of the disease, but it has reappeared in eastern cities and United States Surgeon General Rupert Blue instructed Commissioner White to be prepared.

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 17 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Nazarene Hospital, Nampa, Idaho

HospitalNampaFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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October 18

Evening Capital News., October 18, 1919, Page 3

19191018ECN1

19191018ECN2No “Flu” In Boise

While colds are quite prevalent and there are a few mild cases of grip, there is no influenza in Boise, according to Dr. I. J. Pond, city physician. Dr. Pond is of the opinion that there will not be an influenza epidemic this winter as the disease was widely distributed over the country last year in September and hit Boise early in October, whereas this year there have been no reports of influenza as yet.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 18 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
————-

Further Reading

The State of Science, Microbiology, and Vaccines Circa 1918

John M. Eyler, PhD – Public Health Reports 2010 US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Synopsis

The influenza pandemic of 1918–1919 dramatically altered biomedical knowledge of the disease. At its onset, the foundation of scientific knowledge was information collected during the previous major pandemic of 1889–1890. The work of Otto Leichtenstern, first published in 1896, described the major epidemiological and pathological features of pandemic influenza and was cited extensively over the next two decades. Richard Pfeiffer announced in 1892 and 1893 that he had discovered influenza’s cause. Pfeiffer’s bacillus (Bacillus influenzae) was a major focus of attention and some controversy between 1892 and 1920. The role this organism or these organisms played in influenza dominated medical discussion during the great pandemic.

Many vaccines were developed and used during the 1918–1919 pandemic. The medical literature was full of contradictory claims of their success; there was apparently no consensus on how to judge the reported results of these vaccine trials. The result of the vaccine controversy was both a further waning of confidence in Pfeiffer’s bacillus as the agent of influenza and the emergence of an early set of criteria for valid vaccine trials.

continued:
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W. C. T. U.

Woman’s Christian Temperance Union

see: Wikipedia
— — — —

Women’s Suffrage and Temperance in Idaho

By Sarah Rounsville, Brigham Young University

1896WCTUIdaho-aIdaho Suffrage Postcard: This postcard celebrates the adoption of women’s suffrage in Idaho in 1896, making it the fourth state in the United States to do so. ~ Source: National American Woman Suffrage Association, “United Equal Suffrage States of America, Idaho [suffrage postcard] ,” Social Welfare History Image Portal source:

The fight for women’s suffrage was closely tied to the temperance movement. Many women in Idaho supported both temperance and women’s suffrage, and although some suffragettes like Abigail Scott Duniway worried that the association between the two would prompt greater opposition from men, the WCTU helped win the right to vote for women in Idaho in 1896.

In Idaho, like most states in the West, the Women’s Christian Temperance Union played an important role in the women’s suffrage movement. The WCTU advocated a variety of social reforms, such as prohibition of alcohol, for the purpose of creating a moral and clean society. Many Idaho women first became involved in the public sphere through participation in the WCTU, and later became suffragettes. The President of the Idaho Women’s Christian Temperance Union, Henrietta Skelton, encouraged local WCTU chapters in Idaho to incorporate women’s suffrage into their cause. The Idaho WCTU also helped push the territorial government to consider women’s suffrage. During Idaho’s Constitutional Convention in 1889, Henrietta Skelton gave a speech to the legislature requesting the following two clauses in the new state constitution: “No discrimination on account of sex shall be made; but citizens of both sexes, possessing the necessary qualifications, shall be equally eligible as electors;’ and “that manufacture, sale, or keeping of intoxicating liquors for use as a beverage is hereby prohibited.” For temperance activists in Idaho, women’s suffrage and prohibition were inseparable.

However, the connection of women’s suffrage to prohibition of alcohol by the WCTU created some problems. Due to this connection, liquor companies became some of the main opponents of female enfranchisement and some men viewed women’s suffrage in a negative light. When Henrietta Skelton argued for both suffrage and prohibition amendments in Idaho’s new state constitution, some suffragettes feared this would endanger the cause of women’s suffrage. One such suffragette was Abigail Scott Duniway. Abigail Scott Duniway had spent decades working for women’s suffrage in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho as a speaker and newspaperwoman, and previously spoke before Idaho’s legislature in 1887 in favor of women’s right to vote. In her autobiography, she recalled her reaction to the WCTU’s speech to the legislature: “I received a message from my Equal Suffrage co-workers in Boise, urging me to come to them at once. “The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union is spoiling everything,” the letter said. “They have arranged for a hearing before the convention, in advance of ours, asking for a clause in the new Constitution to prohibit the liquor traffic. They won’t get it, of course, but they will prohibit us from getting a Woman Suffrage plank, if you don’t come!” Duniway gave a speech to the legislature right after Skelton in which she attacked the idea that women’s suffrage and prohibition were connected and instead argued for the adoption of an independent women’s suffrage clause. Idaho did not give women the right to vote in the new state constitution, but Skelton and Duniway’s speeches reveal some of the tension in the relationship between women’s suffrage and temperance.

Despite the misgivings of Abigail Scott Duniway and other suffragettes, the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union remained an active part of the women’s suffrage movement in Idaho. The next president of the WCTU in Idaho, Rebecca Mitchell, convinced Lewis E. Workman, a Republican member of the state’s House of Representatives, to introduce another women’s suffrage bill to the legislature in 1893. Although that bill was not successful, the WCTU kept working with Idaho’s Equal Suffrage Association until women’s suffrage was successfully passed in 1896. The WCTU continued its social reform efforts with continued strength after women in Idaho won the right to vote. As public services and symbols of prohibition, they erected temperance water fountains, one of which still stands outside of Boise City Hall. In 1916, the WCTU achieved one of its main goals in Idaho when Governor Moses Alexander approved statewide prohibition.

source: Intermountain Histories
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Idaho History May 30, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 59

Idaho Newspaper clippings September 4-30, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 4

Jerome County Times., September 04, 1919, Page 1

19190904JCT1

Death of Mrs. Patterson

The many friends of Mrs. Frank Patterson in this community were saddened Sunday when they learned that she had passed away at eleven o’clock that morning, following an operation in the Shoshone hospital last Friday. …

She was born at Pomeroy, Washington, forty-four years ago, and her maiden name was Melsenie Abel. She was married on December 25th, 1893, and leaves the following children: Mrs. William Clasons, of St. John, Washington; Mrs. Charles O’Brien, of Jerome, and Orville, Olive and Otto Patterson, of Jerome. Another child, Newell, died on January 12th, this year, of influenza. Her husband also survives her. …
— —

Schools Open Monday

Next Monday, September 8th, the schools in Jerome, all the schools in the district and all the schools in the county will open for another year’s work. The good old school bell will again be heard calling the boys and girls, and every community will assume an activity which is sadly lacking during the summer months.

source: Jerome County Times. (Jerome, Idaho), 04 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., September 04, 1919, Page 6

19190904DSM1

19190904DSM2
Labrador Coast Swept By Death
Smallpox and Spanish Influenza Play Havoc With Eskimos
Bodies Devoured By Dogs
Moravian Missionary Tells Almost Unbelievable Story of Suffering in Northern Labrador – Mode of Living is Fatal

St. John’s, N. F. — Spanish “flu,” smallpox and measles wiped out more than one-third of the Eskimo population of Labrador during the months of November and December of last year. The Rev. W. W., Perrett of the Moravian mission at Hopedale, where he has spent 27 yours, reached the Newfoundland shores a few days ago. He told an almost unbelievable story of the sufferings of the Eskimos of northern Labrador.

Shortly after the mission ship Harmony had left the coast at the beginning of November “flu” broke out at Hebron and spread rapidly among the inhabitants. That the disease was contagious was unknown to the Eskimo, who were living in small huts, and whole families were affected and died off. Bishop Martin and those at the mission did what was possible under the circumstances, but they, too, were stricken, and when the epidemic had passed its course only eight children, five women and one man of the native population of 100 were living.

Mad Dogs Eat Human Flesh

At the outbreak the dead were buried almost as soon as they passed away, but when the entire settlement became ill, the victims were left where they died, those who had recovered in the meantime being too weak to lay them under the ground. Households who had succumbed one by one were left unburied, and the dogs, who were unable to procure food because the hunters had been all ill, became mad and entered the cabins, consuming the flesh from the bodies of the dead.

When it became known that the epidemic was raging, some outside assistance arrived, and an effort was made to give the dead Christian burial. The dogs, however, after consuming the human flesh, became wild, and it was impossible to undertake putting the corpses in the frozen ground. The next best thing was to bury the corpses at sea. Before even this could be attempted the few remaining at Hebron were compelled to shoot the dogs, as even the living were not safe from them.

While this horror of death and suffering was going on at Hebron, a like epidemic was raging at Okak. The Eskimos, as in Hebron, huddled together in their small huts, quickly became affected, until the whole population was either stricken or dead. The daily death rate was appalling, whole families dying within a few hours. The mission all the while was unceasing in its work for the afflicted, but they also fell victims to the disease, which meant that the Eskimos were left helpless. When the new year dawned only a few emaciated Eskimos were found to be alive.

Mode of Living is Fatal

Mr. Perrett said that when the Eskimos were stricken, their mode of living and environment was against their surviving. As soon as the illness fell upon them they were obliged to take shelter in the small, stuffy huts, where there was neither fresh air nor sunshine, and here they remained until they died. They were also without seal meat and fats, which are necessary for sustenance in cold climes, having been overtaken by the epidemic just as the hunting season opened, and, their constitutions thus weakened, they became easy prey to the scourge. Many who had recovered from their illness died later for want of nourishment.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 04 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Mace School, Mace, Idaho (2)

MaceFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 5

The Oakley Herald. September 05, 1919, Page 8

19190905OH1

In The Gem State

Prevalence of influenza among the horses of the Gifford section near Lewiston has been reported.

Fires are spreading worse than usual in the vicinity of the Idaho and Payette forests.

Five hundred head of sheep were destroyed by the forest fires in the Rocky Ridge section, according to reports that have been received at Lewiston.

The shooting of valuable cattle on the mountain ranges by careless hunters has resulted in the closing of a large district to hunting near Lewiston.

Lack of water in Snake river to supply power to the municipal plant has forced the people of Idaho Falls to spend the last few nights in darkness, and but little hope of relief is seen.

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 05 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Kendrick Gazette. September 05, 1919, Page 8

19190905KG1

Gleanings

Physicians state that the flu wave is starting again in parts of the United States and that practically every community is almost sure to have another run of the disease as soon as people begin living indoors.

Doc Van Wert says he has inoculated nearly 250 horses in this community to prevent influenza. There are a number of cases of influenza among the horses around Kendrick.

Back close to the old Missouri line there is an old couple who celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary last week. They cut their wedding cake, a fruit cake 50 years old, which they have carefully preserved by wrapping it in cloths soaked in brandy. Not being able to obtain any more brandy they were forced to eat the cake.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 05 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Meridian Times., September 05, 1919, Page 1

19190905MT1

Editorial Mention

Meridian, as well as Boise and Nampa, is experiencing a shortage of houses to rent. Several parties coming to Meridian to locate have lived in tents as a temporary necessity.

This has been another hot dry week, with threatening showers but no rain. The intense sunlight has been partially diminished however, by cloudy days.

The water now running through the Hunter lateral is of the preferred right of the farmers residing under this lateral, according to report. Town people have no right to divert this water for lawns, and to do so is to deprive the farmers below of the necessary water for stock and to keep the vegetation and trees alive. Let’s all help in this emergency.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 05 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Meridian Times., September 05, 1919, Page 2

Scouts Return Visit of Flu

Cincinnati. — Recurrence of influenza in epidemic form this fall is unlikely, said Health Officer William H. Peters, taking issue with Dr. Royal S. Copeland, New York health commissioner.

(ibid, page 2)
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Main Street, Mackay, Idaho

MackayFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 9

The Idaho Republican. September 09, 1919, Page 6

19190909TIR1

Sterling

School began here in Sterling September 2. The Grandview schools also commenced on that date.

The Misses Zilpha and Nazzie Bowling arrived here Monday to assume their duties as teachers. Miss Zilpha Bowling will be principal at Grandview, while the other will teach in the Sterling schools.

Moreland

School opened here Wednesday with an enrollment of 201, the largest opening enrollment in the history of the school.

The funeral services for Mrs. Elizabeth Furniss were held in the L. D. S. church hall Tuesday afternoon at 2:30 o’clock. …

Freeman Furniss, who was injured by an explosion of a shell last week, and who was taken to Pocatello, where he was cared for by Drs. Clothier and Howard, came home Wednesday. It is reported that his eyes are not injured seriously altho [sic] he will be under the doctor’s care for some time.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 09 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, J N Ireland Bank, Malad, Idaho

MaladFritz-a

source: Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 10

The Daily Star-Mirror., September 10, 1919, Page 1

19190910DSM1

Big Enrollment In Moscow Schools
First of School Year Sees 805 Enrolled in Three School Buildings

There were 805 pupils enrolled in Moscow schools the first day, which is a new record. The Whitworth led with 419 enrolled; the high school was second with 232 and the Irving school had 154.

The pupils are getting settled down to work and teachers, pupils and parents are looking forward to a good school year, a marked contrast to that of last year when influenza closed the schools several times and interfered with the work in every department. …

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 10 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Street Scene, McCall, Idaho

McCallFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 12

The Kendrick Gazette. September 12, 1919, Page 1

19190912KG1

Local News

The Kendrick school is putting in its winter’s supply of fuel this week. It is much cheaper to buy enough at one time to last all winter and the school board is taking advantage of the opportunity.

Margaret McDowell was quite seriously ill the first of the week but is decidedly better at this writing.

Complaint has been made that automobiles parked in front of the business houses interfere with farmers who wish to drive in front of the stores to load or unload produce. It would be more convenient for all concerned if the cars could be parked at places on Main Street where they would not interfere with business operations.
— —

Big Bear Ridge

The little son of Mr. and Mrs. R. E. Hughes has been very ill, but is recovering at this writing.

R. R. Skinner was taken seriously ill Tuesday morning, but is some improved at this writing.

The wind storm did considerable damage to the bean crop and fruit in this vicinity Thursday afternoon.
— —

Linden Items

Dr. Kelley of Kendrick was called for Aletha Isreal Friday who has been quite ill but is slowly improving.

The rain Saturday night was very welcome. It put out the fires that were causing much trouble.
— —

George Harris Whybark

George Harris Whybark, son of Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Whybark of Big Bear ridge, died Thursday morning. His death was due to cholera infantum. He was three years old at the time of his death.

The funeral will be held at 12 o’clock today, Dr. G. W. H. Smith having charge of the service.

This is the third child that the bereaved family has lost within a year, two having died last winter from influenza. The deepest sympathy is felt for the family in their time of sorrow.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 12 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. September 12, 1919, Page 3

19190912CT1

State Law Invoked To Clean Up County
Fall Campaign Scheduled To Exterminate Pocket Gophers

Legislation passed by the last session of the state legislature will be invoked by the local farm bureau in an effort to exterminate pocket gophers in a county wide campaign to be conducted this fall. Poisoned carrots will be used. R. S. Zimmerman of the U. S. department of biological survey is stationed here at present to supervise the work and give such introductory demonstrations as are deemed necessary.

Influenza Epidemic Interfered

Such an effort was started last year but because of the influenza epidemic the campaign was stopped short of completion. …

Soon a series of lectures and demonstrations will be given throughout the county illustrating the way to effectively poison gophers. Then the actual work will be taken up one community at a time, each farm being thoroughly worked under the direction of Mr. Oman until no gophers are left.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 12 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., September 12, 1919, Page 4

19190912DSM1

19190912DSM2
Benewah County Cattle Have Flu
Strange Disease, Similar to Influenza Reported In Herds At Santa

St. Maries — County Agent Rockwell was called to Fernwood last Monday to investigate several cases of disease in cattle. He found a number of cases of a disease resembling the influenza among humans. The entire herd becomes more or less afflicted with a fever and cough, some cases developing into pneumonia. About 50 per cent of the pneumonia cases are fatal.

Mrs. Lizzie Renfro of Santa has lost two cows, and Ed Wilson one. Stock belonging to Messrs Joe Nixon, B. S. Walkup and Ira McCurdy now seem to have the pneumonia form. It is undoubtedly the same disease which prevailed among Frank Gaskil’s herd the last winter, and which the state veterinarian, Dr. J. D. Adams, investigated and diagnosed as probably hemorrhagic sceptacaemii [sic]. Mr. Rockwell is endeavoring to have the state veterinarian come and investigate the disease further, and see if some method of control by vaccination can not be taken.

Two recent losses of calves from blackleg are also reported, one by C. O. Brown at Ferrell and one by James Morris from the northwest corner of the county near Worley. The county agent has secured a vaccinating outfit and will give demonstrations on the vaccinating of cattle to prevent blackleg at each place in the coming week.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 12 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Street Scene, Meadows, Idaho (1)

MeadowsFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 15

Evening Capital News., September 15, 1919, Page 1

19190915ECN1

19190915ECN2
Urges Speedy Action On The Fess Measure

Washington. Sept. 15. — With some cases of influenza reported by the United States health service efforts will be made this week to spur congress into taking the step that will prevent a general recurrence of the disease.

Representative Fess, Ohio, who has introduced a bill providing for government investigations in the hope of finding a cure for the plague is planning to point out to the house this week the great danger of congressional inactivity. His bill has been slumbering in a committee for several months.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 15 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Menan School, Menan, Idaho ca. 1914 (1)

SchoolMenan1914Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 16

Evening Capital News., September 16, 1919, Page 4

19190916ECN1

19190916ECN2Influenza Warnings

Commissioner of Public Welfare White has wisely adopted the policy and issuing an early warning to the people of this state to take immediate steps to guard against a recurrence of the influenza epidemic. In doing so he is acting in co-operation with Surgeon General Blue of the United States public health department. Idaho’s experience last fall and winter when death stalked here and there striking at will; when it became necessary to prohibit all public meetings, to close the schools, the churches and all places of amusements, is one this state and its residents desire never to see repeated. It is well, therefore, that we take precautionary steps immediately.

This disease, which has baffled the medical world, has already re-appeared in some of the eastern cities. Physicians have taken prompt action to combat it. The United States bureau of public health is organizing them in every state and Idaho will be no exception to the rule. A wide campaign of education to show how the disease can be prevented and every precaution on the part of the people will reduce the effect of the dread disease to the minimum.
— —

Shortage of Teachers

The shortage of teachers for public schools of the country is difficult to explain. It exists in Idaho as well as other states. The state superintendent of public instruction informs us, there are 100 rural schools in the state unable to begin their fall terms because there are no teachers to take charge. This is a serious situation and the educational authorities in the state are endeavoring in every way possible to make good the shortage.

It has been pointed out before that the teaching profession is receiving, in these days of high cost of living, less compensation for its services, probably, than any other profession. The salaries of teachers have not advanced in comparison to the cost of the necessities of life. The result has been natural but deplorable. Teachers have gone into other professions more remunerative. Until the salary question is settled to the advantage of the instructor, it is very likely the shortage in teachers will continue. And Idaho today is paying as high salaries as any other state in the Union for its educators.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 16 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., September 16, 1919, Page 1

19190916DSM1

19190916DSM2Flu Reappears in Chicago

Thirty-seven cases of Spanish influenza have been reported to the health department in the past three days. It was during the corresponding period last year that the epidemic first appeared in Chicago.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 16 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Idaho Street, Meridian, Idaho

MeridianFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 18

Evening Capital News., September 18, 1919, Page 9

19190918ECN1

Woman To Inspect
New Deputy in Welfare Department Will Control Eating Places

A woman sanitary inspector, whose special field will be soda fountains, restaurants and other public eating and drinking establishments, will probably be appointed by J. K. White, public welfare commissioner, he announced Wednesday afternoon.

This inspector will endeavor to maintain a high standard of cleanliness in the establishments under her jurisdiction with a special view to keeping down conditions contributing to the spread of influenza.

“Evidence collected during last winter’s epidemic points strongly to infected eating and drinking utensils, especially in places where food and drink are sold to the public, as being one of the modes of transmission of this disease, says Surgeon General Blue in a letter to Commissioner White. In some municipalities this matter has already been made the subject of regulation, but the enforcement of the regulations often leaves much to be desired.

“Probably – but by no means certainly – there will be a recurrence of the influenza epidemic this year. Indications are that should it appear it will not be as severe as the epidemic of the previous winter. City officials state and city boards of which should be prepared in the event of a recurrence.

“The fact that a previous attack brings immunity to a certain percentage of cases should allay fear on the part of those afflicted in the previous epidemic.”

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 18 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Corner Orchard Boulevard and Mesa Ave., Mesa, Idaho

MesaFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 19

Evening Capital News., September 19, 1919, Page 3

19190919ECN1

Died Last Winter

Mrs. Larson of 615 South Thirteenth street has just been advised by letter that Mrs. Marie Foley, a former resident of Boise, died of influenza last winter in Canada.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 19 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., September 19, 1919, Page 8

Joseph W. Sweetman Dies Early Thursday Southern California

Joseph V. [sic] Sweetman, for a number of years manager of the Idanha hotel in Boise, died early Thursday morning at Los Angeles, where he has been under treatment for several months. Mr. Sweetman was about 30 years of age. He is survived by his wife and five brothers, George and Chris of Boise and Thomas, John and Will of San Francisco. He was a member of the Boise lodge of Elks and the Knights of Columbus.

Mr. Sweetman had a severe attack of influenza last winter from which he never recovered and a severe cold, which followed late in the spring, affected his lungs. He went to Arizona and spent several months there for his health and later went to Los Angeles where Mrs. Sweetman joined him and remained with him constantly until the end. It is understood burial will be in San Francisco, his former home and where his parents were laid to rest.

(ibid, page 8)
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Clearwater Republican. September 19, 1919, Page 6

19190919CR1

Boy Scout Doings

The New Orleans Red Cross has been working on the reclamation of soldiers’ garments. Boy scouts assisted by adjusting the buttons on the military blouses.

Among “good turns” reported by a Freeland (Pa.) troop of boy scouts are: Assisted the doctors and nurses in the Spanish influenza epidemic; donated ten baskets of provisions to the widows and orphans; assisted in picking 11 bushels of berries for I. O. O. F. orphanage at Sunbury, Pa.

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 19 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. September 19, 1919, Page 1

19190919CT1

19190919CT2Organize Physicians To Fight Influenza

Boise – An organization of 100 physicians is being perfected by J. K. White, public welfare commissioner, as a precaution against a possible recurrence of influenza in Idaho this winter. So far there has been no indication of the return of the disease, but it has reappeared in eastern cities and United States Surgeon General Rupert Blue instructed Commissioner White to be prepared.
— —

Many Small Schools Face Teacher Shortage

Boise – More than 100 little schools intending to begin the fall term next month will be unable to do so because of the shortage of teachers in the state, it is shown by reports to Miss Ethel E. Redfield, State superintendent of public instruction. Bonneville county needed 12 teachers last week. The shortage as resulted in higher salaries the prevailing scale now being about $100 per month.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho ), 19 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. September 19, 1919, Page 7

19190919CT3
Big Program To Be Launched This Fall
Farm Bureau Undertakes Health crusade in Schools and Homes

Public health, home sanitation and public welfare among Canyon county homes will be advocated through the farm bureau and 17 community leaders with various committee it was determined at a recent meeting of 12 community representatives at the Commercial club rooms here. Work for the coming year will be conducted through two mediums. One will be the public schools, the second will be through a series of instructional classes and clinics with the mothers of the children in attendance.

Every child in Canyon county schools, according to present plans, will be given a physical examination and most of them will be given a dental examination. Hot lunches for the children during the school terms will be strongly urged and every effort made in Canyon county schools to provide this necessity for the health of the children, at least during the winter months. Health crusade work will form a portion of the training of every child in the first three grades. In many of the schools this work will be continued through the higher grades and where given, this source will be given regular credit.

Prepare for Influenza

Preparations for the possibility of another influenza epidemic will be the first consideration of the work this fall for mothers, special emphasis being laid on precautionary measures to avoid a recurrence of the disease. Free clinics will be given under the direction of capable physicians with instructions classes in first aid, home nursing and sanitation.

In the school work, a women in each community will be appointed to supervise the progress of a particular school room and at the end of the year, comparative reports will be made. At the recent meeting, a report of the work of last year showed much interest and improvements in the sanitary and general health conditions prevailing over the country as a result of last year’s campaign. It must be said that the farm bureau year is considered to end with the close of summer so that reports at the last meeting are regarded as final for the past year.

Mrs. G. L. Karcher of Midway is general county health project chairman. This year’s program is much more comprehensive than has ever before been contemplated and miss Louise Riddle, county home demonstration agent, expects much better results this season than have previously obtained.

Communities Organize

Notus and Parma last Thursday took up the health educational campaign being fostered and promoted for this year by the Canyon county farm bureau. Those appointed as the heads of the various phases of the work in Notus are, Mrs. Harley H. Crook for clothing, Mrs. L. C. Brooks of poultry, Mrs. Bert Robinson of production, and Mrs. Brooks and Mrs. Robertson jointly head of the child welfare work. At Parma the following women will head the farm bureau work, Mrs. F. R. Fouch of organization, Mrs. F. J. Wamsley of clothing, Mrs. W. E. Babcock of poultry, Mrs. Ray Mitchell of production, Mrs. Ben Ross of child welfare and Mrs. A. G. Fisk of home improvement. Fargo was reorganized also last week for the work and other communities will take up the work this year following reorganization meetings held in the near future.

(ibid, page 7)
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Street Scene, Midvale, Idaho ca. 1916

Midvale1916Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 23

Evening Capital News., September 23, 1919, Page 7

19190923ECN1

Under The Capitol Dome

Return From Fairfield

Dr. E. A. Bryan, state commissioner of education, and Miss Ethel E. Redfield, state superintendent of public instruction, have returned from Fairfield, where they met Saturday with the trustees and teachers of that district, and attended graduation exercises for a number of eighth grade pupils who were put behind in their school work last year because of the influenza epidemic. Fairfield maintains a two-year high school, the only one in the county. The citizens are planning two dormitories, one for boys and one for girls, in connection with a vocational training course. Many young people have been leaving the valley to get school in other towns, and it is planned to provide at home the opportunities they seek in other places.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 23 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. September 23, 1919, Page 2

19190923BFH1

19190923BFH2Butte Reports Influenza

Butte, Mont. — Two cases of Spanish influenza, the first since the epidemic last winter, were reported to the city health office this week.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 23 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Scene on Broadway, Minidoka, Idaho

MinidokaFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 25

The Grangeville Globe. September 25, 1919, Page 6

19190925GG1

19190925GG2Will Not be One Day Without PE-RU-NA
This Lady Tells Her Friends

Mrs. Mary Fricke, 507 Bornman St., Belleville, Ill., is just one of the many thousands of ladies throughout the country who, after an agony of years, have at last found health, strength and visor in PE-RU-NA.

Her owns words tell of her suffering and recovery better than we can do it: “I suffered with my stomach, had awful cramps and headaches so I often could not lay on a pillow. Saw your book, tried PE-RU-NA and got good results from the first bottle. To be sure of a cure I took twelve bottles. I have recommended PE-RU-NA to my friends and all are well pleased with results. I will not be one day without PE-RU-NA. Have not had a doctor since I started with PE-RU-NA, which was about fifteen years ago. I am now sixty-three years old, hale, hearty and well. Can do as much work as my daughters. I feel strong and healthy and weigh near two hundred pounds. Before, I weighed as little as one hundred. I hope lots of people use PE-RU-NA and get the results I did.” An experience like that of Mrs. Fricke is an inspiration to every sick and suffering woman.

If you have catarrh, whether is be of the nose, throat, stomach, bowels, or other organs, PE-RU-NA is the remedy. It is not new; it is not an experiment. PE-RU-NA has been tried. PE-RU-NA has been used by thousands who once were sick and are now well. To prevent coughs, colds, grip and influenza and to hasten recovery there is nothing better.

PE-RU-NA will improve the appetite and digestion, purify the blood, sooth the irritated mucous linings, eradicate the waste material and corruption from the system. It will tone up the nerves, give you health, strength, vigor and the joy of living. In what Mrs. Mary Fricke and thousands more have done – try PE-RU-NA. You will be glad, happy, thankful.

[Adv.]

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 25 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Idaho County Free Press. September 25, 1919, Page 7

19190925ICFP1

19190925ICFP2Is Influenza Coming?

A year ago Idaho county was in the throes of an epidemic of Spanish influenza, which, breaking out on the Atlantic seaboard, rapidly spread throughout the country until it reached the Pacific coast, claiming thousands of lives as it spread. In Idaho county, perhaps twelve persons succumbed to the disease, while countless others who contracted the malady were left in a condition so weakened that many of them have not, a year later, entirely recovered.

Physicians point out that there is no reason to expect a recurrence of of Spanish influenza this fall, yet there is no particular reason to deny that the disease will again make its depressing influences felt. Already reports come from various places that influenza has broken out, but to date no cases have been reported in Idaho county.

Spanish influenza, last fall, was a new disease to most physicians, and fatalities are attributed in part to unfamiliarity of those treating patients with the nature of the disease and methods of treatment.

Influenza is spread by germs, emanating from persons afflicted with the contagion, and methods of preventing spread of the disease are outlined by John K. White, state commissioner of public welfare, in a communication he has just sent out from Boise.

According to Commissioner White, influenza germs lurk in glasses, dishes, and the like, and danger of one contracting the disease is especially manifest at such places as restaurants and public eating houses. The germ can be killed by sterilization of the utensils used, and in this connection Commissioner White has issued instructions that glasses used at soda fountains must be washed in hot water or sterilized, and the same care must be exercised in restaurants and hotels.

Last fall, the commissioner says instructions were issued making mandatory the washing of all glasses and dishes used in public places in hot water. He further states that proprietors of many of these places have become careless, and are using cold water for the washing process, which has the result of spreading the germs, left by one customer, to be picked up by another. A demand for cleanliness at public eating and drinking establishments has been made by the inspector, and the rules will be rigidly enforced. This will have much to do in preventing spread of the influenza germ should it recur.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 25 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., September 25, 1919, Page 1

19190925DSM1

19190925DSM2
University Will Protect Students
Arrangements Are Made To Fight “Flu” Should It Return This School Year

If influenza again appears on the University of Idaho campus or if some other serious epidemic becomes threatening, payment will at once be suspended on individual claims against the university health fund and the entire amount devoted to the equipping of a hospital or to some other purpose consistent with the welfare of the entire student body, according to an announcement made today by Professor Howard T. Lewis.

“Of course we do not anticipate any serious difficulty,” said Professor Lewis, who with Miss Manila Reed of Boise, student body treasurer, directs the disbursement of the health fund, “but we wish to be prepared if some emergency does arise. The good of the student group as a whole will receive first consideration if epidemic threatens.”

Health fund rules recently announced require the student who wishes to call on a physician to obtain from a faculty member a card which is presented by way of payment. Claims for major surgical operations and for chronic diseases will not be paid from the general fund.
— —

19190925DSM3

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 25 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Nezperce Herald., September 25, 1919, Page 2

19190925NH1

Hope Lives Again

The suggestion is abroad that another influenza epidemic is possible this winter. Just by whom, why and how this suggestion was started is not so material as the effect it will have on the race. About everything is started by suggestion. So far as it induces proper care and reasonable preparedness, the suggestion is good, but where it brings about fearful anticipation in the public mind, it is bad.

In going back over the epidemic of last fall and winter, we find extraordinary causes and conditions that do not now exist. Last year, about the time the influenza became prevalent in this country, the hope of the nation was at a low ebb. The inherent disposition to struggle on and win against any odds was less marked in the American people than ever before. The cruel world war had robbed so many homes of their “hope in the world” that the resultant depression permeated the whole land – and nothing but chaos loomed ahead. There was little spirit left to fight the epidemic when it appeared.

The malady had its origin in the necessarily unsanitary conditions obtaining on the several battlefronts, where the heat of the fray prevented hundreds of thousands of men from giving attention to anything but the matter of killing and dodging sudden death from the enemy’s guns. The prevailing system of trench warfare – with its muck and filth – made disease a matter of course.

But now these conditions no longer exist. The war, with all the horrible tragedy, is over. Hope again lives in the world. There is everything to strive for. Life is worth while. The spirit of resistance of evil is near normal; and besides this, the people have the experience of last year’s epidemic with which to fight off its recurrence.

Let reason rule, and go cheerfully about your business. God still reigns.

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 25 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier, Idaho ca. 1911

Montpelier1911Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 26

The Rathdrum Tribune., September 26, 1919, Page 1

19190926RT1

Idaho State News Items

J. K. White, commissioner of public welfare, has announced that he expected to appoint a woman sanitary inspector to chase influenza germs. Her field of operation will be confined to soda fountains, restaurants and other public places where the public eats and drinks.

On Sept. 16 Boise valley received its first considerable rainfall since April 13, breaking a 156 days drouth [sic] in that part of southern Idaho.

The Bruneau project for building a storage reservoir at American Falls is being revived. The cost is up to $50,000,000. The Bruneau tract includes 554 acres.

The contract to construct the wings to the state capitol at Boise was awarded last Saturday to a Salt Lake firm. The wings and furniture, it is estimated, will cost the entire $900,000 appropriated by the last legislature for the purpose.

The Nez Perce county farm bureau has taken the initiative in urging that the burned-over sections of the national forests be re-seeded, in order that these lands be not lost to the livestock industry for the period of years necessary for volunteer re-seeding.
— —

From Over The County

Harrison

Several cases of typhoid fever, brought in from outside points, are reported at the local hospital.

Coeur D’Alene

Superintendent of Schools R. C. Egbers needs eleven rural school teachers immediately. He attributes the scarcity of school teachers to the fact that better salaries are being paid in other lines, and that those who can be secured are not competent to pass the state examination – more rigid than last year.

source: The Rathdrum Tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 26 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier Examiner. September 26, 1919, Page 1

19190926ME1

Fielding Academy Will Open Next Monday

The Fielding Academy begins its winter’s work next Monday morning. Everything will be in readiness for the students and all indications point to an exceptional heavy enrollment.

The board of education and faculty have held meetings in the principal towns of the valley, encouraging interest in education wherever possible. They have found that interest is greater than usual. The epidemic of influenza last winter seems to have stirred many young men and women to a realization of the necessity of taking advantage of the opportunities that are before them and that lie at their very doors. They are listening to the call of the country and society for trained men and women.

Some weeks ago the faculty made a canvas of Paris for boarding places and rooms for rent. There was a large list prepared, but so fast have students and families taken them that few are left. Every effort will be made, however, to accommodate those moving in for the school.

The latter part of this week will be occupied by the faculty in discussing such problems as will confront them in preparing their departments for the work ahead. Each instructor is enthusiastic over his work and its prospects.

The student body is already thoroly [sic] organized and will produce some of the best activities ever given by that organization. This will be especially true in the case of operas, recitals and dramatics. The athletic situation is still a little uncertain, but there are several young fellows who showed excellent form last winter that if taken early will develop rapidly. The introduction of football into the church schools will no doubt encourage many young “huskies” to try their skill. The academy has a good gridiron for football.

One of the things that will be done this winter will be to encourage the young people to prepare themselves for teachers and help refill the depleted ranks of the teacher’s profession.

It is hoped that in as much as the school year begins a little late, the purpose of which is to accommodate the boys and girls on the farm, that every effort will be made by pupils to register on the first day of school. This will make it easier for the student and compensate him for any sacrifice he may have to make at home. …

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 26 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. September 26, 1919, Page 5

19190926CT1

New Building Delays School
Opening for Junior-Senior Institution Postponed Until October 13

Because of unavoidable circumstances the High school building will not be completed so that the junior-senior high school may open on September 29th, the date previously set. Delays occasioned on account of the shortage of labor make it certain that the high school building will not be finished before October 13. This will shorten the school year and this loss together with that sustained last year on account of the influenza epidemic, render the educational situation serious. When high school opens every effort will be put forth to overcome the handicap of loss of time. parents and junior-senior high school students should watch the columns of the Tribune for future notices as to the dates for registration and the definite date of opening of school.

Junior-senior high school teachers will arrive in Caldwell the latter part of this week. The junior-senior high school faculty will consist of 24 men and women. Most of them are strangers in Caldwell. The housing proposition is serious and as yet sufficient accommodations have not been reported to the office of the superintendent of schools to provide one-half of the teachers with rooms.

Unless suitable living conditions are furnished by the community to its teachers, some of them will surely resign their positions and enter employment where living conditions are more salutary. Citizens who own homes in Caldwell and who are interested in the success of the schools are earnestly requested to assist in the problem of securing suitable rooms for the high school teachers. Any who might room teachers and will make the sacrifice to do so are asked to notify the office of the superintendent of schools at once.

Enrollment Increases 9 Per Cent

The three ward buildings, which opened school on September 8th, are running with an increased enrollment over last year. The total number of children in the six grades in the ward buildings is 9 per cent greater than it was last year on September 30th. Pupils are entering the different buildings daily. The problem of relieving the congestion is the primary grades in particular has been adjusted by transferring children among the various buildings. This has rendered some slight convenience [sic] to some children who are now required to walk farther than they would have done had they remained in the building where they first entered.

The matter of balancing the grades in the different buildings and giving the teachers an opportunity to succeed in their work and the children the opportunity of better instruction is an educational problem too serious to be set aside except for extraordinary reasons. Splendid co-operation shown by parents whose children it has been necessary to transfer, has made the solution of the problem of congestion possible. …

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 26 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. September 26, 1919, Page 8

Fair At Wilder Pleased Crowd …

Wilder’s first attempt at holding a fair proved an unqualified success, according to local business men who attended the event last Thursday. Attendance at the exhibits and various entertainment features is conservatively estimated at 1500. …

The women’s’ exhibit and three demonstrations which were given attracted an unusual amount of attention and interest. Miss Olive Pearson of Fargo gave a demonstration on proper baby bathing; Mrs. B. A. Cox of Greenleaf demonstrated the sick bath, and Joe Erwin and W. E. Jone, the latter from Riverside, judged the poultry exhibit. Miss Pearson and Mrs. Cox are trained nurses. In connection with this work, a complete exhibit of sick room equipment was presented. Means of preventing and combating the influenza were profusely illustrated.

(ibid, page 8)
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Main Street, Moscow, Idaho (4)

MoscowFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 28

Evening Capital News., September 28, 1919, Page 7

19190928ECN1

19190928ECN2
Take Precautions
Early Observance of Health Rules Will Prevent Influenza Epidemic Here

“It is very important that the board of health have instant knowledge of every case of influenza met with by physicians,” L. P. Pfirman, deputy city health officer, announced Saturday evening.

“One of the practical discoveries last year was the possibility of conveyance of the disease through eating utensils,” he continued. “We call on every citizen to assist us in the enforcement of the anti-spitting laws, and in every possible way to make the city of Boise as clean and sanitary as possible.

“The public is requested to keep all dirt, trash, rubbish, garbage and stagnant water off their premises and thereby eliminate any cause of the spread of disease.”

Special study of influenza treatment and prevention is being made by the city nurses, and all nurses desiring to consult with them may do so without charge, Mr. Pfirman announced.
— —

Probate Judges To Convene At Weiser
Annual Conference Scheduled for Oct. 1 and 2 – Addresses by Prominent Educators and Officials

Programs are out for a conference of probate judges to be held at Weiser, Oct. 1 and 2. Formal organization of probate judges into an annual conference was effected at St. Anthony in 1917, when Superintendent J. Fred Williams and the state board of education invited the judges to be the guests of the Industrial Training schools and to consider problems of common interest. No meeting was held last year on account of the influenza. …

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 28 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., September 28, 1919, Page 11

19190928ECN3Apples Vs. Influenza

The old adage that “an apple a day keeps the doctor away” is to be given a real test during the coming winter at the Nampa Nazarene college. The students there are relying on apples to prevent a repetition of the Spanish influenza epidemic.

It is the suggestion of E. F. Stephens of the Stephens orchards, Nampa, who Saturday backed it up with an outright gift to the students of 100 bushels of Jonathan apples, imposing but the one condition that they should be freely eaten by all the students. Mr. Stephens has been a great fruit eater for years and enthusiastically believes it a specific for nearly all bodily ills.

The apple offer was made on the basis of an announcement that the students’ club “menu” committee of the Nampa college is planning to confer with the University of Idaho extension department and the farm bureau domestic science department on balanced rations as an influenza preventative. But Mr. Stephens did not stop with the gift of 100 bushels of Jonathans. He has also offered the students’ boarding club of the college 600 bushels of apples, with all the curative qualities of the fruit acids contained therein, on the following terms: For each hour of student labor in the Stephens orchard, the club is to receive one bushel of apples.

(ibid, page 11)
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Main Street, Mullan, Idaho

MullanFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 29

Evening Capital News., September 29, 1919, Page 3

19190929ECN1

19190929ECN2
University Plans Hospital In Case of Bad Epidemic

University of Idaho, Moscow, Sept. 29. – If influenza again appears on the University of Idaho campus, or if some other serious epidemic becomes threatening, payment will at once be suspended on individual claims against the university health fund and the entire amount devoted to the equipping of a hospital or to some other purpose consistent with the welfare of the entire student body, according to an announcement made today by Professor Howard T. Lewis.

“Of course, we do not anticipate any serious difficulty,” said Professor Lewis, who with Miss Manila Reed of Boise, student body treasurer, directs the disbursement of the health fund, “but we wish to be prepared if some emergency does arise. The good of the student group as a whole will receive first consideration if an epidemic threatens.”

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 29 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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A Hustling Mining Town, Murray, Idaho ca. 1909

Murray1909Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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September 30

The Daily Star-Mirror., September 30, 1919, Page 2

19190930DSM1

[Editorial]

The University of Idaho is acting wisely in preparing for a return of the influenza epidemic. While every one hopes there will not be another visit of the dread disease that brought death and sorrow into so many homes, it is wise to prepare to combat it should it return. “In time of peace prepare for war” is an old adage that applies in this case. The action of university authorities is commendable.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 30 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
—————

Further Reading

The 1918 influenza pandemic occurred in three waves and was the most severe pandemic in history.

1918CincinnatiBarber-aA Cincinnati barber wears a mask while giving a customer a shave. Cincinnati barbers and downtown hotel employees were advised to wear a mask to “help in the fight to stamp out influenza.”

During 1918, the U.S. was engaged in WWI. Hundreds and thousands of U.S. soldiers traveled across the Atlantic to deploy for war. The mass troop movement contributed to the global spread of flu.

There were 3 different waves of illness during the pandemic, starting in March 1918 and subsiding by summer of 1919. The pandemic peaked in the U.S. during the second wave, in the fall of 1918. This highly fatal second wave was responsible for most of the U.S. deaths attributed to the pandemic.

In 1918, many health professionals served in the U. S. military during WWI, resulting in shortages of medical personnel around the U.S. The economy suffered as businesses and factories were forced to close due to sickness amongst workers.

First Wave Spring 1918

The first outbreak of flu-like illnesses was detected in the U.S. in March, with more than 100 cases reported at Camp Funston in Fort Riley, Kansas.

Second Wave Fall 1918

In 1918, many health professionals served in the U. S. military during WWI, resulting in shortages of medical personnel around the U.S. The economy suffered as businesses and factories were forced to close due to sickness amongst workers.

Third Wave Fall 1918

A third wave of illness occurred during the winter and spring of 1919, adding to the pandemic death toll. The third wave of the pandemic subsided during the summer of 1919.

More people died during the 1918 pandemic than the total number of military and civilian deaths that resulted from World War I.

An estimated 1/3 of the world’s population was infected with the 1918 flu virus – resulting in at least 50 million deaths worldwide.

excerpted from: CDC
— — — — — — — — — —

Peruna (patent medicine)

From Wikipedia

AdvertisementPERUNA-aAn advertisement for Peruna. The women shown as endorsing Peruna may not have existed.
Wikipedia: Los Angeles Herald Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

Peruna was a well-known patent medicine sold from the late 19th to mid 20th century. The mascot of Southern Methodist University was named after the product. It was patented by Samuel Brubaker Hartman, and endorsed by hundreds of politicians. Hartman began selling the product on July 29, 1885, and advertised it as curing catarrh. At its peak, Hartman was earning $100,000 a day from Peruna sales. The drug was reportedly so popular that babies were named after it. Peruna once released an ad with 50 United States Congressmen endorsing the product.

In a series of 11 articles Samuel Hopkins Adams wrote for Collier’s in 1905, “The Great American Fraud”, Adams exposed many of the false claims made about patent medicines, pointing out that in some cases these medicines were damaging the health of the people using them. On October 20, 1906, Adams published an article in Collier’s, claiming that Peruna and other such patent-medicines were frauds, for instance alleging that Peruna was 28% alcohol. The series had a huge impact and led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. In 1911, the Supreme Court ruled that the prohibition of falsifications referred only to the ingredients of the medicine.

This meant that companies were again free to make false claims about their products. Adams returned to the attack, and in another series of articles in Collier’s Weekly, Adams exposed the misleading advertising that companies were using to sell their products. Linking his knowledge of newspapers with patent medicines, he wrote The Clarion (1914), which was critical of newspaper advertising practices and led to a series of consumer-protection articles in the New York Tribune. When Prohibition came into effect, Americans began using Peruna and other similar products as a way to get drink amounts of alcohol. Peruna had stopped being sold by the mid 1940s.

source: Wikipedia
— — — — — — — — — —

Human tissue preserved since World War I yields new clues about 1918 pandemic

By Kai Kupferschmidt May 17, 2021 Science Magazine

1918fluSweeden-aA gymnasium in Boden, Sweden, is filled with pandemic influenza patients in 1918. Researchers have pieced together a full genetic sequence of the flu virus circulating in Europe at the time. Everett Collection/Newscom

On 27 June 1918, two young German soldiers — one age 18, the other 17 — died in Berlin from a new influenza strain that had emerged earlier that year. Their lungs ended up in the collection of the Berlin Museum of Medical History, where they rested, fixed in formalin, for 100 years. Now, researchers have managed to sequence large parts of the virus that infected the two men, giving a glimpse into the early days of the most devastating pandemic of the 20th century. The partial genomes hold some tantalizing clues that the infamous flu strain may have adapted to humans between the pandemic’s first and second waves.

The researchers also managed to sequence an entire genome of the pathogen from a young woman who died in Munich at an unknown time in 1918. It is only the third full genome of the virus that caused that pandemic and the first from outside North America, the authors write in a preprint posted on bioRxiv.

“It’s absolutely fantastic work,” says Hendrik Poinar, who runs an ancient DNA lab at McMaster University. “The researchers have made reviving RNA viruses from archival material an achievable goal. Not long ago this was, like much ancient DNA work, a fantasy.”

Sequencing viral genomes has become routine. In the ongoing coronavirus pandemic, researchers have amassed a database of more than 1 million genomes of SARS-CoV-2, allowing them to watch variants appear and spread while old ones disappear. But few sequences exist of the H1N1 influenza virus that caused the pandemic of 1918–19. In the early 2000s, scientists in the United States painstakingly pieced together one genome from samples taken from a woman’s body buried and preserved in the frozen ground in Alaska. And in 2013 they presented a second genome from a U.S. flu fatality, teased out from autopsy tissue that had been preserved in formalin at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Both studies were time consuming, costly efforts that few people tried to emulate, says virologist Angela Rasmussen of the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Organization at the University of Saskatchewan. Tracking down archived tissue samples is itself a challenge, says evolutionary biologist Michael Worobey of the University of Arizona, a co-author on the new preprint. “It’s all about finding samples,” Worobey says. “Our group has scoured a lot of different locations, and they’re hard to come by.”

Evolutionary biologist Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer of the Robert Koch Institute and his colleagues have now investigated 13 lung tissue samples from between 1900 and 1931 that were in the medical museum in Berlin and in a collection in Vienna. They found bits of RNA from the flu virus in three of them, all dating to 1918. (Like SARS-CoV-2, the influenza virus’ genome is composed of RNA, not DNA.) Although the RNA was broken down into tiny fragments, there were enough of these to reconstruct the entire genome of the virus from the woman, who was just 17 years old, and close to 90% and 60%, respectively, of the virus that killed the two soldiers. Sequencing genetic material from formalin-fixed tissue is still harder than with other kinds of specimens, Calvignac-Spencer says. “But it’s not the kind of impossible work that we once thought it was.”

The partial genomes from the two soldiers are from the first, milder wave of the pandemic, which was followed by a more severe one that swept the world in the fall of 1918. Scientists have speculated that the virus originated in birds and became better adapted to humans between the first and second waves. One way this could happen is if the gene for haemagglutinin, an important protein on the surface of the virus, underwent an amino acid–swapping mutation that replaced a particular glycine, more often seen in bird flu viruses, with an aspartic acid, which is more characteristic of human viruses. Both German sequences carried an aspartic acid at the position, however, making that scenario unlikely.

The researchers did find an evolutionary clue in the gene for the virus’ nucleoprotein, a structural protein that helps determine what species the virus can infect. The previously reported 1918 flu strains, both from late in the pandemic, carry two mutations in this gene that help influenza avoid the human body’s innate antiviral defenses; the German soldiers’ sequences were more birdlike. “It could be a sign that the virus was evolving to better avoid the human immune response in the first months of the pandemic,” Calvignac-Spencer says. The Munich woman’s flu strain also carried the more birdlike version of the nucleoprotein but given her uncertain date of death, nothing can be concluded about the strain’s evolution.

The full genome from the women yielded other clues, however. The researchers used its genes to resurrect the virus’ polymerase complex, a machinery consisting of three proteins that together copy the pathogen’s genome. In cell culture experiments, they discovered, the complex from the Munich strain was about half as active as the polymerase complex from the Alaska strain. (The study did not pose safety concerns because the team didn’t reconstitute the whole virus.)

Extrapolating from petri dish studies to human infections is difficult, Poinar says. Still, “The fact that you can test, in vitro, the effects of an ‘extinct’ strain has huge implications in understanding evolution of virulence and possible countermeasures should we encounter another flu epidemic.”

The work also shows that pathology archives are “treasure troves” that can still yield more information about the 1918 pandemic, Rasmussen says: “If the last 18 months have demonstrated anything, it’s that we would do well to remember the lessons of past pandemics as we try to prevent future ones.”

source: Science Magazine
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)

Idaho History May 23, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 58

Idaho Newspaper clippings August 1-28, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 1

The Idaho Republican. August 01, 1919, Page 1

19190801TIR1

George Hertert Died in Spain

Word was received by Mrs. Eugenia Spanbauer of the death of her only brother, George Hertert, of U. S. N., who died in Spain, at the age of twenty-one years. Death came to the young man after an operation for appendicitis.

Mr. Hertert enlisted in the navy in 1914 and was in a training school at San Francisco four months. He was then transferred to the U. S. S. New Orleans, which with five other battleships, started on a tour around the world. In 1916 he was again transferred to the U. S. S. Pittsburgh, where he remained until he was removed to a hospital in Spain. The Pittsburgh was in the dangerous waters all during the war and about a month ago she came from the Brazilian waters to the United States and at once started for two years’ work in Germany. In a letter to home folks about a month ago, Mr. Hertert said, “I am going to help in Germany for two years and then I think I’ve done my duty.”

The young man is mourned by an aged father living in Spokane, Wash. and eight sisters. One sister Mrs. V. A. Bidinger of Blackfoot preceded her brother to the grave eight months, having been a victim of the influenza last fall.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 01 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. August 01, 1919, Page 2

Taber

Quietness reigns in our locality since the lady sheriff made the arrest of young Patterson here last week.

A certain party who passed thru Taber Sunday evening and left half a dozen fires burning behind him, should not forget the extreme dryness of everything and should consider his neighbors’ property. H. F. Siesser and H. Killian worked hard for an hour to put out one of the fires which endangered fences and some wheat crops

The desert will be almost deserted this winter, as so many of the settlers failed to raise a crop and winter’s employment will be necessary. Winter feed will be very scarce thru this locality.

(ibid, page 2)
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The Idaho Republican. August 01, 1919, Page 3

Firth

Mrs. John Jolley is critically ill at her home on the dry farm. Dr. Quick is in attendance.

Rose

Mrs. S. A. Judd is improving after her long illness.

Mrs. Jay Langley was called to Rigby Tuesday on account of the sudden death of her sister Miss Josephine Raimey, who has been working in that city. Mrs. Langley accompanied the body to Richmond, Utah for burial.

Centerville

Several members of the Kirk family are on the sick list this week.

Centerville was very patriotic during the war, having sent eight of the best young men into the service and we are thankful that the eight have returned in safety, Ivan being the last one to return. He is looking fine and says he is very glad to be home among relatives and friends.

Goshen

Kenneth, the little son of Mr. and Mrs. Irvin Jolley, was on the sick list last week.

Silas, the little son of Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Young, is on the sick list this week.

(ibid, page 3)
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The Idaho Republican. August 01, 1919, Page 8

Aberdeen

The dry farm crops are a severe disappointment to the farmers this summer. The grasshoppers and gophers ruined the promising wheat which yielded by one bushel per acre in places. Most of the farmers are leaving for Oregon.

J. W. Unruh sold his dry farm to a party in Minnesota and intends to move to California.

Moreland

The shower Monday night was greatly appreciated here, for crops under the People’s canal are in a pitiful condition, and the rain will help to save them until, it is hoped, some water can be obtained. Much of the grain will be shrunken; the second crop of hay an almost total failure, most of the beets doomed, and even the trees in danger of death. Some of the farmers will be in danger of losing their homes; hay will be hard to buy at any price and cattle will have to be sold before winter, by many who have little or no feed for them and cannot afford to buy it.

It is the opinion of some, that the people under this canal have not received justice and a few believe that the gates should have been opened regardless of consequences.

W. T. England and C. J. Christiansen returned Saturday from a trip to the reservoir on water matters. They report but little water left in the reservoir and little water coming into it from the mountain streams.

The Danskin Ditch company has agreed to let the Peoples’ Canal company have their water for three days, commencing Thursday.

Sterling

G. L. Andrews and J. P. Hutchison vaccinated their cattle Sunday.
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The Children Win Equality With Stock

Dr. Raphael S. Olsen, child specialist and lecturer in pediatrics of the school of medicine of the University of Utah, is in Idaho again this week under the farm bureau auspices. In each town he visits, he conducts a demonstration each forenoon and afternoon, at which children are examined and their mothers are advised how to care for them, thus giving the mothers some of the same sort of expert aid in caring for their children that the farmers already have been receiving in caring for their stock. This week’s engagements are for Idaho Falls Wednesday, St. Anthony Friday and Rexburg Saturday.

(ibid, page 8)
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Landore, Idaho ca. 1920

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 8

The Oakley Herald. August 08, 1919, Page 1

19190808OH1

Locals and Personals

Mrs. B. F. Cowles is recovering after an attack of lagrippe.

It is reported that the wheat crop on the east side of the valley in Basin will average from 15 to 25 bushels per acre.

Churchill News

The hail storm which visited Churchill was a disastrous one to some who were not fortunate enough to be insured. The crops were poor at the best after such a drought and extremely bad year. To have it hit by hail makes it doubly bad.
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The Idaho State Health Department is campaigning to banish cats from the households of this state on the ground that they are disseminators of disease and therefore dangerous to have around where there are children.

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 08 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Oakley Herald. August 08, 1919, Page 8

19190808OH2Wedded At Grave’s Edge
Remarkable Ceremony by Which Philadelphia Jews Hoped to Stop Ravages of Influenza

With the hope of protecting the orthodox Russian Jews in Philadelphia from further ravages of the influenza epidemic two Hebrews were married at the first line of graves in the Jewish cemetery a few months ago. More than 1,200 Russian Jews watched the rabbi perform the wedding ceremony.

When the couple were pronounced man and wife, the orthodox among the spectators filed solemnly past the couple and made them presents of money in sums ranging from ten cents to a hundred dollars, according to the means and circumstances of the donor until more than $1,000 had been given.

After the last offering the bride and bridegroom walked to the greensward farther from the graves, where a wedding feast was quickly spread from the two truckloads of food that other of the faithful had provided.

The marriage in a cemetery, with the idea of warding off the ravages of an epidemic, is a revival of a custom that has prevailed for hundreds of years among the Jews in the heart of Russia. When Russia was swept by cholera several centuries ago Jews died by the hundreds. Panic seized them, and they called a council of elders and rabbis, who decided that the attention of God should be called to the affliction of their fellows if the most humble man and woman among them should join in marriage in the presence of the dead.

So they asked a young man and a woman, who were unknown to each other and who were without wealth to marry in order to save their fellows from the cholera scourge. The young people agreed, and the ceremony was performed. According to the tradition the ravages of the cholera subsided within three days. — Youth’s Companion.

(ibid, page 8)
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Main Street, Lapwai, Idaho

LapwaiFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 12

Bonners Ferry Herald. August 12, 1919, Page 1

19190812BFH1

Mrs. Callahan Passes Away
Died From Pneumonia In Seattle Hospital On Saturday Morning
Funeral Held This Morning
Large Crowds Pay Last Honors To a Respected Matron

Relatives and friends of Mrs. P. H. Callahan were greatly shocked and grieved when the news came on Saturday of her death at the Providence hospital in Seattle, at six o’clock that morning, death resulting from pneumonia.

Mrs. Callahan had been taking treatments of a specialist in Seattle for several months and seemed to be improving and her friends here had no idea that she was so near death’s door. Only her daughter, Mrs. C. L. Collins, and her sister, Mrs. Ed Miller, were with her at the time of her death for her condition was not realized until the day before she died and then there was not time in which to get word to the members of her family. Mr. Callahan received word of his wife’s illness but was not able to reach her bedside before her death.

The body was shipped here, arriving Monday morning, in charge of Mr. Callahan who was accompanied by Mrs. Collins and Mrs. Miller.

The funeral services were held at ten o’clock this morning at the Catholic church, Rev. Fr. Kelly, of Sandpoint, conducting the services. …

The services were attended by a crowd that filled the church to overflowing and there were several dozen bouquets and floral designs banked on and about the coffin which had been brought by local friends of the deceased or had been sent by friends in many towns of the surrounding country.

Mary Geary Callahan was born at Fort Dodge, Iowa, January 6, 1865. She was married at Fort Dodge on February 18, 1887, to P. H. Callahan and at that time moved to North Dakota, where she lived until 1901 when with her husband and children she came to Bonners Ferry.

The deceased is survived by her husband and five children, two children T. J. Callahan and Nellie Forsythe having died several years ago. … She is also survived by five grandchildren and five sisters and one brother …
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John Murphy Passes Away
Funeral Held Here Yesterday Afternoon – Lived at Sandpoint

John Morphy, well known in this district and in Bonner county, died Friday evening of pneumonia. A private funeral was held yesterday afternoon, mass for the dead being conducted by the Rev. Fr. Kelly.

The deceased was 57 years old and, so far as known, had no relatives in this district.

Last Wednesday Murphy was thrown from a wagon at the camp of Inland Paper Co., in a runaway accident. No bones were broken but he suffered a scalp wound. He was brought to the hospital and was treated by Dr. Fry. It is believed that he was sick at the time of the accident and because of his weakened condition resulting from a severe attack of Spanish influenza a few months ago, his system was not able to resist the attack of pneumonia.

The deceased was formerly in business in Sandpoint and conducted a saloon there about 12 or 13 years ago.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 12 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. August 12, 1919, Page 7

He Walks Around Island
New Jersey Man Takes Stroll Around Porto Rico and is Glad He Did

San Juan, P. R. — M. K. McCosh of East Orange, N. J., strolled into San Juan a few days ago after a tramp around the entire island, which took him three weeks, feeling fine and declaring that the well-meaning friends who had warned him he would not find any food fit to eat in the small hotels had been sadly misinformed., He found the hostelries in the small places clean and the food good, and he said the object of his trip, to recuperate from the effects of an attack of ptomaine poisoning and a siege of the influenza, had been realized. He came here intending to make the return trip on the same steamer, but he found the sea voyage had not helped him as much as he had hoped and he decided to stay over and make his long tramp. Now he is glad he did it.

(ibid, page 7)
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Leadore, Idaho ca. 1912

Leadore1912Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 15

Clearwater Republican. August 15, 1919, Page 10

19190815CR1

Commissioners’ Proceedings Clearwater County, Idaho.

Orofino, Idaho, July 22, 1919

Board of County Commissioners convened in regular session pursuant to adjournment of yesterday, all members being present the following business was transacted, to-wit:

Minutes of last meeting read and approved.

Officers Quarterly Reports Examined and Approved for quarter ending July 12th, 1919.

County Auditor.
County Treasurer.
County Sheriff.

Ordered that the Clerk of this board with the assistance of the County Physician take steps to collect from those persons who required medical attention and care at the Red Cross Hospital during the influenza epidemic.

Board adjourns until July 23 1919, at 9 o’clock a.m. …

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 15 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bird’s Eye View of Part of Lewiston, Idaho ca. 1907

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 19

The Idaho Republican. August 19, 1919, Page 5

19190819TIR1

Local News

C. V. Evans, who has been critically ill at his home for the past several weeks, was taken to his brother’s hospital at Omaha Friday morning, where his brother, who is a skilled doctor will treat him.
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Care for Sick Soldiers

Uncle Sam will provide sanatorium and hospital care for all the boys discharged from army or naval service, so far as their sickness or disability was contracted in the service of their country. The United public health service has already undertaken this stupendous task and is busily engaged in enlarging its hospital facilities all over the country.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 19 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. August 19, 1919, Page 6

Idaho Budget

Criminal complaints were filed in the probate court at Caldwell by Dr. Ernest E. Laubaugh of the state health department against Mayor H. H. Keim of Nampa and Ira Beam, charged with violating health regulations.

Disease of a most insidious nature is threatening elm trees of Boise, according to H. P Ashby, city park supervisor. This disease is the European elm scale, which first appeared in this country in 1894, attacking all varieties of elk trees, especially Scotch elms.

(ibid, page 6)
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The Idaho Republican. August 19, 1919, Page 7

Firth

Mrs. William Johnson died at her home Friday afternoon, Aug. 15. She leaves a husband and four small children to mourn her loss. The remains will be shipped to Rockford, Ill. for burial.

(ibid, page 7)
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The Idaho Republican. August 19, 1919, Page 8

19190819TIR21,068,932 Died In U.S. In 1917
Heart Disease, Pneumonia, Tuberculosis, Chief Causes
Influenza Heads Epidemics
Census Bureau’s Compilation of Mortality Statistics Made Public – Death Rate From Heart Disease Shows Noticeable Decrease as Compared With 1916 – Next to Influenza Highest Death Rate From Epidemic Disease Was Diphtheria

The census bureau’s annual compilation of mortality statistics for the death-registration area in continental United States shows 1,068,932 deaths as having occurred in this area in 1917, representing a rate of 14.2 per 1,000 of population.

Of deaths, nearly one-third were due to three causes – heart disease, pneumonia and tuberculosis – and nearly another third resulted from the following nine causes: Bright’s disease and nephritis, apoplexy, cancer, diarrhoea [sic] and enteritis, arterial diseases, influenza, diabetes, diphtheria and bronchitis. The death-registration area of the United States in 1917 comprised 27 states, the district of Columbia and 46 cities in non-registration states, with a total estimated population of 75,000,000, or about 73 per cent of the estimated population of the United States.

Fewer Die of Heart Disease

The deaths from heart disease (organic diseases of the heart and endocarditis) number 115,376, or 153.2 per 100,000 population. The death rate from this cause shows a noticeable decrease as compared with 1916, when it was 159.4 per 100,000. There have been fluctuations from year to year, but in general there has been a marked increase since 1900, the earliest year for which the annual mortality statistics were published, when the rate for heart disease was only 123.1 per 100,000.

Pneumonia (including broncho-pneumonia) was responsible for 112,881 deaths, or 149.8 per 100,000. This rate, although much lower than that for 1900 (180.5) or for several succeeding years, is higher than that for any year during the period 1908-1916. The lowest recorded rate for pneumonia was 127 per 100,000 in 1914. The mortality from this disease has fluctuated considerably from year to year since 1900, the general tendency having been downward until 1914 and upward from 1914 to 1917.

Tuberculosis in its various forms caused 110,285 deaths, of which 97,047 were due to tuberculosis of the lungs. The death rate from all forms of tuberculosis was 146.4 per 100,000, and from tuberculosis of the lungs 128.9. The rate from tuberculosis of all forms declined continuously from 200.7 per 100,000 in 1904 to 141.6 per 100,000 in 1916, the decrease amounting to nearly 30 per cent; but for 1917 an increase is shown. Until 1912 more deaths were due to tuberculosis than to any other single cause but in that year and during the period 1914-1917 the mortality from tuberculosis was less than that from heart diseases, and in 1917 it fell below that from pneumonia also.

Cancer Fatalities Greater

Cancer and other malignant tumors caused 61,452 deaths, of which number 28,413, or 38 per cent, resulted from cancer of the stomach and liver. The rate for cancer has risen from 63 per 100,000 in 1900 to 81.6 in 1917. The increase has not been continuous, there having been three years – 1906, 1911 and 1917 – which showed declines as compared with the years immediately preceding. The decrease in 1917, as compared with 1916, however, was very slight – from 81.8 to 81.6. It should be borne in mind that at least part of the increase in the death rate from cancer may be apparent rather than real, being due to a greater degrees of accuracy in diagnosis and to greater care on the part of physicians in making reports to registration officials.

Influenza was responsible for 12,974 deaths, or 17.2 per 100,000. This rate is the highest shown for any epidemic disease in 1917, but is much lower than the corresponding one for the preceding year, 26.5 per 100,000. The influenza rate, which fluctuates greatly, was highest in 1901, when it stood at 32.2, than in any subsequent year prior to the occurrence of the recent epidemic.

Next to that for influenza, the highest rate appearing for any epidemic disease in 1917 was for diphtheria, 14.5 per 100,000, representing 12,458 deaths. The rate from this disease was somewhat higher in 1917 than in the preceding year, when it stood at 14.5 per 100,000.

Bronchitis caused 12,811 deaths, or 16.8 per 100,000. This rate is lower than that for any preceding year except 1916, when it was 16.0. The proportional decline from 1900, for which year the bronchitis rate was 45.7, to 1917, amounting to 64 per cent, was greater than that shown for any other important cause of death.

Typhoid Fever resulted in 10,113 deaths, or 13.4 per 100,000. The mortality rate from this cause also has shown a remarkable reduction since 1900, when it was 35.9, the proportional decrease amounting to 63 per cent. This highly gratifying decline demonstrates in a striking manner the efficiency of improved sanitation and of …

(continued page 5)

the modern method of prevention – the use of the anti-typhoid vaccine.

The greatest number of deaths charged to any one accidental cause = 11,114, or 14.8 per 100,000 – is shown for falls. The rate for this cause varies but slightly from year to year. Next to falls, the greatest number of accidental deaths – 8,649, or 11.5 per 100,000 – resulted from railroad accidents and injuries. …

[chart]

Automobile Death Rate Grows

Deaths from automobile accidents and injuries in 1917 totaled 6,724, or 8.9 per 100,000 population. This rate has risen rapidly from year to year, but not so rapidly as the rate of increase in the number of automobiles in use.

Deaths due to accidental asphyxiation (except in conflagrations) numbered 3,375, or 4.5 per 100,000. This rate is somewhat higher than that for any year during the preceding ten-year period.

Hot weather caused 1,964 deaths, or 2.6 per 100,000. This rate is considerably above those for most of the years covered by the bureau’s records, but is somewhat lower than 2.9 in 1916 and is far below 5.3 in 1911. The rate from this cause naturally varies greatly from year to year.

(ibid, page 8)
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Bonners Ferry Herald. August 19, 1919, Page 1

19190819BFH1

Dr. and Mrs. Faucett Here

Capt. S. T. Faucett, recently discharged from the medical corps of the U. S. army at Camp Russell, Wyo., arrived here Friday with his wife, who while Capt. Faucett was overseas, lived with relatives in Chicago and various parts of Wisconsin.

Capt. and Mrs. Faucett have arranged to reside in the Otto F. Mathiesen home until they can secure a permanent residence or until the return of the Mathiesen family from a several weeks auto touring trip.

Capt. Faucett will be associated with Dr. Fry here in the practice of medicine, having given up this practice just two years ago to volunteer his services to the government. He enlisted as a 1st lieutenant and was advanced to the rank of captain.

Until the armistice was signed he was battalion surgeon for the 359th Infantry, 90th Division and when the peace pact was signed and the 90th Division returned to America he was assigned to duty with the army of occupation in Germany.

Capt. Faucett saw service on the front lines and was a participant in the Argonne and St. Mihiel drives, being slightly gassed in the St. Mihiel engagement. While in France he was also a victim of the Spanish influenza.

Capt. Faucett says that army life is not so bad in war times but at times it is pretty exciting and that he has often thought of Bonners Ferry as being about the finest place in the world.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 19 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. August 19, 1919, Page 4

Local Pick-ups

The four children of Wm. Peters, of Copeland, have been admitted to the children’s home at Lewiston and will be taken there today or tomorrow on the order of Probate Judge Henderson.

E. B. Schlette, forest ranger for the Copeland district, was a business visitor in town Saturday. He states that there have been some very serious fires in his district this year and that it has required hard work and constant effort to keep them under control.

(ibid, page 4)
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Cattle Passing Through Leesburg, Idaho ca. 1908

Leesburg1908Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 21

The Emmett Index. August 21, 1919, Page 11

19190821EI1

19190821EI2Got Weary Of “Flu” Talk
Visitor to Indianapolis Very Much Fed Up With Conversations Relating to the Epidemic

L. B. Andrus of Grand Rapids, Mich., chief of the Merchants Heat and Light company, is laboring under the impression that some “Hoosier jinx” was trailing him Wednesday evening.

While taking dinner at a hotel he was surrounded by delegates to the casket manufacturer’s convention. After hearing them discuss their business, which discussion naturally had many references to the influenza epidemic, he concluded it was no place for him.

As the evening rolled on, he began debating with himself the question whether the epidemic was going to get him, so he decided to take a Turkish bath. He had only been there a short time when a sick-looking individual came in, and in a conversation with Mr. Andrus said that he had only recently got over a severe case of the influenza, and he had been advised that a Turkish bath would get the poison out of his system and assist him to recover more rapidly.

When he was talking with this man, another man came in sneezing and coughing and inquired of Mr. Andrus whether he thought a Turkish bath would prevent a fellow from getting a bad case of the influenza.

By this time Andrus said to the attendant: “Get me out of here as quickly as possible. I have given about as much time as I care to presiding at the flu conference in Indianapolis.” – Indianapolis News.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 21 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Browning Merchantile, Lorenzo, Idaho

LorenzoFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 22

Cottonwood Chronicle. August 22, 1919, Page 1

19190822CC1

Will Open September 8
Hope To Have A successful Year – Teachers Have Signed up

The Cottonwood public schools will open their term for 1919-1920 on September 8th. The school board, with the assistance of Superintendent Lustie have selected a very capable force of teachers, all positions having been filled but that of the third and fourth grade teacher. Teachers have been very scarce and hard to obtain and at one time every position was filled but when the contracts were set to be filled in they have declined to accept the positions due perhaps to higher wages paid somewhere else. As one member of the board stated: “We have hired enough teacher to run a school three times the size of Cottonwood.” …

It is the hope of the school board, as well as everyone else that the school year this term will not be interrupted as was the case last year on account of influenza during which time the school was closed for several weeks. After the re-opening of the school after the flu epidemic, school work had to be rushed by both the teachers and pupils and proved to be a great injustice to both.
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News Around The State
Items of Interest From Various sections Reproduced for Benefit of Our Readers

Prompt action on the part of the Nez Perce county farm bureau probably served to check what might have proven a serious epidemic of influenza among the horses of that section of the country. The discovery of the incipient plague did not come about, however, until after two valuable horses belonging to F. Wicks of Gifford had succumbed and others belonging to the same owner were afflicted. It was the Wicks place that the malady was first found.

Grasshoppers from Idaho county have crossed the Lawyer canyon and invaded Nezperce in swarms, causing havoc to gardens.

Such a low state of water has been reached in the Snake river that it has been necessary to make extensions of intake pipes on the fruit ranches along the lower Snake.
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Beyond Control

Forest fires in the Selway National forests are reported to be beyond control. The fire is burning over a front of 35 miles.
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Will Fight Fires

The Camas Prairie passenger train Tuesday evening carried an extra coach to accommodate the 65 fire fighters that were sent from Spokane to the Nezperce National Forest to fight fires.
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Fires Can Be Seen

Forest fires, which have been raging fiercely in the Selway and Nezperce National forests can be clearly seen from almost any point on the prairie. In the day time, large volumes of smoke can be seen rising to the skies, at night the flames can be seen shooting their light towards the heavens. The one, most noticeable, the first of the week, was the fire in the Selway country, which is also one of the largest fires raging in North Idaho at the present time.

Fires could also be seen very plainly in the Joseph country. These fires have to be fought by the homesteaders as the government gives no assistance to land owned by homesteaders. At the present time, the only salvation to save the timber from ruin in the path of the fires seems to be rain.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 22 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Kendrick Gazette. August 22, 1919, Page 1

19190822KG1

School Notes

The Kendrick Public Schools, both high and grades, will open September 8th. A large attendance is reported on account of the light attendance last year due to the influenza. All pupils should enroll early.

All parents intending to start young children for the first time should see that the children enroll the first day. Older pupils can make up a moderate amount of lost time, but beginners can not. There will be but one beginning class during the year as usual. Consequently all beginners should start in September. Children six years of age and those who will be six during the early part of the term may start if they are mature enough. It is not best to start children too young. Parents who have children to enter the beginning class are requested to report the name and age at once to either Harry G. Stanton or D. R. White. It may be well for the parents to understand that half year classes would mean more teachers.

The teaching staff for the coming year is unusually strong. It is unfortunate that many former teachers will not be back, but good teachers have been chosen to take their places. …

A very successful year is anticipated.
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Southwick Items

A forest fire near Cedar Creek and one near Teakean keeps this part of the country well supplied with smoke.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 22 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. August 22, 1919, Page 3

19190822CT1

Last Season Good

“Last season because of the S. A. T. C. work and the influenza, athletic activities were curtailed somewhat but Idaho walloped W. S. C. at Pullman and trimmed Gonzaga two successive games. Practically every man who played last fall will don the padded pants again this fall and many of those who were in the army for a season or two, will be in harness again. …
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Roswell Locals

Miss Lena Fretwell was in Caldwell the first of the week visiting a cousin, Sammy Wilson, who is ill at a hospital there.

Lawrence Wamstad was in Boise Sunday to visit his sister, Mrs. Frank Galyan, who is ill at St. Alphonsus.

Mr. Benj. F. Swan died August 13th at St. Alphonsus hospital in Boise after ten days illness with typhoid. … Mrs. Swan died July 14 from typhoid. … There are seven children, Kenneth who is in the U. S. regulars; Bernard, Donald, Mildred, Paul and Beta. Donald and Paul are in St. Alphonsus hospital now with typhoid. …

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 22 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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View of South Fork River at Lowman, Idaho

LowmanFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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August 27

The Daily Star-Mirror., August 27, 1919, Page 2

19190827DSM1

19190827DSM2Influenza Among Horses

There is an influenza epidemic among the horses in the Gifford section. A number of valuable animals have been lost as a result of the ravages of the disease. The farmers are resorting to vaccination as a preventive measure. – Kendrick Gazette

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 27 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., August 27, 1919, Page 3

Jews In Serbia In Bad Plight
Economic Ruin and Epidemics Have Fallen to Their Lot in Balkans
Bulgarian Outlook Better
Investigator Urges Shipments of Food and Clothing to Roumania [sic] – Fund of $35,000,000 Being Sought in United States

New York. – Reports of the condition of Jews in the Balkan countries, as made to the American Jewish Relief committee by its investigators abroad, show that economic ruin, epidemics of typhus, tuberculosis, and other diseases have fallen to the lot of Balkan Jews to an extent equal to that suffered by their co-religionists in other war-torn countries, but that political and religious repressive measures have been lacking.

The first detailed account of the situation in Serbia in many months is from Dr. Isaac Alcalay, chief rabbi of Serbia, with headquarters in Belgrade. He said Belgrade was still without regular communication with the provinces, because the railroads and bridges destroyed by the Austrians have not been restored.

“During the war,” he wrote, “Jews in Belgrade suffered proportionately more than the rest of the population. Most of their habitations were exposed to gunfire throughout the 15 months that the city was under bombardment. Almost all homes are destroyed. The Jewish population of the city, formerly 8,000, now numbers no more than 4,500. The number is being increased daily by returning refugees. Many men are still with the colors. …

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., August 27, 1919, Page 5

City News

P. H. Teare is quite ill at his home five miles east of town.
— —

New-World Knights Strong Peace Army …

One of the reasons why the Knights of Columbus were able to render such valuable service to the men in the uniform of the United States army, navy an marines was that back of the K. of C. and the public support they received was a thriving fraternal organization, growing rapidly in all parts of the North American continent. William J. McGinley of New York, Supreme Secretary of the K. of C., in his annual report to the Supreme Convention of the K. of C., shows that the Knights have had a magnificent organization with which to put into effect their various movements for the benefit of the nation’s defenders. …

The finances of the Knights of Columbus, Secretary McGinley’s report shows, are in an exceptionally flourishing condition. The present assets of the K. of C., exclusive, of course, of the special war funds, are over $8,500,000. The influenza epidemic cost the Knights the past year in payments to beneficiaries of insurance members $1,149,000. The total death benefits paid during the year amounted to $2,175,394.98 making a total of $13,123,646.76 since the beginning of the order. The total insurance in force this year in the K. of C. amounts to $161,353,565.33.

There were 5,676 deaths in the organization during the year, of which 3,150 were members who had insurance in the order. Despite this, however, there was a gross increase in membership of 121,891. …

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

Leland, Idaho from Elevation at East End of Main Street Looking West ca. 1913 (1)

Leland1913Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

August 28

The Filer Record., August 28, 1919, Page 1

19190828FR1

19190828FR3Scouts Return Visit of Flu

Cincinnati. — Recurrence of influenza in epidemic form this fall is unlikely, said Health Officer William H. Peters, taking issue with Dr. Royal S. Copeland, New York health commissioner.
— —

19190828FR2

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 28 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Filer Record., August 28, 1919, Page 2

Samoans Liked Ice Cream Sodas

A member of the United States medical corps, recently returned to Ellinwood, Kas., reports that ice cream sodas have made a profound impression upon the Samoans. The officer was detailed in charge of the soda fountain of the military drug store at the Pago-Pago naval station, and reports that his patients took much more kindly to the sodas than to the anti-influenza serum which he was obliged to dispense.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

The Filer Record., August 28, 1919, Page 3

Baby Dies

Dale Sealey, age about sixteen months, son of L. A. Sealey, died Tuesday afternoon following an attack of summer diarrhoea [sic]. Funeral services will occur at Kimberly today and interment will be made at Twin Falls cemetery.

Following the death of the child’s mother last November, the baby was adopted by Mr. and Mrs. Ben Train of Kimberly. A short time ago it developed a severe case of summer diarrhoea [sic] and on Sunday last was brought here for treatment. Everything possible was done to save the life of the little one but without avail, and death relieved its suffering. Sympathy is extended to the bereaved ones.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Filer Record., August 28, 1919, Page 8

Glad Horse Kicked Him

Mifflintown, Pa. — “I am thankful that horse kicked me in the face on January 10,” private John A. Allen of Thompsontown announced when he returned home several days ago. He believes the injury he suffered from the horse was responsible for his early return to this country and his discharge. He served for two weeks in the heaviest fighting in the Argonne forest with a unit of engineers, and later was in a Paris hospital for several weeks with influenza and pneumonia.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

Idaho County Free Press. August 28, 1919, Page 4

19190828ICFP1

Clearwater

(Special Correspondence)

Word of the death of Lester Lytle was received here Tuesday. The boy had not been in good health since having the influenza last spring. His mother, Mrs. Grace Lytle, started with him for Red River Hot Springs in hope he would regain his health, but on arrival in Elk City the boy proved to be so weak that they thought a few days’ rest was best before proceeding to the springs. Instead of gaining, he grew worse. Dr. R. J. Alcorn of Grangeville was called, but too late. The boy died. The body will be brought to Clearwater for burial.

J. W. Yarbrough, former proprietor of the Newsome House, is quite ill with typhoid fever at that place.

Stites

Mrs. O. A. Hammons, who has been very ill, is convalescing.

Funeral services for the infant child of Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Hern were held Wednesday afternoon. Interment was in the I. O. O. F. cemetery.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 28 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
————-

Further Reading

Porto Rico

The island’s name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico in 1931 by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila.

excerpted from: Wikipedia
— — — — — — — — — —

‘Spanish’ flu and army horses: what historians and biologists can learn from a history of animals with flu during the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic

Floor Haalboom November 2014 Studium (Rotterdam 7(3):124

Abstract

At the time of the 1918–1919 ‘Spanish’ influenza pandemic, influenza researchers did not just relate this disease to the human population, despite the focus of historians of medicine on its human aspects and meanings. In line with the use of historical reports of animals with influenza in present-day microbiological studies on influenza among different animal species, this article investigates understandings of animal influenza in the Netherlands during the 1918–1919 pandemic. The article adds to microbiological uses of the historical record by putting observations of animals with influenza in historical contexts, in particular the context of military dealings with influenza at the end of the First World War, and the social position of veterinary medicine. The case of the Dutch military horse veterinarian Emile Bemelmans, who argued that human and horse influenza were identical, illustrates that knowledge of these contexts is important to critically use historical sources reporting animals with influenza in present-day biological influenza research.

FluArmyHorses-a
Arrival of ill and wounded army horses. Examination for infectious diseases (in this case glanders). Glass negative by the photographer Herman de Ruiter made for: J. Kooiman, De Nederlandsche Strijdmacht en hare Mobilisatie in het jaar 1914 (Purmerend 1915). Collection Nationaal Militair Museum, Soesterberg, nr. 108924.

‘Spanish’ flu and army horses125In August 1918, physician P.H. Kramer, officer of health of the Dutch Militair Geneeskun-dige Dienst (Military Health Service, hereafter MGD), discussed an exceptional event in war-stricken Europe:

a disease of an exceptional epidemic character, which has not honoured the neutral borders of our fatherland, and which has become known to us closely under the name of ‘Spanish flu’ or ‘Spanish illness’.

Whether this flu was really of Spanish origin remains to be seen, as the reports on the epidemic were unreliable due to the circumstances of war. Kramer was writing during the start of what would become known as the 1918–1919 ‘Spanish’ influenza pandemic, which eventually killed tens of millions of people worldwide, a higher number than First World War related deaths.2 In the Netherlands, more than 16,000 people died during the height of the pandemic, in the autumn of 1918. The summer of 1918 and the spring of 1919 saw milder outbreaks, which still added several thousands of victims to the influenza death toll.3 Kramer, however, was still unaware of these figures, and wrote about an epidemic which travelled quickly, but remained relatively mild. Rather, Kramer expressed an interest in the dynamic properties of influenza epidemics in his overview: the symptoms appeared suddenly and were never exactly alike. Moreover, he discussed historical reports of ‘simultaneous outbreaks of infectious diseases among horses, dogs, cats or chickens, which one related to the raging disease among the people’.

Such historical accounts of the (apparent) link between diseases in animals and influenza pandemics among the human population have recently attracted the attention of microbiologists studying influenza. Their interest is driven by questions on the biological cause of the 1918–1919 pandemic, the influenza virus, and its evolution as it multiplies in different animal host species. Microbiologists want to understand the origin of novel influenza pandemics, and what role different animal species play in this. Historical sources promise to offer them an insight into influenza’s evolutionary ecology. As such, they look for observations of animals suffering from influenza in these sources. Some microbiologists give the First World War a special place in this story. They argue that the Great War offered special ecological circumstances for the influenza virus to thrive in, including plenty of opportunities of contact between large numbers of soldiers and animals. These circumstances might have resulted in a new influenza virus of exceptional virulence, which eventually caused the 1918–1919 pandemic.

continued:
— — — — — — — — — —

The ‘Influenza’ Vaccine Used during the Samoan Pandemic of 1918

G. Dennis Shanks – NIH

Abstract

In 1918, a crude influenza vaccine made from chemically inactivated, mixed cultures of respiratory bacteria was widely used prior to the understanding that influenza was caused by a virus. Such vaccines contained no viral material and probably consisted largely of bacterial endotoxin. The Australian military used such a vaccine on Samoa in December 1918 and thought it was valuable. Post hoc analyses suggest that the mixed respiratory bacteria vaccine may have actually been of some benefit, but the mechanism of such protection is unknown. Although such a crude vaccine would not be considered in a modern setting, the rapid use of problematic vaccines still remains a risk when new influenza types suddenly appear, as in 1976 and 2009.

continued: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health
— — — —

Influenza in Samoa

Chapter 10 The 1918 influenza pandemic

On 7 November 1918, the New Zealand passenger and cargo ship Talune arrived at Apia from Auckland. On board were people suffering from pneumonic influenza, a highly infectious disease already responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths around the world. Although the Talune had been quarantined in Fiji, no such restrictions were imposed in Samoa. Sick passengers were allowed to disembark.

1908talune-a
The steamship Talune at the Napier breakwater in 1908. source link:

The disease spread rapidly through the islands. Samoa’s disorganised local health facilities and traumatised inhabitants were unable to cope with the magnitude of the disaster and the death toll rose with terrifying speed. Grieving families had no time to carry out traditional ceremonies for their loved ones. Bodies were wrapped in mats and collected by trucks for burial in mass graves.

The total number of deaths attributable to influenza was later estimated as 8500, 22% of the population. According to a 1947 United Nations report, it was ‘one of the most disastrous epidemics recorded anywhere in the world during the present century, so far as the proportion of deaths to the population is concerned’.

Survivors blamed the New Zealand Administrator, Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Logan, for failing to quarantine Talune and for rejecting an offer of medical assistance from American Samoa. A Royal Commission called to enquire into the allegations found evidence of administrative neglect and poor judgement.

Logan seemed unable to comprehend the depth of feeling against him and his administration. He left Samoa in early 1919 and did not return. His successor, Colonel R.W. Tate (1920-23), was faced with immense grief and ongoing resentment.

[It is] temporary and, like children, they [Samoans] will get over it provided they are handled with care… They will later on remember all that has been done for them in the previous four years…

Logan’s report on his administration of Western Samoa, 8 August 1919, IT 1/1/1D

The influenza pandemic had a significant impact on New Zealand’s administration of Samoa. Many older matai (chiefs) died, making way for new leaders more familiar with European ways. For survivors, the incident was seared into memory. It became the foundation upon which other grievances against the New Zealand authorities would be built.

source: (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 22-Apr-2020
— — — — — — — — — —

Heat and Summer Diarrhea

John Zahorsky, M.D. JAMA Pediatrics

Abstract

The theory that the extreme elevation of the temperature during July, August and September is the direct cause of summer diarrhea was very popular with the early American physicians. Booker has given us an interesting history of the subject. Diarrhea in infancy as a summer disease was not recognized in Europe until recent times, but was accurately described by Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia in 1777. To this physician is also credited the theory that heat is the principal factor in the causation of the disease, but a careful reading of his article shows that he was inclined to view the disease as a modification of malaria. It was really Dr. E. Hornell of Philadelphia in 1823 who first clearly expressed the direct connection between heat and cholera infantum.

source: JAMA
—————-

Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)

Idaho History May 16, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 57

Idaho Newspaper clippings July 1-30, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

July 1

The Idaho Republican. July 01, 1919, Page 1

19190701TIR1

C. F. Hendrie Coming Home

C. F. Hendrie and his brother Ben, will arrive in Blackfoot this Monday evening from Amity, Oregon, where Mr. Hendrie has been for several weeks. Mr. Hendrie left Blackfoot about three months ago for Berkley, Cal., to recover from a severe attack of influenza and we are glad to report that he has regained much of his strength during this three months’ sojourn.

Mrs. Hendrie and son Charles motored to Pocatello to meet them.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 01 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. July 01, 1919, Page 4

Riverton

Little Mary Idella Miller is on the sick list.

All mail boxes are erected along our route; mail delivery seems to be delayed tho.

Thomas

Bishop John R. Williams is around again after suffering for some time with a severe attack of phneumonia [sic] and bronchial trouble.

P. Tony Peterson, choir and band leader of Thomas passed to the great beyond on June 6, after suffering for some weeks with leakage of the heart. … He married since coming here Mrs. Almena Furniss Parsons and leaves besides his wife three living children, the issue of this latter marriage and eight children by his former marriage. Mrs. Peterson expresses deep gratitude to thos [sic] neighbors who came and planted the crops and assisted in caring for them thru the long weeks of his illness and death.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — — — — — — — —

Bird’s-eye View of Kamiah, Idaho ca. 1915

Kamiah1915Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 4

The Idaho Republican. July 04, 1919, Page 3

19190704TIR1

Seeking A Business Opening

Mrs. Gwen Roe and Miss Nora Smart of Preston, Idaho, visited Blackfoot this week in quest of a location where they could open a millinery business and add ladies’ ready to wear after they became acquainted with the place and the needs of its people

Mrs. Roe is the wife of Watkin L. Roe, who died of influenza last fall when he was planning to move to Blackfoot to accept a position with the Idaho Republican. Mr. Roe was a writer and solicitor of such ability and but for his untimely death would probably have become a fixture on the office force of this paper.
— —

Sterling

The eighth grade graduates of the Sterling schools went to Blackfoot Saturday to have their pictures taken. …
— —

Inland Northwest

That drought throughout northern Utah, Idaho and eastern Oregon is ruining crops was the word received last week.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 04 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. July 04, 1919, Page 6

Twenty-Six Reason Why Men Get Drunk

Somerville, Mass. — Twenty-six reasons answering the eternal question, “Why do men get drunk?” have been promulgated by William Preble Jones, probation officer of the Somerville police court, who has studied the problem intimately for many years. Here are the underlying reasons:

1. They want liquor and they will have it. But it is an acquired taste. After taking the first drink of whiskey in his life nobody ever hankered for the second, altho he learned afterward to like it.

2. They need their beer or ale to relieve thirst, so they say. Very often this is true.

3. The doctor ordered whiskey for them once upon a time, and that prescriptions lasts forever and for all things. Whether it is chilblains or toothache, cramps or pain, stomachache – as some men tell the judge – influenza or ruptures, of “pleuisy” [sic] way down in their abdomen, whiskey is their panacea. …

(ibid, page 6)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. July 04, 1919, Page 3

19190704CT1

Government Provides For The Future

A great many men who come to us seem to think that when the war ended it eliminated every chance of their dying. To these men we say – “The possibility of death or permanent disability is ever present; there is just as much need for insurance protection now as there was during the war.”

Influenza alone killed more young, healthy and vigorous persons in the world generally than were killed by the bullets and disease during four and one-half years of war. Yet these men come to us and say , “I don’t need any insurance.”

True enough, influenza epidemics are not likely to occur every year, not even frequently. But don’t think that because you are healthy and strong, with a bright future before you, that you don’t need insurance. …
— —

Obituary

Rose L. Spencer, wife of Bert Spencer, died of acute indigestion Friday, June 27, at her home on South Kimbrel. … She leaves to mourn her early departure her mother, three sisters, husband and two little children. …

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 04 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. July 04, 1919, Page 8

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Marble Front

Mrs. W. C. Fugate was quite ill a few days this week, but is slowly improving.

Miss Mary Fugate is improving very slowly.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

Bird’s Eye View, Kellogg, Idaho ca. 1917 (1)

Kellogg1917Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

July 8

The Daily Star-Mirror., July 08, 1919, Page 2

19190708DSM1

The Newspapers Did It

[Editorial]

… This [use of newspapers to inform the public] has been so often illustrated that it seems needless to repeat it. In the campaign of 1918 the influenza epidemic prevented the holding of public meetings in Idaho and the newspapers were used by political parties and all were well satisfied with the results. the campaign managers bought page, half page and quarter page advertising space in the newspapers and sent their messages to the people in that way. A prominent politician who has had much experience in Idaho politics, said, after the election last fall:

“I foresee the end of political speech making campaigns and that newspapers will be used instead. It has cost my party managers less to reach the people through the newspapers than by holding public meetings and it has brought better results. The people read the statements sent out through the press in the quiet of their homes, away from the excitement and noise and they form pretty accurate opinions. I predict that future campaigns will be carried on through the newspapers. The people who are really worth reaching are the people who read the newspapers.”

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 08 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., July 08, 1919, Page 3

City News

Dr. Stevenson and family are now settled in their newly acquired home at 318 south Jefferson street. The doctor’s office will remain as formerly in the “New Creightob block,” Main and Third streets.

Miss Alice Johnson, who recently graduated as a nurse in Spokane, has been visiting her parents, Mr. and Mrs. S. J. Johnson, for a few days. Miss Johnson left today for Seattle to continue her work in a hospital.

Mrs. E. O. Catheart of Harrison, who has been in Moscow for medical treatment, left Sunday for her home, much improved in health.

Edgar Hunter, who has been visiting his father, Wm. Hunter, left Saturday for his home at Kansas City. Mrs. Edgar Hunter is still detained in Moscow on account of one of the children undergoing an attack of the measles.

President Lindley’s lecture, “Scientific Substitute for Mind and Faith Cures,” will be delivered tomorrow afternoon at 3 o’clock in the auditorium at the university.
— —

Loss of Appetite

As a general rule there is nothing serious about a loss of appetite, and if you skip a meal or only eat two meals a day for a few days you will soon have a relish for your meals when meal time comes. Bear in mind that at least five hours should always elapse between meals so as to give the food ample time to digest and the stomach a period of rest before a second meal is taken. Then if you eat no more than you crave and take a reasonable amount of outdoor exercise every day you will not need to worry about your appetite. When the loss of appetite is caused by constipation as is often the case, that should be corrected at once. A dose of Chamberlain’s tablets will do it.

[adv.]

(ibid, page 3)
— — — — — — — — — —

Birds Eye View, Kendrick, Idaho ca. 1916

Kendrick1916Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

July 10

The Grangeville Globe. July 10, 1919, Page 2

19190710GG1

Local And Personal Mention

Mr. and Mrs. Chris Keefer of Juliaetta, former residents of this place, arrived here last week and are making an extended visit with relatives. Mr. Keefer is not enjoying good health at the present time. Last winter he had the influenza and when partially recovered went out to wait on other sufferers and later went through another attack from which he has been unable to find relief.

John Coram made a trip to Kooskia Tuesday to visit his old time friend Jim Buchanan, who is in very poor health.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 10 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Ketchum, Idaho (1)

KetchumFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

July 11

The Idaho Republican. July 11, 1919, Page 3

19190711TIR1

Riverside

Mrs. Carl Hutchinson is on the sick list this week.

The people of Riverside mourn the loss of Mrs. Mary Sohm, who died at her home Saturday afternoon. She was an active member of the community and a good neighbor.

Rose

The little daughter of Mr. and Mrs. D. W. Stalhworthy is on the sick list this week.

The dance given for the returned soldiers was well attended.

Library Notes

The library was closed nine weeks on account of the influenza quarantine, this reduced the circulation, but the attendance registered more than the previous year.

The library is re-registering borrowers and assigning new numbers. This has to be done every two years to get rid of inactive names.

The average circulation for the month [of June] was more than twenty-five books a day. Miss Gillespie repaired thirty-seven books. …

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 11 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

American Falls Press. July 11, 1919, Page 3

19190711AFP1

What Editors Say About Drugless Methods

(Health Talk No. 6)

Bernarr McFadden, editor of the Physical Culture, the monthly magazine, and the editor of the Rocky Mountain News, both deal some sledge hammer blows for the drugless methods.

McFadden says in a statement about the comparative statistics of the medical and the drugless treatment of Spanish Influenza cases, “If these figures are correct, and they are put forward as correct by honorable men, what appalling conclusions one would be forced to draw! Think what it would mean! It would mean that most of the 400,000 who died would be alive today, that they were actually, though unintentionally killed.”

The Rocky Mountain News says: “These statistics mean (if true) that the old school treatment of at least two diseases (the flu and pneumonia) is in many cases more deadly than the diseases themselves. Death caused by malpractice, whether thru ignorance or otherwise, should be prevented.”

Chiropractic is a new science resulting from the discovery that bad alignment of the twenty-four movable vertebrae or joints of the back bone interferes with spinal nerve force and weakens and diseases the body. No other discovery ever explained so sensibly why one man’s disease differs from another. Call today and learn for yourself what Chiropractic can do for your case. …

[adv.]

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 11 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

American Falls Press. July 11, 1919, Page 5

Local Briefs

Miss Bernice Kriss of Roy as been under the care of Dr. Murdock since Monday. She is staying with Mrs. Huls.

Mr. Paul, owner of Paul’s cafe, is back at work in his restaurant after being disabled several days with a severe attack of inflammatory rheumatism.
— —

Children Go To Boise Home

Marie Wanke, Bert Wanke and Ethel Babcock of American Falls and Hazel Frodsham of Rockland left Thursday noon for the Boise Children’s Home in charge of Mrs. Bennett, matron at the home.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

Birds Eye View, Kimberly, Idaho

KimberlyFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

July 15

The Idaho Republican. July 15, 1919, Page 6

19190715TIR1

Wicks

Mr. and Mrs. P. A. Stevens and daughter Goldie of Butte, Mont. are spending a few days at the Powell home. They are enroute to Phoenix, Ari. for the benefit of Mr. Steven’s health, he having had a severe attack of influenza last winter from which he has never fully recovered. Mr. Stevens is a well known mining man of Butte and has many friends here who hope that the change of climate will make him well and strong again.

Sterling

Mrs. O. F. Rice, who has been ill for some time is now somewhat improved and able to be up and around.

Upper Presto

Mrs. John Smith departed this life at her home Wednesday, July 2 at 1 o’clock, after suffering for some time with heart trouble. All that skilled physicians and loving care could do for her was done, but of no avail. Mrs. Smith is survived by a husband and one brother, Mr. Trenouth. Funeral services were held at Goshen meeting house and the remains were laid in the Goshen cemetery. The entire community send their sympathy to the bereaved husband and brother.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 15 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. July 15, 1919, Page 5

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Local Pick-ups

Mr. and Mrs. Gorge McGlocklin arrived here yesterday morning, accompanied by their little daughter, Ella Mae. Mr. McGlocklin will return to his work in Tacoma, today while his wife will remain here to take treatment at the Bonners Ferry hospital as she has never recovered her health since she was sick with the Spanish influenza last fall. The McGlocklins are former residents here, Mr. McGlocklin being the son of Mr. and Mrs. J. F. McGlocklin.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 15 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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King Hill, Idaho ca. 1931

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 17

The Daily Star-Mirror., July 17, 1919, Page 4

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19190717DSM2
Influenza Took A Terrible Toll
Native Population Almost Wiped Out By Terrible Plague Last Winter

Gone are all but the memories of the Spanish Influenza epidemic in the States, but up in the north of Seward peninsula the struggle with the disease still continues; its memories will ever be vivid. Like the typhus of Europe, the disease did its work silently and thoroughly, leaving its heroes and heroines and a toll of dead that perhaps will never be known.

In the vicinity of Teller, Mrs. Bertha Gehrman, postmistress, writes, scarcely a dozen adult natives remain alive. Across the bay from Teller a Mrs. Fosso took care of the entire native mission, her husband also being seriously will with the influenza. Some twenty five native children fell to her tender hands and most of them were saved. This heroic white woman, Mrs. Gehrman relates, went to the river for ice, brought wood and coal for the fires, and when three adult natives died in her home, was compelled to drag the bodies out by herself. In spite of her efforts, however, seventy-two of the natives succumbed and were buried at the mission in a long trench.

From Teller, the storekeeper, a man by the name of Winfield, with one other assistant, both still unrecovered, started out to visit native villages and bring what aid they could. On the American river they found a woman and five children in a cabin with seven dead bodies, same of which had been dead for a week. At Agiapuk, twenty-five miles from Teller, only three little children survived the influenza. They were in bed with their dead mother. In this village twenty-three bodies were buried.

At. Cape Prince of Wales 186 natives died, and so on throughout the vast districts whose white silences were made all the more grim by the stalking terror of unseen death, more terrible because aid was miles and miles distant and pitifully insufficient at that.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 17 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bird’s Eye view of Kooskia, Idaho ca. 1914 (1)

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 18

Shoshone Journal. July 18, 1919, Page 1

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Commissioners Authorize County Nurse
Nurse Will Examine School Children Report on County Charges, Hold Classes
State Will Pay $300 of Yearly Salary

The County Commissioners in session Monday, made all necessary arrangements to secure for Lincoln County, a county nurse. The duties of the new county official will be to examine the school children of all city and country schools, examine all sick cases where aid is being requested of the county, hold classes of instruction in home nursing and feeding the sick, and give demonstrations and lectures to the adults of the county.

The proposition was presented to the County Commissioners by Mrs. E. G. Gooding on behalf of the local chapter of the American red Cross assisted by Mrs. Frank Millsaps. Miss Irwin of the Extension dept. University of Ida., was present and explained the operation and supervision of the county nurse system as worked out by the State Extension Bureau.

The communities of Shoshone, Richfield and Dietrich who had community nurses last year during the influenza epidemic have demonstrated the great aid which a nurse can give to prevent and control the various community diseases which annually visit every neighborhood. The salary of the county nurse is $1500 a year, $300 of which will be paid by the State.

The county nurse is the most necessary agent to the community for the coming year. Many noted physicians over the United States have prophesied a continuation of the influenza epidemic for the next year and the county nurse means that the children and parents of Lincoln County will receive close attention and care which will prevent illness in the large majority of cases. By taking proper preventative measures, a reoccurrence of the epidemic will have very little effect on the community.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 18 July 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Kuna, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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July 22

The Idaho Republican. July 22, 1919, Page 2