Category Archives: Weekly History

Idaho History May 9, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 56

Idaho Newspaper clippings June 18-27, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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June 18

The Daily Star-Mirror., June 18, 1919, Page 2

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The Educational Center

Moscow is the educational center of Idaho. This is a fact admitted by all but the University, one of the greatest and best educational institutions of the northwest, is not the only educational institution of which the people of Moscow are justly proud. True, it is our largest institution, and has a wider scope than any of the others, but our city school system is unexcelled in Idaho and we are justifiably proud of it.

The public schools of Moscow close this week and a class of 43 graduates leave the high school. Most of them will enter the University of Idaho and complete their education in their home town. The past year has been the most difficult the schools of Moscow have ever known. The influenza epidemic last winter kept the schools closed for weeks but with this great handicap and the further handicap of having scores of young men leave school to enter the Student Army Train[ing] Corps, a splendid class has been graduated, the number to receive diplomas being 43 out of a possible 45 at the beginning of the term. This is certainly a record of which Moscow people should feel proud. …

But there is another institution that deserves special mention. This is Ursuline academy, the Catholic school, which has done a splendid work this year as well as in former years. This school was also handicapped by the influenza but it has made splendid progress and will have a good class of graduates. The great work of this splendid school is with the younger pupils. In this school the pupils get the closer personal supervision so necessary to children, that cannot be given in the larger public schools. The Ursuline academy is one of Moscow’s splendid assets of which the people are really proud. …

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 18 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Juliaetta, Idaho ca. 1908 (1)

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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June 19

The Filer Record., June 19, 1919, Page 3

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Operates On Infant

Dr. Dwight performed an operation on the ten-moth-old son of Mr. and Mrs. Jas. Kilpatrick for mastoid abscess last Friday. The child is doing nicely. The abscess was the after effect of an attack of influenza.

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 19 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Idaho County Free Press. June 19, 1919, Page 1

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Mrs. Addie Lister Writes

Mrs. Addie Lister, a former resident of Clearwater, has written to the Free Press from Rochester, Minn., where she is temporarily located with her son, Bert who is receiving treatment for complications resulting from influenza. The home of the Listers is at Thompson, Alta.
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[Grangeville]

… The school board is having difficulty in filling positions on the teaching corps with competent teachers. Higher salaries than those usually paid teachers have caused many school teachers to abandon the profession.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 19 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Upper Main Street, Jerome, Idaho ca. 1915

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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June 20

The Oakley Herald. June 20, 1919, Page 1

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Large Class Is Graduated from Eighth Grade

The commencement exercises of our Public School were held in the Howells Opera House Thursday evening, at 8:30 o’clock. A very interesting program was given.

The entire class of twenty-four members graduated and considering the interruption of school work caused by the influenza epidemic it required the most intense effort by teachers and students to accomplish this end.

Zilla Simmons received the highest mark, which was 91 2-9. Thurma Walker and La Vera Bell tied with 90 5-9. …
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Locals and Personals

At a meeting of the Village Board, the marshal was instructed to rigidly enforce all the village ordinances relating to live stock running at large on the streets. The village traffic ordinances are also to be rigidly enforced. Do not be surprised if you are hailed [sic] into court for failure to live up to some of these ordinances.

The 146 Field Artillery, in which about a dozen Oakley boys saw service, landed in New York last Sunday. The boys were given a royal reception by the city and by delegations of Westerners.
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Marion

Bishop Harvey Sessions returned last week from Salt Lake. He has been ill, but is improving.
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In The Gem State

There were 754 births in the state of Idaho during the month of May and 888 deaths.

A number of new school houses are being built in Bingham county, and more are to be constructed this summer.

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 20 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Oakley Herald. June 20, 1919, Page 6

National League for Women’s Service
Purpose: To provide organized trained women to meet social and economic needs.

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Devoted women who have been wondering where the pathway of constructive and beneficial service would open now that the war is over may very easily find the signpost pointing out the road in the program set for itself by the National League for Women’s Service. This organization was formed in 1917, and naturally at that time found its particular field in war activities. It now sees before it a broadening of its activities and a cope of real helpfulness that will go even beyond what it found to do while the country was waging conflict.

It is the spirit of service learned better than ever before in time of national stress that is the watchword for this nation-wide organization of women. Its purpose, as set forth in the constitution and by-laws, is to provide organized trained groups of women in every community to meet existing needs along social and economic lines.

The earnest women who make up the motor division of the league might have thought that the end of the war would curtail the scope of their activities. Nothing of the sort. The work of transporting the sick and wounded and the convalescent soldiers, sailors and marines will be continued as long as the need for this work exists. The motor division has demonstrated the vital necessity of continuing its work as an organized, trained service in peace times to meet emergencies. There is so much work to be done in the way of social welfare and health and industrial helpfulness that the motor corps, instead of diminishing, sees before it growth and expansion.

Especial attention is being given by the motor division to the opportunities found in service for the afflicted. One of the concrete examples of this is to be seen in the work being accomplished by the women of the city of Jamaica, [New York,] who formed a motor corps in that city. These women motorists have already been of great service to the city in transporting crippled children to the hospital for treatment. Not all of these children are permanently crippled, but many of them have lost the use of an arm or a leg after having suffered from infantile paralysis. Sometimes there is only one living parent, who is away from home all day, so there is no one in the family to take the suffering little ones to the hospital for treatment. The workers in the motor corps bring the children from their homes for treatment and then take them back again as soon as they are fit to be moved.

Helping the Helpless

One of the most pathetic cases of this sort is that of little Gertrude, only three and a half years of age. She was taken to the hospital and a plaster cast was put on. There are six children in her family and her father is unable to work owing to a severe attack of influenza. The oldest child in the family sufferers from epileptic fits. Another child had broken her arm last November and it has never been set. The driver of the ambulance took this child also to the hospital so that her crippled arm could be rebroken by the doctor and properly set. So much suffering in one family was relieved and a great deal of future tragedy was averted by the helpfulness of the motor corps.

One little boy, whose poor little legs were absolutely useless, came near to being the cause of an accident on one of the journeys to the hospital. Putting his head out of the front of the ambulance he jerked the arm of the driver and said; “See that guy that passed riding that bicycle! Gee, I’m going to be like him soon, and how I will ride when my paddles work again.”

A three-year-old Italian girl has been very shy on her trips to the hospital and at first had resented being taken by the driver. Finally after her fourth trip she snuggled up against the lieutenant on the homeward trip and said something which the officer could not understand. One of the older girls explained.

“She says that her mother is dead and her father doesn’t want her and you can keep her if you want to.”

Only three years old and yet that baby realized that there wasn’t a soul in the world who wanted her.

These children, whose cases are duplicated times without number throughout the country, as in a dire need of friendly service. The parents have the greatest struggle in most cases to provide a living for them, and when any of the children are helpless they are not wanted.

Such cases are not infrequent, and although the work of driving a car all day from house to house in the poorest parts of the city, over broken and rough roads, is nerve racking, the members of the motor corps have never thought of stopping. The vital need of continuing their work is measured by the amount of good done hundreds of children.

The faith of the children accustomed to walk and run about is much shaken when they are crippled by the tragedy of infantile paralysis. That faith is fast coming to the top again, after they have been given the much-needed attention.

The women of the motor corps feel that if there is anything they can do to make these children whole again they are going to do it. A large percentage of the treatments given to the children is successful, as most of the children are young.

Another form of service rendered by the women of the motor corps, still using Jamaica as an illustration, takes the district nurse all over the city. This nurse follows up the cases of the children who have been treated at the hospital and does good work in finding out what the others needs of the children are. In some cases it is nourishing food, in others shoes, in others clothes.

There is only one district nurse in Jamaica and her salary is paid out of the proceeds of a second-hand clothing shop which is run by the well-to-do women of the community. This shop is patronized by the poorer people of Jamaica and has proved a source of great help to them. …

Jamaica is not the only city where the people have realized what the word “service” stands for. In New York state alone there are ninety-two branches of the National league for Women’s Service, and the league has a national enrollment of three hundred thousand members and is established in thirty-eight states. …

“Widowed fathers” are a new problem since the influenza epidemic robbed thousands of homes of the mother and homemaker.

Almost any women can make a home for her children, given the dollars and cents to buy bread and butter and shoes; but it takes so much more than dollars and cents to enable a father to make a home. Women engaged in administering mothers’ pensions funds and other forms of welfare work have found that funds were totally inadequate to solve the problems of the father left a widower with several small children.

Many men whose wives were stricken during the epidemic are hardworking home-loving fathers, who cling to the children with a tenderness that is heartbreaking. It is our mission to find homes for the children near enough so that the father can see them every day and keep closely in touch with their little affairs. The father can often pay for the children’s board. It is the extra things that women must do for the children that make it impossible for him to keep them at home.

The milk problems alone is large enough and complex enough to keep thousands of women busy. It is stated that for every American man who fell on the battlefields of Europe nine of our babies have died. These are the startling figures of the bureau of child hygiene. The war period total was 450,000 against our casualty list of 53,000.

Of every three deaths one is of a child under three years. Dr. S. Josephine Baker, director of the bureau of hygiene of the New York city board of health, frankly brands us as a nation careless of human life, and figures fasten her charge on us. But the experience of the New York Diet Kitchen association (and no doubt of other kindred groups) has been that when these facts are really brought to our consciousness helpful response is immediate. That this response falls so far short of the need can only mean that the full weight of such figures is not visualized as it should be. …

(ibid, page 6)
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American Falls Press. June 20, 1919, Page 1

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Thirty-Two Graduate From County Schools
Record of Eighth Grade Students in County Schools Much Improved This Year – Miss Drake Goes to Conventions.

Thirty-two students graduated from the eighth grade of the county schools six more than last year’s record, according to a list of the graduates issued last Tuesday by Miss Goldie Drake, county superintendent of schools. The average grade of all the students who have passed was 87.1 per cent.

Forty-five took the eighth grade examinations this year compared to forty-six of the year previous. The failures this year counted only 29 per cent of those taking the exams, while last year the percentage ran up to 46 per cent, “which only goes to show,” says Miss Drake, “that the students have been doing better work, especially in view of the fact that they lost about six weeks of the school year during the “flu” ban, and have had to make that up since.” …
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Burwell From Overseas Writes Yanks Well Treated
Yanks Happy When Long Hike Into Germany Was Finished – Says Germany and France Beautiful Countries But U. S. Beats All

Headquarters Co., 4th Infantry, May 23, 1919. American Falls Press. Dear Sirs: – This is a letter fro one of Power county’s doughboys. I am located in Germany with H. Q. Co., 4th infantry, 3rd division, and in the army of occupation. I left home on the 26th of June, 1918 and was sent to Camp Lewis and then to Camp Kearney, where I was filled in to the 40th division.

We left Kearney in July for France and after we landed at Camp Mills, N. Y. I lost the 40th division and I remained in the states until September 24th. I then sailed with the 414 casual company from Camp Merritt, N. J.

We landed in France October 3. I was sick with the influenza for three weeks and then I was sent to the 330th infantry, close to LeMons, at a replacement, and November 8th we were sent to the 3rd division and this division was ready to start to the front. When the armistice was signed and on November 15th we started our hike to Germany, 225 miles to walk.

On December 16th we landed in Plaidt, Germany, the end of our hike. There were some happy Yanks when we were told our hike was finished for a while.

Germany is a beautiful country and France also. But the Unite States has them all beat as far as I have seen.

Now we are waiting for peace to be signed and then we will start on the trip to the states. It will be a happy day to the A. E. F. for I think all the boys are ready to go back as soon as the ships can carry them.

With best wishes to the Press, I remain,

Pvt. Eldred Burwell

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 20 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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American Falls Press. June 20, 1919, Page 4

A Million Members

A million members next year in the farm bureaus of the thirty-three northern and western states is the goal set in a notice to county agent leaders and county agents by the United States department of agriculture. Reports show that on April 1 there were 409,841 farm bureau members in these states, with 8576 community committees – yearly a 30 per cent increase since the December 1918, report, despite the influenza epidemic which handicapped membership campaigns.

“According to the 1910 census,” says the notice to county agents, “there were 3,263,955 farms in the northern and western states. With one-third of the farms represented in the farm bureaus they could be truly said to be fairly representative. Farmers should not be coaxed or scared or fooled into the farm bureau. The organization is an appeal to their intelligence and their memberships should be solicited on a thoroughly dignified, common sense, business basis. Now is the time to make plans for the annual membership campaigns for next fall and winter. Some of the states may wish to do this on a state-wide basis.”

(ibid, page 4)
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American Falls Press. June 20, 1919, Page 5

Local Briefs

Mrs. Matson has been ill this week with an attack of the influenza.

Gottlieb Cruger was taken to the hospital Tuesday morning. Dr. Noth is in attendance. His sickness has not been diagnosed as yet, but it is stated that his mind was wandering all night, a condition which he has experienced several times recently, due to an attack of influenza s short time ago.

Adolph Claassen returned to his home Saturday after a week’s illness at the Bethany Deaconess hospital.

Matt Heizelmann has returned from Washing where he has been looking after his sick father.
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Miss Olive Jones, Aberdeen, died at the Bethany Deaconess hospital Sunday morning after an illness of three months. she was brought to the local hospital five weeks ago after a painful attack of pneumonia and submitted to an operation, which was not successful in saving here. She was 16 years old.

(ibid, page 5)
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Clearwater Republican. June 20, 1919, Page 1

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Iver Iverson Ill at Davenport

County Treasurer, Oren Crockett, received a telegram from Davenport, Wash., at 11 a.m. Monday morning, advising him of the serious illness of Iver Iverson. Mr. Crocket and his sister, Mrs. Oscar Austin, departed for the Big Bend by auto at 2 p.m. Monday. Mr. Austin received a message Tuesday afternoon that Iver was stricken with pneumonia, but, at that time, was some better.

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 20 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Clearwater Republican. June 20, 1919, Page 2

British Deaths Pass Births
War Office, Alarmed, Releases 700 Physicians From Army Service in Week

London. — Coincident with publication of the report showing that during the last quarter of 1918 the number of deaths exceeded the birth rate for the first time in the history of civil registration in this country, the war office has announced the released in one week of 700 physicians from the army.

Influenza caused the great increase in the death rate, the number of victims from that disease being 98,998, or 41 per cent of the total deaths for the period. Lack of physicians is held responsible for the failure to curb the epidemic. At the beginning of this months, although 1,750,000 men of the army have been demobilized, only 1,500 out of 11,000 physicians have been released.

(ibid, page 2)
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Clearwater Republican. June 20, 1919, Page 4

Idaho Births On Increase.

Boise, June — Idaho births reported in the month of May were more than two and one-fourth times as numerous as deaths registered in the same period, according to figures which have just been announced by the state department of public welfare. Exactly 754 native Idahoans drew their first breaths in the course of the month, while only 333 residents of the state were called to the great majority.

May births exceeded those reported in April by 59, the latter month’s total having been 695. The birth-to-death ratio which obtained in May evidenced itself in the previous month, April’s death certificates aggregating 309.

O. Henry’s theories anent the “marry month of May” found vindication in the marriage statistics announced. May espousals totaled 194, while only 91 couples entered upon wedded existence in April.

(ibid, page 3)
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Clearwater Republican. June 20, 1919, Page 6

Over Million in Service Yet

Washington, D. C. — The army is only two-thirds demobilized, the war department announced Monday, and it will take more than three months to complete the work at the present rate of 357,000 discharges a month. On June 10 the strength of the army was 1,232,625, with 644,000 in France and Germany.
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Noted Persons Die

Helena, Mont. — Dr. H. Arthur McCray, state bacteriologist, from spotted fever after an illness of 10 days. He contracted the disease in the performance of his duties, while examining infected specimens in the state laboratory. He was 38 years of age and a native of Ohio.

(ibid, page 6)
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Cottonwood, Idaho

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The original John Hoene Implement building which is now part of Hometown Auto. That is John Romain on the tractor to the right. You can see the old Cottonwood School and the barn shaped gym and the old church on the hill in the background. Photo courtesy of Claudia Gehring.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle
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Cottonwood Chronicle. June 20, 1919, Page 9

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County Seat News Items

Mrs. A. F. Parker left Monday morning for Boise where she will visit with her daughter Mrs. R. B. Kading. Mrs. Parker recently underwent a second attack of the flu, and has been very slow in recovering from the effects of the disease, and it is anticipated that the change will prove beneficial to her health.

Miss Rosa Williams, who has been in the U. S. army nursing corps in France, returned this week to her home at Mt. Idaho. Miss Williams was the only Idaho county women [sic] in France during the war.

Fen Batty, one of the pioneers residents of this section, but who has been looking after his extensive land holdings near Maupin, Oregon, for the past year, came in on Saturday night’s train. Last fall Mr. Batty had a very severe illness and before recovering was also attacked by the influenza. He was confined to the hospital for some time at Portland and certainly shows the ravages of the disease with which has was afflicted. While he is very thin he states he is feeling fairly well at this time. He will remain here while convalescing.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 20 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Recorder. June 20, 1919, Page 1

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Judge Quarles Ill.

In the midst of active court trials Judge Ralph P. Quarles was last week attacked by illness, developed from malaria and lumbago, that has kept him at home ever since under the care of Dr. Hanmer.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 20 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Recorder. June 20, 1919, Page 5

Salmon Locals

Tom Andrews is still reported critically ill.

Mrs. R. P. Quarles and daughter, Miss Dorothy, came in on Monday’s train from Boise, having been visiting a daughter and sister who resides at the capital city. Miss Dorothy had stopped there enroute from California, having attended university at Berkeley. Upon arrival in salmon they found husband and father, judge R. P. Quarles had been ill for several days.
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Leadore

Mrs. Maurice Martell was quite sick the fore part of the week, but is much improved at this writing.

Mrs. Free, wife of our deputy sheriff, is slowly recovering from a siege of typhoid fever, having been quite sick.

Salmon are reported plentiful and easily taken from the Lemhi.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Idaho Recorder. June 20, 1919, Page 6

Red Cross Workers Aid Exiled Greeks

… The Red Cross is devoting much attention to the prevention of further epidemics, such as the typhus scourge, which took such a heavy toll at Mytilene.

Ford is scanty and costly, and most of the refugees are underfed, even in the large towns. Nearly all are in rags. The hospitals are short of medicines and other supplies, and have been crowded by influenza cases. …

(ibid, page 6)
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Montpelier Examiner. June 20, 1919, Page 1

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Prominent Cokeville Man Passes Away

Jesse Gilkison, for a number of years manager of the Noblitt Implement company at Cokeville, passed away at his home in that city last Tuesday. Mr. Gilkison had been ill less than a week and his death came as a shock to his many friends in all parts of the country.

Jesse Gilkison was born at Grand Island, Nebraska, August 11, 1889. He moved with his parents to Oklahoma while a child and was raised on a farm there and worked his way through school. Soon after graduating he entered the employ of the Cokeville Land and Livestock company and the J. D. Noblitt Farm Implement company as bookeeper [sic]. In 1914 he was made manager of the J. D. Noblitt Implement company, which position he held at the time of his death. Mr. Gilkison served as town clerk under Mayor Noblitt for the year 1916. He joined the army last July and was assigned to clerical duties in the hospital department at Fort Riley, Kansas. He contracted influenza during the early outbreak of that epidemic, and pneumonia developed, and he hovered near death’s door for many days, during which time his wife, mother and father were at his bedside. He recovered slowly and was transferred to Fort Snelling, Minn., in the interest of his health. He improved rapidly at Fort Snelling and was offered a sergeancy, which he declined on account of his desire to get back home to his family as soon as possible after the armistice was signed. He held an important clerical position at the time of his discharge on April 3, 1919.

Upon his return home, he resumed his clerical duties as assistant secretary of the Cokeville Land and Livestock company and manager of the J. D. Noblitz Implement company.

In 1917 he was married to Miss Maud Sparks, of Cokeville, who with a little daughter mourn his demise. – Cokeville Register.
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Sheriff Adds More Booze To His Stock

Last Saturday afternoon as George Sparks was driving to Montpelier in his jitney, numerous auto tracks attracted his attention at a point on the road near “Windy Flats.” He stopped his car and walked into the willows a short distance when he ran onto several empty whiskey cases. He started to make further investigation, when a bullet whizzed by him. This caused him to make a hasty retreat out of the willows. He came on into town and notified the officers. Sheriff Athay and several men accompanied Mr. Sparks back to the place, and found two Austrians guarding their cache of booze, consisting of six cases. They made no resistance when confronted by the sheriff and his posse. The booze and men were loaded into a car and brought to Montpelier. The men were left in the city jail and the forbidden fluid was added to the sheriff’s rapidly increasing stock in the basement of the court house.

The Austrians were evidently not satisfied with their quarters in the city jail for they took “french leave” of the place some time Tuesday night. They made their escape by tearing away the brick in the east wall until they had a hole large enough for them to crawl out. This was done with two pieces of iron which they either smuggled into the jail or were thoughtlessly left there by the officers.

There were 59 empty whiskey cases in the willows at the point where the men were arrested. The supposition is that the whiskey was brought to the siding near that point, on a freight train and all but the six cases had been divided up among the parties interested, and the two Austrians were left to get their share away the best way they could. The whiskey was all of the “Old Taylor” brand, and it is evident that there is a good supply of that particular brand scattered about Montpelier.

At prevailing boot leggers’ prices, Sheriff Athay has about $20,000 worth of liquor stored in the basement of the court house.

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 20 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. June 20, 1919, Page 3

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Rose

C. A. Taylor and family are able to be out again after recovering from influenza.

Mrs. W. Z. Hiatt was on the sick list last week.

Peter Swansen and family have recovered from the influenza.

Miss Ella Gardner has recovered from her illness.

Moreland

Miss Martha Tanner died at the Pocatello hospital Thursday, June 12, after suffering with Bright’s disease. She was fifteen years of age and the beloved daughter of Iva M. Tanner. Funeral services were held her Sunday, and interment took place in the Moreland cemetery.

Firth

Dr. R. W. Quick of Cache Valley, Utah, recently a first lieutenant in the U. S. medical corps at Ft. Bliss and Camp Travis, Texas, and who now holds a captain’s commission in the reserve corps, has moved to Firth to stay. He has already a practice and many friends. Then there is Mrs. Quick and the two youngsters. One more family in Firth. Dr. Quick has his offices above the W. J. Ramsey & Son store.

Firth wants a nice big first-class high school, and the commercial club is valiantly on its trail. Petitions are being circulated, and signed by most of the folks at sight, according to Wardell Clinger, secretary of the club. The high school district will take in the three districts of Firth, West Firth and Basalt. The committee in charge of boosting the school thru is composed of Wardell Clinger, M. M. Farmer and F. Ramsey.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 20 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. June 20, 1919, Page 4

Shelley

The commencement exercises of the eighth grade here was held in the Second ward chapel last Tuesday, June 10. … Twenty-four graduates for the year 1919 …

Springfield

The oldest son of Erling Paulson has been very seriously ill with diphtheria, but is now recovering.

Sterling

A great many farmers are putting their teams on the road during the irrigating season.

Wicks

George T. Carlson has been on the sick list the past two weeks but is now on the road to recovery.

J. S. McClellan of Blackfoot has painted the coal house and has also done some interior decorating at the school house this week.

(ibid, page 4)
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The Idaho Republican. June 20, 1919, Page 5

Local News

Mrs. J. A. Stewart has been ill this week, seriously enough that she was confined to bed.

Miss Winnefred Biethan returned this week from Ann Arbor, Mich., where she has been studying medicine preliminary to a medical course. Miss Susie Biethan is expected to arrive home soon.

Upper Presto

This community is rejoicing over the fact that a drug store has been established at Firth, with Dr. Quick in charge.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., June 20, 1919, Page 1

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Two Big Classes Advance In Moscow City Schools

Moscow’s schools closed today. The high school closed with splendid commencement exercises last night and this afternoon the eighth and ninth grades held their commencement in the high school auditorium and in the two commencements 126 diplomas were given. Forty-one passed from the high school and can enter the university. eight-five passed from the grades into the high school, and there was a big list of honor students received diplomas upon the excellent records they have made.

The school year just closed has been the most trying ever known, due to the influenza epidemic which kept the schools closed for weeks at a time. It has been a difficult year for teachers, pupils and parents, but all stood the test well and have acquitted themselves with honor. Moscow is indeed fortunate to have had such a splendid corps of teachers and every one from Superintendent Rich down deserves commendation for the splendid work accomplished.

A class of 41 graduates of the Moscow high school received their diplomas last night at commencement exercises held in the auditorium of the University of Idaho, which was well filled with relatives and friends of the graduates. The record is regarded as an extraordinary one in the face of unprecedented obstacles. First the S. A. T. C. took more than 50 young men from the high school at the beginning of the school year. Then the influenza epidemic closed the schools for weeks. Yet 41 of 45 possibilities at the opening of school last fall, graduated and received their diplomas. The teachers worked “over time” by teaching Saturdays and two weeks after school should have closed, in order to “put the class over.” …

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 20 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Looking West, Main Street, Jerome, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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June 23

The Daily Star-Mirror., June 23, 1919, Page 3

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City News

The enrollment of the summer school at the University has reached the number of 99, today, June 23.
— —

Genesee Man In Hospital

M. K. Smith, well known pioneer of the Genesee neighborhood, is in Gritman’s hospital taking treatment for after effects of influenza. He had the influenza last fall but never recovered from it and has been suffering with heart trouble for some time. Recently he grew worse. Today he was able to get out for a drive about town with his old friend T. Driscoll who came over in his Cole car and took Mr. Smith for a drive which he enjoyed.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 23 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Kootenai River, Near Jennings, Idaho, Great Northern Railway

JenningsFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

June 24

The Daily Star-Mirror., June 24, 1919, Page 1

19190624DSM1

American Casualties Grow

Washington. — Total casualties of the American expeditionary forces reported to date announced today by the war department as 289,016. The total number of deaths has reached 75,662.
— —

19190624DSM2

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 24 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., June 24, 1919, Page 5

19190624DSM3Soldiers Laugh At Death
Pair Stricken With Influenza on Board Ship Use Prize Ring Count

San Francisco. — A tragic story of how two British soldiers laughed at death is told in a letter received by Harry Annan, assistant manager of the Palace hotel, from a friend in Auckland, New Zealand. An Extract from the letter reads:

“The transport I came home on carried two soldier pals, both of whom had influenza. After the doctor had given them up as hopeless they entertained themselves and their neighbors by counting one another out. It would have been humorous but for the awful tragedy of it; alternately, ‘One-two … eight-nine-out – you dead yet?’ till one of them failed to answer. I don’t know quite how I felt about it; pity and admiration were strangely mixed.”

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

Joseph, Idaho Roundup ca. 1918

Joseph1918Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

June 26

The Grangeville Globe. June 26, 1919, Page 5

19190626GG1

Stores Close on July 4th

So that all may have a chance to celebrate the 4th of July with their neighbors, all the stores in the city will be closed all day.
— —

John Eimers Ill

John P. Eimers, cashier at the First National bank, was compelled to forsake his duties at the bank last week and has since been confined to his home with severe illness. He is somewhat improved at the present time and anticipates a visit to some of the well known health resorts for the benefit of his health. He is able to be up about the house.
— —

Brought Out Aged Miner
Lived Here Since 1873; Refuses to Enter County Home

Ed Smith and Constable M. F. Daly of White Bird, were in the city the first of the week. Mr. Daly brought out an old miner named Sims, who has been making his home in numerous cabins along the salmon river for a few years past, and who during the winter just passed, lived in an old cellar just below White Bird. It is said Mr. Sims is 83 years of age and while active followed mining along the Salmon since 1872. The county has made a monthly allowance for him for some time past, and as he is growing feeble the good citizens of White Bird offered him a sanitary home in that village where he could be looked after but which he declined. The place where he had been making his home was off the road and no water available, and it was feared he might become helpless. He positively refuses to become an inmate of the county home and the authorities are at a loss to know what disposition to make of him.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 26 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Main Street, Junction, Idaho

JunctionFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

June 27

American Falls Press. June 27, 1919, Page 5

19190627AFP1

Nurse Hard to Get

Bruce Lampson, county agricultural agent, who is charged with securing a county nurse, as authorized by the county commissioners, says that he is having difficulties. Three nurses had already been secured and dates set for them to come, when raises kept them at home.

Mr. Lampson says that Mrs. Bennett, state leader of county nurses, has others in view and expects to procure one for Power county very shortly.
— —

Notice

Saturday, July 5th is the last day for the payment of the second installment of the 1918 taxes. If the taxes are not paid on or before this date, delinquency certificates will be issued against the property.

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 27 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

American Falls Press. June 27, 1919, Page 7

19190627AFP2
Heart Trouble Following Influenza

Health talk No. 4
By G. A. Wilson, D. C.

Health authorities are freely predicting that the after-effects of the Spanish Influenza that snuffed out 400,000 lives in the United States will be apparent in heart trouble and lung complaint, with general physical weakness.

The record of chiropractors in the influenza epidemic was inspiring, and the after-effects in cases handled by chiropractors have not been in evidence. The reason for this is that the chiropractic method removed the cause. The disease only attacked those suffering from weakness of lungs, kidneys and bowels. Chiropractic adjustments removed the nerve pressure that caused this weakness, and the disease disappeared without bad after effects. …

[ad for chiropractor]

(ibid, page 7)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Meridian Times., June 27, 1919, Page 7

19190627MT1

News Of A Week In Condensed Form
Record Of The Important Events Told In Briefest Manner Possible
Happenings That Are Making History – Information Gathered from All Quarters of the Globe and Given in a Few Lines

Domestic

Government Thomas Riggs, Jr., of Alaska, has received a cable stating the epidemic of influenza at Bristol bay and other western Alaska points had been suppressed.

Foreign

All the American soldiers now have left Archangel except the engineers, who are cleaning up the American Base there and will sail before June 30.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 27 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
—————–

Further Reading

National League for Women’s Service

The National League for Women’s Service (NLWS) was a United States civilian volunteer organization formed in January 1917 to provide stateside war services such as feeding, caring for and transporting soldiers, veterans and war workers and was described as “America’s largest and most remarkable war emergency organization.”

NLWSWWI, Homefront. Women of National League for Women’s Service knitting. George C. Bain Collection. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.

Foundation

The National League of Women’s Services (NLWS) was established in early 1917 in conjunction with the Red Cross and in anticipation of the US entering the First World War. The League was created from the Woman’s Department of the National Civic Federation readiness and relief activities and was modelled on a similar group formed in Britain, the Voluntary Aid Detachments, and was formed at the National Security League Congress of Constructive Patriotism.

The object of the NLWS was to coordinate and standardize the work of women of America along lines of constructive patriotism; to develop the resources, to promote the efficiency of women in meeting their every-day responsibility to home, to state, to nation and to humanity; to provide organized, trained groups in every community prepared to cooperate with the Red Cross and other agencies in dealing with any calamity-fire, flood, famine, economic disorder, etc., and in time of war, to supplement the work of the Red Cross, the Army and Navy, and to deal with the questions of “Woman’s Work and Woman’s Welfare.” The slogan of the organization was “for God, for Country, for Home.”

The League was divided into thirteen national divisions: Social and Welfare, Home Economics, Agricultural, Industrial, Medical and Nursing, Motor Driving, General Service, Health, Civics, Signalling, Map-reading, Wireless and Telegraphy, and Camping.

It also sponsored the women who formed the Women’s Reserve Camouflage Corps, working to disguise both equipment and soldiers through the art of disguise. Generally, the NLWS was predicated on a military-type regimen of training and drilling. When unrestricted submarine warfare was initiated by Germany in January, 1917, the NLWS accelerated their plans to register women and prepare them to take the place of men that would be needed for fighting. Some members of the NLWS wore uniforms and used military designations.

continued: Wikipedia
— — — — — — — — — —

Remembering 1919, one hundred years later

The same year the Spanish flu hit Bristol Bay, the salmon run collapsed. These two events reshaped the region.

By Sage Smiley July 29, 2019 KDLG

“1919 changed everything.” said Katie Ringsmuth, the director of the NN Cannery History Project. “The Spanish flu arrived to Alaska in 1918 and devastated the population. It killed more people per capita than any place in the United States, perhaps in the world. People thought it had run its course that winter, but when cannery ships arrived in 1919, people were quickly becoming sick, it was evidenced it was influenza, and it devastated not just the Native population, it killed many people who lived here, but it really changed the demographics in this region.”

Within weeks of the start of the 1919 fishing season, hundreds of cannery workers and locals were infected with the Spanish flu.

The virus wiped out most of the adult population in many villages around Bristol Bay, leaving behind dozens of orphaned children. One of the communities most changed by the outbreak was Naknek.

For a time, those children were housed in the abandoned jail on the Diamond NN Cannery property. A doctor named Linus French took in many of the orphans, and eventually moved with them to Dillingham. And some of those orphans eventually returned to the cannery.

“It’s those people who are the people that become the wintermen, the laundry ladies, the store keepers, the set netters, the fishermen, and they become the caretakers of the cannery,” Ringsmuth said.

As the flu devastated Bristol Bay’s population and reshaped its communities, another pillar of the region’s culture and economy was collapsing.

“The salmon run dropped from 25 million in 1918 to just 6 million in 1919,” explained Bob King, who works with the history project. “And it took everybody aback. They didn’t know what to make of it, because they didn’t understand the science back then, and what they knew was completely wrong.”

The utter failure of the run laid the groundwork for the fisheries management system we still use today.

excerpted from:
— — — —

Influenza in Bristol Bay, 1919: “The Saddest Repudiation of a Benevolent Intention”

Maria Gilson deValpine Journal Sage

Abstract

The 1918 influenza pandemic has been blamed for as many as 50 million deaths worldwide. Like all major disasters, the full story of the pandemic includes smaller, less noted episodes that have not attracted historical attention. The story of the 1919 wave of the influenza pandemic in Bristol Bay Alaska is one such lost episode. It is an important story because the most accessible accounts — the Congressional Record and the Coast Guard Report — are inconsistent with reports made by employees, health care workers, and volunteers at the site of the disaster. Salmon fishing industry supervisors and medical officers recorded their efforts to save the region’s Native Alaskans in private company reports. The federal Bureau of Education physician retained wireless transmission, reports, and letters of events. The Coast Guard summarized its work in its Annual Report of 1920. The independent Bureau of Fisheries report to the Department of Commerce reveals the Coast Guard report at striking odds with others and reconciles only one account. This article explores the historical oversight, and attempts to tell the story of the 1919 wave of the pandemic which devastated the Native Alaskan population in this very remote place.

continued:
—————–

Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)

Idaho History May 2, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 55

Idaho Newspaper clippings June 2-13, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

June 2

The Daily Star-Mirror., June 02, 1919, Page 1

19190602DSM1

Moscow Man Tells of Conventions
Secretary of Chamber of Commerce Boosts For Moscow’s Meetings

L. F. Parsons, secretary of the Moscow Chamber of Commerce, is at the Davenport. “We are preparing for the second semi-annual meeting of the North Idaho Chamber of Commerce which will be held at Moscow June 4 and 5,” said Mr. Parsons. “The first meeting was held at Coeur d’Alene last May. A meeting was to have been held last November, but on account of the influenza was called off.

“Delegates from the Chamber of Commerce, commercial clubs and business men’s associations of the following towns of the 10 counties of northern Idaho will attend the meeting: Sandpoint, Bonners Ferry, Coeur d’Alene, Kellogg, Wallace, Harrison, Moscow, Lewiston, Orofino, Marysville, Nez Perce, Kendrick, Volmer-Ilo, Winchester, Cottonwood, Culdesac, Genesee, Juliaetta, Rathdrum, Post Falls, Athol, Clarks Fork, Kooskia, Kamiah, Grangeville and Stites.

“The farmers’ unions, county commissioners of the 10 counties of northern Idaho, and the state highway commissioners and other state officials have also been invited to attend. — Spokesman-Review.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 02 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., June 02, 1919, Page 4

The Road Hog

The road hog is a hateful gink, a wild and reckless rover; he meets you on a narrow brink and tries to crowd you over.

He hugs the middle of the pike, in vain you toot your trumpet, and if his style you do not like, it’s up to you to lump it.

I followed one of them today, in vain I tried to pass him; a motor Bolshevik at play, I think is how I’d class him.

Upon my face he threw his dust, my eyes were red and gritty; I hope some day his car will “bust” ten furlongs from the city.

I hope the day is cold and drear, that corns will make him suffer; his call for help I’ll fail to hear; I’ll let him walk, the duffer.

I honked my squawker good and loud to tell him I was coming; his wheels kicked up a bigger cloud as off he went a-humming.

And every time I sought to pass and made my Betsie travel, he’s step upon his can of gas and feed me powdered gravel.

And so I had to slow my gait behind the highway lizard, consuming flying real estate, which disarranged my gizzard.

He thinks he owns the boulevard; he’s selfish and he’s cruel; some day I’ll send around my card and date him for a duel.

He longs to crowd us in a rut and smash our wheels or fender, and makes us out a reckless nut upon a moonshine bender.

He always claims the right-of-way at highway intersections; we meet him many times a day, he hails from all directions.

And though we almost have a fit, it boots us not to bellow — the road hog, if you but admit, is just the other fellow.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — — — — — — — —

Military on Parade, Idaho Falls, Idaho

IdahoFallsFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

June 5

The Filer Record., June 05, 1919, Page 2

19190605FR1

Idaho State News

Approximately $3600 must be raised in the seven counties of the state for the purpose of conducting an Idaho campaign against certain diseases, if a recently allotted federal appropriation designed for that purpose is made available.

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 05 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Filer Record., June 05, 1919, Page 3

North Filer News

R. T. Graves has been on the sick list this week.

Mrs. J. Ennis is very ill at her home in Filer.

Melvin Blackburn had the misfortune to be kicked by a horse last Saturday.
— —

Washington District

The Washington schools closed Thursday of last week with a picnic dinner.

(ibis, page 3)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., June 05, 1919, Page 1

19190605DSM1

Pure Food Laws Will Be Enforced
Adulterations of Food and Those Serving Filth Will Be Prosecuted

Boise. — “If food manufacturies are found in an insanitary condition when the inspector arrives, prosecution will be prompt and vigorous. The practice of giving notice has been abandoned.”

This was the announcement made this morning from the office of the state department of public welfare in response to several inquiries touching upon the department’s prospective policy.

Two fines already have been paid following pleas of guilty to the charge of milk adulteration. J. G. Berry, manager of the Boise Ice Cream company, was assessed $25.00 and costs after samples of milk dispensed from his concern were found to contain an illegal quantity of sediment. Ray Dunn, manager of the Edgewood Dairy paid a fine after milk bearing the Edgewood label also had been filth loaded.

A. J. Flack, superintendent of the [?] company, this morning was assessed $25 and costs in Judge Anderson’s court after he had pleaded guilty to the accusation that short weight butter had been distributed by his concern. Complaint against him was made by Inspector A. H. Wilson and Bert T. Barr of the public welfare department.

“I have no sympathy whatever for the individual who through carelessness, negligence or deliberation adulterates milk which may be served little children,” declared J. K. White, public welfare commissioner, today.

“There can be no questioning the fact that such an individual is a serious menace to any community. This department would be seriously derelict in its duty if such offenses were not prosecuted vigorously. Contempt should be the portion of the man who sells short weight butter. He is, in many instances, a petty larcenist of the most despicable species.”

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 05 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., June 05, 1919, Page 2

Red Cross Aids Exiled Greeks
Aegean Islands Are Thronged With Fugitives From Asia Minor Towns.
Nearly All Are In Rags
Cheering Crowds at Mytilene Take Horses From Red Cross Carriage and draw it to Residence of Governor General.

Athens. — In its work in the Greek islands the American Red cross has the co-operation of the United States navy. Six submarine chasers have been assigned for transporting personnel and supplies.

On the Island of Mytilene are 52,000 Greeks, who fled there from Asia Minor five years ago. Red Cross workers are regularly visiting all the towns and clothing has been given to about 20,000 of the refugees.

At the outbreak of the war, in 1914, there were 3,000,000 in Asia Minor. More than 500,000 escaped to the islands in the Aegean. Thousands were massacred. Armed bands of Turks roamed the countryside, plundering and murdering Greeks wherever found. The others, driven out of their homes and sent inland, are now returning, to find their homes either destroyed or occupied by Turks.

Allowed Six Cents a Day

The refugees in the Aegean islands intend to return to Asia Minor as soon as conditions permit. At present the Greek government gives each refugee six cents a day.

The Red Cross is devoting much attention to the prevention of further epidemics, such as the typhus scourge, which took such a heavy toll at Mytilene.

Food is scanty and costly, and most of the refugees are underfed, even in the large towns. Nearly all are in rags. The hospitals are short of medicines and other supplies, and have been crowded by influenza cases.

Clothing, blankets and medicine are needed on all the islands. Canned meat for broth is wanted in the hospitals. American women run the workshops where clothing is made on the three islands of Mytilene, Chios and Samos.

22,000 in Town of Mytilene

Of the 52,000 refugees on Mytilene 22,000 are in the town of Mytilene and its suburbs; the others are scattered about in 62 villages.

Of the 20,000 refugees on Crios part are sheltered in old houses and the rest in wooden barracks, divided with bagging and old carpets into “rooms,” each accommodating a family of from five to ten persons.

The islands of Lemnos, Imbros, Tenedos and Samothrace are served with red Cross supplies from Mytilene; Oinousa is served from Chios, and Ilcania from Samos.

The American Red Cross agents were received at Mytilene with the greatest enthusiasm. The horses were unhitched and the carriage drawn by a cheering crowd to the residence of the governor general, who commandeered a private home and placed it at their disposal.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — — — — — — — —

Idaho City, Idaho ca. 1911

IdahoCity1911Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

June 6

The Rathdrum Tribune., June 06, 1919, Page 1

19190606RT1

Veterans Honored
Memorial Day Observed In Rathdrum

The services at Fraternal hall last Friday afternoon, in observance of Memorial day, were attended by the usually large audience, which overtaxed the seating capacity of the building. The program, arranged by the G. A. R. and W. R. C. was interesting. …
— —

From Over The County

Spirit Lake

19190606RT2The schools closed last week. The influenza demoralized the classes so that there were no graduates, hence no commencement exercises.

Post Falls

Charles, 6-year-old son of P. F. Holden of McGuires, was hit by an auto while playing in the road and seriously if not fatally hurt.

Coeur D’Alene

In the federal court Monday Roy Dixon and William Dixon, brothers, were given jail sentences for resisting arrest and violating the liquor law.

source: The Rathdrum Tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 06 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Rathdrum Tribune., June 06, 1919, Page 3

Local Paragraphs

19190606RT3The Rathdrum grade school closes next week, having made up the time lost during the influenza epidemic.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Rathdrum Tribune., June 06, 1919, Page 4

Idaho State News Items

Careywood, on the N. P. railroad in Bonner county, has been quarantined on account of diphtheria.

State school land to the value of $200,000 was sold by I. H. Nash, state land commissioner, in Cassia, Minidoka and Twin Falls the forepart of last week.
— —

World News In Brief

The public debt of the United States is now $26,000,000,000 and growing at the rate of one billion per month.

Estimates sent to congress by the war department provide for maintaining 600,000 men in France and Germany in July, 400,000 in August, and 200,000 in September. Major McKay, of the army bureau of finance, told the house military committee that should an army of occupation be needed after October 1, congress would be asked for additional funds.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — — — — — — — —

Montpelier Examiner. June 06, 1919, Page 5

19190606ME1

Local News

Mrs. D. C. Oakley came in from Kemmerer Wednesday morning and went to Afton, being called there by the illness of her daughter, Mrs. Ollie Brown.

Selma, the 10-year-old daughter of Robert Wuthrick of Nounan, died Tuesday night of peritonitis, following a few days illness. Funeral services were held at Nounan.

Misses Nora Beckstrom and Oral Groo returned last night from Albion, where they have been attending normal school. Both young ladies received both the literacy and life-long teaching certificates.
— —

Notice To Clean Up

All property owners, and tenants in the city of Montpelier, Idaho, are hereby ordered to have all rubbish and filth removed from their yards and alleys, and all outhouses repaired so as to conform with the state sanitary laws.

This work must be done by June 16, 1919, and those failing to comply with this order will be prosecuted as provided by the state law and city ordinance.

By the order of the city board of health, made and entered this 4th day of June, 1916.

Geo. F. Ashley, Chairman

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 06 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Meridian Times., June 06, 1919, Page 2

19190606MT1

Idaho Budget

Veterans of three wars will take part in the Memorial day exercises to be held in Pocatello, Friday, May 30. G. A. R. veterans, Spanish war veterans and world war veterans are cooperating in the program to be given on Memorial day, and the Pocatello municipal band will furnish music for the occasion.

Cinnabar deposits in the Yellow Pine basin bid fair to bring Idaho into the limelight as a quicksilver producing state.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 06 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Meridian Times., June 06, 1919, Page 7

News Of A Week In Condensed Form…

Intermountain

Formal charges, backed by affidavits, ranging from complaints regarding improper food and insanitary living conditions to charges that patients at the order of hospital physicians have been put in straitjackets at the United States army general hospital No. 23, at Aurora, Colo., have been forwarded to Washington.

An epidemic of mysterious origin has broken out in the Waverly baby home of Portland, and as a result eleven babies are dead. Twenty-one are afflicted with the malady.

Washington

To prevent the navy from being left in a crippled condition when the peace treaty is signed, automatically releasing 150,000 men from service, the navy department is planning to wage an intensive recruiting campaign as soon as congress determines how large a navy will be authorized.

Foreign

Three nurses attached to the American expeditionary force were killed Sunday in an automobile accident at Chateau Thierry.

England’s bill for transporting a million American soldiers across the Atlantic in British ships is approximately $82,000,000.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Meridian Times., June 06, 1919, Page 8

Meridian Local News

Vernon Taylor is ill with a severe case of tonsillitis.

Mr. and Mrs. Clint Waggoner who have been ill with tonsillitis are improving.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Idaho Republican. June 06, 1919, Page 2

19190606TIR1

Idaho And Idahoans

The Modern Woodsmen of America, at a meeting held at Boise, voted unanimously in favor of increasing the dues paid by members in order to build up their organization which suffered greatly by the war and even more so by the ravages of the influenza.

Last year many teachers in the rural districts received from $100 to $125 a month and in some instances as much as $150.

Veterans of three wars will take part in the Memorial day exercises to be held in Pocatello, Friday, May 30. G. A. R. veterans, Spanish war veterans and world war veterans are cooperating in the program to be given on memorial day, and the Pocatello municipal band will furnish music for the occasion.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 06 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. June 06, 1919, Page 4

Blackfoot Pioneer Ill

W. F. Martin, one of the pioneer builders of Blackfoot and for many years a local coal dealer, is very ill at his home on South University avenue.

His health began failing in early winter after an attack of influenza and he has never been able to fully regain his strength.
— —

Young Bumgarner Ill

Thomas Bumgarner, who has been ill at the home of his father for the past ten days, is slowly improving at this writing.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. June 06, 1919, Page 5

Local News

Mrs. Pat Boyle, who has been ill at Idaho Falls, is getting along nicely.

Miss Benita Dowdle is slowly recovering from a two weeks siege of typhoid fever, at the home of her father, S. C. Dowdle.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. June 06, 1919, Page 6

Centerville

Mrs. E. S. Deardorff, who has been ill, is improved at this writing.

Charles Farnworth, who was ill the first of last week is able to be at his work again.

We are glad to inform the friends of Mr. and Mrs. Cyrus Farnworth that their little son Ancil is rapidly recovering from the injury sustained by a fall last week.

Wicks

Clive Reynolds was on the sick list the first of the week.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. June 06, 1919, Page 7

Riverside

Miss Guenevere Kotter of Bingham and Miss Ana Powell of Malad, who taught the past school term here, returned the last of the week to their respective homes.

Misses Orpha Hampton and Glendora Malcom, who taught school here the past term, returned to their homes the last of the week.

Rose

The infant son of Mr. and Mrs. [?] Norman, who has been very ill, has recovered.

Miss Dorothy Taylor, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. U. W. Taylor has been on the sick list for the last few days.

Miss Rosa Hale, who has spent the last year teaching in Sterling returned home Monday.

Miss Vera Swenson was on the sick list last week, but is somewhat improved at this time.

The Misses Ellen and Hazel Hale, Norma Johnston, Mildred and Syble [?] and Erma Taylor are home now from school.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. June 06, 1919, Page 8

Moreland

Mrs. Alvina Farnworth recently returned from Lava Hot Springs, where she went for her health.

A large crowd attended the eighth grade graduation exercises Friday. A good program was rendered.

Shelley

All schools closed here last Thursday with a successful year, considering the influenza condition during the fall and winter. Professor Langton has accepted the position as superintendent again for next year. It is understood that not many of the grade teachers will be with us again next year.

Miss Grace Greiner left for her home at Camas Monday last week, after having taught the full school year.

Miss Helen Jillson, principal of the grade school, left for her home at Frankfort, Kan., last week.

A. C. Quigg has recovered from a severe attack of the mumps.

Fred Glenn has been confined to his home for over ten days with a severe case of the small pox.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

Shoshone Journal. June 06, 1919, Page 1

19190606SJ1

Big Wood River News

Mrs. A. L. Horn is still quite sick.

Mrs. Chas. Furniss and baby are visiting her parents at Hollister. Mrs. Furniss is in very poor health.

Little Edna Ryan is suffering a severe cold this wee.

Little Lawrence Rand was quite sick last week.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 06 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Main Street, Idaho City, Idaho

IdahoCityFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

June 10

Bonners Ferry Herald. June 10, 1919, Page 1

19190610BFH1

Patron’s Day on Friday Afternoon

The usual closing exercises of the grade classes of the Bonners Ferry schools will be substituted this year for an open air festival which will be held on Friday afternoon, June 18, to which all parents and patrons are invited.

The day will also be observed as “patron’s day” from two o’clock on and exhibits will be made of the work of the past year in the grades and in the manual training and domestic science departments.

A visit to the schools on Friday will be worth the while of both the parents and the patrons of the local schools. Bonners Ferry has schools and equipment of which it may be proud and the work the students are doing goes to prove the value of the investment that has been made in their behalf.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 10 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. June 10, 1919, Page 2

P. J. Fransioli Dies

Tacoma. — Paul J. Fransioli, 49 years old, prominent Tacoma grain dealer died Saturday at his home at Gravelly lake of influenza.
— —

Amendment For Suffrage Signed
Vice President’s Signature Last Act Upon Resolution to Give Vote to Women

Washington. — Vice President Marshall June 5 signed the woman suffrage constitutional amendment resolution passed in Congress in the presence of Chairman Watson of the senate woman suffrage committee and other senators and representatives of women’s organizations. The vice president’s signature was the last act upon the resolution of the capital. Speaker Gillett having attached his signature June 4.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. June 10, 1919, Page 5

Local Pick-ups

W. H. Richardson, who has been on the sick list for several weeks, is able to be up and around again and on Saturday was able to come down town for a short visit.

Miss Mary Hawkins will leave on Saturday for the Lewiston State Normal school to be gone for six weeks.

A. A. McIntyre left yesterday for Moscow where he will appear before the state board of education in the effort to secure their adoption of the puzzle map which he is manufacturing. He was accompanied by Master “Bill” Gale who was selected from among the students of the locals schools to demonstrate the map.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., June 10, 1919, Page 3

19190610DSM1

19190610DSM2Dogs And Hens Are Wiser
Physician Arraigns the Modern Practice of Treating Influenza Patients

New Orleans, La. — “When a dog gets sick, what’s the first thing he does? He sticks his nose between his hind legs. What does he do it for? So that he can breath the warm air. When a chicken gets sick, the first thing it does is to tuck its head under its wing – so that it can breath the warm air. Physicians who advocate for the cold-air treatment for the ‘flu’ have less sense than either dogs or chickens.”

Such is the opinion rendered by Dr. Cooper Holtzclaw of Chattanooga, formerly president of the Association of Surgeons of the Southern Railway. He said it before the hundreds of surgeons who attended the twenty-third annual meeting of the association, held in this city.

He was arraigning the modern practice of treating influenza patients in the open air. He insisted that the best treatment for influenza is to keep the patient under such conditions of care and freedom from exposure as were wont to obtain when our mothers of the old school used to treat the measles.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 10 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Busy Day in Ilo, Idaho ca. 1910 (1)

Ilo1910Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

June 12

The Grangeville Globe. June 12, 1919, Page 1

19190612GG1

Mr. Batty Recovering

Fen Batty, one of the pioneer residents of this section, but who has been looking after his extensive land holdings near Maupin, Oregon, for the past year, came in on Saturday night’s train. Last fall Mr. Batty had a very severe illness and before recovering was also attacked by the influenza. He was confined to the hospital for more than three months and certainly shows the ravages of the disease with which he was afflicted. While he is very thin he states he is feeling fairly well at this time. He will remain here while convalescing.
— —

Red Cross Nurse Returned

Miss Rosa Williams returned last Monday night from overseas, where she has been for the greater part of the past year in the capacity of a Red Cross nurse. Before reaching Grangeville Miss Williams stopped at Salem Oregon for a weeks visit with relatives and friends.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 12 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Grangeville Globe. June 12, 1919, Page 8

[Local News]

Mrs. A. F. Parker left Monday morning for Boise, where she will visit with her daughter Mrs. R. B. Kading. Mrs. Parker recently underwent a second attack of the flu, and has been very slow in recovering from the effects of the disease, and it is anticipated that the change will prove beneficial to her health.

Mrs. Joe Sorrow left last Friday for Lewiston where she will spend a week or so. Mrs. Sorrow recently suffered an attack of bronchial pneumonia, and has gone to Lewiston with the hope that a change of climate will be beneficial.

T. E. Edmundson, proprietor of the Lyric theatre, is confined to his home this week with a very severe attack of lumbago. Dr. Scallon, the attending physician, reports his patient as slowly improving at the present time.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

Mack’s Inn Among the Pines, Island Park, Idaho ca. 1932 (1)

IslandPark1932Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

June 13

American Falls Press. June 13, 1919, Page 1

19190613AFP1

Half Of School Children Delinquent Says Miss Drake
Parents to Blame for Keeping Boys and Girls at Home to Work in Fields – Stricter Next Year She Says.

The attendance reports supplied the county superintendent of schools from the school districts of Power county are proof of the fact that over 50 per cent of the school children of the county were kept from school during the spring months to work at home.

“This means” said Miss Drake, county superintendent, “that all the children kept home will lose a grade in school and when the fall term opens they will be in the same grade that they started in last year. When a school girl or boy gets to be about fifteen years old and has lost three or four years of school he will drop his schooling entirely.

“Parents all over the county are equally guilty of this neglect in the education of their children. Many children are kept from school to do home work in families where one would least expect it. In my opinion school comes before everything. Children can always work, while there are only a few valuable years in which to attend school.”

More Strict Next Year

Miss Drake will begin next term with the distinct understanding with school directors, that all violations of the school laws will be severely dealt with. She has been promised the assistance of the probation officer, C. H. Torrance, who says he will be on the job to deal severely with all parents of children who remain out of school unlawfully.

“The war and the influenza have been to blame for much of the school delinquency,” said Miss Drake, “but there has really been no excuse for much of the trouble. I shall give all parents ample warning concerning school problems, then make them give a strict accounting for every day that their children are out of school.”

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 13 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

American Falls Press. June 13, 1919, Page 5

Facts From Fairview

W. A. Phillips and family moved in recently on the Kampf place. They have lived near Aberdeen for several years. Last year they were unfortunate enough to lose five of their children with influenza. Four of them were married, the other being a soldier boy in training at camp.
— —

19190613AFP2

Influenza and Headaches

Light (electric) is electricity, and electricity is current – generate by a dynamo and transmitted by wires. Decreased current means partial or a lack of light.

Health is life, and life is current generated in the brain and transmitted by the nerves. The difference between a live and a dead man is – one has life currant and the other has not. The difference between a healthy and a sickly man, is – in the healthy man the current is normal, while in the sickly it is decreased by mechanical interference; so, primarily, health is the result of life-current transmitted without interference, while disease is the result of decreased life-current. Chiropractic removes the interference.

It Works out in Practice

An example: “I started to feel better from the first adjustment I received at hands of Dr. Wilson, Chiropractor. I got better rapidly and all it took to make me well was three adjustments. Not only did he cure me of the Flu but he cured me of the bad headache that I had suffered with for a long time before I took sick. I know that Chiropractic saved my life, for I was almost dead when Dr. Wilson was called.” – (Signed) (The name will be furnished upon request.)

Dr. G. A. Wilson
Chiropractor
Phone 7-W Wones Bldg.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. June 13, 1919, Page 2

19190613KG1

Southwick Items

Miss Edith Faris has been engaged to teach a summer school in the mountains about sixty miles from Mountain Home.

The Misses Wilma and Stella McCleland left for Lewiston last Saturday where Stella will attend the summer normal, and Wilma will visit friends and recuperate after her long sick spell.

We hear that Jas. L. Mabry and Wm. Stump are improving in health. We congratulate them.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 13 June 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
——————-

Further reading

The 1918 Spanish flu outbreak that devastated a Greek island

Ioannis N Mammas, Maria Theodoridou, Demetrios A Spandidos, March 2018, Acta Paediatr

Abstract
This year marks the 100th anniversary of the outbreak of Spanish flu, which is estimated to have killed more than 50 million people worldwide. One area that was devastated was the Aegean island of Skyros, where the first cases appeared following celebrations for the feast day of Saint Demetrios at the end of October 1918. The island, which is the largest and southernmost island of the Northern Sporades, had 3,200 residents and one‐third of the 3,000 people who were infected died.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors. link:
— — — — — — — — — —

Greek refugees en route to Salonika

GreekRefugeesGreek refugees board a liner for Salonika docked in Fiume.
Brunell, W. J. (Photographer), n.d., n.p.

source: International Encyclopedia of the First World War
— — — — — — — — — —

The first announcement about the 1918 “Spanish flu” pandemic in Greece through the writings of the pioneer newspaper “Thessalia” almost a century ago

Gregory Tsoucalas, Fotini Karachaliou, Vasiliki Kalogirou, Giorgos Gatos, Eirini Mavrogiannaki, Antonios Antoniou, Konstantinos Gatos

Neurological Clinic “O Agios Georgios”, Alykes, Volos, Greece

Introduction

… It was the year 1918, when the influenza pandemic had been widespread from the American continent to all over Europe. Yet, the first wave of the flu had largely gone unnoticed during the spring and summer of 1918. The spring wave did not even receive a mention in the index of 1918 volume of the journal of “The American Medical Association”. The disease, at the beginning had been mild, the mortality was not unusually high, and the world had been preoccupied with the fifth year of the 1st World War. However influenza was brewing quietly, with localized outbreaks inside the U.S.A. military camps in early 1918. By April of the same year, the disease had been spread to France, most probably being carried there by the American troops. At the end of April, influenza reached neutral Spain where the disease was widely publicized, “A strange form of disease of epidemic character has appeared in Madrid”. Influenza then, acquired its name, “The Spanish Flu”. Britain, Germany, Switzerland, and Poland were the next countries for the flu to be spread.

By May 1818, “Spanish flu” had reached Greece. The newspaper “Thessalia” was the first to announce its arrival, watching closely its dissemination.

On July 19th of the year 1918, in an article entitled “Spanish flu”, we have the first recorded reference for the appearance of the influenza pandemic in Greece. It was at the Peloponnesian town of Patra, where a few days earlier, a flu outbreak had shown its malignant character. Physicians of the era had recognized the flu’s similarity to that which had been occurred in Spain.

About 25 days earlier inside a tobacco factory five boxes arrived from Salonika. From the next day of the opening of the boxes, factory’s Director, had felt ill from the disease, and four days later died. The following day a worker had died, while most workers of the factory, if not all, became ill by the flu.

The second deadly autumn wave of the Spanish flu, probably caused by a mutated strain of the virus, had lasted six weeks. The mortality rates were extremely high and the variety of symptoms excluded no organ.

Nasal haemorrhage, pneumonia, encephalitis, temperature as high as 40 degrees, miscarriage, early labour, pulmonary oedema, ruptured muscles of the rectum, swollen ankles, mimic nephritis, blood-streaked urine, and coma were among some serious defects forming some deadly clusters of symptomatology. Finally the world took notice and “Thessalia” newspaper, was once more the shrine of information for the people to protect themselves. The first two deaths of the second wave, were reported at the beginning of October in the area of “Trikala”, and “Thessalia” immediately noted the physicians assembly in the town.

The next day, October the 6th, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, had taken under serious consideration the worldwide spread of the “Spanish flu” pandemic and issued an informative telegram. Although the city of Volos was alarmed by the fact of the two dead citizens, and measures were taken, “Thessalia” published the whole telegram, “The disease germs enter the body through the mouth, and generally from the respiratory system. Frequent gargles, mainly with an oxygenated water and antiseptic cream, may have some preventive action. The disease spreads by coughs and transmitted by air. Therefore it is recommended the avoidance of mentally stress and overwork, as well as concentrations of each kind. All schools must be close, and meticulous maintenance of cleanliness of lingerie and hands is proposed. In particular, it is highly recommended to avoid close contact with every person who displays flu symptoms”.

Two days later “Thessalia” had announced the precautionary measures that had been taken all over the cities of Volos and Larisa.

An influenza-phobia was spread among the common people. Before a chaotic situation to appear, the prefect of Magnesia, the prefecture in which Volos belongs, had announced strict regulations to be followed. It was October the 18th when “Thessalia” published the announcement, “All schools, public and private are to be closed for 15 days. Instructions against the flu are to provided to pupils. Prohibition of pedestrian traffic between 17.00 hours and 05.00 hours in the morning. Prohibition of any assembly, punished with immediate arrest”. Some days later a more medical announcement had reached “Thessalia’s” headquarters, in an attempt to minimize the flies’ role as an epidemic vector, “To fight the flies, a mixture of 300 drams (1 dram is almost equal to 3 grams) of water, 180 drams of milk and 60 drams of lyzopharm (cosmetic of the era) must be placed within basins inside halls and rooms”.

It was November the 10th, when “Thessalia” had announced a painful summary, “In Magnesia 179 cases of “Spanish flu had been recorded, 86 of them were fatal. At the village of Cannalia Magnesias, 41 patients died after receiving no medical care due to the expulsion of their physician. The flu outbreak at Trikala caused more than 50 deaths” The fear to catch the flu was so great, that every death had to be demystified. During December the 14th, “Thessalia” wrote, “Three new cases of Spanish flu were announced. Four deaths occurred yesterday at the city of Volos, none because of the flu”.

“Thessalia”, as a liberal newspaper had also dealt with the social and economical impacts of the flu to the local society. Many articles had been written stressing out the consequences, “It is not only unjustified the destruction of the small coffee shops, nor of the 300 artists of the theatre that are doomed to endure daily. Shaken is the economic life of the entire city. First of all those who are at risk of becoming victims of influenza-phobia, the employees of the coffee shops. Follow the working classes, who are doomed to suffer the consequences of panic. Why, according to the logic of the police regulations, the tobacco warehouses, factories and in general all the factories, where the labourer earns his bread, are hotbeds of death. The Backgammon checkers and card players of koltsina (local Greek card game), they are all dangerous. How to start to work on the tobacco warehouses, winter, with the Damocles sword (Greek expression for high stress) of unjustified panic? Therefore why to condemn thousands of labourers, out of nothing in distress? And the economic malaise is not the best helper against the disease”.

Conclusion

“Spanish flu”, was widespread inside Thessaly’s District (Magnesia-Volos, Larisa, Trikala) since the first wave of the pandemic during the 1918. The liberal and pioneer newspaper of Thessaly, “Thessalia”, was the very first to announce the appearance of the flu in Greece. A plethora of articles were written, not only clarifying the epidemic, but additionally giving general instructions to the common people, as well as underlining the social and economical aspects of the flu’s consequences. Furthermore, the editorial board, had tried to awaken the citizens of Volos, in order not to fear the influenza. “Thessalia” had left its stigma, not only by fathom in the flu, but also by criticizing the strict orders given by the helpless and fearful Greek state.

excerpted from: Le Infezioni in Medicina, n. 1, 79-82, 2015
— — — — — — — — — —

The Spanish Flu in Athens

Bournova Eugenia May 2020 Athens Social Atlas

[A long and detailed paper.]  link:
— — — — — — — — — —

Dr. Cooper Holtzclaw: Healing Through Change

[Biography and history of the practice of medicine in the early 1900s.]

link: Southern Adventist University
——————

Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)

Idaho History Apr 25, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 54

Idaho Newspaper clippings May 13-31, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 13

The Idaho Republican. May 13, 1919, Page 6

19190513TIR1

Taber

Word was received here Wednesday of the death of Mrs. Bert Evans of American Falls from Influenza.

George Patrie was in town Tuesday, getting fixtures for his well and reported some cases of flu out their way.

School will be dismissed here on May 23.
— —

Inland Northwest

The epidemic of sickness raging in Tonopah, Silver Peak and Blair is said by Goldfield physicians not to be influenza, but plain grippe, and they explain the number of deaths recently by stating that the number is not unusual for this season of the year when the present large population is considered.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 13 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Post Office, Hansen, Idaho

HansenFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 15

Idaho County Free Press. May 15, 1919, Page 4

19190515ICFP1

Clearwater

Miss Jennette Hanners, who taught the intermediate room here this year, closed her school Friday and has gone to Spokane. Miss Bechannan and Miss Heater are making up time in their rooms lost during the influenza epidemic.

Rain fell here Sunday evening and did much good to the crops and gardens in this vicinity.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 15 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Nezperce Herald., May 15, 1919, Page 1

19190515NH1

Farmers Union Convention June 6-7

The regular tri-annual convention of the Farmers Union, of Nez Perce, Lewis and Clearwater counties, will be held at Melrose on Friday and Saturday, June 6th and 7th. This will be the first one of these meetings since last summer – the regular fall and winter gatherings having been annulled because of the influenza epidemic – and it is anticipated that a large turnout will result. Especially so since the annual election of officers will take place at this time and much other important business is to be disposed of. …

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 15 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Main Street, Harvard, Idaho

HarvardFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 16

Cottonwood Chronicle. May 16, 1919, Page 1

19190516CC1

News Around The State
Items of Interest From Various Sections Reproduced for Benefit of Our Readers

The spring term of the federal court opened at Moscow last Monday. There are many sedition cases carried over from the fall term. These are a number of “bootlegging” cases and two cases of food hoarding that have been postponed twice. Judge Dietrich and the other court officers will reach Moscow Sunday. The last term of the court was adjourned hastily on account of the influenza situation, as a number of jurors and witnesses were taken sick while attending court.

The capitol building improvement bonds carried last Saturday at Boise by a 99 per cent vote, 2929 for to 41 against. The capitol building wings, which will cost approximately $900,000 are to be built during the next two years, are assured to Boise. The state is prepared to start building operations immediately. The city will take quick action to have the approach property vacated. The bond was for the purpose of raising money to purchase two blocks by the city of Boise adjacent to the state capitol building.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 16 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Cottonwood Chronicle. May 16, 1919, Page 5

County Seat News Items

Dr. R. J. Alcorn of Ferdinand has located in Grangeville for the practice of his profession of physician and surgeon. Dr. Alcorn has taken office rooms upstairs in the Grangeville Savings & Trust block. His wife, Dr. Cora Alcorn, will continue to practice medicine in Ferdinand.

John Phillips of Stites was in Grangeville Wednesday carrying his arm in a sling. Mr. Phillips, Wednesday morning, while enroute to Grangeville, fractured a bone of his left wrist while cranking his automobile.
— —

Salmon River Ripplings

Mrs. Steve Farthing of Rocky canyon who has been ill is improving nicely.

Mrs. and Mrs. Arlie Gentry of Rocky canyon have returned home from Clarkston. The latter going there for treatment and is greatly improved in health.

Mrs. Eva Lancaster who was very ill is improving and is able to be about again.

The Salmon river country was visited by a good rain Sunday.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

Cottonwood Chronicle. May 16, 1919, Page 7

[Local News]

Dr. Orr and Dr. Stockton of Grangeville departed Monday morning for Boise in Dr. Stockton’s car.

Miss Edna McDonald finished her school term at the Crea school last week and is visiting at the Stevenson home in Cottonwood this week.

Marie Schueman closed her school near Keuterville last week and is visiting at the Jenny home before returning to her home at Clarkston.

(ibid, page 7)
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American Falls Press. May 16, 1919, Page 1

19190516AFP1

Mrs. Geo. S. Butler Passes Away

Early Wednesday morning Mrs. Madge J. Butler, wife of Geo. S. Butler, passed away at the family home. She had been ill since last October when she had had an attack of the flu which left her in a weakened condition and which finally developed into heart trouble which was the cause of her death. Mrs. Butler was born in Kansas and at the time of her death had reached the age of 45 years, 9 months and 7 days,.

Funeral services were held Thursday afternoon at 3 o’clock in the Methodist church at American Falls, the Rev. Mr. Richards officiating.

Besides her husband she leaves three children.

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 16 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

American Falls Press. May 16, 1919, Page 9

Boy Scout Doings

The New Orleans Red Cross has been working on the reclamation of soldiers’ garments. Boy scouts assisted by adjusting the button on the military blouses.

Among “good turns” reported by a Freeland (Pa.) troop of boys scouts are: Assisted the doctors and nurses in the Spanish influenza epidemic; donated ten baskets of provisions to the widows and orphans; assisted in picking 11 bushels of berries for I. O. O. F. orphanage at Sunbury, Pa.

(ibid, page 9)
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The Idaho Recorder. May 16, 1919, Page 1

19190516IR1

19190516IR2
Belated Flu Attack

The entire family of Ludwig Mogg is afflicted with a belated attack of flu, according to reports that comes from the home two miles south of Salmon this morning. Mrs. Murphey of the Red Cross is looking for a nurse for the family.
— —

Red Cross Work Is To Be Maintained After The War

Miss Van Wormer, field representative of the Red Cross, has been visiting Salmon this week, the guest of the Misses Shoup at the family home. The Lemhi chapter, of which Miss Laura Shoup is the head, was called together at Odd Fellows hall last night to hear Miss Van Wormer outline the post war work for the organization, which is to be kept up, both as to the junior Red Cross and parent body.

The principal undertakings still in hand are to look after child welfare in the devastated states of Europe, to help those made destitute who cannot help themselves, and finally to bring home to our own land the benefits of county nurses. To this end the organization is to be kept alive everywhere throughout the land, with the call for annual renewals of membership. Miss Shoup has announced, however, that the Salmon Red Cross rooms will not be maintained during the summer months after closing June 1.
— —

Strange Case Of Walking Typhoid

A strange case of a man in Montana carrying typhoid germs in his hands and infecting milk taken by him from cows has come to light at Helena, Montana. From this cause it is stated, there have arisen 17 cases of the dread disease with five deaths resulting.

The man [was] employed at the Sleeping Child Springs, a small resort in the Bitter Root valley. Shortly after he came there an epidemic of typhoid broke out at the place and spread, resulting in deaths in Missoula, Hamilton and Wallace, Ida. Five deaths in all were traced to the typhoid contagion contracted at the Sleeping Child Springs, and seventeen cases of the disease.

Health authorities investigated the resort. They found everything clean it is said. The water used there was analyzed and found pure and wholesome. Dr. John J. Sippy, state epidemiologist, and Dr. A. H. McGray, state bacteriologist, were called upon by Dr. G. Gordon, health officer of Ravalli county. All other clues as to the source of the disease proving fruitless, search for a typhoid carrier was begun.

An investigation disclosed that in every case of typhoid contracted at Sleeping Child Springs the patient was fond of milk and had partaken freely of the beverage at the springs. The ranch hand who did the milking was examined and it was found he carried positive typhoid germs, but to make absolutely sure the officials concluded to bring him to Helena to conduct more exhaustive tests.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 16 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. May 16, 1919, Page 4

Automobile Manners

The people who write etiquette books have not so far got out any code of automobile manners. But perhaps in these hurried times people do not read etiquette books any more. But anyway there are certain basic principles of good manners that should be applied to new developments of modern life.

The use of the automobile has had the effect to upset certain people’s ideas of what constitutes mannerly conduct. In ordinary life these people may be very courteous. But when they get on the road, they seem obsessed with the fear that someone will get ahead of them, or get away from them some precedence to which they are entitled.

If they seem a shade closer to a corner than a car coming from the entering street, they will rush ahead to claim the right to go ahead first. Frequently they misjudge the distance or speed and an accident results.

In their home life these same people would probably be very scrupulous to rise when a lady enters the room, and they would always insist on passing through a door last. But that spirit seems gone when they get out at a steering wheel. They blow their horn violently when approaching a crossing, as a notice to everyone to wait until they get by. It is of course easier for the pedestrian to stop and start than a big motor. Yet drivers who come down through a street slowly do not have to ask everyone to yield for them.

These remarks do not apply to the majority of drivers, who carry out on the road the same spirit of courtesy that they exercise in their homes. But it does fit a lot of people who ought to know better, and who do not realize how boorish an appearance they are making. If they could understand how objectionable they are made by their bad manners, their pride would compel an instant change of attitude.

(ibid, page 4)
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The Idaho Recorder. May 16, 1919, Page 5

Salmon Locals

The young returned soldier, Wesley Perkins, is recovering nicely from the attack of pneumonia that gave alarm last week.

Mrs. George A Martin, wife of the Salmon-Armstead stage man, has been ill for the past two weeks under hospital treatment at Butte. Mrs. Hunter is assisting Mrs. Martin in the management of her growing hotel and restaurant business at Armstead.

W. A. Brown, prominent livestock man of the Mayfield company, who has been through a siege attack of typhoid fever, is reported safely over the crisis and will soon be able to be out and about. His home is in Salmon.

W. F. Stipe has installed new counter show cases in the Salmon bakery to improve appearances and secure the more perfect sanitary handling of products. The interior is to have new linoleum also.
— —

19190516IR3
Filters Don’t Stop Influenza

Recent researches conducted by M. Nicolle and Lebailly of the Pasteur institute of Tunish have proven that the microbe of influenza is what is known as a “filter passer” – that is, it is so small as to pass through any filter, no matter how minute the interstices may be.

(ibid, page 5)
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Montpelier Examiner. May 16, 1919, Page 4

19190516ME1

[Deaths]

Funeral services for A. M. Hill of Pegram, were held in Salt Lake last Friday. Abe, as he was familiarly known to many local people, died last Tuesday at the home of his sister at Murray, Utah. He was down with influenza three months ago, which developed into tuberculosis. In addition to his widow he is survived by sons Stanley, Guy and Hood, and daughter Marvel of Pegram, and a sister, Amanda, of Salt Lake.

Mr. and Mrs. Andy Evans desire to thank the people of Raymond and Montpelier for their kindly acts on the occasion of the death of their infant son.
— —

Salt Lake Sheepman Died Here Last Night

Will Covey, the Salt Lake sheepman who has been ill with the flu at the Montpelier hospital, died last night at 1:55. Mr. Covey was 51 years old, and was born and raised in Salt Lake. He has been in the sheep business around Montpelier for the past fourteen years and is well known to many residents of this county.

Mr. Covey is survived by his wife, a son, Wallace, and a daughter, Grace, of Salt Lake. Mrs. Covey, a brother, and Mr. Stephen Covey, a brother, were at his bedside when he passed away. Dr. Claude Shields of Salt Lake and Miss Fife, a trained nurse, were called into consultation by Dr. Ashley, but Mr. Covey’s condition for several days has been slowly growing worse. The funeral will be held in Salt Lake, but arrangements have not yet been announced.
— —

Montpelier Now Has Modern Auto Hearse

Frank Williams drove his new auto hearse up from Ogden Tuesday on his return from the Golden Spike celebration there. The hearse is a beautiful pearl-colored auto, electrically fitted both inside and out and finished on the inside in mahogany.

It is a combination design after Mr. Williams’ own ideas, being constructed by the Sidney Stevens Implement Co. of Ogden to specifications, and can be used as an ambulance as well as a hearse.

Mr. Williams announces that he will now answer calls to any part of the county without extra charge for mileage, and is to be complimented for his initiative in providing this city with a first class mortuary and auto hearse.

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 16 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Montpelier Examiner. May 16, 1919, Page 5

Local News

Peter Black, an employee of Mumford’s sheep camp, was brought into the city Tuesday with a severe case of influenza, and died the same day. Funeral services were held at the city cemetery Wednesday. Nothing is known of any of Black’s relatives, or his home.

Funeral services were held at St. Charles last Thursday for the six-weeks old infant of Daniel Laker of Camp Lifton, which died of pneumonia.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Caldwell Tribune. May 16, 1919, Page 3

19190516CT1

Ten Davis

After four months of splendid success in its work the Ten Davis school closed Thursday evening. The pupils all made their semesters credit, passing with good grades. Since our new set of teachers came out school has improved wonderfully. Mr. Bay made a splendid principal and teacher. He being able to teach the children to sing was very helpful and each student enjoyed the forty minute period of singing which they had every day. Mr. Jewell was a favorite with the boys as he enjoyed being out doors playing baseball and any other games the boys played. Mr. Jewel [sic] was also an excellent teacher. The rest of the teachers were very successful as teachers also. Miss Ruth Miller and Mrs. Conners will teach here again next year. We all hope that the three teachers yet to be hired will be as successful teachers as their predecessors have been.

Misses Ruth Miller and Ruth Mead and Mrs. Margaret Conners left Friday evening for their respective homes where they will spend the vacation.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 16 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. May 16, 1919, Page 4

Camp Fire Gleams

The Camp Fire Girls are beginning to think with more or less patience of their summer vacation. The school year being a strenuous one, crowding each one of their greatest efforts, trying for both teacher and pupil.

Now the peaceful voice of the pine tree, the symbol of rest and strength, is calling.

“Again and again shall thou sit at my feet and listen until thou too shall find rest and peace, and shall become steadfast and true. Tho self and truth fulfilling the law. The sky is not far. Osoah the pine tree has spoken and hath pointed the great sky trail.”

No wonder they turn from their books to listen to the message and think with longing of the dusk of the pine forest, of its sheltering safety and the untasted joys of the unknown trail beyond. Where misunderstandings, mistakes and troubles are forgotten and we find in the sound of the pines some signs of the eternal language.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. May 16, 1919, Page 6

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Marble Front

The Marble Front school will have a picnic in the Walter Thomas grove Friday, which is the last day of school.

Roswell

John Steele, who has been quite ill, is recovering.

Midway

Friday, Miss Martha Nicholas received word of the death of her cousin, Miss Lydia Morgan, of Malad, which occurred that day, from the flu. Miss Morgan was well known to the older residents of Midway as she taught the intermediate grade in the school six years ago, and for the past four years was country treasurer of Oneida county.

Miss Sina Williams is quite sick this week.

Mrs. E. R. Bennett, nurse specialist of the extension department, and Miss Louise Riddle of the County Farm bureau, met with several ladies at the school house, and Mrs. Bennett gave a fine talk on “home nursing.” Those who did not hear her missed a treat, as she gave many facts and suggestions that everyone should know. It is to be regretted there was not a larger representation of the district present.

Clyde Dorv is assisting in the People’s Cash Grocery this week, as Mr. Hostettler is on the sick list.

David Kauffman is suffering from the grippe.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. May 16, 1919, Page 10

Brier Rose

Mr. W. C. Postlethwaite was sick the first of the week, but is better and able to be at work again.

Mary Shaw is out of school this week with a sore throat.

Mrs. C. L. Crew is on the sick list and under the doctor’s care.

It is reported a number of persons are ill with the influenza on the Pons ranch.

Mr. E. L. Shaw, who was home two days last week on account of illness, is better and back in his office.

Greenleaf

Miss Glennie Dines is on the sick list.

The Nordyke family, who has had influenza the past few days, is reported better.

Lake Lowell

The Lake Lowell Red Cross met with Mrs. S. H. Peters Thursday afternoon of last week. There was a large attendance and the work was all finished up and sent in. At the close of the meeting it was decided to meet once a month during the summer just for a social good time.

(ibid, page 10)
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Post Office, Helmer, Idaho

HelmerFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 19

The Daily Star-Mirror., May 19, 1919, Page 2

19190519DSM1

Soldiers Should Keep Insurance
War Risk Department Issues Appeal To Men To Hang On To Policies

That the soldier, sailor or marine who took out an insurance policy with the government during the war makes a serious mistake when he relinquishes his insurance is the statement sent out by the war risk department, which it asks the newspapers to publish and to impress upon the minds of the men who served their country so faithfully that they should keep this insurance in force. The appeal follows:

Think it Over

Soldiers, sailors and marines —

Stop a minute while we tell you something for your own good.

Suppose “abandon ship” had been sounded and one of your pals was without a life belt. You would say to him – “Here, Jim, you get into this life belt and get into it quick! You will need it and you will need it badly. It’s a great protection – it’s a good thing – hang on to it.”

Your government insurance is a good thing. Hang on to it.

You say – “the war is over. What’s the use?” The government says, we say, every thinking person says – “Insurance protection is needed, war or peace.”

Influenza alone killed more young, healthy and vigorous persons in the world than were killed by bullets and disease four and one-half years of war.

And YOU say – “what’s the use?”

Isn’t it worth while protecting your mother, wife or other dependents – don’t you want to protect YOURSELF against disability?

During the period of the war the government issued a temporary type of insurance known as war risk, or term insurance. It was designed primarily for protection purposes only, simply to tide the service men over the danger period of the war at the lowest possible price.

This term insurance was the best possible TEMPORARY insurance the government could arrange. But the government realized that it lacked the elements which would make permanency in life insurance desirable.

The cost of this old style of war risk insurance increases as the years go by.

The cost of the new insurance does not increase once you convert.

The government will announce shortly a plan for changing this war risk, or term insurance to permanent life, or endowment insurance. It will introduce features highly desirable in any form of insurance but particularly in this new government insurance at its low cost.

Some of you men after being mustered out, are allowing your war risk insurance policies to lapse by nonpayment of premiums.

At the time when the government is about to make a “good thing” a “better thing” you men are letting this privilege slip thru your fingers.

Boys – don’t let your policies lapse. If you have done so thru misunderstanding, or lack of information, you have six months from the date of lapse in which to re-instate the policy.

If you want information regarding the re-instatement of your policy, or regarding the new government plan for converting policies, white to the insurance officer, Thirteenth Naval District, Navy Yard, Puget Sound, Wash. He will be glad to answer your questions regarding insurance.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 19 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Herrick, Idaho

HerrickFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 20

The Daily Star-Mirror., May 20, 1919, Page 1

19190520DSM1

Crime And Divorce Afflicts Spokane
Wave of Insanity, Juvenile Delinquency and Drunkenness Prevailing

Spokane. — Divorce, juvenile crime and insanity waves have been rampant here of late, and all are traceable to a condition of ‘social unrest.”

This is the opinion of Judge R. M. Webster, who as presiding judge of the Spokane county superior court, is charged with the adjudication of all cases of these three types.

Even the rapid rate of growth of divorce cases in the past 20 years has been exceeded recently. Juvenile crime has been rampant, and the police declare it their greatest problem.

“The divorce and insanity waves are traceable directly to a condition of social unrest,” Judge Webster said recently. “There is undoubtedly some connection between divorces and juvenile crime. A divorce, as rule means that a home has broken up and broken homes lead to juvenile troubles.

“Recently we have had from four to eight divorce hearings on every Tuesday and Thursday. “The run of insanity cases seems to have abated. Until recently I had a commitment almost every day. This week I had only one.”

Judge Webster asserts that the closing of schools during the influenza period had a detrimental effect upon juvenile morals, removing, as it did, the necessary “something to do,” which children crave.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 20 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., May 20, 1919, Page 4

19190520DSM2
“Flu” Claims Five Million in India

London. — Almost 5,000,000 persons have died in British India from Spanish influenza and fully a million others are believed to have died in the native states from the same cause, according to a report of the Indian government made public here. The area affected contained a population of 238,026,240 and the number of deaths was 4,899,725, or 20.6 deaths per thousand. In a few months, it is observed, influenza claimed half as many victims.

The influenza, which made its appearance in India early last autumn was particularly fatal in the central, northern and western portions, while in Burma it was not so severe. No part of the Punjab escaped. The hospitals were so choked it was impossible to quickly remove the dead and make room for the dying. Streets and lanes of the cities were littered with dead and dying people and the postal and telegraph services were completely demoralized.

The burning ghats and burial grounds were literally swamped with corpses, while an even greater number awaited removal from houses and hospitals. The depleted medical service, itself sorely stricken by the epidemic, was incapable of dealing with more than a minute fraction of sickness requiring attention.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — — — — — — — —

Oregon Short Line Depot, Homedale, Idaho

HomedaleFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 22

The Daily Star-Mirror., May 22, 1919, Page 4

19190522DSM1

Harvard Happenings
School Closed Friday

Harvard school closed a successful term Friday, May 16, under the able management of Miss Margaret Terry, in charge of the advanced grades and Miss Manilla Hanson, of the intermediate grades and Miss Jo Guy of the primary. …

The young people handled their work in a way that would do credit to older students in the city schools and shows what talent and practice can be made to produce. …

Despite the fact that ten weeks were lost during the influenza quarantine, eleven of the twelve applicants to write the examinations passed successfully, which speaks very highly, not only for the hard work of the pupils but for the teachers as well.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 22 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Horse Shoe Bend, Idaho ca. 1909

HorseShoeBend1909Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 23

Clearwater Republican. May 23, 1919, Page 1

19190523CR1

Schools Close Friday

Next Friday, May 30, the public schools will close for the year. In spite of the long vacation, caused by the influenza, the pupils will be able to finish their work in fairly good shape. Of course, the work has not been as thorough as in ordinary years, but by following the “cramming” process, the teachers have been able to get most of the pupils ready for promotion.

There are ten graduates this year. Nellie Chase, Blanche Simpson, Mary O’Hara, Ruby Wahl, Beatrice Rogers, Winnifred Wellman, Mary Biegart, Dorothy Gallaher, Mavis Aiken and Julia Brown. …
— —

Miss Roberts Gets Good Position

The Misses Nell Roberts and Agness Gillespie made the round trip to Ahsahka, Sunday. Miss Roberts has accepted the principalship of the Ahsahka school, for the next term, and her sister, Miss Veda will be her assistant. After the school house had been inspected by the two young lady visitors, they camped on the banks of the beautiful North Fork and partook of a bountiful lunch, in true Weary Willie and Dusty Roads style – coffee a la tomato can and wienies a la pointed stick.
— —

Notice

On account of the illness of Mr. C. H. Ede, School Trustee of District No. 22, opening of bids for gymnasium, auditorium and assembly room, at Orofino, which was advertised for May 19, was postponed until Monday, May 26th.

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 23 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Clearwater Republican. May 23, 1919, Page 5

What your Friends and Neighbors Are Doing

The Republican is pleased to advise that Miss Mavis Aiken is rapidly recovering from a serious attack of pneumonia.

(ibid, page 5)
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American Falls Press. May 23, 1919, Page 2

19190523AFP1

19190523AFP2
Nurses Rescued From Quicksand
Three Girls Dug Out by Athlete Recuperating From Influenza

Chicago. — Three pretty nurses at the North Shore Health resort at Winnetka are deeply grateful for the fact that Harold Rubin, University of Chicago athlete, had the “flu” recently.19190523AFP3

If he hadn’t, he in all probability would not have been at the resort, convalescing from his recent illness, and the three young nurses might have perished in quicksand.

Misses Grace Williams, Helen Conrad and Clara Babroth went out along the lake shore to the bluff at Willow street. Dangerous quicksands about there.

Rubin and his cousin, Miss Fal Rubin, walking near by, heard the the girls scream. The athlete started on a sprint when he saw the girls sinking in quicksand. One of the young women was up to her waist.

Efforts to extricate the nurses were unsuccessful. Rubin sprinted back to the health resort. Despite his weakened condition, he probably never did the distance in better time.

With the help of a resort attaché and a couple of shovels, the girls were dug out. As soon as he ascertained they were safe, Rubin dashed off blushing furiously.

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 23 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

American Falls Press. May 23, 1919, Page 4

Roy and Vicinity

Mrs. C. M. Confer of Landing returned to her home Tuesday of last week from the hospital at American Falls where she has been three weeks. Mrs. Confer is well on the way to complete recovery and has words of praise only for Miss Lehman and the other nurses of the Bethany Deaconess hospital.

Lawrence Roy’s little boy who is staying with his grandmother, Mrs. H. C. Roy was quite sick with croup one day last week. Dr. Logan was sent for and gave the little one relief.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

American Falls Press. May 23, 1919, Page 5

Local Briefs

Miss Gellette who is teaching in the Washington school is ill and will be unable to finish her term.

Mrs. Pete Helsler of Spokane, Wash., sister of S. E. Kramlich, died Tuesday morning. She had been ill for some time.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Minnihaha Homestead, Happy Creek, Idaho (1)

HappyCreekFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 28

The Challis Messenger., May 28, 1919, Page 6

19190528CM1

19190528CM2Australians Wear Flu Masks

Melbourne. — Because of prevalence of influenza, the government of Victoria has ordered every person appearing on the streets or in public gatherings to wear a mask.
— —

Typhus Epidemic in Russia

Copenhagen. — A typhus epidemic has broken out in several of the larger Russian towns. Thousands are reported dead.

source: The Challis Messenger. (Challis, Idaho), 28 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Challis Messenger., May 28, 1919, Page 3

19190528CM3

19190528CM4

(ibid, page 3)
— — — — — — — — — —

Headquarters, Idaho (5)

HeadquartersFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 30

The Caldwell Tribune. May 30, 1919, Page 1

19190530CT1

Children Need Medical Attention is Report
Examined 302 Pupils in Rural Schools – Startling Revelations Made Public

Canyon county is supposed to be as healthful a community as any in the state. The general health of the people of the county is thought to be above the average. Investigations made by Miss Ebba Djupe of the State Anti-Tuberculosis association and Miss Mertis Riddle, county home demonstration agent, indicates that medical supervision in the rural communities of this county is demanded.

In the Roswell, Midway, Lone Star and Franklin school districts 302 children were examined. Sanitary conditions in some districts are said to be bad. At Roswell the conditions are exceptionally good.

Particularly noticeable among the children examined was the prevalence of dental disorders, badly infected tonsils and the prevalence of ringworm. The latter was found to be almost universal among the children of all of the schools except Roswell. Miss Djupe attributed this to the use of common drinking cups or the type of fountains used in some institutions.

Girl Almost Blind

Among the most startling cases revealed through the examinations were those of a 12-year-old girl who was found to be almost totally blind, both parents and teachers being wholly ignorant of the fact; another girl with such a badly infected throat that Miss Djupe was of the opinion that she had diphtheria; and the case of a 6-year-old boy whose tonsils were extremely bad. This fact brought consternation to the child’s parents, who had but recently had a faulty operation performed upon the boy’s tonsils and, without an examination, would never have considered the possibility of them causing further trouble.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 30 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. May 30, 1919, Page 3

Lake Lowell

Almeda Gibbons is reported as improving.

Florence Gibbons is much improved at this writing.

Elsie Gibbons made a business trip to Boise Saturday.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. May 30, 1919, Page 7

Midway

School closed this week, after a very successful year, despite the influenza and smallpox.

The Parent-Teachers Association gave the school children their annual picnic and treat of ice cream and cake at the school house Friday afternoon. There were about 100 children and about 75 parents and visitors present. The children gave a fine program of sports, and everyone seemed to have a very pleasant afternoon.

Mrs. T. F. Fry was ill several days last week.

Mr. and Mrs. A. Sebree and family visited Mrs. Sebree’s mother, Mrs. W. L. Gibbons who is seriously ill at her home near Deer Flat reservoir, last week.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. May 30, 1919, Page 9

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Roswell

The children of the public schools were given a physical examination Wednesday under the direction of Miss Ebba Djupe, a nurse of the anti-tuberculosis society and Mrs. A. A. Steel, country health chairman. Although defects were found the results were very satisfactory.

Miss Swatman’s grades were closed Monday as she was in New Plymouth to see her brother who has just returned from service in Germany

Ten Davis

After a lingering illness of several months Bessie Bartles passed away in a Boise hospital Sunday afternoon. She has been suffering with diabetes. On Friday of last week she had her tonsils and adenoids removed. Up to Saturday evening she was feeling quite well, when she suddenly grew worse and died Sunday afternoon. Last winter she had to quit school on account of her poor health. She was a junior in high school when she quit. Bessie was a favorite among the young folks in the community and they will all miss her very much. She was 18 years old at the time of her death.

(ibid, page 9)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Meridian Times., May 30, 1919, Page 1

19190530MT1

Editorial Mention

Vera Ruth, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Fowler, died at the family home south of Meridian, May 26th, at the age of 8 years, 8 months and 14 days. Throat trouble, resembling diphtheria, was the cause of death. A brief service was conducted on the lawn at the home by Carman E. Mell, of the Christian church. Only the family were present. Interment was in Morris Hill cemetery.

J. H. McSparran, having closed the term of school at Montour, came to Meridian Wednesday with his household goods. …

The members of the Meridian high school board and the grade school board have mutually agreed on the “6 and 6” plan as before mentioned in the Times, and which means that 6 grades will be taught in the grade school and six in the high school. The appointment of the teachers for the high school and the selection of grades will be made by the newly appointed superintendent, Prof. Powers, and announced in a few days. The list has already been announced of the grade teachers, but the high school force awaits the action of the board and the new superintendent.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 30 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Meridian Times., May 30, 1919, Page 2

News Of A Week In Condensed Form
Records Of The Important Events Told In Briefest Manner Possible

Domestic

Unable to pay death claims of $580,000 as a result of influenza epidemic, the Catholic Mutual Benefit association will notify members that extra assessments must be levied until the deficit is wiped out, it was announced at Buffalo, N. Y., last week.

Washington

Passage by the house, on May 21, of a deficiency bill providing urgent appropriations of $45,044,500 for war risk allowances to soldiers and sailors’ families and civil war pensioners, made another speed record for the new house.

National suffrage for women was introduced by the house of representatives for the second time when the Susan B. Anthony amendment resolution was adopted on May 21 by a vote of 304 to 89.

Sending bombs and other explosives through the mails would be made a capital offense under a bill introduced by Senator King of Utah and referred to the judiciary committee. The Utah senator was one of those to whom infernal machines were addressed in the May day bomb plot

Foreign

The total damage in the north of France, including buildings, agriculture, furniture and public works, is estimated at 64,600,000,000 francs, or about $13,000,000,000.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

The Meridian Times., May 30, 1919, Page 5

19190530MT2

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

Ice Crew at Humphrey, Idaho

HumphreyFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 31

The Daily Star-Mirror., May 31, 1919, Page 1

19190531DSM1

Parents of Heroes Guests of “U”

Some of the parents of the Idaho students who died in the service were guests of the University yesterday. These are Mrs. Emma A. Paterka of Republic, the mother of Frank Paterka a member of the S. A. T. C. who died of influenza at Moscow, and Mrs. G. W. Sylvester of Rathdrum, the mother of Clarence Sylvester who was killed in action in the battle of Argonne Forest.

Dean French has received a number of communications from parents and relatives of other boys who died in the service indicating their appreciation of the exercises held and of the Memorial bulletin which will be sent them.
— —

Must Clean the Alleys

Dr. Leitch, city health officer, wants to call the attention of Moscow people to the ordinance providing for keeping the alleys clean. Dr. Leitch says the people are either ignorant of the law or do not care to obey it. The ordinance provided that if manure is thrown in the alleys at all it must be in a fly-tight box, and that the box must not protrude more than four feet into the alley, that is, must not extend more than four feet from the building or fence. He calls attention to the fact that manure is piled in alleys in Moscow, and that the ordinance is not obeyed by a great many persons who keep cows or horses in town. Rigid enforcement of the provisions of this ordinance will be made in the future. This warning is given in order that people may know the law and henceforth they will be required to obey it strictly.
— —

Autos Interfere With The Fire Department

Complains is made of the way automobiles crowd the streets when the fire bell rings. It is claimed that when the last alarm was found, Wednesday evening, so many automobiles blocked the streets that had there been a fire instead of a false alarm, the department could not have reached the hydrant. Warning is given that automobile or vehicle drivers who block the streets when the fire alarm sounds, will be arrested. Our efficient fire department has made an enviable record because it gets to the scene of the fire promptly. Idle curiosity will not be permitted to mar this splendid record.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 31 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
—————–

Further Reading

1918 flu pandemic in India

1918 flu pandemic in India was the outbreak of an unusually deadly influenza pandemic in India between 1918–1920 as a part of the worldwide Spanish flu pandemic. Also referred to as the Bombay Influenza or the Bombay Fever in India, the pandemic is believed to have killed up to 17 – 18 million people in the country, the most among all countries. David Arnold (2019) estimates at least 12 million dead, about 5% of the population. The decade between 1911 and 1921 was the only census period in which India’s population fell, mostly due to devastation of the Spanish flu pandemic. The death toll in India’s British-ruled districts was 13.88 million.

In India, the pandemic broke out in Bombay in June 1918, with one of the possible routes being via ships carrying troops returning from the First World War in Europe. The outbreak then spread across the country from west and south to east and north, reaching the whole of the country by August. It hit different parts of the country in three waves with the second wave being the highest in mortality rate. The death rate peaked in the last week of September 1918 in Bombay, in the middle of October in Madras, and in the middle of November in Calcutta.

The outbreak most severely affected younger people in the age group of 20–40, with women suffering disproportionately. According to the Sanitary Commissioner’s report for 1918, the maximum death toll in a week exceeded 200 deaths in both Bombay and Madras. The spread of the disease was exacerbated by a failed monsoon and the resultant famine-like conditions, that had left people underfed and weak, and forced them to move into densely populated cities. As a result of the severity of the outbreak, the year 1919 saw a reduction of births by around 30 percent. The population growth of India during the decade from 1911–1921 was 1.2%, the lowest among all decades under the British Raj. In his memoirs the Hindi poet, Suryakant Tripathi, wrote “Ganga was swollen with dead bodies.” The sanitary commissioner’s report for 1918 also noted that all rivers across India were clogged up with bodies, because of a shortage of firewood for cremation.

Mahatma Gandhi, the leader of India’s independence struggle, was also infected by the virus. The pandemic had a significant influence in the freedom movement in the country. The healthcare system in the country was unable to meet the sudden increase in demands for medical attention. The consequent toll of death and misery, and economic fallout brought about by the pandemic led to an increase in emotion against colonial rule.

from: Wikipedia
— — — —

The Virus That Killed 18 Million Indians

Exactly a 100 years ago, a ship returning with World War I soldiers unleashed the Spanish Flu in India. The worst pandemic in human history is strangely unremembered

Madhavankutty Pillai 06 Sep, 2018

On the 10th of November, 1918, Mahadev Desai, the personal secretary of Mahatma Gandhi, began his diary entry with, ‘Influenza raging in the Ashram’. He then went on to quote verbatim a letter that Gandhi, in a disease- stricken weakened state, wrote to one Gangabehn —

‘I could read only today your card telling me that you, Kiki and others had fallen ill. I was glad to learn, however, that by the grace of God you are all progressing. The body of the person who has chosen to follow the dharma of service must become as strong as steel as a result of his holy work. Our ancestors could build such tough bodies in the past. But today we are reduced to a state of miserable weakness and are easily infected by noxious germs moving about in the air. There is one and only one really effective way by which we can save ourselves from them even in our present broken state of health. That way is the way of self-restraint or of imposing a limit on our acts. The doctors say, and they are right, that in influenza our body is safest from any risk to life if we attend to two things. Even after we feel that we have recovered, we must continue to take complete rest in bed and have only an easily digestible liquid food. So early as on the third day after the fever has subsided many persons resume their work and their usual diet. The result is a relapse and quite often a fatal relapse. I request you all, therefore, to keep to your beds for some days still. And I wish you kept me informed about the health of you all. I am myself confined to bed still. It appears I shall have to keep to it for many days more, but it can be said that I am getting better. The doctors have forbidden me even to dictate letters, but how could I have the heart to desist from writing to you?… Vande Mataram, Mohandas Gandhi.’

The disease that Gandhi alludes to and almost forgotten in India’s cultural memory was the Spanish Flu, one of the biggest killers that mankind had ever seen in recorded history. Around the world, it is estimated to have claimed between 50 to 100 million lives. And in India, which was the worst affected, within the space of just a couple of months, it could have killed as many as 18 million or 7 per cent of the total population. The flu came in three waves. The first, which arrived in summer, wasn’t very markedly different from a seasonal variant. But exactly a 100 years ago, in September 1918, after a ship of soldiers returning from World War I landed in Mumbai, the second lethal wave began. From Mumbai it radiated to the rest of the country and the bodies kept piling on.

continued: Open Magazine
— — — — — — — — — —

Spanish Influenza in Australia

1918Atlantic16-a
People arrive at a quarantine camp in Wallangarra, Australia, during the influenza epidemic of 1919. State Library of Queensland

source: Alan Taylor April 10, 2018 “30 Photos of the 1918 Flu Pandemic” The Atlantic
— — — — —

The ‘Spanish’ Influenza Pandemic in Australia, 1912-19

Humphrey McQueen

(Originally published in Social Policy in Australia – Some Perspectives 1901-1975. Edited by Jill Roe. Cassell Australia 1976)

Six months before the Armistice ended the Great War a new and more deadly scourge was unleashed upon the world. Popularly known as ‘Spanish’ flu it killed twenty million people within twelve months. Australia remained free of infection for much of that time, but by the end of 1919 all Australian States shared a death toll of 12,000. No one knew precisely what the disease was, or how to cure or prevent it. Was the Australian version simply a more virulent strain of the influenza which recurred every year, as claimed by the Director of Quarantine? The Federal structure of Australian government was ignored as States closed their borders: was Victoria responsible for allowing infection to spread to the rest of Australia as many New South Welshmen alleged? Or was the Pandemic a continuation of God’s punishments, the fulfilment of Apocalyptic prophecy?

In discussing the Pandemic’s Australian career four areas will be examined. Firstly, the origins of the disease and the quarantine regulations designed to prevent its penetration into and spread throughout Australia; some implications for Federalism and nationalism are pointed to. Secondly, the medical professions’ responses will be considered. Thirdly, the public health activities of State governments will be detailed. Fourthly, the psychological impact of the Pandemic will be located in its total environment to evaluate its contribution to any Australian ‘loss of certainty’ consequent upon the Great War.

`Spanish’ influenza earned its geographic epithet because the king of Spain was amongst its earliest victims; one of the few things known for certain is that the disease did not originate in his realm. The most likely explanation is that a milder form of influenza carried to Europe by American troops in April 1918 was transformed into the Pandemic type which, by October, spread throughout Europe and into Africa, Asia and the Americas; Australia remained free from infection until the following January. Before the Pandemic abated nearly thirty millions died, mostly in Asia.

Outbreaks in Britain were marked by three peaks of intensity between July 1918 and February 1919 during which Australian troops in Britain suffered approximately a 10 per cent infection rate; 209 cases were fatal. Returning troop ships were often badly hit. Half the complement of the Barambah were affected and twenty-three deaths occurred during the voyage. In contrast, another transport lost only one member, a sergeant, who ‘in a delirious condition’ and ‘fascinated by the cool depths of the moonlit sea. . .dropped overboard’ leaving ‘behind him the aroma of a gracious disposition’; however, twenty-four soldiers and four nurses from this vessel subsequently died in quarantine at Fremantle.

Outbreaks in Britain were marked by three peaks of intensity between July 1918 and February 1919 during which Australian troops in Britain suffered approximately a 10 per cent infection rate; 209 cases were fatal.2 Returning troop ships were often badly hit. Half the complement of the Barambah were affected and twenty-three deaths occurred during the voyage. In contrast, another transport lost only one member, a sergeant, who ‘in a delirious condition’ and ‘fascinated by the cool depths of the moonlit sea. . .dropped overboard’ leaving ‘behind him the aroma of a gracious disposition’3; however, twenty-four soldiers and four nurses from this vessel subsequently died in quarantine at Fremantle.

Outbreaks in Britain were marked by three peaks of intensity between July 1918 and February 1919 during which Australian troops in Britain suffered approximately a 10 per cent infection rate; 209 cases were fatal.2 Returning troop ships were often badly hit. Half the complement of the Barambah were affected and twenty-three deaths occurred during the voyage. In contrast, another transport lost only one member, a sergeant, who ‘in a delirious condition’ and ‘fascinated by the cool depths of the moonlit sea. . .dropped overboard’ leaving ‘behind him the aroma of a gracious disposition’3; however, twenty-four soldiers and four nurses from this vessel subsequently died in quarantine at Fremantle.

Once the disease was established in the resident population there were several instances of troops breaking quarantine.

continued: Social Policy in Australia (excellent long article)
— — — — —

How Australia’s response to the Spanish flu of 1919 sounds warnings on dealing with coronavirus

1919AustraliaMedicalStaff-aMedical staff in Surry Hills, NSW, 1919. NSW State Archives

The Spanish flu came in waves and was extraordinarily virulent. There were reports of people seeming perfectly health at breakfast and dead by evening.

An illness lasting ten or so days, followed by weeks of debility, was more common. An early sign was a chill or shivering, followed by headache and back pain. Eventually, an acute muscle pain would overcome the sufferer, accompanied by some combination of vomiting, diarrhoea, watering eyes, a running or bleeding nose, a sore throat and a dry cough. The skin might acquire a strange blue or plum colour. …

Almost a third of deaths in Australia were of adults between 25 and 34. The Spanish flu probably infected 2 million Australians in a population of about 5 million. In Sydney alone, 40% of residents caught it. …

There were too few doctors and nurses to deal with the crisis – many were still with the armed forces overseas, and others caught the flu. Health facilities were overrun. In Melbourne, the Exhibition Building was turned into a large hospital, as were some schools. Schools shut down at various times in different states during 1919, but widespread disruption was caused either by government decisions to close or the illness of teachers.

excerpted from: March 22, 2020 The Conversation
— — — — —

1919: Influenza pandemic reaches Australia

1919AustraliaMasks-aWomen wearing surgical masks during influenza epidemic, Brisbane 1919

The Spanish flu pandemic emerged at the end of the First World War, killing more than 50 million people worldwide.

Despite a swift quarantine response in October 1918, cases of Spanish flu began to appear in Australia in early 1919. About 40 per cent of the population fell ill and around 15,000 died as the virus spread through Australia.

What is influenza?

Influenza, or the flu, is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus.

In 15th-century Italy an upper respiratory infection was considered to be ‘influenced’ by the stars, thereby giving the disease its name.

continued: National Museum of Australia
— — — — —

An Australian Perspective of the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic

Peter Curson and Kevin McCracken
Department of Human Geography Macquarie University

Abstract

The 1918–1919 influenza pandemic stands as one of the greatest natural disasters of all time. In a little over a year the disease affected hundreds of millions of people and killed between 50 and 100 million. When the disease finally reached Australia in 1919 it caused more than 12,000 deaths. While the death rate was lower than in many other countries, the pandemic was a major demographic and social tragedy, affecting the lives of millions of Australians.

This paper briefly assesses the impact of the pandemic on Australia and NSW with particular reference to the demographic and social impact and the measures advanced to contain it.

continued: NSW Public Health Bulletin Vol. 17 No. 7–8
——————–

Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)

Idaho History Apr 18, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 53

Idaho Newspaper clippings May 8-12, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 8

The Grangeville Globe. May 08, 1919, Page 5

19190508GG1

19190508GG2Mrs. Wadsworth Dead
Influenza Claimed Wife of Former Superintendent of Schools

Some time ago word was received here of the death in California of Mrs. George Wadsworth, who as at one time superintendent of the city schools, but nothing definite was known until this week when a letter was received by friends from Professor Wadsworth, who stated that Mrs. Wadsworth, who had been in a hospital in the east where she had undergone an operation, was on her way home during the winter when her train was snowbound for some days. During this time Mrs. Wadsworth contracted influenza and by the time she reached home pneumonia had developed, and after a struggle of two weeks the lady passed away.

Professor Wadsworth also contracted the disease and for a time was very ill. He has had a long struggle in overcoming the ravages of the malady. He has recently been reappointed superintendent of Westside high school at Tracy, California.

Prof. and Mrs. Wadsworth made many warm friends during the time they resided here, who deeply regret the seemingly untimely calling away of one of such lovely character, and they mourn her loss sincerely.

These friends extend to Professor Wadsworth their heartfelt sympathy.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 08 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Grangeville Globe. May 08, 1919, Page 8

[Local News]

S. C. McDaniel returned early this week from a three months’ visit at California points. Mc states that while away he suffered nearly all there was in connection with the influenza, but returns to the city enjoying the best of health.

Mrs. Israel Harris returned from Spokane last Sunday where she has been taking treatment for some time past. Mrs. Harris states that she feels 75 percent better than when she left, and certainly looks the part.

Victor Baldwin of Portland, is spending a few days at the J. A. Zuver farm southwest from town. He accompanied the remains of Mrs. Baldwin, who died suddenly at Portland last Friday, here for interment.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Emmett Index. May 08, 1919, Page 4

19190508EI1

Emmett News

Mr. and Mrs. Bert Mays are both quite ill with the influenza.

Mrs. G. B. Mains departed Monday for Denver in response to a telegram announcing the serious illness of her sister, Miss Margaret Keenan, with pneumonia. Miss Keenan as spent some time in Emmett and her friends feel gravely concerned for her condition.

W. H. Appel’s aged mother is quite ill.

A man named Anderson was brought in from near Montour this week with a painful rattlesnake bite. Medical aid was given and he is said to be recovering nicely. (But where did they get the remedy?)

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 08 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Emmett Index. May 08, 1919, Page 8

News Of Gem County
By The Index’s Correspondents

Bissell Creek

Henry Schoening’s and B. Limbaugh’s children have the whooping cough.

Lower Mesa

School will close Friday, after a rather unsatisfactory term due to the influenza ban and irregular attendance after school did start.

Pearl

Miss Laura Keefer has just closed a very successful term of school at Pearl and has left for her home in Mountain Home, having the best wishes of a host of friends, who hope to see her back again next fall.

Letha

A meeting in District 21, to talk further of the school housing problem, found the people about evenly divided as to the site. Nothing was decided upon.

Upper Mesa

Eugene St. John has been sick a few days the past week, missing one day of school.

Falk

Mrs. W. I. Kennedy is home from Kansas, where she has been visiting her mother, who has been very ill for some time past.

Emmett News

Mr. Fred VanDeusen is suffering from an attack of rheumatism.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Filer Record., May 08, 1919, Page 4

19190508FR1

North Filer News

Mrs. J. G. Fisher is improving after a severe attack of Pneumonia.

Word comes from Emporia, Kansas, that C. A. Bishop is slowing recovering from an attack of the flu.

Mrs. Harold Vining returned home Saturday after a short illness at the Boyd Hospital.

Mabel Graves is reported ill with the mumps this week.

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 08 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Filer Record., May 08, 1919, Page 5

Local News Notes

The Record reporter and compositor, Lula Macaw, has been off duty a part of the week on account of illness, and the “boss” has been the whole force a part of the time.

Warner Kirkpatrick left for Hoodriver, Wyoming [sic] Monday to see his mother who is very ill.

The temperature the past week bordered close to the danger line for fruit, but no damage has been reported yet and we are optimistic enough to predict a big fruit yield this year.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Filer Record., May 08, 1919, Page 6

19190508FR2
Warning to the Public

A warning to the public is hereby given that violation of the quarantine laws are subject to severe penalties. All parties exposed to contagious diseases will duly observe the law are subject to penalty. Needless exposure of others will not be tolerated. If you have been exposed or are suffering from an infection or contagious disease, notify your local health officer at once.

L. D. Allen, Marshal.
— —

L. Kirkpatric received a telegram from relatives at Hoodriver, Wyoming [sic], Wednesday with the sad news of his wife’s death. He left Wednesday evening for Hoodriver [sic].

(ibid, page 6)
— — — — — — — — — —

Main Street, Hailey, Idaho January, 24, 1918

Hailey1918Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 9

The Rathdrum Tribune., May 09, 1919, Page 1

19190509RT1

Idaho State News Items

Superintendent Park of Sandpoint has announced a summer school for the benefit of the pupils of the city school, who lost time by reason of the influenza epidemic

A booze laden Oakland car on its way from Montana to Washington was seized at Kootenai and the driver, E. R. Smith, arrested. The car contained five cases of whisky.

source: The Rathdrum Tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 09 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Rathdrum Tribune., May 09, 1919, Page 3

Personal Mention

Mrs. Martha Bennett was over from Post Falls last Friday to attend the funeral of her sister, Mrs. Sarah Satchwell.

Mrs. and Mrs. A. T. Gaston’s little daughter is to be taken to Spokane in a few days to receive medical treatment.
— —

Local Paragraphs

No particular damage has been reported from Rathdrum prairie from the heavy frost of last Friday night, altho [sic] cherry blooms were well advanced. Down the valley toward Spokane, prunes, peaches and some early apples are reported injured.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — — — — — — — —

Clearwater Republican. May 09, 1919, Page 1

19190509CR1

19190509CR2
Sanitary Rules to be Enforced
Commissioner of Public Welfare to Prosecute Violations of State Sanitary Laws

Boise, May 3, 1919.

Excuses arising from war time exigencies having become inacceptable [sic], prosecutions for violations of the state sanitary laws will be based entirely upon conditions as they exist at the time inspections are completed, according to a recent announcement made by J. K. White, commissioner of public welfare.

“It has been brought to my attention,” said Commissioner White Saturday, “that inspectors of this department are making an unusual number of prosecutions based principally upon the maintenance of public nuisances within city and village limits and upon unsanitary conditions in and about places of business which come under our jurisdiction.

“It is not the policy of this department to conduct a campaign of prosecution, but it must be generally understood that these inspectors will take conditions as they find them at the time of the inspection. If conditions are discovered to be in violation of the general principles of decency and the rules of sanitation, legal action necessarily must be taken.

“In the recent past, much was overlooked because of the scarcity of labor, but this is no longer an excuse and inspectors have instructions to accept no excuse what ever for dirty, filthy, unsanitary conditions in public places.

“It is hoped that our city officials and the various newspapers will cause this information to be given to the public that full knowledge may be had of the policy and plan of work of this department that all concerned may protect themselves from prosecutions sure to follow if unsanitary conditions are found by inspectors.”

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 09 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Clearwater Republican. May 09, 1919, Page 2

Bert S. Varian Named Judge

Bert S. Varian, Weiser attorney, has been appointed by our governor as judge of the Seventh judicial district to succeed the late Issac [sic] N. Smith, who died in Boise from the after effects of Spanish influena. Judge Varian will take up his duties immediately. His appointment is for the remainder of Judge Smith’s term, which expires on the first Monday in January, 1923. Judge Varian has been a practicing attorney of Weiser for 20 years. He is the son of Judge Varian of Salt Lake.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

Clearwater Republican. May 09, 1919, Page 3

Simplest Remedies Found To Be Best Disinfectants During Severe Epidemics

Years ago Marseilles was visited by a great plague. Rich and poor died in their hundreds, and to rob the former four men invented aromatic vinegar, which, used as a disinfectant, enabled them to rifle the dead without fear of infection. During the great plague of 1665 those who were deputed to bury the dead always carried a phial of aromatic vinegar, and history tells us that whenever Cardinal Wolsey had cause to go among the poorer members of his flock he invariably held to his nose a golden orange filled with the same preventative. Canary wine, too, was used in 1665 as a disinfectant. Doctors carried little cassolettes on the top of their canes, which they sniffed when visiting the stricken, and in the affected houses the smoke of juniper was used.
— —

Preventive Measures Save Loss of Money and Health

Loss of time, money and health often can be prevented by the use of some simple, inexpensive preventive measures, says Thrift magazine. At all times, especially during these days of influenza, you should never allow yourself to remain in a rundown physical condition. If attacked by disease while your resistance is low you may pay for it with a long illness or possibly with life itself. Most people think a doctor’s [sic] only use it to be sent for in a case of emergency, like a fireman, and be brought running with his pillbox in hand just in the nick of time.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

Clearwater Republican. May 09, 1919, Page 5

What Your Friends And Neighbors Are Doing

Miss Lillie Simpson returned from Palouse, Wash., Thursday afternoon, where she has been nursing her sister, Mrs. Chas. Hughes, who is rapidly recovering from the influenza.

Miss Alma O’Hara, who has been teaching up the North Fork, returned to Orofino Wednesday, her school having closed for the term.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. May 09, 1919, Page 1

19190509KG1

Memorial Service

Memorial services were conducted at American ridge church last Sunday in memory of Father Davidson who died of heart-failure, Oct. 26, 1918, and Mrs. George Davidson who died January 17, 1919, of complications following influenza. At the time of their deaths the ban prohibiting assembling of people was on and only ritualistic services were held. It was decided to hold the memorial service on May 4. The church was taxed to its capacity with neighbors and sympathizing friends. The music was furnished by friends and neighbors of the bereaved family, most of them having known the deceased for many years.

Many beautiful flowers were furnished as tokens of appreciation, but the friends of those who had passed away. Obituaries were read by J. L. Mitcham who had been intimately acquainted with the Davidson family for many years. The address was delivered by J. C. Gregory, the pastor, subject: “Models for earthy lives.”
— —

Big Bear Ridge

Miss Delcia White closed a very successful term of school at Stele Friday. A program and picnic dinner were greatly enjoyed by a large number Friday afternoon.
— —

Southwick Items

Thomas Grove is home from France and is now visiting his brother, Homer, who has been quite sick.

Mrs. Vester Whitinger has been very sick. She has undergone an operation at the hospital.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 09 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. May 09, 1919, Page 4

The influenza epidemic has made a lasting impression on school children. The following conversation was overheard in a grammar school in West Philadelphia, where the recent epidemic rather than orthography claimed prominences:

“Say, Bill, this ‘flue’ isn’t anything new. Sir Walter Raleigh died with it.”

“Aw, go on. He did not.”

“Sure he did. I’ll show you. It’s here in the history.” He pointed a grimy finger to the sentence: “Sir Walter Raleigh’s death was due to Spanish influence.”
— —

Amy Has Released 1,942,391
Total Authorized Discharges Are Over 2,000,000 Men

Washington. – Demobilization of the army has returned 2,942,391 [sic] officers and men to civil life, the war department announced Monday. Of these 103,524 were in the commissioned grades. The total authorized discharge was announced as 2072,000, and of these 789,320 are men returned from overseas.

Volunteer enlistments continue to increase, 23,663 recruits having been recorded. Of the men signifying desire for particular services, 6187 asked to be sent to the army of occupation and 1243 to the Philippines.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — — — — — — — —

Main Street, Harrison, Idaho 1905

Harrison1905Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

The Oakley Herald. May 09, 1919, Page 10

19190509OH1

In the Gem State

The state sanitary commission is waging war on all unsanitary public eating and business houses throughout the state and imposing fines on all guilty operators.

Physicians are not entitled to permits to transport liquor into the state, the attorney general’s office has held in an opinion written in answer to a question raised by a north Idaho firm of Lawyers. Only pharmacists are entitled to such permits, under the law, it was held.

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 09 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier Examiner. May 09, 1919, Page 1

19190509ME1

School Year Will Close Next Friday
Eleven Graduate from the High School – Baccalaureate Address Next Sunday Night

(By Supt. Cummings)

This year the high school commencement exercises will be held in the stake tabernacle, due to the generosity of the Stake Presidency. Heretofore there has been no place large enough to accommodate all those who desired to witness these exercises. This year an invitation is extended to all the patrons and friends of education in the entire valley to attend these exercises. …

Following are the prospective graduates: Fern Welker, Frances E. Stephens, Ella Quayle, Cornelia Mumford, Rulon Pearce, Ruth Perkins, Katheryn Stephens, A. Van Lindsay, Stewart Barkdull, Rosina Schmidt, Ella Murphy.

Besides these students two others, Ross Murphy and Helen Beckstrom, are expecting to do work this summer to complete the requirements for graduation. If this is done they will be given diplomas this fall.

Most of the students have worked diligently during the short time they have been permitted to attend school this year. This is especially true of the two upper classes. When opportunity was granted them to do home work during the quarantine, they took advantage of it and worked faithfully. Many of them have completed a full year’s work in spite of being in actual attendance but half a year, and we feel to commend them for their exceptional diligence.

Some few have an idea that this school year has been a complete failure. This is by no means true. Most of the pupils have received at least one full semester’s work, and we feel that those parents who kept their children out, feeling that it was of no use to send them, have made a decided mistake. Their children could have made at least half a grade the same as those who did come.

The schools have not been entirely lacking in the matter of school activity and school spirit, as some have imagined. On registration day last fall all the schools united in a patriotic parade where they sang songs, waved flags and banners and otherwise demonstrated the fact that they were true American citizens. They have subscribed one hundred per cent membership to the Junior Red Cross in every instance and have done two or more “clean up” days during the year where the pupils have done much toward bettering [the] appearance of the grounds. In the high school the students have indulged somewhat in athletics though this has been quite limited. They have had several class and inter-class debates, put on a very creditable school play, had two very successful dances, several social parties in the school building, furnished the local paper with school notes nearly every week, indulged in several essay and speaking contests and have had several excellent student body programs. In view of these things and many others not mentioned, we feel that criticism along these lines is without foundation. We believe in this respect that we rank favorably with other schools of the same size. Right here let us urge that all the patrons and friends boost for the schools, boost for education in general and especially for education in our own community. Always have a good word for the schools and make it very unpopular for the knocker. You have a right to the best; you have the best and all you need to do it think so and act accordingly.

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 09 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Montpelier Examiner. May 09, 1919, Page 5

Local News

Mother’s Day will be observed Sunday in all the wards of the stake. A special program has been prepared for the Second ward and all mothers and soldiers are invited to attend.

Funeral services were held Wednesday at Bloomington for the three month old baby of Wilford Thornock which died Monday in Ogden.

The infant son of Mr. and Mrs. Andy Evans of Raymond, died last Tuesday, after a short illness. The body was brought to Montpelier Wednesday for burial.

Frank Williams left today for Ogden to attend the Golden Spike celebration. He will bring his new auto hearse when he returns.

Fire almost completely destroyed the home of Mrs. James Laughter on Ninth street last Saturday morning. The roof, second story and kitchen of the home were badly burned and the damage done is estimated at $500. One of Mrs. Laughter’s sons is in the navy, and another has been in the hospital suffering from pneumonia for seven weeks. The citizens of the town are co-operating with the Odd Fellows in making the necessary repairs to the home.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

Montpelier Examiner. May 09, 1919, Page 8

Hospital Train Passes Through Montpelier

U. S. Hospital train No. 1 passed through Montpelier Monday evening and stopped for twenty minutes. The ladies of the Red Cross met the train and distributed fruit and candy among the patients, and the band played a number of patriotic airs. Almost 1000 people were at the depot to pay homage to the returning wounded heroes. One hundred and sixty-eight wounded Yanks were on board and were from practically every fighting division of the army. All lived in the northwestern states and were being taken to the base hospital at Camp Lewis for discharge.

Troop trains are passing through this city every day now taking returned soldiers from the eastern ports to the western coast, and a number of local people have met acquaintances among the boys.

(ibid, page 8)
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The Idaho Republican. May 09, 1919, Page 1

19190509TIR1

19190509TIR2Mrs. Amos Taylor Dies After Influenza

Mrs. Ethel May Taylor, who came here with her husband, Amos Taylor, from Grouse, Idaho, two weeks ago for medical attention, died at the Dora France hospital Tuesday, May 6, after three days of unconsciousness. Mrs. Taylor had a severe attack of the influenza before coming to Blackfoot.

A young wife, only twenty-three years and six months of age, she leaves an orphaned baby boy of eighteen months and a bereaved husband. The body was taken to Mackay for interment Wednesday. Mrs. C. S. Beebe, sister of Amos Taylor, accompanied him to Mackay to be present at the funeral services and burial.
— —

Funeral Services for Wilson Keith Snyder

With impressive ceremonies at home and at the cemetery the body of Wilson Keith Snyder was laid to rest Tuesday afternoon with every show of affection for the man he was and reverence for him dead. Bounteous gifts of flowers were heaped upon the mound that rose over the last tenure of a departed friend….

Mr. Snyder has lived in Blackfoot for twelve years, was a member of the Knigthts of Pythias fraternal organization, and had built up a large and hearty circle of friends. For eight years he served in the post office, always genial and always accommodating in dealing with the public. …

Wilson Keith Snyder died at his home Saturday morning, May 3, following a stubborn attack of influenza at the age of thirty-one years. He leaves a wife and two daughters, Ruth aged five and Dorothy May aged sixteen months.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 09 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. May 09, 1919, Page 3

Upper Presto

Verta and Eugene Stoddard are on the sick list.

J. M. Lee, who is working for R. P. Hansen, received a telegram Tuesday, stating that his brother had died at Butte.
— —

Men of Many Nations In Graves At Nish
Germans Buried in Cemetery With French, Serbians and Russians

There is a cemetery at Nish in which is epitomized the entire history of the great war in the Orient. In is the various groups of soldiers, prisoners and refugees have their separate plots.

Largest of all is that of the German soldiers and officers. each grave is marked by a permanent heavy, solid cement stone, roughly in the shape of an iron cross. A neighboring factory, formerly devoted to the manufacture of briquets for fuel, was diverted to the manufacture of these tombstones.

Next in size is the Bulgarian, each grave being marked by a heavy wooden cross. These timbers were requisitioned by the Bulgarians from the houses of people of Nish and each cross represents not only the grave of a Bulgarian but the partial demolition of the home of a citizen of Nish. These wooden crosses are so numerous as to almost give the effect of a forest.

The group of Austrian graves is considerably smaller. Separated from these are the plots for the allied soldiers. Here are to be found a much smaller number of graves of the French and the Italians. On the hillside was a large number of new graves, those of the Serbian soldiers who died in the final capture of Nish. The Germans made one of the last stands here and Nish was taken only after five assaults with the bayonet.

Here are three queer-looking plots. One includes the graves of the Russian prisoners of war who were brought here to work by the enemy. They are numerous. Another is that of the Roumanian [sic] prisoners of war, also numerous. Less numerous are those of the Italian prisoners of war.

Nearby are two newer groups of graves. One includes the grave of the Greek refugees who died, many of them from the influenza, as they passed through Nish on their way back to Macedonia. Another is that of Serbian refugees who met a similar fate in the course of their wanderings toward their homes either to the north or south.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. May 09, 1919, Page 5

Local News

Miss Vada Thompson has been ill this week and unable to attend school. She is getting along nicely, however.

Dr. R. W. Jackson is opening up his offices in the Hopkins building, having shelves built in for medicines and putting in new furniture.

Mrs. S. J. Snyder, Mrs. L. M. Stevens and two daughters left Thursday morning for their home in Ogden. There were here to attend the funeral of their son and brother the late W. Keith Snyder.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. May 09, 1919, Page 6

Sterling

Ben Atkins has been very ill the past week with a severe attack of grippe.
— —

Centerville

Mrs. Hannah Roubidoux was on the sick list last week.

Thelma Farnsworth was unable to attend to school last week on account of sickness.

Barney Olsen was quite sick the first of the week with a very severe spell of tonsillitis.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. May 09, 1919, Page 7

Lavaside

We understand there will be no more programs given by the school this year. The remainder of the year must be given to hard study in order to complete the work.

The Meade family has been sick with bad colds the last week.

Edith Fraker has the mumps. She was absent from school the latter part of the week.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. May 09, 1919, Page 8

New Scale of Pay For Teachers
Induces Nearly All of Our Teachers to Remain Next Year
New Standards

That all teachers are underpaid for the class of public service they render is usually conceded and that Blackfoot teachers of grades and high school have been drawing less than they could get in neighboring towns was brought before the school board at its meeting of April 21. A committee was appointed to work out a new schedule of salary with the co-operation of Superintendent W. D. Vincent. The new scale keeps nearly all of this year’s teachers in Blackfoot for at least another year, while failure to act would possibly have lost two thirds of the present teaching force. The committee reported Monday evening this week.

The grade school scale has been $85 base pay. It is now raised to $100 base pay per month, with an increase of $10 per month for the second and third successive years on the job. By attending summer school a teacher can command an extra $2.50 each month for those two years.

At the high school a minimum of $100 has been raised to a minimum of $130, which may be increased by remaining for successive years to $150.

New Standards of Efficiency.

Working together the school board and Superintendent Vincent have drawn up a new set of qualifications for teacher, which from this time on will be followed.

No grade teacher will be engaged by the school board hereafter unless qualified by two years of normal school training and two years of experience.

No married woman will be elected to teach in the Blackfoot schools unless such domestic arrangements are made in her home that she may give her entire time to teaching, and not be called away or kept from her duties to the school by household cares. …

(ibid, page 8)
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Shoshone Journal. May 09, 1919, Page 1

19190509SJ1

Big Wood River Grange

Mrs. A. S. Viera is on the sick list this week.

The Sunny Slope school on Wood river will close May 9.
— —

Dietrich – Besslin Notes

Elkanah Crist is sick with an undefined illness that keeps him at home with a high fever.

Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Clark have returned from an extensive outing for Mr. Clark’s illness. Their trip embraced a visit to Salt Lake City and thence to interesting points along the coast. Mr. Clark is by no means well and will spend some more time looking for more vigorous health before assuming his duties for the O.S.L.

Vance Shellman has been confined to his house by sickness for several days, but is better now and will be able to look after the business of the Irrigation company again.

C. F. Bornden went to Twin Falls Sunday to bring home his daughter, Miss Alice, who has been taking treatment there in the Boyd hospital. She returns very much improved and in a fair way for complete recovery.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 09 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Hope, Idaho

HopeFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

Evening Capital News., May 09, 1919, Page 6

19190509ECN1

Deaths – Funerals

Moriarity – The body of Kate Moriarity, who died at the Boulder mines near Idaho City Thursday noon, was brought to Boise and is at the undertaking parlors of Schreiber & Sidfenfaden. The cause of death was pneumonia. The decease was 51 years of age and is survived by three brothers, two in Idaho City and one in Ireland. No funeral arrangement have as yet been made.
— —

19190509ECN2The Blood
(By Lee Herbert Smith, M. D.)
After Influenza and Hard Winter Colds

After an attack of the grip or pneumonia, or even a hard cold, the blood is left thin, watery, and one is said to be anemic. Instead of the blood cells being round, as in diagram “A”, they become irregular, as in “B.” When you feel weak, nervous, or the skin breaks out in pimples, eruptions or boils, and you feel “blue” and without any snap or energy, sometimes hands cold and clammy, there is usually a large decrease in the red or white blood corpuscles and one should build up with some good blood builder and tonic.

You can put iron in your blood and the cells become round and red, losing the irregular shape, by taking a good iron tonic, called “Irontic,” put up by Dr. Pierce and sold by most druggists. This “Irontic” is compounded of a soluble iron, nux and herbal extracts. With this you gain in vim, vigor and vitality. Instead of pale cheeks, tired and worn out before the day is half done, after taking “Irontic” your cheeks will have color, you will feel strong and vigorous and ready for work.

Or if you like a good alternative and herbal tonic, such a one can be obtained at any drug store, favorably known for the past fifty years as Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery. This is made from the wild roots and barks of forest trees and without the use of alcohol.

(Adv.)

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 09 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. May 09, 1919, Page 1

19190509CT1

Lake Lowell

Mrs. G. C. White is able to be around after a few weeks illness.

Lloyd Ross, the 12-year-old son of Mr. and Mrs. Ross died Sunday morning of leakage of the heart. Funeral services were held in Caldwell Tuesday afternoon at 2 o’clock. Burial in Canyon cemetery.
— —

Card of Thanks

I wish to thank the many friends and neighbors for their kindness and help during the long illness and death of my husband, Daniel S. Brown, and for the beautiful flowers.

Mrs. Daniel S. Brown.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 09 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. May 09, 1919, Page 5

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Brier Rose

Margaret Shaw is out of school this week on account of illness.

The Postlethwaites have recovered from the mumps and are back in school.

Deer Flat

Carrie and Marguerite Hitson are on the sick list.

The Nelson family have recovered from the flu.

Wesley Dotson’s family are ill with the flu.

Miss Blanch Hanson went to her home near Melba for the weekend and was taken sick and has not been able to return since.

Sunny Slope

Mrs. D. E. Gammon, who has been seriously ill with the flu, is much improved at this writing.

Mrs. H. E. Smith returned from Glenn’s Ferry where she has been nursing her mother who was suffering from a relapse of the flu.

Miss Vera Stephenson is suffering from an attack of the mumps.

The entire community extends its deepest sympathy to the parents of Lloyd Cox in their sad bereavement.
— —

Horrors of War

“War has upset not only our home life, but the traditions of the business world as well,” remarked Senator Penrose the other day, “so it behooves you to watch your step. If you aren’t careful you’re likely to find yourself in the same fix that Jones was. This Jones had become rich over night on war profits and it was with an exaggerated ideal of his own importance that he stepped into an office one day and demanded to see the manager.

‘What is your business?’ asked the very dainty girl who confronted him.

‘None of yours,’ snapped Jones; ‘I’ve got an important proposition to lay before the firm and I don’t want to talk to any fool woman.’ ‘You would rather talk to a gentleman?’ asked the fool woman sweetly. ‘Certainly,’ growled Jones. ‘So would I,’ retorted the woman promptly, adding, ‘so you might send one to state your business to me, I am the manager.'”

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. May 09, 1919, Page 7

Greenleaf

The Nordyke family has influenza.

Midway

Miss Doris Oeder has been quite sick, threatened with pneumonia, but is somewhat improved.

Mrs. David Strand died Sunday evening at the family home, aged 32 years 6 months and 17 days. The cause of her death was cancer, from which she had suffered many years. She leaves her husband and 10-year-old daughter, besides her parents and several brothers and sisters. The funeral was held Wednesday afternoon at two o’clock, at the home, conducted by Rev. W. W. Deal. Interment was in Kohler lawn cemetery.

Fairview

Mrs. Graves, who has been on the sick list for several weeks is able to be out again.

Earnest Franks was on the sick list this past week.

Mrs. Dan Cashman is able to be out again after a short illness.

Mrs. Hannan was called to Oregon by the sudden illness of her mother.

S. W. Vail and daughter Blanche left on the noon train Sunday for Colorado Springs, where Blanche expects to spend a few months for her health.

(ibid, page 7)
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The Meridian Times., May 09, 1919, Page 8

19190509MT1

Meridian Local News

Mrs. Homer Tolleth is seriously ill at her home.

S. H. Griffith was able to walk down town Thursday for the first time since his recent illness.

Miss Lois Fountain who teaches on Ten Mile, was operated on for appendicitis Thursday.
— —

Death of George Hyde

George Hyde residing four miles southwest of Meridian was stricken with apoplexy Wednesday and died a few hours afterwards. …

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 09 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Main Street, Hill City, Idaho

HillCityFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 11

Evening Capital News., May 11, 1919, Page 10

19190511ECN1

Around Boise Valley Loop

Middleton

The local schools will close May 23.

Huston

The Misses Carrie and Marguerite Hitson have been on the sick list since last week.

The Nelson family has recovered from the “flu” and the W. Dotson family is recovering from the same disease.

Miss Irene Rose is recovering from the mumps.

The primary and intermediate rooms of the school will be out Friday, May 16. Miss Reed’s room will continue one week longer to make up time lost by sickness.

Mothers’ day will be observed at the Huston church Sunday morning. Besides the sermon for mothers, there will be special music. Carnations will be given to the mothers present.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 11 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

A Part of Heyburn, Idaho, watch us grow, 1908 (1)

Heyburn1908Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 12

Evening Capital News., May 12, 1919, Page 3

19190512ECN1

Mountain Home

Mrs. Electa G. Rhodes, who has been quite ill with influenza, is rapidly improving.

Mrs. Ernest W. Latimore, who has been quite ill at her home, is improving rapidly.

Mr. and Mrs. Stanton Park took their little daughter Janet to Boise Thursday for medical treatment.
— —

Health Notes

Now that the fly season is here, it is well to understand that the common house or typhoid fly is not only an annoying pest, but a very potent factor in the spread of communicable diseases. It may be said that the number of flies in a community is a fair index of the sanitary condition of that community. Indeed flies and filth are synonymous because flies grow and develop in filth, and it is hardly necessary to say that the absence of flies indicates the absence of filth. To prevent the fly from spreading disease the following is suggested: Destroy the wintering places of flies; screen the house, particularly the kitchen and sleeping room; render privies and privy vaults fly-proof; keep flies away from the sick and their discharges.

To prevent the spread of communicable diseases, it is necessary to exercise careful supervision over the sick, for it is the individual having a communicable disease or harboring the causative organism who is the real danger to the community. He spreads his infection through the fresh discharges from his mouth, nose, throat, intestines, etc., to those with whom he comes in contact.

This is the time of the year when all Idaho should put forth special efforts to bring about better sanitary conditions. Filth and refuse of every kind should be disposed of effectually and special efforts should be put forth to keep clean during warm weather, when the danger of typhoid and summer complaint is greater than at any other time of the year.

Tuberculosis is a communicable, preventable and curable disease. It is spread by others coming in contact with execrations from the bodies of those suffering from it. It should be borne in mind that intimate personal contact with a consumptive, such as kissing, using the same dishes not properly sterilized, sleeping in the same beds, will render one very likely to contract the disease. All discharges from the throat or nose, bowels or kidneys of a consumptive may contain the germs of tuberculosis, therefore such discharges are dangerous.

The number of school children enrolled under the banner of the Modern Health Crusaders in Idaho is increasing very rapidly, it now being about 30,000, and very gratifying results of the crusaders’ activities along health and sanitary lines are being obtained.

The day will come, and it is not far distant, when it will generally be considered as much of a disgrace to have a fly in the house as it is now to have a bedbug in it, and the fly is a thousand times more dangerous than is the bedbug.

One of the saddest things in the world is that over 100,000 children die every year in this country from preventable diseases. To permit this to occur is little less than a crime and authorities and communities should speed up the matter of health conservation and life saving if the boys and girls of today are to be the strong, efficient men and women of tomorrow that they should be, ready and able to do the world’s work.

The importance of instruction in sanitary science and personal hygiene in the public schools cannot be overestimated and I sincerely hope the time will soon come when such instruction will ne require in evry school in the land.

Our national death rate is about 14 per thousand inhabitants each year, while the average rate in Idaho is only about one-half that number, certainly a splendid showing for the “Gem of the Mountains.” Surely, Nature smiled abundantly on this fair state.

Street venders of fruits and other articles of food who neglect to cover their wares and protect them from flies, dust, dirt and other elements are a positive menace to the community in which they operate and should be suppressed or made to comply with the law.
— —

U. S. Hospitals Best For Wounded
Red Cross Advises Relatives Not to urge Those Receiving Treatment to Hurry to Their Homes

The May 10 bulletin of the American Red Cross in a letter to mothers, wives, sisters and sweethearts of boys in the United States hospitals, give assurances that they are being well cared for and that is the best place for them. It also sounds a timely warning that they should not urge their return home. The letter is as follows:

“The United States truly intends to offer its all and best for the wounded and returned men who offered their all for their country. The United States government knows and feels that the work of the war is not finished until the wounded men have been mended and the sick healed. It has instructed its agencies to spare no pains in time or money to heal the hurts of the disabled and put them back again upon the sure path of earning a livelyhood [sic].

“The reconstruction work of the government hospitals is a revelation to those who have observed it. Medical reports show, and investigation gives proof, that the best place in the world for a sick or wounded soldier is a government hospital.

“Mothers, wives, sisters, sweethearts of the boys in the United States hospitals, let us give you this suggestion:

“Stop influencing the boys to get home, much as you want them.

“Do not hurry them out of the hospitals where the government is giving them good food, the finest surgical skill and trained nursing, and the splendid oversight of competent, interested military and scientific care.

“Give the government time to nurse and repair, with the assurance that nothing is being left undone that can be done by human sympathy, skill and attention.”

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 12 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., May 12, 1919, Page 3

19190512DSM1

19190512DSM2
Call New Malady Epidemic Stupor
Disease Misnamed “Sleeping Sickness” is Believed to Be Contagious
Medical Experts Puzzled
Health Authorities Declare Strange Illness Has No Relation to “Sleeping Sickness,” Which Originated in Africa

Washington – “Epidemic stupor” is the name the health authorities have decided to give the new disease, wrongly called sleeping sickness, which sprang up a few weeks ago. It has invaded eighteen American cities and several army camps, has taken several lives and laid hundreds under its spell.

The scientific name of this new malady is lethargic encephalitis. It is not “sleeping sickness” and has nothing to do with the real sleeping sickness. It has been known for only a few years, and its cause and origin are even more mysterious than those of the influenza.

The disease, when it was first discovered in this country, was found to be a form of sleeping sickness common in the interior parts of Africa, but a closer observation of the symptoms proved this belief to be unsound. Sleeping sickness as found in the jungles of Africa, is caused by the bite of a peculiar insect, known as the tsetse fly.

The new disease was first observed in Austria.

The first case noted in England occurred February 11, 1918, and the epidemic, which never attained large proportions, came, at least, temporarily, to and end in June. The medical research committee off England became deeply interested in the new malady and instituted clinical and pathological investigations. The committee found the disease is a general infectious disorder, characterized by manifestations originating in the central nervous system, of which the most frequent and characteristic are progressive lethargy or stupor and an involvement of the nerve centers controlling the eye muscles.

Marked by High Temperature

Although a rise in temperature was not observed in all of the 164 cases of the disease of which notes were obtained, there seemed to be little doubt that there is always a certain amount of fever in an early stage. The fever usually lasts from two to five days, but may continue for ten or even fourteen days. It may fall suddenly or gradually with oscillation. A period of subnormal temperature not infrequently follows.

Usually the first symptom is simple catarrhal conjunctivitis (a mild “pink eye”) or it may be tonsillitis – simple sore throat and cold in the chest. The disease may be ushered in suddenly by a fainting attack of fit. In marked cases the lethargy was accompanied by heaviness of the eyelids, pain in the eyes and blurred vision. Headache is a common symptom, and rigidness was characteristic of the early symptoms of many cases during the epidemic in England.

After the first stages, the symptoms of a general infectious disease become manifest. The patient lies in bed on the back, often unable to make any voluntary movement on account of great muscular weakness; the face is quite expressionless and masklike, and there may be definite double facial paralysis. The patient is in a condition of stupor, although true sleep is often not obtained.

No Specific Treatment

With regard to treatment, no specific method has been devised, and the best that can be done is to put the patient to bed and provide good nursing. Cold sponging is often beneficial during the early stages and tends to diminish the delirium. For the pain, numbness and tingling of the limbs warmth is the best remedy. Constipation is obstinate and often difficult to overcome, except by enemas followed by such drugs as liquid paraffin or pheolphthalein. No hypnotics and no morphine or other preparations of opium should be given. Daily cleansing of the mouth and antiseptic treatment of the nose and mouth should be carried out and respiratory complications systematically looked for. The patient should be given to understand that his convalescence will last at least six months after the beginning of the illness.

Officials of the United States public health service are investigating cases of the disease in several cities. They are especially anxious to keep the malady out of the army camps. The first army camp to be invaded was Camp Lee, Petersburg, Va., where one death was reported out of nine cases. Investigation made at the camp showed that in each case the soldier had been ill with influenza.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 12 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
—————-

Further Reading

What caused the 1918-30 epidemic of encephalitis lethargica?

R R Dourmashkin MD Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine Volume 90 September 1 997

Encephalitis lethargica, often called epidemic encephalitis at the time of the epidemic, was prevalent worldwide during the years 1918-1930. The acute phase, characterized by somnolence and a mask-like facial appearance, was associated with a 20-40% mortality.

Later in the epidemic, almost all those who had had an acute episode of encephalitis lethargica developed sequelae to a greater or lesser degree. In some cases, the symptoms persisted without respite to the chronic state; in others they developed weeks, months or years after the patient was thought to have recovered. The outstanding motor manifestation was the parkinsonian syndrome, present in almost every case. This resembled the picture of Parkinson’s disease (paralysis agitans), except that the ‘pill-rolling’ movement typical of Parkinson’s disease was often absent; the tremor in postencephalitic parkinsonism was usually coarse. The common general features of the latter were rigidity of all the muscles, loss of automatic or synergistic movements, loss of equilibrium, and a running or shuffling gait. Oculogyric crises were an important feature. There were mental changes, especially in children, and respiratory tics were often noted. Sometimes signs of pyramidal tract damage were found.

Epidemiology

In the USA, few cases were reported before 1920, the peak period being between 1920 and 1929. The epidemic of influenza burst upon the USA a year before the epidemic of encephalitis lethargica in 1919. There were 3100 cases during 1920-1924 and 1222 cases during 1925-1929. Subsequently, the incidence decreased rapidly. At the outset of the encephalitis epidemic in the USA, 46% of patients with encephalitis gave a history of influenza compared with 30% for the rest of the population. Many patients reported a flu-like illness at the onset with stupor, unconsciousness or fever. These observations led the US Surgeon General’s medical officer to state in 1920 that the aetiology of encephalitis lethargica was the same as that for influenza.

The opinion in Britain as to the aetiology of encephalitis lethargica was varied. The frequent observation within living memory of isolated cases before the great epidemic suggested that this was not a new disease. During the epidemic, the years in which encephalitis lethargica occurred more frequently coincided with a drop in the number of cases of influenza. Other theories as to the cause of the epidemic included botulism and poliomyelitis. Some cases of encephalitis following influenza in young children and infants would be regarded today as post-influenzal encephalitis or Reye’s syndrome. In others the description of encephalitis with a preceding history of influenza was well documented. Of von Economo’s 13 cases of encephalitis lethargica in 1916-1917, none showed signs attributable to influenza. He differentiated the characteristic clinical and pathological signs of encephalitis lethargica from postinfluenzal encephalitis. He found that the earliest cases of encephalitis lethargica in Central Europe preceded the influenza epidemic by three years. The first cases were reported in Romania in 1915. In France, 40 cases of encephalitis lethargica occurring in the winter of 1916-1917 were reported by Cruchet at a military neuropsychiatric centre. These represented 3% of the patients admitted. The French cases closely resembled those that occurred later in England in their presentation and evolution. Hallls found reports of cases of encephalitis in Europe in the years 1903, 1907, 1908, 1910, 1912 and 1913. In northern Italy there was a serious outbreak of what probably was encephalitis lethargica in 1889-1890, called la nona. It followed an epidemic of influenza the year before. Crookshank and von Economo reported other epidemics of encephalitis in the past that might have been encephalitis lethargica dating back to the sixteenth century.

By 1918, the number of sporadic cases of encephalitis lethargica reported in Europe and elsewhere increased rapidly and the condition became epidemic at the same time as the influenza pandemic of 1918. The disease prevalence was greatest in the colder months of the year, as with influenza. Stallybrass, however, found that of over 1000 cases reported in 1923, only 4 had a history of influenza within six months, of which 2 were doubtful. Similar observations were made by others. Conversely, in a very large influenza epidemic at Camp Dix, New Jersey, in 1918, there were 6000 cases of influenza with 800 deaths but no concurrent cases of encephalitis lethargica. While the encephalitis lethargica epidemic was distinct from the epidemic of influenza, there is no doubt that historically the two diseases repeatedly occurred in close proximity of time.

Any study of encephalitis lethargica must take into account the recent characterization of the 1918 influenza virus by Taubenberger et al.. This work established that the virus was a H1N1 influenza A virus of probable swinehuman origin. With parts of the genome sequenced, it is possible to identify, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), residual influenza virus that may be in archival material of encephalitis lethargica.

Stallybrass noted that the most common age of incidence of encephalitis lethargica was 10-20 years of age. He remarked that this was at variance with the age of incidence of most communicable diseases at the time and it was also the age group in which such diseases were least fatal. The rarity of person-to-person spread was noted in every country and in every outbreak. Exceptionally, local spread of the disease in isolated communities was recorded, with a variable incubation period. In a severe wave of encephalitis lethargica that engulfed certain villages in Lapland in 1921, the morbidity rate varied from 7.1% to 45%; whole families were involved, and side by side with acute typical cases were others in which the disease was mild. In a girls’ home in Derby, 12 cases of encephalitis lethargica occurred in a total community of 22 persons within two weeks, resulting in 5 deaths. In a rural school in Warwickshire in 1922 a child developed encephalitis after a visit to town. Four to five weeks after her return to school 3 other girls in her dormitory fell ill. This suggested an incubation period for the disease of up to four weeks. Infants born to mothers ill with the disease were reported to develop encephalitisls. Parsons estimated that the incubation period ranged from one day to two weeks or more. In 1926, the Scottish Board of Health stated that carriers of the infective agent in the nasopharynx were common, but only a minute fraction of those exposed to the disease acquired it; the factor of lowered resistance was far more potent than the presence of the agent. The outbreaks of encephalitis in Britain were generally local and ran their course over several weeks. High morbidity in the local epidemics suggested a low level of immunity in the population. The manner of spread of encephalitis lethargica suggests an intermediate vector of infection. With this epidemiological background von Economo, Duvoisin and Yahr and others rejected an aetiological relationship to influenza.

More recently, Ravenholt and Foege reviewed the incidence of influenza and encephalitis lethargica in Seattle and Samoa. They found that both these diseases appeared in Western Samoa – influenza in 1918 and encephalitis lethargica in 1919. Outbreaks of these two diseases continued and their peak incidence was always separated by a year.

Contemporary observers in Europe calculated that the incubation period for encephalitis lethargica varied from one day to several weeks (see below). The incidence of encephalitis lethargica in England up to 1924 was as follows: 1919, 541 cases; 1920, 890 cases; 1921, 1470 cases; 1922, 454 cases; 1923, 1025 cases; 1924, 5039 cases; 1925, 2635 cases. A total of 12,054 cases were reported in England and Wales from 1918 to 1925. Yearly totals did not appear in the leading British medical journals thereafter. In addition, there were many mild and abortive cases, including epidemic hiccup, that were widely described but not reported. These patients frequently went on to develop serious post-encephalitic sequelae. By 1927, the acute cases occurring in England were often so mild that the acute phase would pass without much notice; however, the postencephalitic sequelae continued to be devastating. In France there were at least 10,000 cases up to 1920 and 3900 cases in Italy. Subsequently, sporadic cases continued to be reported; recently, Rail et al. described 8 patients whose disease was initiated between 1945 and 1968, one of whom was screened for virus antigen by Elizan (see below). …

Clinical Description

The signs and symptoms of the acute phase of encephalitis lethargica were described in excellent detail by the early observers. The afflicted individuals became ill suddenly with only slight prodromal upper respiratory signs and low-grade fever. In the acute ‘oculo-lethargic’ stage, most common early in the epidemic, the presenting features were: somnolence, at times deep, but from which the patient could be roused; mask-like facies accompanied by mental apathy; tired, expressionless, toneless speech, often thick and slurred; eye signs (e.g. oculogyric crises, diplopia, ptosis, squint, nystagmus, pupil irregularity); convulsive seizures, and stroke. These features differentiated the disorder from other types of encephalitis recognized at that time.

From early in the epidemic, encephalitis lethargica was separated from other clinical entities such as purulent meningitis (cerebrospinal fever as it was then known), postinfectious and postvaccinal encephalomyelitis, poliomyelitis, herpes encephalitis, rabies and Japanese encephalitis. The parkinsonian sequelae of encephalitis lethargica were almost unique. Exceptionally, however, postencephalitic parkinsonism was reported after measles, herpes, Coxsackie virus encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. Bassoe subdivided encephalitis lethargica into several types according to the patients’ affective behaviour.

In 1923 Stallybrass noted a change in the clinical picture of the disease. He observed that only 45% of cases could be classified as oculo-lethargic. Other forms were found, including myoclonic (14%), choreiform (25%), or psychomotor (16%). These had been described earlier but became more common by 1923. Instead of lethargy Stallybrass observed delirium, excitement, sleeplessness, myoclonus and tachypnoea. A striking observation made in the early work was the frequent appearance of a generalized rash early in the acute illness. The rash was papular, macular, morbilliform or even petechial. One observer reported a ‘glove’ desquamation of the hands and feet akin to that of scarlet fever but clearly different. Such exanthems may have been caused by the same vasculitis that was found in the brain in acute cases coming to necropsy. Curiously, exanthems were not mentioned in the copious reports after 1923. Conceivably mutation of the causal virus changed in the clinical picture over time.

Related, perhaps, to the dermatological signs were reports of a haemorrhagic syndrome, most often in fulminating cases of encephalitis. These presented as purpura, epistaxis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage and meningeal haemorrhage. Gastrointestinal symptoms were often found; at the onset the patients suffered from persistent vomiting, sometimes accompanied by diarrhoea but more often by constipation. In contrast to most observers, Parsons quoting Gardner stated that the illness was heralded by a severe sore throat in which the pharynx was deeply inflamed and the tonsils were covered with a patchy white exudate. The tongue and the throat were very dry and there was difficulty in swallowing. This pointed to an upper respiratory infection as the primary portal of entry. Yates and Barnes suggested that the nasal sinuses were a route of infection. …

Conclusions

The contemporary observers of the encephalitis epidemic of 1916-1930 carefully recorded the clinical and pathological details of the disease. Some observers noted that its onset resembled influenza with severe upper respiratory inflammation. Others found that prodromal signs were very mild. It appeared to follow waves of epidemic influenza. The epidemiology, transmission and progress of the disease, however, were unique and differed greatly from those of influenza. There were outbreaks of what may have been encephalitis lethargica previous to the great epidemic and also after it had receded. Chronic progressive inflammation of the brain resulted in destruction of the basal ganglia over months and years and caused the disastrous syndrome that was aptly named post-encephalitic parkinsonism. The more recent care and treatment of these patients has been described by Sacks, who elicited transient remissions with levodopa.

The early observers studied the epidemiological characteristics of its spread – a baffling mixture of phenomena, in which tens of thousands in Europe, America and worldwide fell ill. The spread of the disease nevertheless was sporadic, without obvious relation to economic class, geography or age group. There were documented outbreaks of person-to-person spread of encephalitis lethargica but these were notable for their rarity. The disasters of the First World War and the starvation and population displacement that followed may have contributed to the epidemics of the period. These conditions are being re-enacted in some parts of Eastern Europe today.

The early virologists developed acceptable evidence for a viral aetiology but the methods available were limited to animal transmission. The technique for long-term preservation of infective virus had not been developed and so little material remains for modern study. In the 1970s attempts were made to relate the aetiology of post-encephalitic parkinsonism to an influenza virus. Conflicting results were obtained by different workers using immunofluorescence of tissue with anti-influenza antibodies. Today, it is possible to examine fixed tissue by electron microscopy and also to rescue virus nucleic acid by PCR, if there are clues to suggest which virus probe to use. The characterization of parts of the genome of the 1918 influenza virus is a great step forward and will be instrumental in this endeavour. Monoclonal antibodies may turn out to be more specific in localizing influenza antigen in preserved tissues than the polyclonal sera previously used. Luck et al. showed that influenza virus antigen could be demonstrated in fixed paraffin-embedded tissue only after trypsin treatment of the sections.

An autoimmune mechanism for the pathogenesis of postencephalitic parkinsonism should be investigated; however, the lack of patient sera for autoantibody examination makes such study difficult. There is only one surviving patient in Britain.

It would be well to understand this disease better, as it has not disappeared entirely. The knowledge retrieved by this historical study will be useful in the molecular and EM investigation of encephalitis lethargica that is in preparation in this laboratory.

excerpted from:
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The Demise of Poskanzer and Schwab’s Influenza Theory on the Pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease

by Danny Estupinan, Sunina Nathoo, and Michael S. Okun

Abstract

In 1961, David C. Poskanzer and Robert S. Schwab presented a paper, “Studies in the epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease predicting its disappearance as a major clinical entity by 1980.” This paper introduced the hypothesis that Parkinson’s disease was derived from a single aetiology, the influenza virus. We review the original Poskanzer and Schwab hypothesis that Parkinson’s disease was based on the association between the 1918-19 influenza epidemic and the later observation of Parkinsonism in some influenza sufferers. We also further explore the prediction that Parkinson’s disease would totally disappear as an entity once original influenza victims were all deceased. Current research has revealed that there are many potential causes and factors important in the occurrence of Parkinson’s disease, postencephalitic Parkinsonism, and encephalitis lethargica. Poskanzer and Schwab presented a novel hypothesis; however, it was proven false by a combination of research and time. …

4.2. Encephalitis Lethargica and Influenza

The PSH was based on the idea that there was a subclinical infection prior to 1920, with EL, a potential cause identified by the authors and perhaps a cause that was more likely than influenza. Therefore, discussion of EL such as its historical context, potential aetiologies, and implications is warranted. Contemporary observers of the EL epidemic maintained that both the EL and the influenza epidemics were not connected, despite the popularity at the time of the idea that the influenza virus was the cause of EL. The medical profession at that time simply viewed EL as a form of influenza. The current prevailing viewpoint is that EL and the 1918 influenza pandemic were not related etiologically. von Economo ultimately concluded that EL was a separate disorder. EL preceded the 1918 influenza pandemic, had a distinct clinical picture and unique pathology. EL was associated with midbrain lesions, while influenza was associated with pulmonary lesions.

Additionally, there was epidemiological evidence that suggested that the 1918 influenza virus originated in USA, and was transported to Europe by American troops in World War I. EL actually spread in the opposite direction from Europe to North America. It is however possible that there was an EL-like syndrome that went unrecognized during the time since public interest was centred on World War I. Interestingly, the years of higher occurrence of EL coincided with a drop in influenza cases, suggesting a weak correlation.

Timelines revealed inconsistencies, as influenza spread in weeks, and EL over months. Historically, EL-like disorders have been reported during previous influenza epidemics, such as the nona pandemic in Italy in the 1890s. On the basis of 1889 influenza being associated with certain nervous manifestations, some authors assumed all nervous symptoms were attributed to influenza. However, no syndrome resembling EL occurred in the two influenza pandemics after 1918 (e.g., 1957 and 1968) suggesting that a unique type of virus was required to produce the array of neurological symptoms associated with EL. Finally, there was a lack of influenza history in two thirds of EL patients, supporting the notion the two were not related.

Due to the temporal association between EL and influenza, it was assumed that influenza must be the cause. It is however possible that EL was actually due to another virus, or due to an infective agent that was concurrently circulating with influenza. If influenza was not the cause of EL, then what was? The aetiology of EL remains a mystery, although there are several theories concerning possible causes. Such theories include viruses — either a neurotropic virus different from influenza (e.g., polio), or activation of a latent virus, bacteria — poststreptococcal-like illness analogous to chorea and rheumatic fever, toxins, dietary issues due to wartime deprivation, miscellaneous, or “rag bag” diagnosis with the actual incidence being inflated by other conditions, or an autoimmune reaction to a virus.

The relationship between EL and influenza has been examined historically and scientifically, with most EL researchers maintaining that influenza is an unlikely cause of EL. Others suggest that the association cannot be ruled out. No gold standard titer testing was available at the time, making diagnosis of EL and influenza subjective and based on clinical findings alone. The supervisor of the vaccine trials for EL and a major contributor to the Matheson commissioned EL literature survey Josephine Neal in 1942 commented “the range of symptomatology in acute EL was so wide that often the diagnosis could be made only with difficulty and occasionally not with certainty”. There were many limitations in the available cases in the literature. Ultimately, most diagnoses in the literature of both EL and PEP were post hoc, recounted a plethora of symptoms, and attributed the symptoms to various aetiologies. Many reported cases of influenza were likely biased by patient recall. The 1918 influenza epidemic frequently resulted in cases where reports of neurological symptoms were identical to EL (i.e., diplopia, ptosis, paralyses, or psychoses), making EL a subjective diagnosis that was difficult to separate from influenza alone. Lethargy could result from either EL or influenza. All of the reports of EL and of influenza were retrospective and unblinded, demonstrating the difficulty of ascertaining which cases were which.

Given the lack of advances in virology during the pandemic, objective diagnosis of influenza was not possible. There is a lack of direct evidence from serological, PCR, or antibodies that link influenza and EL, with all studies limited by the amount of EL material available. Studies that have used PEP tissue, which is more readily available than EL tissue, have not confirmed influenza as more likely occurring in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Study of these dated specimens is troublesome due to the lack of temperature control and autolysis due to lack of postmortem refrigeration. Decades later, archived EL brain specimens when carefully examined had not revealed evidence of influenza RNA. Attempts to reproduce EL from postmortem brain extracts have been failures. One study demonstrated direct antibody immunofluorescence for the neurotropic influenza virus A antigen within in the hypothalamus in six human PEP brains. In the same study, there was, however, no antibody reaction in five postmortem human cases of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. A human postmortem study of substantia nigra depigmentation in young victims of EL suggested that an infectious aetiology may have been responsible for the Parkinsonism symptoms. Basal ganglia autoimmune reactions have been shown in 90% of cohort of 20 postmortem patients known to have suffered from EL. These patients had bradykinesia, rigidity, or resting tremor suggesting the parkinsonian phenotype and an autoimmune mechanism. …

Conclusion

The PSH that Parkinson’s disease would diminish or disappear as a particular cohort died was false. The original hypothesis that Parkinson’s disease was due to subclinical infection due to an exposure prior to 1920 was compelling given the increase in Parkinsonism seen during the 1920s and 1930s. The birth cohort had a mean age similar to that of patients affected with EL, suggesting that these patients were exposed to a similar agent. There were many reasons why during the first half of the twentieth century there was an idea that Parkinsonism could be due to a viral etiology. EL and PEP were assumed to be influenza or influenza related historically, but these relationships were never proven. Today, most people who develop Parkinson’s disease have had no one specific cause identified. Influenza may, however, provide the first “hit” that may lead to the later development of Parkinson’s disease, suggesting a possible mechanism for viral infection in disease manifestation. More importantly, despite discounting Poskanzer and Schwab’s initial hypothesis, the association between virus exposure and Parkinson’s disease is still being actively pursued. Parkinson’s disease has now outlived Poskanzer and Schwab’s postinfluenza eradication theory; therefore new hypotheses to elucidate potential causes are warranted to explain why the incidence has increased, rather than decreased, as previously suggested.

excerpted from:
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Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
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Idaho History Apr 11, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 52

Idaho Newspaper clippings May 1-7, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 1

Payette Enterprise., May 01, 1919, Page 1

19190501PE1

Personal and Local Mention

Mrs. A. I. McClanahan who has been quite ill for the last ten days is now improving and will soon be out again.

source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 01 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Payette Enterprise., May 01, 1919, Page 5

North Payette

Nurse Fay Lauer has charge of the cases of influenza at the W. Beeson home.
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Fruitland Department

Mrs. R. G. Wilson

Mr. R. S. Kutch had a light attack of pneumonia last week. We are glad to report that he is better now.

Miss Pearl Eby is teaching in Miss Goldie Wells’ place as Miss Wells is on the sick list.

Many of Fruitland’s young ladies who have been teaching are returning to their homes now. since the school term is over.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Nezperce Herald., May 01, 1919, Page 4

19190501NH1

Central Ridge News

Mrs. L. D. Parsons is on the sick list.

Ida Frederickson has the scarlet fever.

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 01 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Nezperce Herald., May 01, 1919, Page 7

Local and Personal News Notes

The many friends of Clay Smith were glad to greet him on the streets last week, after his recent severe illness. Clay is working into condition for a real fishing trip just as soon as the law allows the removal of the lid from this wholesome sport.

(ibid, page 7)
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The Nezperce Herald., May 01, 1919, Page 8

Central Ridge News

A. K. Tweedy and Donald Coon were on the sick list a few days, but are better now.

The Central Ridge school closed Friday with a basket dinner and Miss Wright will start for her home at St. Maries.

(ibid, page 8)
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Gilmore, Idaho

GilmoreFrtz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 2

Evening Capital News., May 02, 1919, Page 5

19190502ECN1

Operation Upon Mrs. Venable Is Postponed

Washington, May 1. — Mrs. Earl Venable who entered Mayo’s hospital at Rochester, Minn., two weeks ago for an operation will not be operated upon for some time, according to a letter received by friends here from Mr. Venable. After arriving at Rochester, Mr. and Mrs. Venable and their little daughter were all taken ill with influenza and suffered rather seriously for a period. All are on the road to recovery now, but Mrs. Venable will be given time to regain her normal strength before submitting to surgical treatment.

Mr. and Mrs. Venable formerly lived at Payette and Boise.
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Kuna

The infant son of Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Neglay is recovering from his second attack of “flu.”

Hearing a noise, David Painter got up Monday night to investigate. He but recently recovered from pneumonia, and when he got to the head of the stairs he fainted and pitched, head foremost, down the stairs. Mrs. Painter heard the fall and no other sound and she too fainted away, but chose a more convenient place to faint in. Both came to in a short time and Mr. Painter suffered nothing more serious than a bruised hip and head.

Little Grace Allen’s condition is still critical. She has been removed from the hospital to the home of a friend in Boise.

Mrs. Fred Hale, who has been very ill for the past week, is still in a serious condition.
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Goat Milk Offered State For Use Of Its Patients In the Tuberculosis Hospitals

Possessing not one goat, but a herd of 55, E. R. Swindler of Banks, Idaho, believes that the milk produced by his horned and whiskered charges is peculiarly adapted to the needs of the patients who will receive treatment at the state’s two prospective tuberculosis hospitals.

Mr. Swindler has written to Commissioner J. K. White of the public welfare department lauding the value of the goats’ milk as a tuberculosis specific and asking for information as to the probable location of the Idaho hospitals.

Having received the information that the appropriation for the state sanitarium will not be available until January of next year, this Idaho herder of Swiss Toggenburgs probably will transfer his allegiance to another state, since increases in the flock have made a change of scenery necessary.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 02 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Evening Capital News., May 02, 1919, Page 9

Stake Conference To Be Held By Mormons Saturday And Sunday

President Heber Q. Hale of the Boise stake of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, arrived in Boise today from the eastern part of the state to hold stake conference here Saturday and Sunday. This is the first conference held in nine months, the November and February conferences having been postponed on the account of the influenza epidemic. Advices received at the state office show conditions much improved throughout the stake which extends from Minidoka to Huntington. A large out-of-town representation is expected. …

(ibid, page 9)
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Clearwater Republican. May 02, 1919, Page 5

19190502CR1

What Your Friends and Neighbors Are Doing

Miss Lillie Simpson departed for Palouse, Wash., Tuesday morning to nurse her sister, Mrs. Charles Hughes, who is ill with influenza.

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 02 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Recorder. May 02, 1919, Page 1

19190502IR1

M. D. Merritt is up and about again after a severe flu attack in Salmon, expecting to return to Forney soon.
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This Star Route Man Has Strenuous Time With Snow

Ferrill Terry, star route contractor on the Leesburg-Forney-Salmon stage lines, experienced teamster that he is, is having the time of his life this spring getting over the Leesburg snow. On one trip over last week night overtook one of his teams on the mountain. Lester Withington was the driver. Passengers tell of the heroic efforts to get through where in places the horses are off their feet half the time wallowing and slipping and sliding in the snow. With all the hindrances from this cause, the business of the line has steadily increased until now the daily offering of freight will run around 5000 lbs. per trip besides numerous passengers going and coming. Mr. Terry is putting on all the horses that can be secured to maintain the services.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 02 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Recorder. May 02, 1919, Page 2

75,344 Yanks Die in War

Washington, April 24. — Revised casualty totals announced by the war department placed the total of dead in the army and marine corps at 75,344, of which 33,887 were killed in action. Prisoners reported were 4,791, including 15 reported now held by the bolsheviki. Of prisoners previously held by the central powers the records now show 281 died during internment and 218 [?] of doubtful status. The grand total of wounded in the list is 201,230, of whom it is estimated more than 85 per cent returned to duty.

(ibid, page 2)
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The Idaho Recorder. May 02, 1919, Page 6

System That Was Used In Mustering Out Our Army Men
Chief of Staff Says Home Folks Do Not Understand Methods
Big Problems To Solve
Why the Old Draft Boards Could No Be Used – Prevision Supplied for All Those in Distress – Bonus Given to Discharged Men

Washington – The war department authorizes the following statement from the office of the chief of staff:

The present system of demobilization does not seem to be understood by the people of the country. As a fundamental starting point, let us assume that all the selected service men who have been inducted into the service during the war were removed from their home communities at one time, and that upon their departure, and until their return conditions of labor and industry did not change in the slightest respect in any portion of the country. Again let us assume that the conditions of labor and industry having remained exactly the same, all these selected service men were returned at the same moment to the niches previously held by them in civil life. Under such assumptions the entire operation would have been performed without the slightest jar to the industrial conditions of the country.

This would be an ideal condition, but it is based on an utterly absurd hypothesis. The selected service men were not all inducted into the service at one time. Nor did the conditions of labor and industry remain unchanged after their departure from their home districts.

Tremendous Problem

Could the history of each particular job from which employed men had been withdrawn be traced, could it be discovered whether the job remained open to him or whether A’s job had been filled by B; could it be definitely ascertained that B left a job which remains open to A; it might be possible, were these returning men so many spare parts of a machine, to assign each returning man a definite job. But they are not spare parts of a machine. They are human beings, influenced on the one hand by home ties, and on the other by varying desires and ambitions; and if no positions which they want are immediately open to them, they, as well as the original unemployed, must be gradually absorbed in the industrial life of the nation.

This, then, is the tremendous problem that confronts us – to return to a country whose digestion for labor is not now of the best hundred of thousands of men without employment, not forgetting that they and their families deserve the grateful thanks of the nation, and remaining keenly aware that their patriotism and sacrifice demand that they be given every possible recognition and favor.

Certain Specific Laws

As certain specific laws govern the discharge of soldiers, and their interests as well as those of the government must be jealously guarded, the use of local draft boards for the entire demobilization of the army would, among other things, involve the following: Necessary commissioned and enlisted personnel for the preparation of all records of each man discharged; for the reception, storing, care and shipment of all government equipment turned in by him; for his physical examination and final payment. There would also be needed facilities for housing and feeding men, including hospital treatment, while awaiting discharge.

The machinery necessary at each one of the local draft boards would depend upon the amount of work which it would be required to do. About 1,680 [?] local draft boards would have to be provided with this necessary personnel and other facilities mentioned above. The machinery of each local draft board would have to be maintained intact as long as there were in the service men from the particular district involved, and would have to be kept at such strength as to be able to handle such men as were sent to it for discharge at any time.

The difficulties of transportation from the port to local draft boards, assuming the abandonment of the present demobilization camps, would be materially increased.

The question then arises: If local draft boards cannot be used for complete discharge of the soldier, cannot they be used in conjunction with present camps? And the answer is that it is not feasible.

The present system of demobilization is that certain camps and cantonments throughout the country have been designated as demobilization centers. These centers are provided with personnel, temporarily retained in the service, for the operation of the machinery of discharge. This system of demobilization necessitates the splitting up of organizations upon arrival from overseas and their distribution in small groups to the various demobilization centers.

Experience of Other Nations

The suggestion has been made that we pattern our demobilization system after that of Great Britain. The United Sates, in formulating its plans for mobilization, was fortunate enough to have profited by some of the costly experiences of others, and by a systematic classification prevented men from being sent to the trenches who later had to be withdrawn and returned to industries essential to the prosecution of the war. In carrying out its systematic draft system, the tendency was to retain in the industrial world the pivotal or key men, the return of whom to their normal activities in the industrial world appears to be one of the outstanding principles in the British demobilization system. The war department has consistently declined to discharge out selected service men by classes, the needs of industry having been recognized in the selective service law.

In many families distress exists. Certain men are indispensable to industry. To enable such men to be released, the war department has issued a circular to all commanders covering their cases.

The secretary of war has also recommended to congress that a man be paid an additional month’s pay and allowance on discharge in order to tide him over the interim between his discharge and the date he obtains employment; and congress has now passed a bill authorizing a $60 bonus to be paid on discharge to each officer and man who is honorably separated from the service.

Some dissatisfaction has arisen because families find it difficult to immediately see their sons and relatives on their arrival at the port of debarkation. This is due to the fact that public health demands that these men be segregated until they can be disinfected, in order to prevent the spread of diseases, such as typhus, trench fever and influenza, in the country. Also practical conditions connected with the handling and discharge of large bodies of men demand that they be sent after their disinfection direct to their demobilization points.

This all seems hard, and being a difficult practical problem, is of necessity entirely devoid of sentiment, which is, however, continually impelling those intrusted [sic] with the carrying out of these measures to devise some way of showing the soldier the esteem in which he is held by the country, and of satisfying the just pride which his family possesses in his exploits.

There is a general belief that the emergency has passed, that the war is over, and that there is no reason for keeping troops in France. The war is not over until a treaty of peace ends it.

The emergency cannot be considered over until the last of our troops arrive from France. What could we say to these men and their families if we demobilized all troops in this country and were powerless to care for and return to their home districts the men returning from overseas?

Troops much be kept in France for such army of occupation as may be decreed by the treaty of peace, and for every division held there to clinch the fruits of victory must be kept a certain proportion of men for their supply, to provide measures for their comfort and for their final embarkation.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. May 02, 1919, Page 8

Lemhi

Dorothy, the winsome little daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Don Pyeatt, was quite ill for a few days last week.

The infant son of Ranger Huestis has been critically ill at the home of his grandparents in Indiana, where Mrs. Huestis has been visiting, while her husband was in the army.

(ibid, page 8)
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Montpelier Examiner. May 02, 1919, Page 1

19190502ME1

19190502ME2Rolla Orchard A Victim Of Influenza

From the last issue of a Tooele, Utah, paper we clip the following account of the death of a former Montpelier boy:

Rolla Francis, the 17-year old boy of Francis H. and Emma Orchard, succumbed to the “flu” early Wednesday morning after an illness for over a week. For several days he had been hovering between life and death and it was thought that his wonderful vitality might finally pull him through, but he succumbed after a hard fight for life. Deceased was born at Montpelier, Idaho, on January 1, 1902. His father has been employed as an engineer on the Tooele Valley Ry. for the past four years. Last June the family moved from Montpelier to make their home in Tooele.

The funeral services will be held Friday afternoon at two o’clock at the cemetery.

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 02 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Montpelier Examiner. May 02, 1919, Page 5

Local News

Word has been received here that William M. Mathison of Ovid, is one of the eight Idaho boys who are now in hospitals in New York City.

During the past week a number of Montpelier boys who served in the army have been receiving $60, the sum allowed all discharged soldiers, from the government.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Idaho Republican. May 02, 1919, Page 1

19190502TIR1

Church Conference To Hold First June Week

The semi-annual conference of the church of Latter Day Saints, postponed this spring because of the epidemic of flu, will be held the first week in June.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 02 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. May 02, 1919, Page 3

Taber

Little Lillie Zeck, who has been ill for the past five weeks, is improving.

Mrs. Herman Steffsen motored to Pingree Wednesday and brought her daughter Elvera home. She was very ill with tonsillitis.

Moreland

The William England family are rapidly recovering from the flu.
— —

Little Girl’s Hard Life
She Has Had Influenza, Pneumonia and Abscesses on Her Lungs

Ill luck seems to be the portion of little Marie Davis, not yet six years of age, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Bert Davis, who live in the country near Fostoria, Ohio. Influenza, pneumonia, abscessed lungs, necessitating an operation, is the record of the little girl within the past two weeks.

But that is not all. Marie is known throughout this section of the country for her sad experience with burglars when she was still a baby. Burglars visited the Davis home at midnight several years ago, and the father hearing them, arose and surprised them at their work. Mr. Davis lit a lamp and a burglar shot it out.

During the interchange of shots one bullet grazed the cheek of the sleeping Marie, putting a gash three inches long, which has left a disfiguring scare.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. May 02, 1919, Page 5

Local News

W. Keith Snyder, Mrs. Snyder and the two children are down with what seems [to be] influenza. All are recovering but Mr. Snyder, who Tuesday and Wednesday night was in a high fever.

Amos Taylor and his wife came from Grouse to Blackfoot Wednesday. Mrs. Taylor in very weak condition, after an attack of the influenza. They are at the home of C. S. Beebe, where she may receive constant attention. Mrs. Beebe is a sister of Amos Taylor.

George Dore has recovered from his recent illness and is able to be out again.

Miss Eula Palmer returned Sunday from Grandview, where she was called on account of the serious illness of her mother, who was somewhat improved at the time of her return.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. May 02, 1919, Page 8

School Affairs Are Looked Into

[This is the reply from the school board of trustees to a petition questioning school dances from page 1.]

Answer of the Board

Beg to submit, first, in answer to the paragraph regarding the holding of dances in the exhibition room in the new technical building;

At the January meeting of the board of trustees, shortly after school was commenced after the intermission during the influenza epidemic, the board requested all of the high school scholars to [refrain] from dances for a period of one month. This was done upon advice of the physicians of Blackfoot, as in their opinion at that time they thought that the dances were causing the spreading of the influenza, and if this request was complied with, the board would grant them the privilege to hold dances in the exhibition room of said building. At this time, the question of allowing dances in the exhibition hall was thoroly [sic] discussed by all members of the board, and each individual member of the board expressing himself as being of the opinion that it would be better to have the high school scholars dance under the proper chaperonage of teachers and parents of the school in this building, than have them at public dances. Upon investigation, it was found that this custom has been and is now being followed by many of the schools thruout [sic] the state.

It is also the opinion of the board, based on personal interviews, that a large majority of the patrons of the independent school district No. 8 favor occasional week-end dancing parties being held in this building.

Upon investigation, we find that attendance to these dances has not been compulsory, and that a dance is given due publicity so that schalors [sic] may know whether there is going to be a dance or a party. We recommend that the superintendent prepare cards to be filled in by each parent and state whether or not they wish their child or children to attend these properly chaperoned dances in the school building. …

(ibid, page 8)
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The Meridian Times., May 02, 1919, Page 2

19190502MT1

News Of A Week In Condensed Form
Record Of The Important Events Told In Briefest Manner Possible
Happenings That Are Making History – Information Gathered from All Quarters of the Globe and Given in a Few Lines

Washington

Revised casualty totals announced by the war department placed the total of dead in the army and marine corps at 75,344, of whom 33,887 were killed in action.

Full suffrage for all American women for the 1920 elections is foreshadowed in a statement authorized Sunday by Senator Charles Curtis of Kansas, the Republican whip, Senator Curtis said that both houses of congress will pass the amendment as soon as they reconvene.

Foreign

Great loss of life among the natives of the Belgian Congo as a result of an influenza epidemic is reported in dispatches received at Brussels. Some estimates place the number of deaths at 500,000.

The first panic over rabies in twenty-one years is spreading through England. Several cases developed in the country recently and two were discovered in London in the last week.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 02 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Meridian Times., May 02, 1919, Page 8

Meridian Local News

S. H. Griffiths who has been ill at his home is improving.

Harry E. Waid, teacher of manual training at the Meridian high school had the end of his thumb cut off, in an accident Thursday, while at class work.

(ibid, page 8)
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Grand Forks, Idaho

GrandForksFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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May 3

Evening Capital News., May 03, 1919, Page 4

19190503ECN1

What You Ought to Know of How to Stop Bleeding

By Dr. Leonard Keene Hirshberg A.B., M.A., M.D. (Johns Hopkins University)

If you are suddenly confronted with a bloody nose, a hemorrhage of the lungs, or, for that matter, violent bleeding at any fountain head of your anatomy, would you act quickly and correctly to check it, or would you “try to think” what to do, as pints of blood flowed freely and your very life ebbed away?

Man may be fearfully and wonderfully made, yet the loss of two [sic] much blood turns him to dust and a shadow. Yes, a ruddy drop of manly blood outweighs the surging sea. You can ill afford to lose any of it.

While it is true that an ordinarily healthy individual will seldom lose much blood by virtue of the innate tendency of normal blood to congeal, there are, nevertheless, periods when the blood of even the healthiest mortal may fail in its appointed duty and not clot.

Some External Aids

Certain rations, various fevors [sic], the strange recent visitation called “influenza,” make the “best” and “bluest” of blood behave oddly. Hemorrhages abound and bleeding then becomes difficult to stop

Some persons believe much in styptics, such as chloride of iron, silver caustic and similar applications to the bleeding point. These, however, often invite the formation of pus and blood poisoning bacteria. Modern physicians are loth [sic] to employ these things or ergot, which alleviates blood pressure sometimes to a dangerous degree.

Raw meat, pephalin, tissues freshly cut and blood serum itself, all have a scientific reason for their use at the bleeding point.

Constriction such as tying the hand, arm, leg or foot above the amputated or cut surface is good as far as it goes, but it cannot be employed when there are hemorrhages of internal structures, such as the liver, lungs, kidneys or stomach.

Epinephrine or adrenaline, is an excellent temporary means with which local bleeding can be diminished. Internally it is also helpful.

The Internal problems

Pressure with disinfected fingers upon the bleeding places, such as tonsils, gums and other areas within reach of the hands often does much good. I know of one child that was thus saved from bleeding to death. Three doctors and two nurses relieved each other alternately after the pressure and fatigue involved had cramped their fingers held with great force inside the mouth against the child’s tonsils.

Internally, blood transfusions, injections of horse serum, anti-toxin serum, gelatin and chloride of lime have been effective.

Finally, you should be on guard against hemorrhages if you eat canned, stale or refrigerated victuals and few fresh ones.

Liver and gall bladder diseases, jaundice, scurvy, bari bari, influenza, typhoid, pneumonia and tuberculosis all seem to diminish the clotting power of the blood. After or during these affections guard against a chance hemorrhage.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 03 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., May 03, 1919, Page 7

Around Boise Valley Loop

Nampa

Advice has been received by his parents in this city from the war department to the effect that Amoreux Mayse is ill with lobular pneumonia at Camp Merritt, New Jersey. The young man had just arrived from France when he was stricken.

Caldwell

Kemp Heath has returned from Rochester, Minn., where he has been in the Mayo Brothers’ hospital under medical treatment the past month.

Maple Grove

A number of the pupils of the Maple Grove school have been absent from school on account of sickness.

Sydna Pfost has returned to Meridian, where she is attending school, after an absence of three weeks caused by illness.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — — — — — — — —

Granite, Idaho (1)

GraniteFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 4

Evening Capital News., May 04, 1919, Page 3

19190504ECN1

South Boise

Grandma Nugent, who has been poorly all winter, is now confined to her bed and is very feeble.

Mrs. W. Chapman is ill at her home in South Boise.

Mrs. J. H. Foster is quite ill at her home.

Marion Prickett, son of Mr. and Mrs. Albert Prickett, is very ill with typhoid fever.

Mrs. T. L. Gearhart of Michigan is very ill with typhoid pneumonia.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 04 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., May 04, 1919, Page 5

Little News of Boise

Reports of Health Department

The report of the city health officer for April shows 35 births, 16 male and 19 females. The parents of 25 were residents of Boise. There were 28 deaths, 23 were males and five females. Contagious diseases reported were smallpox, one; chickenpox, 11; measles, three; scarlet fever, 11; whooping cough, one; influenza, one. Eighteen cases still remain in quarantine and none is serious.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

Evening Capital News., May 04, 1919, Page 8

Appoint Varian to Succeed The Late Judge Isaac Smith
Weiser Lawyer Named by Governor Davis to Fill Unexpired Term – Takes Up His Duties Immediately

Bert. S. Varian, a prominent and well known Weiser attorney, was Saturday appointed by Governor Davis as judge of the Seventh judicial district to succeed the late Isaac N. Smith, who died in Boise from the after-effects of Spanish influenza. Judge Varian will take up his duties immediately. His appointment is for the remainder of Judge Smith’s term, which expires on the first Monday in January 1923. …

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

Greenleaf, Idaho 1913 (1)

Greenleaf1913Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 5

The Daily Star-Mirror., May 05, 1919, Page 2

19190505DSM1

City News

Miss Ruth Fogle preached Sunday at Oakedale, substituting for the Methodist pastor, who was ill.
— —

Death of Mrs. Boyer

The many friends of Mrs. S. R. Boyer will regret to learn of her death, Sunday afternoon at 1 o’clock at Clarkston, Wash. Mrs. Boyer had lived many years in Moscow, going to Clarkston about a year ago, in hopes of benefiting her health. She seemed in excellent health until a recent mild attack of influenza from which she had entirely recovered, but her former illness returned causing her death.

Mrs. Boyer was a woman of a very kind disposition; to know her was to love her.

She leaves a husband and two sons, Harry and Warren. Her father, John W. DeWitt and two brothers, John C. and Walter, live at Moscow.

The funeral will occur Tuesday afternoon at 2 o’clock at Moscow. The services will be held at the Methodist church.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 05 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Downtown Greer, Idaho

GreerFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 6

Evening Capital News., May 06, 1919, Page 3

19190506ECN1

19190506ECN2For Colds, Catarrh or Influenza

Do you feel weak and unequal to the work ahead of you? Do you still cough a little, or does your nose bother you? Are you pale? Is your blood thin and watery? Better put your body into shape. Build strong! Now’s the time.

An old, reliable blood-maker and herbal tonic made from wild roots and herbs is Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery. This “nature remedy” comes in table or liquid form. It will build up your body, cure your cold, and protect you from disease germs which lurk everywhere. One of the active ingredients of this temperance alternative and tonic is wild cherry bark with stillingis, which is so good for the lungs and for coughs; also Oregon grape root, blood root, stone root, Queen’s root – all skillfully combined in the Medical Discovery. These roots have a direct action on the stomach, improving digestion and assimilation. These herbal extracts in the “Discovery” aid in blood-making, and are best for scrofula. By improving the blood they aid in throwing off an attack of influenza and act as oil on machinery.

Catarrh should be treated, first as a blood disease, with this alternative; then, in addition, the nose should be washed daily with Dr. Sage’s Catarrh Remedy which can be had at drug stores.

Los Angeles, Cal. – “I will gladly tell of the relief and cure Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery gave me. I was sick with all troubles of stomach, liver, etc., and La Grippe with all its attending ailments. When all else failed Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery did the good work. I also took ‘Pleasant Pellets’ for biliousness, with grand success. I write with gratitude to tell others of the relief that is in store for them. Do not delay but hasten to get the above remedies if suffering from any indisposition.” – Samuel Kolisky, 978 Euclid Ave.

(Adv.)

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 06 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Idaho Republican. May 06, 1919, Page 1

19190506TIR1

19190506TIR2Prominent Young Man Passed Away Saturday

Wilson Keith Snyder departed this life at his home, just after noon, Saturday, May 3, after suffering an influenza relapse.

Mr. Snyder was born January 30, 1888 at Cokeville, Wyo., and moved to Blackfoot with his parents in 1907, having been a constant resident here since that time. For the past eight years he very competently filled a position in the Blackfoot post office and it was his steadiness and capability that gradually brought him promotions, the last one being a promotion to the stamp window, which place he filled for only a week before his illness compelled him to retire.

Mr. Snyder was an active member of the K. P. lodge and out of fraternal reverence and respect for their departed brother, the committee have postponed a social event planned for this week.

Mr. Snyder was married to Miss Gussie May Cleary on the first of June, 1913, and two little daughters have been born to that union, Ruth Age five years, and Dorothy May age sixteen months. Besides his wife and daughters Mr. Snyder is survived by his mother Mrs. S. Snyder of Ogden, a brother Orville E., a local barber; four sisters, Mrs. F. A. Sloan and Mrs. Hazel Von Lostowicka of Blackfoot and Mrs. W. J. Banks of Ualatka, Flo., and Mrs. L. M. Stevens of Ogden. All arrived in Blackfoot to attend the funeral services, which will be conducted from the home at 2 p.m. Tuesday afternoon with Rev. Cullison officiating. The K. P. lodge will have charge of the ceremonies at the cemetery.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 06 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. May 06, 1919, Page 3

Rose

Mrs. Louis Felt was on the sick list last week.

Mrs. Albert Gardner and daughter Elverna are ill at this writing.

Ellis Jackman, the eleven year old son of Mr. and Mrs. S. M. Jackman, has been very ill, but is slowly recovering.

Alma Norman, who has been ill, is able to be up and around again.

(ibid, page 3)
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The Idaho Republican. May 06, 1919, Page 5

19190506TIR3A Relapse of Influenza

George Dore, one of the congenial proprietors of the Central meat market, who had an attack of influenza last week, suffered a relapse, but we are glad to report that Monday morning he was getting along nicely.
— —

Local News

Mrs. W. O. Bridges was ill a few days the latter part of the week, but recovered by Sunday.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. May 06, 1919, Page 6

Sterling

Green Bowser was on the sick list the last of the week.

The Wheeler children are ill with the mumps.
— —

Death of Infant

The infant daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Corbridge died Monday afternoon at 2 o’clock, after a brief life of only three days. The funeral was conducted from the L. D. S. Church Tuesday at 3 in the afternoon and burial made in the Sterling-Yuma cemetery. Mrs. Corbridge is very seriously ill.

(ibid, page 6)
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Bonners Ferry Herald. May 06, 1919, Page 5

19190506BFH1

Local News

W. H. Richardson is on the sick list and his physician has ordered him to remain in bed for a week at least.

While plowing in his garden on the Northside recently, Lee Fewkes found a granite rock which looks as if it might have been a ham which had become petrified. The stone is plainly marked in exactly the same place that one would skin a ham. It was displayed for several days this week at the City Meat Market.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 06 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Grand Junction, Idaho (5)

GrandJunctionFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

May 7

The Daily Star-Mirror., May 07, 1919, Page 2

19190507DSM1

Born in a Bobsled

Cedar Falls, Ia. — “A bouncing baby boy” first saw the light of day and felt the cold impact of the world while his mother was en route from the family home, five miles southwest of here, in a bobsled to Sartori hospital. Members of the family had been afflicted by influenza and it was decided that the prospective mother would have better care and her life safeguarded if she were taken from the home and isolated from danger of infection.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 07 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., May 07, 1919, Page 4

Harvard Happenings – Popular Soldier Returns

William Lewless, one of our popular young farmers in the service of his country during the great war, returned home the first of last week. Bill, as he is familiarly known by his many friends, enlisted in the field artillery in April 1918. He spent some time in training at Fort Wright, Camp Kearney and at Fort Sill, Oklahoma and was sent overseas from Camp Mills on October 28, landing in France two days before the Armistice was signed, sick with influenza and pneumonia, from which he fully recovered and was started on his homeward trip January 5. He was given his discharge from Camp Taylor, Kentucky, on February 19. Sine then he has been visiting relatives in Minnesota.

Harvard schools will close May 16, after a successful term. …

(ibid, page 4)
————–

Further Reading

Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery

DrPierceGoldenMedicalDiscovery-a
source: National Museum of American History

Nickell Collection of Dr. R.V. Pierce Medical Artifacts

It was in Buffalo where Pierce really began his ascendency to fame as a leading seller of mail-order patent medicines, including “Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery Pills,” “Dr. Pierce’s Favorite Prescription Tablets,” and “Dr. Pierce’s Pleasant Pellets.” Many of Pierce’s cures were aimed at addressing “female illnesses.” Pierce’s medicines, like several other remedies available at the time, would often include alcohol and opium.

The enormous demand created for Pierce’s remedies led to his building of the World’s Dispensary Building (664 Washington Street), from where his numerous cures were manufactured, packaged, and distributed to people around the world. Pierce went on to establish Pierce’s Palace Hotel in 1878 to accommodate the many patients who came flocking to seek his apparent curative skills. The building burned down in 1881 and was replaced with the Invalids Hotel and Surgical Institute (at 663 Main Street). Pierce also had a facility in London, England. Pierce incorporated his entire medical “empire” under the name World’s Dispensary Medical Association in 1883. Later, the company became “Pierce’s Proprietaries” and continued under the supervision of his son, Dr. Valentine Mott Pierce, until the late 1940s.

Perhaps the most significant accomplishment of Dr. Pierce was his ability to market and sell his medicines more successfully than almost any other physician at a time when availability of home remedies and nostrum cures were at their height. His descriptions of illnesses and their symptoms, with just the right amount of medical terminology and human pathos for cures, made them seem authentic and scientifically possible. Pierce was a master of the media, using newspapers, broadsides, and later billboards, to saturate the country with word of his success. Many of the original signs painted on barns and other buildings can still be seen along the roads and highways throughout the U.S.

Another marketing skill employed by Pierce was that of the testimonial. His advertising, which includes his book, The People’s Common Sense Medical Adviser (essentially an advertisement for his various products), sold millions of copies, and included testimonials from patients whose claims of near-miraculous cures convinced millions of people to try the remedies of Dr. Pierce. In some ways, the media-savvy skills of Pierce and the resounding public response to his bold assurances of cures sound remarkably like today’s media campaigns waged by various pharmaceutical companies.

Pierce was a strong proponent of free enterprise, and took a lead in the fight against the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. He also was involved in a lawsuit against The Ladies Home Journal, which tested “Dr. Pierce’s Favorite Prescription” and reportedly found traces of opium, digitalis, and alcohol (Pierce actually won the case).

Pierce also served as a New York State Senator from 1878-1879 and then as a Republican representative for the 32nd Congressional District of New York in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1879-1880, when he resigned due to ill health.

Pierce spent his last years in his winter home in St. Vincent, Florida, where he passed away in 1914. He is buried in Forest Lawn Cemetery in Buffalo, NY.

from: New York Heritage
— — — — — — — — — —

Catarrh

Catarrh is inflammation of the mucous membranes in one of the airways or cavities of the body, usually with reference to the throat and paranasal sinuses. It can result in a thick exudate of mucus and white blood cells caused by the swelling of the mucous membranes in the head in response to an infection. It is a symptom usually associated with the common cold, pharyngitis, and chesty coughs, but it can also be found in patients with adenoiditis, otitis media, sinusitis or tonsillitis. The phlegm produced by catarrh may either discharge or cause a blockage that may become chronic.

The word “catarrh” was widely used in medicine since before the era of medical science, which explains why it has various senses and in older texts may be synonymous with, or vaguely indistinguishable from, common cold, nasopharyngitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, or sinusitis. The word is no longer as widely used in American medical practice, mostly because more precise words are available for any particular disease. Indeed, to the extent that it is still used, it is no longer viewed nosologically as a disease entity but instead as a symptom, a sign, or a syndrome of both. The term “catarrh” is found in medical sources from the United Kingdom. The word has also been common in the folk medicine of Appalachia, where medicinal plants have been used to treat the inflammation and drainage associated with the condition.

continued: Wikipedia
— — — — — — — — — —

Leonard Keene Hirshberg

Leonard Keene Hirshberg (January 9, 1877 – 1969), best known as Leonard K. Hirshberg was an American physician who was convicted of mail fraud.

Hirshberg was born in Baltimore from a Jewish family. He obtained his M.D. from Johns Hopkins University in 1902. He had a successful career as a health writer with his articles appearing in mainstream medical columns and journals. With H. L. Mencken he collaborated on a series of baby care articles, these were published in What You Ought to Know About Your Baby (1910).

In September, 1922 Hirshberg was convicted of defrauding investors in a mail fraud investment scam of one millions dollars.

source: Wikipedia
—————-

Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)

Idaho History Apr 4, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 51

Idaho Newspaper clippings April 25-30, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 25

The Caldwell Tribune. April 25, 1919, Page 5

19190425CT1

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Middleton

There have been a number of cases of flu the last two weeks. Mrs. W. T. Plowhead and Mayor Jones are now ill with it.

On Tuesday evening, April 29th the patrons of the local school are asked to come to the school house to determine whether the four years of high school will be continued or whether just the two years will continue. The Co-operative Club have charge of the meeting.

Lake Lowell

Mrs. W. S. Davis has the influenza.

Evart Coon’s baby is recovering from the pneumonia.

The Coon children are recovering from the flu.

Waldo Eby’s baby was quite sick Saturday.

Mrs. Earl Davis and little daughter are recovering from the flu.

Mrs. G. C. White has been confined to her bed, the past week.

Evart Gibben is able to be out again after two weeks’ illness.

Midway

Lylis McAdams was quite sick the first of the week.

Dean Oeder has resumed work with the U. S. R. S. near Caldwell, after an enforced absence of four weeks with the mumps.

Mrs. Wrantham of Meridian, who had spent two weeks with Mrs. I. L. Bumbarner, was called home Saturday by the death of her brother-in-law, R. C. Watson, who died suddenly Saturday morning in Boise.

The children of Midway school and members of the Parent-Teacher Association send 60 dozen of eggs to the Children’s Home in Boise, as an Easter gift.

Brier Rose

Mrs. W. A. Douglas is seriously ill and under the doctor’s care.

Miss Bennett, the nurse, is in Caldwell taking care of the sick.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 25 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. April 25, 1919, Page 7

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Marble Front

Mabel Jones has been sick the past few days.

The school meeting was held at Marble Front. Mr. Moor will fill the office that Mrs. Walter Thomas has previously held and $800 was voted on for permanent improvements such as a heating plant and indoor toilets.

Greenleaf

Harland Rinard has influenza.

Harland Tucker has the influenza.

Mr. Vance Siler is sick with influenza. This is his second attack of the epidemic within the past few months.

Mrs. Lloyd Armstrong has the mumps.
— —

19190425CT2
Judge Smith Dies In Capital City After Long Illness
Well Known Jurist of Seventh Judicial District – Flu Followed By Heart Trouble the cause

Isaac N. Smith of Weiser, judge of the seventh judicial district, died early Tuesday morning at a Boise home, 715 North Ninth street.

Heart disease, following a severe attack of influenza last winter, caused his death. The body was taken to Weiser Wednesday morning for burial.

Weiser is in mourning over the death of Judge Smith. He was judge of the seventh district, with Washington and Adams county in his jurisdiction, having been appointed in 1917 by Governor Alexander. Mr. Smith was born in California July 29, 1854. He came to Weiser in 1880 and engaged in farming on the land now owned by the Idaho Industrial institute. Later he moved to Weiser for the educational advantages for his children and clerked in the general merchandising store of Herman Haas.

Elected Last Fall

In 1890 he was elected clerk of the district court of Washington county and served 12 years, following which he took up the practice of law. In 1903 he entered into a law partnership with frank Harris, which continued for 14 years until his appointment as judge for two years. Last November he was elected for the four-year term.

Judge Smith was a member of the Masonic and Odd Fellow fraternities and a member of the Weiser school board for 30 years. He rendered every assistance in the building of the three handsome brick school houses in Weiser.

He is survived by his wife and six children, Hattie, Frank and Walter of Weiser; Mrs. Hazel Burbidge of Salt Lake; Isadore of Boise, and Bert of Seattle. The funeral will probably be held Thursday.

In speaking of his old partner, Frank Harris said: “In my 3 years acquaintance I never knew Judge Smith to advocate anything dishonest or dishonorable, but found him at all times a man of sterling character, high ideals and in whom perfect confidence and trust was imposed.. His loss will be keenly felt.”

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. April 25, 1919, Page 9

Fairview

Margie and Cairy Vail were on the sick list the past week.

Mrs. Jones of lower Dixie is quite sick, and Earl and George Jones are able to be up and around again.

Mrs. John Greer is still poorly.

There were several who regretted to have the school close Friday. Miss Greenfield has been an excellent teacher.

(ibid, page 9)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. April 25, 1919, Page 10

City and County Intelligence

The district court was adjourned Tuesday by Judge Ed. L. Bryan in respect to Judge Isaac N. Smith of Weiser, who died in Boise Tuesday morning. Judge Smith was appointed as an associate judge of the seventh judicial district by former Governor Alexander some two years ago, the business of the district having reached such proportions that is was impossible for Judge Bryan to transact it alone. For the past year Judge Smith had been in declining health and his death was not unexpected.
— —

College of Idaho – Finney Hall

The hall is now free from mumps.

(ibid, page 10)
— — — — — — — — — —

Opera House, Glenns Ferry, Idaho ca. 1918

GlennsFerry1918Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

The Idaho Recorder. April 25, 1919, Page 4

19190425IR1

May

Jane Herndon is home after a siege of the flu while visiting in Armstead. Mrs. Herndon is recovering from the flu and will soon get back in May.

Friends of Mr. and Mrs. D. G. Taggart regret to hear of the sad news of the death of James Hannah, a brother of Mr. Taggart, who served in the late war over seas and was appointed escort to President Wilson’s party on their trip abroad. He was a native of Ireland. While abroad he received a furlough that he might return to his native country to visit his parents. While there he contracted pneumonia and died. James was a find lad and his going has cast a gloom over his many Pahsimaroi friends.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 25 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. April 25, 1919, Page 6

Typhoid Patient

W. A. Brown of the Mayfield Livestock company has been critically ill at his Salmon home this week from typhoid. He contracted the disease somewhere while on a recent visit outside.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. April 25, 1919, Page 7

Salmon Locals

Mrs. Roy B. Herndon is ill with an attack of influenza at Armstead. Mr. Herndon brought the little daughter Jane to the home of Mrs. A. J. Herndon in Salmon, the father proceeding to his May home and business.

Mrs. Minnie Hobbs, the Grand Matron of the O. E. S., who was expected to visit the local chapter on Tuesday evening, was ill and could not come.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Oakley Herald. April 25, 1919, Page 1

19190425OH1

Basin Items

The body of Mrs. Fred Peterson who passed away at Blackfoot, of pneumonia following the influenza, was brought to the Basin last week for burial. Mrs. Petersen was formerly Miss Marilla Tracy, the daughter of Jas. F. and Betsy H. Tracy, both of whom reside here.

Mrs. Peterson had a host of friends in Basin, and she will be missed by all. She is survived by her husband, two children, one brother, and four sisters, besides her father and mother.

Some of the members of James Steel’s family have been ill.

The District School has closed for the winter term. Mrs. Leslie Koch gave a masquerade ball in meeting house on the closing day.
— —

Idaho Budget

Pocatello was jammed on April 16 with one of the biggest crowds in its history to view the war relics carried on the Victory special. A conservative estimate places the number who visited the train in the Gate city at 25,000.

A whirlwind with tendencies of a small cyclone swept through Middleton at noon Friday of last week, doing considerable damage to small buildings. A narrow strip diagonal through the town was affected.

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 25 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Oakley Herald. April 25, 1919, Page 5

Locals and Personals

Russell Gray has been ill with pneumonia.

Miss Mabel Mabey has had a severe cold this week. During her illness, Miss Zina Haight has been working at the Ladies Shop.

On and after Monday, April 27, all stock found on the streets will be taken in by the village and held for payment.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 25, 1919, Page 1

19190425TIR1

Child Dies At Pingree

The three-months old baby of Tony Marks at Pingree passed away Sunday, a victim of pneumonia. Three months ago Tony Marks lost his wife who succumbed to an attack of influenza.
— —

Death of Infant

The seven months old baby of Mr. and Mrs. John H. Jensen of Blackfoot died last Friday morning of pneumonia. The child was sick for just a week.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 25 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 25, 1919, Page 2

19190425TIR2
Neglect and Carelessness of Our Troops
Chief Surgeon Charges That Officials Failed to Prevent Spread of Some Diseases
Many Instances Are Cited

Washington. — Charges of gross carelessness and negligence on the part of war department officials in failing to prevent or control the spread of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers in the American army in France during the war with Germany, are made by the chief surgeon of the expeditionary forces in a statement just issued.

Many instances are cited of epidemics among our troops, especially during the last offensives on the Western front, in spite of the fact that the occurrence and distribution of disease were constantly reported.

“It would appear,” the report says, “that many officers utterly failed to grasp the significance of these warnings, a fact which may be due to a false sense of security under the popular belief that vaccination against typhoid and paratyphoid gives complete immunity even in the midst of gross insanitary [sic] conditions. During the Chateau-Thierry offensive approximately 75 per cent of the troops were afflicted with diarrhea diseases. The high incidence of intestinal diseases in this sector was due to entire disregard of the rules of sanitation.”

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 25, 1919, Page 3

Moreland

Mr. and Mrs. Leavitt are suffering again with influenza. They also had a very severe attack last season. The little son Jimmie is ill also.

Mr. and Mrs. Chancey Christensen’s little son has the influenza. He is getting along as well as possible.

The England family are influenza sufferers this week.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 25, 1919, Page 4

Upper Presto

Orson Davis, son of George Davis, is still very sick with typhoid fever; he has been ill three weeks and the entire community are wishing him a speedy recovery.

Mrs. Dave Crawford, of Emmett, Idaho is at the bedside of her brother Orson Davis, who is very ill.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 25, 1919, Page 5

Local News

Miss Hay is at her place at the high school this week, after an attack of influenza.

Mr. Richmond of the high school faculty is not at school this week on account of illness.

C. E. Eichelberger is at his desk at the high school directing affairs once more this week, being the last one of his family to recover from the flu.

Miss Eula Palmer has been called to Grandview, near Payette, by the serious illness of her mother. In her absence Miss Lillian Christensen is acting clerk for Superintendent Vincent at the high school.
— —

Inland Northwest

Use of captive balloons, as well as airplanes in patrolling the forests of the west, to locate fires, and for fighting fires from the air, was predicted by Henry S. Graves, chief of the United States forest service, who attended a five-day conference at Spokane with district foresters from Missoula, Portland, Denver, San Francisco, Ogden and Albuquerque.
— —

Dyer Recovering at Ft. Douglas

Oma Dyer, who as with the troops in France, is expected home any day. Oma was in France in six weeks after he left Blackfoot with one of the draft contingents. He has been in the hospital for a long time mending up from injuries received by being stuck by a motor truck in the night when working behind the lines. While Oma was in the hospital in France his father was alone on the ranch and had a six weeks’ siege of the flu and nobody to care for him.

Oma is at the base hospital at Fort Douglas now, and the prospects for his early return home are bright.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 25, 1919, Page 8

Sterling

Mrs. Charles Corbridge is very ill at the present writing.

The school attendance now is very small owing to the epidemic of mumps.

Willis Ward is ill with the mumps.
— —

Centerville

Mrs. C. I. Stone is nursing her mother Mrs. Spencer, who is quite sick this week.

J. W. Fay, who has been quite ill with the flu, is slowly improving.

Mrs. Berbst has been very sick with the flu for several weeks, but is now slowly improving.
— —

Presto

Miss Mabel Bennett is recovering from the influenza.

School was dismissed last Friday so that the kiddies could see the trophy train in Blackfoot.
— —

Groveland

Elmer Hale, just returned from the central states, is ill with an attack of malarial fever.
— —

19190425TIR3

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

Shoshone Journal. April 25, 1919, Page 1

19190425SJ1

Dietrich – Besslin Notes

Mrs. Lewis Joy is reported to be ill with the flu, after much experience in attending to others, but is better now.

Mrs. Fred Rutherford and Mrs. J. H. Culbertson are recovering from a season of sickness they have recently suffered.

W. O. Hamilton has returned from his visit to Yakima, bringing with him his two oldest daughters, Helen and Ruth, who will live with him in his bereavement and doubtless assuage the grief of the stricken family.
— —

Big Wood River News

Jim Fullington is quite sick at this writing.

Mrs. A. L. Horn still continues in a very critical condition.

Mrs. Harvey Otis has been quite ill the past ten days with quinsy.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 25 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., April 25, 1919, Page 3

19190425DSM1

19190425DSM2
“Near Flu” Hits Palouse

Palouse is having an epidemic of something resembling the influenza of last winter, although the physicians say that it is not in nearly so virulent form. There have been perhaps 60 cases in the community during the week. With few exceptions the disease has been but little worse than a severe cold. — Palouse Republic.
— —

City News

Walter Nelson, who lives east of Moscow, is seriously ill with typhoid and meningitis.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 25 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Golden, Idaho

GoldenFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 26

Evening Capital News., April 26, 1919, Page 1

19190426ECN1

19190426ECN2
Women Comes To Life While Relatives Get Ready For Funeral

Paris, Texas, April 26. — Relatives of Mrs. R. P. Baker put away their mourning today. While they were making arrangements for Mrs. Baker’s funeral yesterday, following a report from Straford, Okla., she was dead there, a son, R. P. Baker, here, received a message from physicians that Mrs. Baker had “suddenly come to life.” The message said physicians had pronounced Mrs. Baker dead, but later it was discovered she was breathing. Today is was believed she will recover.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 26 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 26, 1919, Page 5

Around Boise Valley Loop

Star

Mrs. Bill Conner is reported ill at this writing.

The high school went on a picnic to Kuna cave Friday.

Caldwell

Mrs. C. L. Austin has been called east by the illness of her niece, Mrs. Guy Fields.

Middleton

Earl Bray, who has been seriously ill the past month, is reported some better, following an operation Wednesday.

Huston

The school election was held Monday afternoon. Carl Show was elected director. Only five persons voted.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 26, 1919, Page 6

St. Michael’s Cathedral

Rev. Alward Chamberlaine, Dean

… Many patients at the hospital were brightened and cheered by the potted Easter lilies from the altar of the cathedral. …

Our Sunday school made the splendid Easter offering of $400 for missions, as a result of their Lenton self denials. This is most excellent, considering the fact that for four months the school was closed by reason of the influenza, thereby causing more or less disorganization.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — — — — — — — —

Main Street, Gooding, Idaho

GoodingFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 27

Evening Capital News., April 27, 1919, Page 1

19190427ECN1

19190427ECN2
Woman Recovers After Sleeping Sickness Of More Than Two Months

Modesto, Calif., April 26. — After sleeping for more than two months, Miss Nora Miller of Cooperstown, California, has awakened and will recover from an attack of “sleeping sickness.” She is now apparently in good health.

Miss Miller was taken ill over two months ago at San Jose while attending school and slept practically all of the eight weeks. Her illness was preceded by an attack of influenza.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 27 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 27, 1919, Page 3

19190427ECN3
Major Maxey Home From Camp Sherman
Well Known Specialist Returns To Civilian Life After 20 Months in the Service – Battle Influenza.

“The battles against influenza, fought by the medical profession and nurses in the cantonments of this country, will go down in the history of this war with other famous battles fought on foreign soil”

This statement was made in substance today by Major Ed E. Maxey, the well known eye, throat, nose and ear specialist, who was among the first Boise physicians to enlist in the medical corps and who has been continuously in the service since August 9, 1917.

Dr. Maxey was first stationed for two weeks at the Boise barracks, then at Fort D. A. Russell at Cheyenne, Wyo., until January 25, 1918, after which he was transferred to the base hospital at Camp Sherman, Chillicothe, Ohio, as chief of the eye service and remained in that capacity until his discharge April 16.

Up to the first of the year, he states, the hospital reports showed that over 5000 eye cases had been treated in the hospital and since the first of the year, he states, 1000 overseas men have been treated there for eye trouble alone.

From September 15 to October 15, he states, during the month of influenza epidemic, the base hospital was cleared of every case not extremely serious, and 11,000 influenza patients were treated. As that there were 33,000 men at the camp, he says, and one-third of that number had the disease and approximately 1100 died.

Medical men and nurses worked hours and hours without rest, he stated, during that period and nothing that could be done was left undone for the boys who had enlisted to serve their country. Dr. Maxey found that most of the men stricken with influenza were new ones, men who had not been in camp to exceed 30 days, although there were a few exceptions.

Being at one of the big camps of the nation, Dr. Maxey was in a position to note the condition of many men and states that the training which they received in the camps has undoubtedly made more physically fit men in the country today than ever before, despite the number of wounded from overseas.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 27, 1919, Page 7

19190427ECN4
Mother Gets Facts About Death Of Son In Far Off Germany
Neal Melvin Buncel Died of Influenza – Buried on Hill Overlooking City of Coblenz Above Rhine.

Neal Marvin [sic] Buncel lies in a heroes grave overlooking the city of Coblenz and the river Rhine. He died from the dread malady, influenza, while in the service of his country. The facts concerning his death and burial are contained in a letter received Saturday by his mother, Mrs. Minnie E. O’Keefe of South Boise. He enlisted in the United States cavalry September 20, 1917, in Boise, reported to Fort Douglas and was sent to the Mexican border where he served until this country entered the war at which time he was transferred and sent to France. He was raised in Boise, attending the public schools and making this city his home up to the time of his enlistment.

Writing to Mrs. O’Keefe, Lieutenant Robert C. Knowlton, second cavalry, now stationed at Ehrenbreitstein, Germany, says:

“Your letter of February 27 addressed to First Lieutenant James S. Rodwell has been turned over to me for reply. The death of your son, Neal, touched all of us because of the admiration and esteem which we all had for him. Always obedient to duty, cheerful and fearless, he did much to keep up the esprit de corps of troop 1 during the days when life and death walked hand in hand; when many of us never believed that we would ever see the homes we had left again.

“He joined us on August 12, 1918, while we were in the woods near Arcis le Ponsart, near Fismes, and at which latter place we received our baptism of fire. He was with us, continually through the remainder of the Marne-Vesle offensive and during the Argonne-Meuse affair and marched into Germany when we formed the advance guard for the Third army. Since arriving at the Rhine we have been doing routine garrison duties much similar to what we would be doing if we were in the States.

Stricken With Flu

“During the months of January and February we were crippled by a serious influenza epidemic and it was a victim to this terrible malady that your son fell on January 28. He reported that he was not feeling very well and was marked quarters by the attending physician and his condition not being improved the next day he was evacuated to one of the Coblenz hospitals. I visited him a few days later and found him in one of the influenza wards in evacuation hospital No. 2. I talked with him and his nurse and though seriously ill, hopes of recovery were excellent. I am sure that he had the best of care, for this hospital occupies buildings which were formerly used by the Germans as a hospital and is well equipped in every way. The medical and nursing staff is unequaled in the A. E. F.

“The records of the hospital show that on February 3 he took a decided turn for the worse and was transferred to the pneumonia ward where he died on February 4. We received no news of his death until the 11th due to our poor mail service and consequently were not permitted to assist in the last rites. This has been a matter of sincere regret to all of us, for he was unusually popular and had many friends. He was respected by men and officers alike. I always felt that when I sent him on any special mission that it would be done in a faultless manner and that he wouldn’t return until it was properly done. We had confidence in his ability.

Buried Near Coblenz

“He was buried in a plot of ground on a hill overlooking the city of Coblenz and commanding a beautiful view of both the Rhine and Mosalie valleys.

This cemetery adjoins the one in which the captured prisoners of war were buried who died during the war of 1870. There are some 400 graves in the latter, all neatly arranged and marked. The American cemetery is being similarly laid out and all graves marked with the regulation cross and identification cards. We wanted to erect a suitable monument over his grave which is No. 169, but were informed that only a small headstone set flush with the top of the ground would be permitted in addition to the cross. At the captain’s request I took the matter in hand and ordered a polished dark grey granite headstone inscribed with Neal’s name, rank, serial number, organization and date of death. I personally supervised its erection and everything has been done that possibly could be done. There are already several hundred graves in this cemetery which is in the midst of a beautiful grove of hardwood trees. The hardest part of it all to me is that these men were denied death on the battlefield and unfortunately found their last resting place here.

“Whatever of Neal’s personal effects that are here you will receive in due time for the captain intends to handle the matter himself. You doubtless will receive what ever personal effects that he took to the hospital with him from the chaplain of that hospital.

“If I can be of any further service to you in this time of your sad bereavement, please feel at liberty to call upon me for anything within my power. Your loss is not entirely a personal one, but a loss to all who ever knew him.”
— —

19190427ECN5
Considering The Successor Of Smith
Vacancy on Bench of Seventh Judicial District Caused by Death – Six Well Known Lawyers Mentioned.

Governor Davis will not announce the successor to Judge Isaac N. Smith of the Seventh judicial district court bench, who died last week in Boise, until on or about May 5, it is announced. There are six men being seriously considered for the appointment at the present time. One of these six will likely be named. They are: Harry S. Wrothman of Emmett; Frank D. Ryan, F. B. Lloyd and B. S. Barry of Weiser; B. J. Dillon of Council and F. H. Lyon of Payette.

Judge Smith died after a lingering illness which started with influenza. He was originally appointed to the position of judge of the Seventh judicial district by Governor Alexander after the legislature two years ago passed an act providing for two judges of that district, the legal work of which is becoming very heavy. Judge Ed. L. Bryan is the other presiding judge. A bill was passed by the last legislature, but vetoed by Governor Davis, seeking to create the Eleventh district out of the Seventh, confining it to Adams and Washing counties. …

The vacancy caused on the Seventh judicial district court bench by the death of Judge Smith makes possible the first judicial appointment by Idaho’s new chief executive.
— —

South Boise

The two young sons of C. J. Matthews are ill with influenza.

Mr. and Mrs. Henry Scheer received word this week that their son, Charles, who is in the navy, is ill with pneumonia.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 27, 1919, Page 11

Around Boise Valley Loop

Caldwell

Harry Hargrove, the local real estate man, who has been quite ill the past month, is reported to be much improved.

Mrs. W. A. Stone, who is under medical treatment in a Boise hospital, is reported to be much improved.

(ibid, page 11)
— — — — — — — — — —

Main Street, Grace, Idaho ca. 1913

Grace1913Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 28

Evening Capital News., April 28, 1919, Page 6

19190428ECN1

Mountain Home

Mrs. Electa G. Rhodes is quite ill at her home with the influenza.

Mrs. Ernest W. Latimore is quite ill at her home.

Mrs. Albert White, who is ill at St. Luke’s hospital in Boise, is reported to be improving rapidly.

Bill Blackman, who has been ill for some time at the Stanfield hospital, has fully recovered and is able to be out again.
— —

Maple Grove

Mrs. Marion Pfost was called to Meridian Friday by the illness of her mother, Mrs. George Powell.

Kathryn and Helen, children of Jas. Madsen, have been quite ill the past week, but are reported better.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 28 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 28, 1919, Page 7

Little News of Boise

Health Officer Out

L. P. Pfirman, deputy city health officer, who had influenza late in November is still suffering from after “flu” effects and is just out again after 14 days at home. Mr. Pfirman states he did not regain his strength after being sick, but kept on the job for a long time, thinking he would get all right, but finally was taken sick again.

For Soldiers and Sailors

Dr. E. G. Cox, vocational advisor for the federal board for vocational education, will be at the Red Cross rooms, 709 Idaho street, Thursday and until noon Friday. It is announced that the government has made splendid provision for all men who are entitled to compensation for any disability and whether or not such men have had previous advice or hospital treatment, they are requested to see Dr. Cox and present their case as they will learn just what can be done for them.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — — — — — — — —

Main Street, Grangeville, Idaho (1)

GrangevilleFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 29

Evening Capital News., April 29, 1919, Page 3

19190429ECN1

Drink A Glass Of Real Hot Water Before Breakfast
Says we will both look and feel clean, sweet and fresh and avoid illness

Sanitary science has of late made rapid strides with results that are of untold blessings to humanity. The latest application of its untiring research is the recommendation that it is as necessary to attend to internal sanitation of the drainage system of the human body as it is to the drains of the house.

Those of us who are accustomed to feel dull and heavy when we arise, splitting headache, stuffy from a cold, foul tongue, nasty breath, acid stomach, can, instead, feel as fresh as a daisey [sic] by opening the sluices of the system each morning and flushing out the whole of the internal poisonous stagnant matter.

Everyone, whether ailing, sick or or well, should each morning before breakfast, drink a glass of real hot water with a teaspoonful of limestone phosphate in it to wash from the stomach, liver and bowels the previous day’s indigestible waste, sour bile and poisonous toxins; thus cleaning, sweetening and purifying the entire alimentary canal before putting more food into the stomach. The action of hot water and limestone phosphate on an empty stomach is wonderfully invigorating. It cleans out all the sour fermentations gases, waste and acidity and gives one a splendid appetite for breakfast. While you are enjoying your breakfast the phosphated hot water is quietly extracting a large volume of water from the blood and getting ready for a thorough flushing of all the inside organs.

The millions of people who are bothered with constipation, bilious spells, stomach trouble, rheumatic stiffness; others who have sallow skins, blood disorders and sickly complexions are urged to get a quarter pound of limestone phosphate from the drug store. This will cost very little, but is sufficient to make anyone a pronounced crank on the subject of internal sanitation. — Adv.
— —

Labor Clauses of Treaty Announced
Eight-hour Day, Equal Pay for Men and Women and Right of Organization Among the Leading Principles

Washington, April 29. — Labor clauses adopted by the Paris conference yesterday for insertion in the peace treaty were announced by the state department today.

The clauses declare that the wellbeing of the wage earners is of supreme national importance and declare for the right of organization by labor, an eight-our day, and equal pay for women and men, among other reforms for which labor has fought.

The following principles are regarded as of special and urgent importance:

First – The guiding principle that labor should not be regarded merely as a commodity or article of commerce.

Second – The right of association for all lawful purposes by the employed as well as by the employers.

Third – Payment to the employed of a wage adequate to maintain a reasonable standard of life, as this is understood in their time and country.

Fourth – Adoption of an eight-hour day or a 48-hour week as the standard to be aimed at where it has not already been obtained.

Fifth – Adoption of a weekly rest of at least 24 hours which should include Sunday, whenever practicable.

Sixth – Abolition of child labor and the imposition of such limitations on the labor of young persons as shall permit the continuation of their education and assure their proper physical development.

Seventh – The principle that men and women should receive equal remuneration for work of equal value.

Eighth – The standard set by law in each country with respect to the conditions of labor should have due regard for the equitable economic treatment of all workers lawfully residents therein.

Each state should make provision for a system of inspection in which women should take part in order to insure the enforcement of the laws and regulations for the protection of the employed.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 29 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 29, 1919, Page 7

Around Boise Valley Loop

Star

Birdie Smith is reported ill at this writing.

There will be an examination of children up to six years of age Wednesday the 30th. The child welfare committee is sending Mrs. Keener of Boise to have charge of the meeting and all mothers of this district are urged to bring the children. The examination will be held at the home of Mrs. J. T. Ohl beginning at 12 o’clock.

Caldwell

Harry Hargrove, the local real estate man, who has been quite ill the past two weeks, has sufficiently recovered to be at his office again.

Nampa

Mrs. H. A. Partridge has returned from Wisconsin, where she was called some two weeks since by the illness of her mother, who she left much improved.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 29, 1919, Page 8

Holcomb

Mr. Hicks has had a recurrence of the “flu” but is reported better now.

Mr. and Mrs. A. Bahler and son George were sick with the “flu” for some time, but are now able to be out.

Marion Prickett is very sick with typhoid fever at his home here.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 29, 1919, Page 5

19190429TIR1

Local News

George Dore, of the Central Meat Market, is ill this week and confined to his home. Dr. Mitchell is in attendance.

Books on the war at the public library in the city hall at Blackfoot.
— —

Attention

Beginning with April 30, and regular once a month thereafter, there will be given at the Progress hall, a dancing party free to all returned soldiers and sailors. This will continue until all have returned who have been in the service of Uncle Sam.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 29 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 29, 1919, Page 6

Soldier’s Letters

April 1, 1919

My dear friend Mrs. Woody:

It affords me great pleasure to take the liberty of writing you a few lines. I received your note attached to the letter you wrote your boy Thomas, and I certainly appreciate your kind words. You are the mother of a good boy, who has proved himself a man in every way. Thru him you have won my friendship and great love for a mother.

My mother is still living, but she has been in bed nearly all winter with the flu. As she is getting old I have been much worried about her.

It is six years since I saw her last. My father died two years ago, I see Thomas received another letter from you, and I noticed where you stated how you were looking forward to the day when he would be home. Now you must not grow impatient. We are all anxious to get home and be with our loved one once more, but we must wait until our turn comes. That is a part of our sacrifice, which we had to make in this war. We know the folks at home have no great hardships to contend with, and that knowledge helps us to keep up our spirit, so many miles from you. We are all coming home. How soon I don’t know, but it won’t be long.

At present we are in La Mans. Our next move will be to a sea port, which we expect to make in another two weeks. I have reasons to believe Thomas an I will be mustered out in Camp Lewis. Should that be the case I may be able to pay you folks a short visit and I would be very glad to do that. I also expect to visit my folks in Oklahoma and after that return to California to take up my work that I left when drafted into the army.

I must close for this time, trusting to hear from you again.

Your sincere friend, Pvt. Paul Streller
— —

Bellboy Left Estate

William Spanton, a bellboy, who died recently at San Francisco, from influenza, leaves an estate of more than $10,000, according to Tommy West, the head bellboy, who was with Spanton when he died. Spanton was the oldest employee in the bellboy department. Spanton’s estate is the result of his earnings in tips.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 29, 1919, Page 7

Goshen

Orson Davis, eighteen year old son of Mr. and Mrs. Albert Davis of Presto, who has been sick with complications, which could not be explained by the several doctors called in, died Thursday morning, April 24, at 3 a.m.

Wednesday, April 23 a fierce storm reached Goshen blowing down trees and the lighting [sic] killed one fresh milk cow and calf for George Summers and two milk cows for Henry Bolander.

Sand creek is over flowing her banks and making the road to Shelley very bad.
— —

Upper Presto

Lightning Wednesday killed five head of cattle belonging to Mr. Sommers north of Sand creek.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 29, 1919, Page 8

Lavaside

Rex Nelson has been on the sick list all week. Deaun Nelson was also sick the latter part of the week.

O. W. Fraker is feeling fine since his accident. He worries because he is getting a rest tho.

The old white school house has completed its second journey. Thursday afternoon sixteen head of horses took the building up to Hiram Gardner’s dry farm. Mr. Gardner expects to use it for a barn. About ten years ago, the house was moved from where the church now stands. It served its purpose well and gave place recently to a splendid brick building. Now that the building is removed Lavaside expects to have a clean up day soon and then the general appearance will be more school like.
— —

Sterling

W. R. Leach is very ill at the present writing.

Alvin Partridge is on the sick list this week.

Ella May Hays is ill with an attack of the mumps.

The small son of Mr. and Mrs. R. A. Ward is quite ill with the mumps.
— —

Mothers’ Day

The day set aside for all sons and daughters in the nation to honor “The best mother who ever lived” will soon be long, the second Sunday in May. Churches give something special in their services on that day, schools celebrate the day on Friday, and business people observe it on Saturday.

“Mothers’ Day” was first made a national holiday by a proclamation on Saturday, May 9, 1914. It was originally intended that on that day fathers should come in for a share of attentions, but it became solely a mothers’ day, and another day was therefore dated for fathers.

It is customary on Mothers’ Day for sons and daughters to write or send remembrances, such as flowers, to their mothers. A year ago the army got together on the movement and almost put the mail service out of commission. The white carnation is the official flower of the day.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

Gifford, Idaho

GiffordFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 30

Evening Capital News., April 30, 1919, Page 4

19190430ECN1

19190430ECN2Attorney General Again Rules On The School Flu Question

In an opinion to Dr. E. A. Bryan, commissioner of education, relative to the collection of tuition for high schools during the period when students were forced to be absent from schools, Attorney General Black says:

“We are of the opinion that the law contemplates no tuition shall be collected save for the actual time a pupil is in attendance at school, except that fractions of a month are counted as a full month. We do not think the reason for closing the schools (the flu) affects this question.”

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 30 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 30, 1919, Page 6

Lake Lowell

Mr. and Mrs. Everett Coon’s baby died Saturday evening at 5:30 of pneumonia following influenza.

Several families of this vicinity attended the funeral of the Coon baby Sunday. It died Saturday at 5:30.

Mr. G. H. Davis’s mother is recovering from influenza.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 30, 1919, Page 8

19190430ECN3

(ibid, page 8)
—————-

Further Reading

Don’t Forget to Drink Your Limestone!

By Ruth Kendall Special to the Chickasaw Journal Aug 23, 2019

For some time now, I have searched for facts about an old limestone mine, or quarry, located west of Okolona, south of Hwy. 32. I know it was there – it was begun about 1916-17 and was a project of the “Mississippi Penitentiary Board”. Seems there was a deposit of limestone there and farmers throughout the country were being urged to use crushed limestone on their fields to enrich the soil. State prisoners operated the ‘mine’ where the limestone was crushed and loaded on boxcars to be taken to various destinations for sale. I would search awhile, get tired of the hunt then go on to something else. Recently in my search of old newspapers I kept getting a hit on “limestone” but not the rocks – but what we need to be drinking every day.

I kid you not. It will, as they used to say, cure anything that ails you! I did find one article that gave more of a historical/scientific view of it. It said that “the largest and least expensive source of phosphate is obtained by mining and concentrating phosphate rock from the numerous phosphate deposits of the world. Some phosphate rock is used to make calcium phosphate nutritional supplements for animals. Virtually all common fertilizers today have an “N-P-K” rating. Phosphate is the “P” and it helps plants capture the sun’s energy and begins the photosynthesis process.”

Now, on to the more interesting uses of limestone. An ad in 1917 reads “Drink Hot Water Before Breakfast Every Morning”. Continuing, it reads “Why is man and woman half the time feeling nervous, despondent, worried, some days headachy, dull and unstrung; some days really incapacitated by illness. If we all would practice the drinking of phosphated hot water before breakfast, what a gratifying change would take place. Instead of thousands of half-sick, anemic looking souls with pasty, muddy complexions, we would see crowds of happy, healthy, rosy-cheeked people everywhere.”

The next paragraph was not so appetizing to read, but for what it’s worth: “The reason is that the human system does not rid itself each day of all the waste it accumulates under our present mode of living. For every ounce of food and drink taken into the system, nearly an ounce of waste material must be carried out, else it ferments and forms ptomaine-like poisons in the bowels, which are absorbed into the bowels.”

And did you know you had “sluices” in your system? Neither did I until I read an ad in the Winona Times dated 25 February, 1921. The ad read that we could “open sluices of the system each morning and wash away the poisonous stagnant matter.” Continuing, the article reads: “Those of us who are accustomed to feel dull and heavy when we arise; splitting headache, stuffy from a cold, foul tongue, nasty breath, acid stomach, lame back, can, instead both look and feel as fresh as a daisy always by washing the poisons and toxins from the body with phosphate hot water each morning.” I am sure I did not need to know that I had all these conditions ‘cause this ad continues by telling me that this phosphated water “cleans out all the sour fermentations, gases, waste and acidity and gives one a splendid appetite for breakfast and it is said to be but a little while until the roses begin to appear in the cheeks.”

Then, an ad in the Winona Times on April 8, 1921, we are told if we “wake up with a bad taste, bad breath and tongue is coated; if your head is dull or aching; if what you eat sours and forms gas and acid in stomach, or you are bilious constipated, nervous, sallow and can’t get feeling just right, begin inside bathing. Drink before breakfast a glass of real hot water with a teaspoon of limestone phosphate in it. Or if you want to “feel like young folks feel, like you felt before your blood, nerves and muscles became loaded with body impurities, get from your pharmacist a quarter pound of limestone phosphate which is inexpensive and almost tasteless, except for a sourish twinge which is not unpleasant. Just as soap and hot water act on the skin, cleansing, sweetening and freshening, so hot water and limestone phosphate act on the stomach, liver, kidneys and bowels.”

In the Vicksburg Herald on March 15, 1918, we are told if we want to feel as “fine as the proverbial fiddle, we must keep the liver washed clean, almost every morning, to prevent its sponge-like pores from clogging with indigestible material, sour bile and poisonous toxins, says a noted physician. Oddly enough, we are not told who this noted physician is. This ad goes on to say “if you get headaches, it’s your liver. If you catch cold easily, it’s your liver. If you wake up with a bad taste, furred tongue, nasty breath or stomach becomes rancid, it’s your liver. Sallow skin, muddy complexion, watery eyes all denote liver uncleanliness. Of course the ad goes on to tell us if we will just drink that glass of hot water with a teaspoon of limestone phosphate every morning, all our medicinal problems will vanish.

Now I ask you – why is it that we of the present generation have missed out on this wonderful bit of knowledge? What happened to it? Was it so effective and wonderful that those who came before us drank all the available limestone phosphate up, glass by glass all across this country and left us to our present misery? And another thing, as I read these ads, first from local newspapers, then I began to search and search. I found, from about 1916 to at least 1935, these ads appeared in EVERY state in this nation, plus Manitoba, British Columbia and Saskatchewan in Canada, Northern Ireland, Ireland, Scotland and England! Somebody was making a tub full of money from the lowly limestone phosphate. Who knew?

source: Chickasaw Journal
— — — —

HotWaterLimestonePhosphate

— — — — — — — — — —

Paratyphoid fever

Paratyphoid fever, also known simply as paratyphoid, is a bacterial infection caused by one of the three types of Salmonella enterica. Symptoms usually begin 6–30 days after exposure and are the same as those of typhoid fever. Often, a gradual onset of a high fever occurs over several days. Weakness, loss of appetite, and headaches also commonly occur. Some people develop a skin rash with rose-colored spots. Without treatment, symptoms may last weeks or months. Other people may carry the bacteria without being affected; however, they are still able to spread the disease to others. Typhoid and paratyphoid are of similar severity. Paratyphoid and typhoid fever are types of enteric fever.

Paratyphoid is caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica of the serotypes Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B, or Paratyphi C growing in the intestines and blood. They are usually spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person. They may occur when a person who prepares food is infected. Risk factors include poor sanitation as is found among poor crowded populations. Occasionally, they may be transmitted by sex. Humans are the only animals infected. Diagnosis may be based on symptoms and confirmed by either culturing the bacteria or detecting the bacterial DNA in the blood, stool, or bone marrow. Culturing the bacteria can be difficult. Bone-marrow testing is the most accurate. Symptoms are similar to that of many other infectious diseases. Typhus is a different disease.

While no vaccine is available specifically for paratyphoid, the typhoid vaccine may provide some benefit. Prevention includes drinking clean water, better sanitation, and better handwashing.

continued: Wikipedia
— — — — — — — — — —

Photos of the 1918 Flu Pandemic

1918Atlantic29-a

Volunteer nurses from the American Red Cross tend to influenza patients in the Oakland Municipal Auditorium, used as a temporary hospital in 1918. Edward A. “Doc” Rogers / Library of Congress via AP

source: Alan Taylor April 10, 2018 “30 Photos of the 1918 Flu Pandemic” The Atlantic
—————–

Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)

Idaho History Mar 28, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 50

Idaho Newspaper clippings April 18-24, 1919

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 18 continued

The Idaho Republican. April 18, 1919, Page 1

19190418TIR1

Death of Mrs. Peterson

Mrs. Fred Peterson, age twenty-seven years, died at her home in Groveland Sunday evening, after suffering for two weeks with asthma and influenza.

Besides a devoted husband she is survived by two children, Elton seven years of age and a baby boy, Harold, fourteen months old, her mother and father Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Tracey, four sisters and one brother, three cousins, Samuel Chapman of Groveland, J. E. Chapman of Rose and Mrs. A. H. Kruse of Riverside.

The remains were taken to Oakley Wednesday where the interment will be made.

Mrs. Peterson came to this community two years ago, from Oakley, Idaho.
— —

Infant at Riverside Dies

The seven-months old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Thaddeus Hein of Riverside, died Monday of pneumonia. The body was sent to Salt Lake City for burial Tuesday, April 15.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 18 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 18, 1919, Page 2

Moreland

The Vernal Leavitt family have recovered after a long illness of the flu.

George Furniss is on the sick list this week.
— —

Rose

The mother of Mrs. Peterson arrived last week to help care for her, but Mrs. Peterson passed away at her home Sunday night at 10 o’clock. The whole community send out their sympathy to the grief stricken husband and children.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 18, 1919, Page 5

Local News

Harold Silene, who has been ill, is very much better.

Mrs. Art Newlon was called to Utah the first of the week on account of the death of her sister.

Miss Edna Gillespie, librarian, was ill Tuesday and her place at the library desk was taken by Miss Eva Yandell.
— —

Sterling

Mrs. Dolly Parsons Reese, wife of William Reese died Tuesday, April 8 at 6 o’clock p.m., after a long illness of influenza-pneumonia. This makes the fourth death in the Parson’s family within a month. The family are prostrated with grief. Mrs. Reese was twenty-seven years old at the time of her death. She leaves to mourn her untimely death a husband and three children, a boy and two little girls, a mother and several brothers and sisters. The funeral was conducted Wednesday at 2 p.m. from the cemetery under the auspices of the L. D. S. church, Bishop R. A. Ward officiating. She was laid to rest beside her father and brother-in-law, who preceded her two days, in the Sterling-Yuma cemetery. The sympathy of the entire community goes out to these families in their great hour of sadness.

Miss Milo Lundquist has returned from a visit with relatives at Shelley. Her mother has also just returned from Aberdeen, where she has been caring for influenza patients.

Mrs. E. N. Wells is ill with the grippe at the present writing.

Frank Parsons, who is ill with influenza at the home of G. A. Line, is recovering.

John Zeigler Jr. was on the sick list the last of the week.

The school time has been changed to standard summer time.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 18, 1919, Page 6

Moreland

The Feigert family, who live west of Moreland, are at present all suffering from attack of the influenza.

Miss Martha Tanner has been ill for some time and has been forced to discontinue her school work.

Miss Lillie Belnap, who came here a few weeks ago to clerk in the Lindsay-Welker store has been quite ill with tonsillitis.

Miss Annie Leavitt has been very ill for some time.

Last Friday being Arbor Day the school children, under their teachers’ direction, cleaned up the school yards and buildings, which makes a marked difference in the appearance of the school and the grounds.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 18, 1919, Page 7

Kimball

The Woodruff family are able to be out again after having been suffering with the flu.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 18, 1919, Page 8

Goshen

The people of this community who have been suffering with influenza are much improved at this writing.
— —

Wicks

Miss Mabel Bennett of Presto, who is attending high school at Blackfoot is very ill at the home of Mrs. A. B. Stephens.
— —

Rich

Claude Brown is on the sick list this week.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

Fern, Idaho ca. 1913

Fern1913Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 19

Evening Capital News., April 19, 1919, Page 5

19190419ECN1

Around Boise Valley Loop

Caldwell

H. K. Cleaver is reported quite ill.

M. T. Hargove, the local real estate man, who has been ill the past month, has sufficiently recovered to be at his office again.

County Recorder L. C. Knowlton is reported quite ill.

Middleton

W. T. Plowhead is confined to his home with influenza.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 19 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 19, 1919, Page 10

Huston

The Wright children are recovering from the “flu.”

Mrs. George Vogt is quite sick.

Mrs. C. B. Anderson is on the sick list.

(ibid, page 10)
— — — — — — — — — —

Ferrell, Idaho ca. 1908

Ferrell1908Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 20

Evening Capital News., April 20, 1919, Page 6

19190420ECN1

Pierce Park – Collister

Mrs. Frank Leonard and children are sick with the influenza.

Two granddaughters, aged 15 months and 14 years respectively, have arrived from Minnesota to make their home with Mr. and Mrs. George W. Hicks.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 20 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 20, 1919, Page 9

Deaths – Funerals

Herbst – Harry E. Herbst, aged 31 years, died Saturday at a Boise hospital. Typhoid fever, following influenza, caused his demise. Mr. Herbst was a mechanic and came to Boise six years ago from Seattle. He is survived by his wife and son, his parents, Mr. and Mrs. E. F. Herbst of Dixon, Ill., one sister and one brother. The body lies at the Fry & Summers chapel and will be taken to Dixon, Ill., for burial.

(ibid, page 9)
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 20, 1919, Page 10

Additional Loop

Caldwell

Mrs. W. A. Stone who is under medical treatment in a Boise hospital is reported to be progressing nicely.

Captain and Mrs. F. M. Cole will arrive home this evening from Salt Lake, where Mrs. Cole joined her husband a few days since upon his return from a southern training camp. Captain Cole will be recalled as Dr. Cole of this city, who let his practice in this city last year and enlisted in the army service.

(ibid, page 10)
— — — — — — — — — —

Firth, Idaho

FirthFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 21

The Daily Star-Mirror., April 21, 1919, Page 5

19190421DSM1

City News

The many friends of the deceased will regret to hear that word has been received from Canada that Mrs. Robert Coop, who formerly lived here, had recently died of pneumonia, following influenza. Mrs. Coop was formerly Miss Lottie Ramseier. She leaves her husband and three small children.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 21 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Galena, Idaho (2)

GalenaFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 22

Evening Capital News., April 22, 1919, Page 7

19190422ECN1

St. Michael’s Has A Prosperous Year …

… The dean also spoke of the excellent growth of the Sunday school, the auxiliaries and other church societies, notwithstanding the influenza epidemic of the winter months. …

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 22 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 22, 1919, Page 8

19190422ECN2
Spring Rains Bring Grippe

This sort of weather brings colds and grippe. If it’s just a common cold people say, “there’s no danger in that!” But many a fatal sickness begins with a cold – with vitality weakened – the system is ready for the Influenza germs. Begin early to ward off the attack. Purge the systems of the toxins (poisons) by taking castor oil, or a vegetable laxative made of Mayapple, leaves of aloe, and jalap, rolled into sugar-coated pills and to be had at all drug stores as Dr. Pierce’s Pleasant Pellets.

If the cold starts with a cough, and it persists then some local treatment for this condition should be taken. A well known alternative extract which has been on the market for a great many years, and which has been highly recommended by thousands of users, is Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery. This tonic compound is composed of an extract of roots and herbs without alcohol, and has a soothing effect upon the mucous membrane, allays the irritation and at the same time works in the proper and reasonable way, at the seat of the trouble – the stagnated or poisoned blood.
(Adv.)

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 22, 1919, Page 2

19190422TIR1

Springfield

Mrs. W. C. Wells, died Wednesday morning, April 9, of pneumonia, following an attack of influenza. A baby daughter, born Monday morning, lived but a few hours. The loss of this young mother was a severe blow to her family and the community. Mrs. Wells was formerly Miss Myrtle Thurston. She leaves a daughter, four years old and a son two years old, besides her father and several brothers and sisters.

The funeral services for Mrs. Wells and the infant daughter were held at the Springfield cemetery Thursday afternoon. Hosea Berg and Thomas Blackburn officiated. The floral tributes were many and very beautiful.

Miss Hazel Nelson assisted at the W. C. Wells home during the recent illness there.

Mr. and Mrs. Chris Thurston returned to Ogden Thursday, after attending the funeral of Mrs. W. E. Wells, Mrs. Thurston’s eldest daughter. The blow was particularly sad for them, because only a year ago a younger daughter died of heart failure.

W. E. Wells is convalescing from a severe attack of influenza at the home of his parents Mr. and Mrs. C. N Wells.

Mrs. Don Shelman has taken Laveda Wells, the small daughter of W. E. Wells, to be at her home for a few days.

H. N. Wells and family left Tuesday for their home in St. Anthony. They had been delayed by sickness in the family. Ray Wells has rented the W. E. Wells ranch for two years. Mrs. Wells resigned as mail carrier for the rural route from Sterling.

Miss Oral Blackburn is slowly recovering from a tedious attack of the flu.

Mrs. E. Poulson has been quite seriously ill with pneumonia, but is improved very much.

A trained nurse was called to the Flemister home on the Carmen ranch last week, in fear that Mrs. Flemister was coming down with the flu, but it proved not the dreaded disease, and the nurse was dismissed.
— —

Lavaside

Mrs. W. Hammon has been sick for the last few days.

Everyone seems to have a terrible cold nowadays. We know of at least eight, who have complained.

Those afflicted with mumps are improving rapidly.

School was dismissed Friday afternoon for the war exhibit.

Examinations were taken the ninth and tenth. Part of the seventh and eighth grades wrote on them.
— —

Upper Presto

Mrs. James Taylor of Kimball was called to the bedside of her brother Albert Davis, at their parent’s home last week.

Mr. and Mrs. Joe Jones of Moreland are at the home of Albert Davis during his illness. He is a brother of Mrs. Jones.

Orson Davis, the eighteen year old son of Mr. and Mrs. Albert Davis, was down with pneumonia for two weeks and then his illness changed to complications that can not be explained by the several doctors called in. The young man has a host of friends who will watch anxiously for his recovery.

James Anderson’s baby is ill with pneumonia. The infant baby of Neph Johnson has just recovered from an attack of the same disease.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 22 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 22, 1919, Page 3

In The Gem State

By a system of voluntary quarantine the public school at Rexburg has practically kept full control of the influenza situation. All physical exercises were held on the campus and practically every amusement for pupils was conducted in the school gymnasium.

A visiting nurses’ association of Boise and Ada county has been organized by representatives from a number of the prominent organizations of the city including the insurance companies and the trades council.

Dr. Ernest E. Laubaugh, captain in an army medical corps stationed at Camp Stuart, former state bacteriologist under the Hains administration, has been offered his old place by J. K. White, commissioner of public welfare.

Waiting to have the Pasteur treatment applied for the bite of a mad coyote, Frank Tama, 20 years of age, is at an Ogden hospital. He was rushed there from Blackfoot, after having been bitten while working at his sheep camp.
— —

Inland Northwest

A rigid quarantine against the importation of sheep into the state of Oregon was put into effect by Governor Olcott last week, after consultation with State Veterinarian Lytle, who is seeking to guard the sheep on the ranges of this state against the raves of scabies, a contagious sheep disease which is raging in our states.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 22, 1919, Page 5

Local News

Mrs. Arthur Newland and her sister Miss Myrtle Cushing were called to Salt Lake City the first of the week by the death of their sister. Miss Cushing will remain for an indefinite time to take care of the two orphaned children.
— —

Shelley

Funeral of Soldier Boy

The funeral services of Alverious Hanks, soldier son of this community and dear son of Mr. and Mrs. E. K. Hanks, were held here last Sunday afternoon, April 18. No greater number of people ever attended a funeral here. The returned soldier boys of the community attended in full dress uniform and marched in parade formation to the cemetery. Four of the marine comrades of the deceased acted as pall-bearers. This is the third Shelly boy to die in training camps at home, and the sympathy of the community goes out to the dear mother of this boy.

The lights were out again for a short time last Saturday evening. Maybe they got too bright and had to be turned off.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 22, 1919, Page 6

Taber

The people of Taber were much disappointed Friday when the trophy train whizzed past them, after they had all gathered at the station expecting to be permitted to view the exhibits for a few minutes at least.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 22, 1919, Page 8

Sterling

Mrs. Pete Parso has been spending the week with Mrs. S. Cooper, who is ill.

Mrs. Charles Corbridge and two of their children are very ill with the mumps.

Little Arline Andrews is ill this week with an attack of mumps.

Eugene Atkins and Elmer Partridge are ill with the mumps.

Zelda and Edmund Loveless are nursing an attack of the mumps.

Hazel and Doris Furniss are ill with the mumps.

Mrs. Carlos Partridge, Averel Corbridge and Gordon Atkins are all victims of the mumps.

Lilore and Dallas Wells are ill with the mumps.

John Zeigler Jr. is ill with an attack of malaria.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

Gem, Idaho

GemFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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April 23

Evening Capital News., April 23, 1919, Page 5

19190423ECN1

19190423ECN2
10 Army Hospitals For Public Health

Washington, April 23. — Ten army hospitals with equipment, buildings and land have been transferred for public health service use to the treasury department, by the war department. The hospitals are:

Camp Beauregard, Louisiana; Camp Cody, New Mexico; Camp Fremont, California; Camp Hancock, Georgia; Camp J. E. Johnson, Florida, Camp Logan, Texas; Camp Sevier, South Carolina; Camp Sheridan, Alabama; Nitrate Plant, Perryville, Md., and General Hospital 13, Dansville, N. Y.
— —

19190423ECN3Don’t Buy Aspirin In A “Pill” Box
Ask for “Bayer Tablets of Aspirin” in a Bayer package – Marked with “Bayer Cross.”

You must say “Bayer.” Never ask for merely Aspirin tablets. The name “Bayer” means you are getting the genuine “Bayer Tablets of Aspirin,” proven safe by millions of people.

Don’t buy Aspirin tablets in a pill box. Insist on getting the Bayer package with the safety “Bayer Cross” on both package and on tablets. No other way!

Beware of counterfeits. Only recently a Brooklyn manufacturer was sent to the penitentiary for flooding the country with talcum powder tablets, which he claimed to be Aspirin.

In the Bayer package are proper directions and the dose for Headache, Toothache, Earache, Neuralgia, Rheumatism, Lumbago, Sciatica, Colds, Grippe, Influenza-Colds, Neuritis and pain generally.

“Bayer Tablets of Aspirin,” American made and owned, are sold in vest pocket boxes of 12 tablets, which cost only a few cents, also in bottles of 24 and bottles of 100 – also capsules. Aspirin is the trade mark of the Bayer Manufacture of Monoaceticacidester of Salicylicacid.
(Adv.)

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 23 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Evening Capital News., April 23, 1919, Page 9

Caldwell To See Tank

C. B. Ross, the chairman of the Canyon county liberty loan committee, announced today that the whippet tank to be exhibited in Canyon county in the interests of the loan, will arrive at Parma on the Pony, Thursday morning. After being shown there it will go to Wilder on its own power, then to Greenleaf in the afternoon. Friday morning it will be shown in Caldwell and at Middleton and in the afternoon. Saturday the tank will show its prowess at Star and Eagle.

(ibid, page 9)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., April 23, 1919, Page 1

19190423DSM1

19190423DSM2
Adair Exonerates Mayor W. Truitt
City Health Officer Says Charges Against Mayor Not Based On Facts

That some of the most violent opposition to Mayor Truitt’s reelection yesterday was directed against him by church members who believed that he had interfered with the churches by ordering them closed during the quarantine while the influenza epidemic raged here.

Dr. W. A. Adair, a member of the Methodist church and a brother-in-law of Mayor-elect Gibson, thinks an injustice has been done Mayor Truitt by these charges which he says are not true and he has given out the following statement which he asks be published in justice to Mayor Truitt. Dr. Adair’s statement follows:

Statement to the Public

In as much as I am informed that some time before, and at the city election yesterday, the charge was made against Mayor Truitt that he had advised and caused the closing of the churches and Sunday schools of the city during part of the flu epidemic, I deem it only just and proper for me to state that in all maters pertaining to the quarantine of the city I was and am responsible for all rules and orders pertaining thereto. Mayor Truitt put the entire matter into my hands, he never attempted to control my actions but did frequently ask me to be just as lenient as I possibly could in all my rules and regulation affecting churches, schools and all kinds of business. He at different times said to me that he knew nothing about the disease and must depend upon the health officer and physicians of the city to do what in their judgement was best to protect the health of the city and the lives of its citizens.

I am positive we got good results and this is proven by comparing out death rate with that of neighboring towns, such as Genessee, Palouse and Troy. If we had had as large a death rate in proportion to population as these and many other towns we would have buried from 65 to 75 citizens instead of eight or nine.

Dated this 23d day of April, 1919
W. A Adair, City Health Officer

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 23 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., April 23, 1919, Page 3

City News

Dean Eldridge, director of the summer school, is receiving many inquiries about the summer session, which begins June 16 and closes July 25. This interest indicates a probably good attendance.

Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Sudderth have received a German helmet from a friend in France. Rev. Bridge wore this helmet last Friday evening in the play of the “Terrible Meek” in representing the character of a soldier.

(ibid, page 3)
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Main Street, Genesee, Idaho ca. 1916

Genesee1916Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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April 24

The Filer Record., April 24, 1919, Page 4

19190424FR1

North Filer News

The little son of Mr. and Mrs. J. A Harshburger is reported very ill.

W. D. Griffith and family left Thursday for Los Angeles, Calif., to spend the summer on account of their son’s health.
— —

Rural High School Notes

Arranged by – Mary Otto, Ralph Beer, Miss Gourley.

Fern Fisher was absent the first of the week on account of illness.

Joice Louder returned today from the hospital.

Monday afternoon the High School was dismissed for an hour to witness a tractor demonstration held on the school grounds. The tractor is owned by the Filer Hardware Co. About an acre was plowed during the demonstrations. Considerable rock, alfalfa roots and sod were found on the ground that was plowed but the tractor with the two bottom plows moved steadily along. We appreciate the interest of the Hardware in the school and we are also thankful that we have the grounds plowed. Myrtle Musser drove the tractor, thus proving that a girl can do a man’s work.

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 24 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Evening Capital News., April 24, 1919, Page 5

19190424ECN1

Kuna

Jaspar Landsburg was moved Tuesday morning to Franklyn B. Fiss’ home. He stood the trip nicely. His condition has been much improved the last week.

The M. E. Ladies’ Aid Easter bazaar was postponed until later as the town was quite empty Saturday, many having gone to Boise to see the flying circus.

The young sons of J. H. Ross decided to break a calf to drive and, having no cart of a suitable size, hitched it to the baby carriage, entirely overlooking the fact that the baby was in it. The calf gave one bellow and started off across the yard but hit a bump and the front wheel came off the carriage and the baby bobbed out just as the mother came into view. Nothing was hurt, but the calf’s feelings and the boys did prefer to stand up to eat dinner that night.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 24 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 24, 1919, Page 7

Start Road Work

Work on the connecting link of the wagon road from Garden valley to Lowman has been started by the forest service and it is expected it will be completed within a month.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 24, 1919, Page 11

Health Notes

By M. S. Parker

What can the individual citizen do toward the elimination of disease? First, it is necessary that he take an active interest in the subject and let no opportunity pass to inform himself concerning its various phases. If the nation at large took as much interest in its health as it does in politics or in countless other things we should have cleaner politics and more for countless other things. When one’s interest is once aroused, the problem of getting information is not usually a very difficult one. In this country we regard education as a birthright, and to obtain it we establish free schools and libraries everywhere. And we should demand that these institutions educate in the matter of health also. We should insist that our public libraries carry a full line of literature on public health subjects and on personal hygiene, and then the libraries should be well patronized. We should also insist that in our public school there be liberal and obligatory courses in hygiene.

The victims of the white plague in Idaho should take courage and fight the dread disease harder than ever before, for a better day is coming in this state. Next year it will commence the erection of two tuberculosis hospitals in which to care for those who have been attacked by that terrible malady, and this should be an era of new hope for them.

The Modern Health Crusaders, working through the public schools of Idaho are doing some splendid work along health lines. The coming generation in this state is going to be stronger and more efficient than any generation that has preceded it, due in large measure to the health education that it is receiving.

(ibid, page 11)
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Payette Enterprise., April 24, 1919, Page 1

19190424PE1

Personal and Local Mention

Mr. Burt Venable, editor of the Cascade News left for Cascade Tuesday morning after spending a few days in Payette, being called here on account of the death of Mrs. Walkington, mother of Mrs. Venable.
— —

Second Annual Conference of Chapter
Northwestern Division American Red Cross Seattle Washington

Conference opened at 10 Thursday morning with Mr. Stimpson, Division manager presiding. In part he said that the greatest call to the Red Cross was in January and February with expenses more than any other period of the war, his report for the quarter January 1st to April 1st on production surgical dressing, Hos. Garments and supplies, Knitting, Refugee Garments – total 471,512 with a money valuation of the same $374,073.86. That answering the call had brought the treasury to the very lowest limits. He expressed appreciation for the hearty co-operation of the chapters in the charge of program made necessary by the signing of the armistice. During the influenza epidemic, two ships equipped with medicines, nurses, food and comforts were sent to Alaska. …

The Public Health Nursing and Home service will co-ordinate activities in the same chapter. Each is necessary to the fullest success of the [?]. The chairman of Public Health Nursing must be a trained nurse and is a nursing service for the benefit of all people in the community. The War Council has appropriated $30,000 to be used in making loans to nurses desiring to take up courses in Public Health Nursing. …

One of the Public Health men from Washington urged that children be trained in public health and in that way reach many homes. He also told how Dr. Livingston Farin had spent eighteen months in France to improve the public health. That chapters know that much of the misery is preventable and urged that chapters go into the a war for liberation from disease, that cleanliness is the corner stone. …

source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 24 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Payette Enterprise., April 24, 1919, Page 2

North Payette

Jno. Beeson is on the sick list, suffering with the grippe.

Howard Harker is quite ill with spotted fever.
— —

Little Willow

One of the little boys of Mr. and Mrs. H. Walters has been quite sick with spotted fever the past week.

Several loads of Little Willow people went over to Boise Saturday to see the airplanes. They all pronounced it a sight well worth the trip.

Word has been given out from the Payette postmaster that unless the roads are fixed on the upper end of Little Willow and over on Big Willow the daily mail will be held up until it is done.

(ibid, page 2)
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The Emmett Index. April 24, 1919, Page 1

19190424EI1

Judge Smith Dead

Isaac N. Smith, judge of the district court of this district, died Tuesday in Boise. Heart disease, following a severe attack of influenza last winter, caused his death. Mr. Smith was appointed judge of this district by Governor Alexander and was elected last fall to succeed himself. He was a pioneer resident of Weiser.
— —

Died

The body of Joseph E. Gerhart, who died Saturday, April 19, at Exeter, Calif., was brought to Emmett the former home, for burial, arriving this morning. The mother, Mrs. Hannah Gerhart, and younger brother Paul accompanied the body. A brother Ernest, with his family of Idaho Falls, and four sisters, Mrs. Clarence Davis, and husband, and Mrs. Moon of Boise, Mrs. Sneed of Spokane and Miss Beth Gerhart of Sanders, Idaho, are all present to attend the funeral service which was held today at 2 o’clock at the Bucknum chapel. Also Mrs. Sam Atchinson and Mrs. Maxwell, old friends from Weiser, are here. Joseph E. Gerhart was the son of Peter Gerhart, deceased, and Mrs. Hannah Gerhart, and spent several years of his life in Emmett where his people owned ranch property just east of town. He was a boy of good habits, loved by his associates, and for a time a teacher in Oregon. But ill health overtook him, and he was compelled to abandon this, and sought benefit by a change of climate. The family left Emmett about a year and a half ago and have been in Exeter, Calif., some time, where the dread disease finished its work, cutting off a life of but 24 years. Interment was made in the Riverside Cemetery.
— —

Home Coming in Doubt

A letter received this morning from “The Boy” contains the following in regard to coming home: “There is no news of when we are going home. The number of patients in the hospital is decreasing every day, so it cannot be long before they will have to send some of the personnel home, or to come other places, and we think it will be homeward. I am interested in what will be done, as in all probability I shall go wherever the bunch goes. …

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 24 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Emmett Index. April 24, 1919, Page 7

Emmett News

Mrs. Burger and baby who had been very ill with pneumonia, are getting better.
— —

Card of Thanks

We wish to thank our friends and neighbors who so kindly assisted us during the illness and death of our dear father. Albert Ray, Edward Ray, Mrs. Myrtle Stickney, Mrs. Chas. Hedrick.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Emmett Index. April 24, 1919, Page 10

News of Gem County
By The Index’s Correspondents

Bramwell

Mrs. Mart Smith came home Monday from Emmett, where she had been for the past month at the home of her sister, taking medical treatment. She is quite improved in health.

Mrs. Social Rolph is reported on the sick list this week.

Letha

The smallpox patients are all recovered at the Mary Fishback home and only one member of the family is left with restrictions about his coming and going. Dr. Cummings fumigated Tuesday and allowed the visitors to proceed on their journey.

South Slope

Mrs. Gray of the South Slope was called to Portland last week by the illness and death of her father. Mrs. Gray returned to Emmett yesterday.

(ibid, page 10)
— — — —

The Emmett Index. April 24, 1919, Page 8

19190424EI2

(ibid, page 8)
—————-

Further Reading

WWI Whippet Tank

WhippetTank-aWorld War 1 Whippet Tank on square May 5, 1919 on Victory Loan Campaign at Shippensburg, Pa.

The Medium Tank Mk A (also known as the “Whippet”) was an armored vehicle specifically designed to exploit breaches in the battle lines created by heavier lozenge-shaped combat tanks such as the Mark 1 series. The Whippet went on to become the most successful British tank of the war and was used to spearhead assaults, going on to cause many German casualties in the process. Designer William Tritton was an expert in designing agriculture and was assigned to work with Major Walter Gordon Wilson in producing a “caterpillar tracked” vehicle for transporting large naval guns. While working on the project, they saw a separate but equal military application of the tractor and were credited with the invention of the Medium Tank Mk A (Whippet). A prototype (interestingly with a revolving turret emplacement borrowed from an Austin armored car design) was made ready in February of 1917 and underwent evaluations thereafter. An order of 200 was placed March of 1917 to which the system was delivered for operational service of that year. At a later date, Tritton would go on to design the notable mark 1 thru Mark V series of heavy tanks for the war effort

source: Centennial Legion
— — — —

see also:

Medium Mark A Whippet

Wikipedia:
— — — — — — — — — —

America’s World War I Trophy Trains

by Shirley Wajda July 7, 2019

WWITrophyTrain-aTrains bearing war trophies captured by the Americans about to start on its tour of New York State, Northern New Jersey, and Fairfield Co., Conn. To aid in the Fourth Liberty Loan Drive. Visitors waiting in line to see the trophies. (Original caption; National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC)

Research in incomplete government records has not yet revealed the decision making to employ war exhibition trains in Liberty Loan drives. The War Loan Organization, established in 1918 by and in the Treasury Department, was headed by Director Lewis P. Franklin and Assistant Directors Clarkson Potter and Labert St. Clair. Frank R. Wilson, Director of Publicity, R. W. Emerson, Chief of the Division of Publications, and Charles F. Horner, Director of the Speakers’ Bureau, rounded out this team of men originally from the publishing, journalism, and advertising fields. These men marshaled the five Liberty Loan drives by adopting the structure of the then-new Federal Reserve system in which the nation was divided in twelve fiscal districts. A Central Liberty Loan Committee was formed in each district and each assigned a monetary amount of bonds to sell. The War Loan Organization was responsible for the sales, publicity, and speakers of these campaigns.

Each war exhibit train, decorated with posters, bunting, and signs, consisted of a Pullman coach provided comfort for the train manager, speakers, and other dignitaries. Much was made of electrically lighted flat cars which carried and displayed larger pieces; in the spring 1918 Third Liberty Loan drive, these included “trench mortars, cannon [including a ‘partly destroyed French 75 gun’, parts of aeroplanes and trophies captured from the Germans or collected on the battlefields”. Later loan drives incorporated even more and varied material culture. An electrically lighted baggage car was fitted with an exhibit of smaller battlefield trophies, including German helmets, gas masks, and personal items, as well as examples of American and Allied firepower, such as the Lewis machine gun. Lining the baggage car’s interior walls were hundreds of “large-sized photographs of scenes from actual battlefronts” showing “German atrocities in France and Belgium.”

A war exhibit train’s arrival was usually hailed by a parade or rally welcoming its occupants, making the public event a ritual performance of patriotism. Informative posters and newspaper articles and advertisements urged readers’ attendance. Civic and war-related volunteer associations, as well as veterans and local military bands, led these parades to the trains. With or without instrumental music, attendees sang patriotic airs. City and town officials called for businesses and schools to close, so that all could visit the train. In some towns time was set aside so that schoolchildren alone could view the exhibits.

excerpted from:
— — — — — — — — — —

Mumps

Mumps is a viral disease caused by the mumps virus. Initial symptoms are non-specific and include fever, headache, malaise, muscle pain, and loss of appetite. These symptoms are usually followed by painful swelling of the parotid glands, called parotitis, which is the most common symptom of infection. Symptoms typically occur 16 to 18 days after exposure to the virus and resolve within two weeks. About one third of infections are asymptomatic.

Complications include deafness and a wide range of inflammatory conditions, of which inflammation of the testes, breasts, ovaries, pancreas, meninges, and brain are the most common. Testicular inflammation may result in reduced fertility and, rarely, sterility.

Humans are the only natural host of the mumps virus, an RNA virus in the family Paramyxoviridae. The virus is primarily transmitted by respiratory secretions such as droplets and saliva, as well as via direct contact with an infected person. Mumps is highly contagious and spreads easily in densely populated settings. Transmission can occur from one week before the onset of symptoms to eight days after. During infection, the virus first infects the upper respiratory tract. From there, it spreads to the salivary glands and lymph nodes. Infection of the lymph nodes leads to presence of the virus in blood, which spreads the virus throughout the body. Mumps infection is usually self-limiting, coming to an end as the immune system clears the infection.

In places where mumps is common, it can be diagnosed based on clinical presentation. In places where mumps is less common, however, laboratory diagnosis using antibody testing, viral cultures, or real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction may be needed. There is no specific treatment for mumps, so treatment is supportive in nature and includes bed rest and pain relief. Prognosis is usually excellent with a full recovery as death and long-term complications are rare. Infection can be prevented with vaccination, either via an individual mumps vaccine or through combination vaccines such as the MMR vaccine, which also protects against measles and rubella. The spread of the disease can also be prevented by isolating infected individuals.

Mumps historically has been a highly prevalent disease, commonly occurring in outbreaks in densely crowded spaces. In the absence of vaccination, infection normally occurs in childhood, most frequently at the ages of 5–9. Symptoms and complications are more common in males and more severe in adolescents and adults. Infection is most common in winter and spring in temperate climates, whereas no seasonality is observed in tropical regions. Written accounts of mumps have existed since ancient times, and the cause of mumps, the mumps virus, was discovered in 1934. By the 1970s, vaccines had been created to protect against infection, and countries that have adopted mumps vaccination have seen a near-elimination of the disease. In the 21st century, however, there has been a resurgence in the number of cases in many countries that vaccinate, primarily among adolescents and young adults, due to multiple factors such as waning vaccine immunity and opposition to vaccination.

continued: Wikipedia
——————

Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)

Idaho History Mar 21, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 49

Idaho Newspaper clippings April 15-18, 1919

Photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 15

The Daily Star-Mirror., April 15, 1919, Page 5

19190415DSM1

19190415DSM2Some Influenza Cases In Moscow
Health Officer Again Sounds Warning Against Ignoring Precautions

Dr. W. A. Adair, city health officer, says the danger of influenza has not yet been passed and he cautions all to observe the regulations and again announces that school children are not permitted to attend public amusements. Dr. Adair prepared a statement to the public today, and it is here given:

The flu situation is very satisfactory. The last quarantine cards were removed last Saturday evening. This does not mean that there is no danger of a further outbreak of the disease, and care must be exercised in order to prevent the return of the epidemic.

Our neighboring town, Juliaetta is now having a severe outbreak in the schools. Last week in one room of about forty pupils there were only thirteen able to attend.

Warm weather does not prevent the disease, it only lessens the complications. Germany had the severest epidemic in July. According to the United States health report, two of our warm states, California and Louisiana, are now having an increase of the disease. Also England is now in the midst of a third epidemic of such great severity that it is giving the sanitary authorities great concern.

Grade children are not allowed to attend the picture shows on Saturday but may attend matinees given after school hours on school days.

It is not permissible for public school pupils to attend dances until further notice.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 15 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Bonners Ferry Herald. April 15, 1919, Page 8

19190415BFH1

James Schultz Home Again

James Schultz arrived in Bonners Ferry last Tuesday and is spending the week visiting with old friends. He was recently discharged at Camp Lewis after having been in the service for over a year and having seen a years active service overseas. He was gassed and also suffered severely from an attack of influenza and is not in the best of health now.

He expects to re-enter the employ of the government in the forest service and will be a look out in the Addie district, starting on his duties in about [? cut off].

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 15 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Evening Capital News., April 15, 1919, Page 6

19190415ECN1

Little News of Boise

Visiting Uncle

Miss Nancy McConnell, a Red Cross nurse who served Uncle Sam last winter, is visiting her uncle, C. S. McConnell. She was recently released from service at Fort Douglas, Utah. Before entering the service she lived in Colorado, but now has no home, as her parents died of influenza, while she was serving the government in a cantonment.
— —

Card of Thanks

We wish to thank our kind friends and neighbors who assisted us during the illness and death of our little son. – Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Baumchen.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 15 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 15, 1919, Page 9

Around Boise Valley Loop

Star

Miss Edna Tucker is reported ill.

Miss Amanda Wolf, who has been very ill, is able to be out again.

Miss Mable Griffith is ill at this writing.

The infant son of Mr. and Mrs. Earl Crother, who has pneumonia, is much improved.

Dr. Payne of Nampa was here Monday on professional business.

Caldwell

Mr. and Mrs. O. C. Robison arrived Sunday morning from Long Beach, Cal., where they have been the past two months on account of Mrs. Robison’s health, which is much improved.

Mildred, the 3-week-old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Warren Tinyske, died at 2 p.m. Saturday at Cascade. Burial will be at Nampa Tuesday afternoon.
— —

Over 4000 Head Cattle Vaccinated Present Year

Caldwell, April 15. — More than 4000 head of cattle have been vaccinated in Canyon county this year by County Farm Agent George Dewey against the disease of Blackleg and the work of vaccination is still in active progress. One of the greatest phases of work accomplished by the county farm bureau the last two years has been its prevention of animal diseases.

(ibid, page 9)
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The Idaho Republican. April 15, 1919, Page 2

19190415TIR1

Goshen

The Willard Monson family are ill with influenza.

The children of Joe Christensen are all nicely recovering from the flu.

The Oliver Nielson family are ill with the flu.
— —

19190415TIR2
George Kirk Died at Salt Lake Wednesday

George Kirk, a young man twenty years of age, son of Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Kirk of Blackfoot died at the L. D. S. hospital in Salt Lake City Wednesday evening, from pneumonia following an attack of influenza. Mr. Kirk has been in very poor health for the past four months and was very weak at the time he contracted influenza. His mother took him to the Salt Lake hospital from the Blackfoot home, Saturday night, but all that skilled care could do was not enough to restore the young man to health.

Young Kirk was raised in Salt Lake City and moved with his parents to a fine ranch west of town about a year ago. During the short time that he has lived here he made many friends and acquaintances.

The father was in Salt Lake at the time death occurred and the other members of the family went down Thursday morning to attend the funeral services which will be conducted there.
— —

In The Gem State

Construction will start at once on the new $75,000 high school building at Caldwell.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 15 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 15, 1919, Page 4

Shelley

Shelley Soldier Died

Alverious Hanks, son of E. K. Hanks, died at Mare Island after an attack of pneumonia. Alverious, better known as Tot, was well known around Shelley, having lived here most of his life. He was an industrious young man, full of the vigor of youth. His father knowing he was very ill left for Mare Island and got there just in time to see his boy alive. This is the third Shelly boy to give his life for the great cause of Democracy. The heartfelt sympathy of the entire community goes out to the bereaved parents of this boy.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 15, 1919, Page 5

Local News

The two-months old son of Mr. and Mrs. Edgar L. Devinna, East Judicial street, Blackfoot, died Sunday, after a short severe illness. Dr. Patrie was called to see the child Saturday.
— —

Card of Thanks

We wish to thank the many kind friends who did so much for us during the illness and at the death of our beloved mother and wife. The numerous and beautiful floral offerings also did much to help us bear the loss which is so great.

F. T. Halverson and Family
— —

Groveland

Mrs. E. N. Bingham left for Rexburg Wednesday to attend the funeral of a nephew Arthur Middleton, who gave his life for his country. Mr. Middleton served in the navy during the war; was taken ill while in the service and left in a deaf and dumb school. He was totally disabled and has suffered intensely the past three months.
— —

Moreland

Miss Lillie Belnap has recovered from her illness and has resumed her work in the Lindsay-Walker store.

Miss Gladys England is on the sick list this week.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 15, 1919, Page 6

Centerville

Death of George Kirk

George Kirk died at the hospital in Salt Lake City, Wednesday evening, after an attack of influenza-pneumonia. Funeral services were conducted there and the body laid to rest at that place.

Delbert, the infant son of Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Stanger has been quite ill the past week.

Charles Kirk, who recently went to Salt Lake for medical treatment is very ill.
— —

Moreland

Mrs. John V. England was called to McCammon this week because of the illness of her grandchild.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — — — — — — — —

Scene in Residence Section, Fruitland, Idaho

FruitlandFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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April 16

Evening Capital News., April 16, 1919, Page 9

19190416ECN1

Around Boise Valley Loop

Caldwell

M. T. Hargrove, the local real estate man, who has been quite ill the last two weeks, is reported much improved.

Star

The Griffith children are sick with the flu.

Mrs. J. H. Cone returned from Boise Tuesday where she has been with her daughter, Vivian, who is in the hospital.

M’Dermott

Mrs. Henry Jones, who won many friends during visits to this neighborhood, died at her home near Caldwell Sunday from influenza.

Mrs. Jay Vinson was called to Cascade Tuesday to help care for her grandmother, who is sick.

Mrs. William Hudson was called to Caldwell Sunday on account of the illness and death of her brother’s wife.

Eagle

Mrs. Clara Bryant is ill at a Boise hospital, suffering from a slight attack of pneumonia.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 16 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., April 16, 1919, Page 5

19190416DSM1

City News

Word has been received from Mrs. C. C. Brown of Innisfree, Alberta, that she found her son, Frank, better and rapidly improving from a severe attack of influenza. Mrs. Brown says the crops in Canada look fine and the climate much like Idaho.

The funeral of Mrs. Warney May occurred yesterday at 11 o’clock at the Methodist church on American ridge and interment was made in the Moscow cemetery. Many of her friends accompanied the remains to Moscow, 24 automobiles coming from American ridge.

John Waide of Kendrick, Harold Thomas, Miss Phyllis Cain, Robert Cain, Don Douglas, and Wm. Watts of American ridge were among the number in Moscow yesterday attending the funeral of Mrs. Warney May.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 16 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Forest, Idaho May 25, 1911

Forest1911Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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April 17

Evening Capital News., April 17, 1919, Page 8

19190417ECN1

Around Boise Valley Loop

Midway

Miss Mary Pecker is confined to her home this week on account of illness.

Middleton

The Baptist bazaar and ice cream social which was to have been held at the hall Friday, April 8, has been postponed on account of the influenza.

Members of the j. H. Mabee family are all ill with influenza this week.

Henry Plowhead, youngest son of W. T. Plowhead, is ill with the influenza.

Star

Joice, the little daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Kinney, is reported ill.

Lake Lowell

B. M. Altizer is recovering from the influenza.

Mr. and Mrs. Everett Coon’s baby is very ill with pneumonia.

The Misses Louise, Ethel and Clarabel Wright have been quite ill with the flu for the past week but are improving.

Little Woodrow Spear who has been quite ill with pneumonia for the past few weeks is improved.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 17 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Payette Enterprise., April 17, 1919, Page 1

19190417PE1

Personal and Local Mention

The Will Stanton family who were all seriously ill with la grippe for the past ten days, are on the mend. Will was able to be at the [?] Monday for the first [time since being] sick.

Mr. F. S. Stanton who as been confined to his home for two weeks with a very severe attack of lagrippe [sic] is now able to be on the streets. Mrs. Stanton is improving but is yet unable to be out.

Chief of Police Finske who has been under quarantine with Smallpox for sometime is again on the streets, his case was quite severe but will not leave him disfigured.

source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 17 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Payette Enterprise., April 17, 1919, Page 5

Fruitland Department

Mrs. R. G. Wilson
“As ‘Twas Told to Me”

Mr. A. W. Courtney’s father who just arrived from California with his wife two weeks ago died Thursday at 5 o’clock of influenza. Mr. Courtney was 72 years of age. He has been ill for several months and came here hoping the climate would improve his health.

Mrs. Mary Deal has been sick with tonsillitis the past week. She is improving and expects to be back at school this week. Mrs. Grant Fisher has been teaching in her place.
— —

Little Willow

Quite a number of the valley residents have been on the sick list recently.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Filer Record., April 17, 1919, Page 1

19190417FR1

Idaho State News

Dr. Ernest E. Laubaugh, appointed state bacteriologist by J. K. White, commissioner of public welfare, has wired his acceptance from Camp Stuart, Va., where he is stationed with an army medical corps, with which he is serving as captain.

The 16-year-old daughter of D. B. Morrison of Caldwell was taken to Boise to receive the pasteur treatment to prevent hydrophobia. She was bitten by a pet black Spitz dog which acted queerly although it showed few of the symptoms of rabies.

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 17 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Filer Record., April 17, 1919, Page 4

Rural High School Notes

Arranged By – Mary Otto, Ralph Beer, Miss Gourley

Lillian Graybill is teaching in the grade school this week. She is taking the place of her sister who is ill with the flu.

Only four weeks of school left and it finds everyone using renewed effort to meet the coming crisis.

(ibid, page 4)
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The Filer Record., April 17, 1919, Page 5

Local News Notes

Mrs. O. L. Dudley is recovering from a severe case of the flu.

The war is over, but don’t forget thrift. Plant that little garden plot. Snyder Hardware will furnish the seed. Adv.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Filer Record., April 17, 1919, Page 7

Dog Teams Saved Many Lives

Word has recently been received of the heroic efforts made during the recent months to check the influenza epidemic in Yukon territory, where remote communities faced grave danger because of limited medical and nursing supplies. To meet the emergency, Indian runners with dog teams were dispatched from Dawson with anti-influenza serum and sent across the snow as far north as Fort McPherson, near the mouth of the Mackenzie river, making the round trip of 1,000 miles in a little less than two months, which is a fair performance in mid-winter. The journey included crossing the Rocky mountains.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Nezperce Herald., April 17, 1919, Page 1

19190417NH1

Local News

Oscar Shafer, the youngest son of Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Shafer, of the Alpine section, was reported quite low this morning after a protracted illness, but is said to be better this afternoon.

Word was received here this morning that E. D. Turner, a well known and highly esteemed citizen of the Mohler section, had suffered a stroke of paralysis.

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 17 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Nezperce Herald., April 17, 1919, Page 5

Russell News

Miss Sophia Gertji, who has been attending high school in Orofino, is home on account of her brother Charley’s illness. We are clad to report that he is on the road to recovery, and has had a trained nurse from Lewiston to take charge of the case the last few days.

C. F. Newkirk is on the sick list, but at the last report was improving.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Nezperce Herald., April 17, 1919, Page 7

Local and Personal News Notes

Gay Miller returned Saturday evening from the White hospital at Lewiston, where he had been convalescing after a siege of influenza. He is well on the way to complete recovery.

County Agent Wade was on the sick list the first of the week, but recovered sufficiently to participate in the Mohler community meeting program.

Mrs. E. S. Peterson accompanied Miss Loda Johnstone to Lewiston Monday, where the latter is under the care of a physician. Mrs. Peterson returned home Tuesday evening.

Dodge Brothers touring car for sale. Owner was a flu victim. You can save money on this car. Curtis J. Miller.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Nezperce Herald., April 17, 1919, Page 8

Lyceum Number Tonight

Sergeant Boyle will deliver his famous war lecture at the Community church to-night, and it is desired by the Lyceum management that all returned soldiers be present in uniform. They will have free admission.

On Friday evening the Cambridge Players will also appear at the same place, and those who go out to hear them are assured of fine entertainment. These will conclude the current season’s lyceum course here; they being fill-in dates to make up for those cancelled because of the influenza epidemic.

(ibid, page 8)
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Part of Fenn Ranger Station, Fenn, Idaho

FennFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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April 18

The Rathdrum Tribune., April 18, 1919, Page 2

19190418RT1

[Local News]

Arthur Duty, who was recovering from injuries received in a sawmill at Bayview, was taken ill with influenza and died in a Spokane hospital Tuesday. He leaves three small children at Bayview, according to a Spokane paper.
— —

School Notes

Last Friday night the Freshmen gave the rest of the student body a party in the gym. It was certainly enjoyed by all, as it was the first for a long while. Some remarked that they hadn’t been to a party so long that they didn’t know how to act.

source: The Rathdrum Tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 18 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. April 18, 1919, Page 1

19190418KG1

New Doctor For Kendrick

Dr. F. H. Thurston has established his office here and will practice medicine in Kendrick and vicinity. He has been practicing medicine in Troy for the past six months or more and was the only doctor there during the flu epidemic. He had marked success in caring for flu patients, not having lost a single case that was under his direct supervision.

Dr. Thurston received his medical education in California. He has practiced medicine in Idaho for nearly three years. Before going to Troy he was house physician at the St. Anthony Hospital, located in Pocatello, where he received some valuable experience.
— —

School Notes

In Miss Long’s room, Hazel Stanton and Wilson rogers returned to school after absences on account of illness.

The senior class will be exempted from the semester examinations at the end of the year if they maintain a high standard of work.

The biology class is going to take up the study of bacteriology in the near future.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 18 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. April 18, 1919, Page 2

Stony Point Items

Mrs. W. S. Cox is ill with the flu.

Mrs. Will Evans who has been at the hospital in Lewiston for several weeks returned home Saturday.
— —

Southwick Items

Mrs. Harry Wetmore has been on the sick list lately.

Patrons of the Southwick school are almost unable to tell their children from bacon after an especially windy day at school. Windy days turn the school house into a smoke house. Prof. Wilbur was compelled to dismiss school Thursday afternoon on account of the smoke.

The rural route mail carrier, Grant Bateman, has taken to his Ford once more, and the way he travels isn’t slow.

(ibid, page 2)
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The Kendrick Gazette. April 18, 1919, Page 4

19190418KG2
War Dead 17,500,000 Says British Paper

London. — A complete summary of the world war casualties compiled by the Manchester Guardian gives the total number of deaths at 17,500,000.

This number includes a mortality of 4,000,000 from pneumonia and influenza.

Allied losses are placed at 5,500,000, excluding a large number of French civilian dead.

Deaths suffered by the central powers are estimated at something over 2,900,000.

Italy’s losses were 300,000 from disease in the war zone, or three-fifths as many as were killed in action. Four million Armenians, Syrians, Greeks and Jews were massacred by the Turks.

Serbian civilians to the number of 1,000,000 died through massacre, hunger or disease. Germans are held responsible for deaths of 7,500 neutrals.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. April 18, 1919, Page 8

Cream Ridge

The Cream Ridge school will close Friday April 18th and the teachers, Mrs. Freeman, will return to her home in Lewiston.
— —

19190418KG3

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

1918Atlantic17-a

Serbian soldiers are treated for influenza on February 5, 1919, in Rotterdam, Netherlands, at the auxiliary hospital for Serbians and Portuguese. The auxiliary hospital was located in Schoonderloostraat, the building of the Society of St. Aloysius. In the center is Captain Dragoljub N. Đurković with a member of the medical staff. CC BY-SA H.A. van Oudgaarden, courtesy of Piet van Bentum

source: Alan Taylor April 10, 2018 “30 Photos of the 1918 Flu Pandemic” The Atlantic
— — — — — — — — — —

The Oakley Herald. April 18, 1919, Page 1

19190418OH1

Boulder

Mrs. Emma Clayton was sick last week.
— —

Locals and Personals

Mrs. Wilford DeLaMare has been ill this week.

The infant child of John smith, at Marion, as been seriously ill.

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 18 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Oakley Herald. April 18, 1919, Page 2

19190418OH2“Aspirin” Was Talcum Powder
Heavy Sentence Imposed on Manufacturer of Tablets

(Associated Press Dispatch)

New York, December 31. — Accused of having manufactured and sold to influenza suffers thousands of boxes of aspirin tablets, principally composed of talcum powder, Joseph M. Turkey, head of the Verandah Chemical company, of Brooklyn, was found guilty yesterday of violation of the sanitary code and sentenced to three years in prison with a fine of $500. The sentence was the most severe ever imposed in the country for such an offense.

(Ad for Bayer Aspirin)

(ibid, page 2)
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The Idaho Recorder. April 18, 1919, Page 1

19190418IR1

County School Notes

The school at Big Creek, Miss Charlotte Arkwright, teacher, closed April 11, after a very satisfactory term.

The school at Patterson creek with Miss Ellen Campbell as teacher, closed its term April 11, with a dance and supper, proceeds from which is to be used in purchasing a piano for the school.
— —

Robert B. Rees

Hon. John E. Rees has been advised of the death at Soda Springs, Idaho, of his brother, Robert B. Rees, on the 12th of April. Mr. Rees was about 46 years of age. He was born in Illinois but lived nearly all his life in Idaho and Montana. He leaves his widow and two sons.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 18 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. April 18, 1919, Page 5

Idaho State News

That Idaho Falls is to have a large and thoroughly modern hospital, with ample room for all who come from this section, is now an assured fact.

The Pocatello canteen unit of the Red Cross served 4000 soldiers and sailors during the month of March, according to a report issued by the chairman of the canteen. Home-made doughnuts to the number of 12,000 were served and 500 gallons of coffee were consumed by the men passing through the city.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. April 18, 1919, Page 7

Salmon Locals

Roy B. Herndon went out to Armstead by Tuesday’s train to meet Mrs. Herndon and their little daughter, a recent hospital patient at Dillon. The family will soon all be gathered at May again.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. April 18, 1919, Page 10

Lemhi

Miss Margaret Kirkham is nursing at the Halstead home.

(ibid, page 10)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. April 18, 1919, Page 1

19190418CT1

Arena News

Miss Trotter was on the sick list Saturday.

Mrs. Elza Pullium was quite ill Sunday and Monday.

T. J. Cope went to Parma last Tuesday to consult a physician. He has not been well for some time.
— —

Middleton

Middleton is to have three gala days May 1st, 2nd and 3rd, when all the local organizations will stage a health crusader movement. On the first day there will be a parade. During the three days exhibits will be shown in one of the churches. Each evening an entertainment will be held at the hall. A lecture and a play will be the principal part of the program. A small charge will be taken at the evening entertainment to defray the expense and the premiums.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 18 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. April 18, 1919, Page 7

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Greenleaf

A large per cent of the children of Greenleaf have been sick the past few days with an epidemic similar to influenza.

Mrs. Wade Tucker is spending a few days in Upper Deer Flat caring for her sister-in-law, Mrs. Will Selby, who is quite sick with pneumonia.

Miss Anna Spann, who had a severe attack of influenza, is reported better.

The funeral of Mrs. Henry Jones of Notus was held at the church Tuesday afternoon. Mrs. Jones will be remembered as Miss May Pearson, daughter of Rev. and Mrs. Ezra Pearson. She died of pneumonia following an attack of influenza. She leaves a husband and two small children, besides her father, mother, sister and brothers. We, as a community extend our heartfelt sympathy to those who mourn her departure.

Ila Tozier is on the sick list.

Miss Dilla Tucker, who has been teaching near Melba, returned home last week, as her school closed Friday.

Midway News

Miss Mary Becker, who is teaching at Midvale, spent several days last week with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Becker, as she was on the sick list. She returned to her school Sunday.

Mary Catherine, the small daughter of Mr. and Mrs. George Robinson, was very sick a few days last week, but is about well at this time.

The condition of Mrs. David Strand remains about the same.

Roswell

L. C. Parker of Boise, in the interests of the anti-tuberculosis movement, showed stereopticon pictures and gave an address in Braggs’ hall Monday evening.

Marble Front

Earle Bray, who has been very ill for some time, is reported no better.

Brier Rose

Mr. and Mrs. Armour left for Portland on Saturday for the benefit of Mr. Armour’s health.

Mr. Thomas Bassett was quite ill with the grippe last week at the W. A. Douglass home.

Helen McCarthey and the little Madsen girl are entertaining the mumps this week.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. April 18, 1919, Page 9

Our 7th Grade Reporter

If the milk dealers are so perfectly clean and obeying the law of the health board up to the letter I should like to know why you can always get a little dirt in the bottom of your glass. Ma used to tell me that dirt fell off the cow’s tits and that there was no earthly way to keep it out, but where we are making so much fuss about cleanness and meanness, it does look like a feller ort to be able to purchase a five–cent glass of milk without having to come face to face with a ring of dirt over half way around his glass.

(ibid, page 9)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. April 18, 1919, Page 10

Local and Personal

H. R. Cleaver was taken quite sick this week. He has the flu but in a mild form.

James Harris has returned to McCall after spending some time at Caldwell. Mrs. Harris and son, Tom, and still in Portland, where Tom was taken for medical attention. He is getting along nicely.
— —

Lake Lowell

W. Spears’ baby has been sick the past week. Dr. Young is attending it.

Louise and Ethel Wright are ill with the influenza.

Dr. Farrar was called to the Coon home Monday, their baby still being quite ill with pneumonia.
— —

Finney Hall

Pearl Grieve went to Greenleaf Tuesday to attend the funeral of Mrs. Jones, daughter of the Rev. M. Pearson.

Helen Houston has fallen a victim to the mumps. She is getting along nicely.
— —

Red Cross Notes

The hearty thanks of the Red Cross are extended to the high school girls who are helping knit. Their help is very much appreciated.

(ibid, page 10)
— — — —

19190418CT2

(ibid, page 4)
——————-

Further Reading

Yukon and the flu epidemic of 1918 Part 1

by Michael Gates Feb 21, 2014

By 1914, the population of post-gold-rush Yukon had dwindled to a few thousand. News of the war overseas siphoned off hundreds of healthy Yukon men who volunteered for service. As the war progressed, the federal government tightened the purse strings and slashed the civil service.

In October 1918, as the war was winding down, the Princess Sophia, a coastal passenger ship, sank not far from Skagway, taking hundreds of Yukon citizens down with her. How could things be any worse for this northern outpost of civilization?

Word filtered into the Yukon of a terrible plague spreading around the world like wildfire. It was called “Spanish Influenza,” because Spain, being a neutral country not cloaked by wartime censorship, openly reported on a spreading epidemic. Combatants on both sides of the trenches censored news about the terrible plague that was sweeping the battlefields, laying low reserve troops and crippling the civilian population. It first appeared in early September; by November, reports of the epidemic were coming in from all over the world.

Symptoms resembled the common flu, but varied in intensity. They included headaches, loss of energy, coughing, chills and extreme fever. The deadly illness took its victims in two different ways. The first occurred within the first two days, when patients would literally drown in their own blood. This cause of death was the prevalent source of mortality among the military. The second, which afflicted the civilian population, occurred after a week, when patients, apparently recovering from the influenza, developed a secondary infection and died of pneumonia.

In normal seasonal influenza, those under five years of age and those over 65 are the hardest hit. In this epidemic, the worst hit were the young and healthy – those between 20 years and 50 years of age. In the worst cases the afflicted might feel healthy in the morning and be dead by day’s end. Lungs would become congested, as victims hemorrhaged. Many turned dark blue of asphyxia before dying. For that reason, some observers likened it to or even confused it with the Black Death of the Middle Ages.

Healthy-looking people could be infected – and contagious – so avoiding the sick was no guarantee of avoiding infection. It might start with one or two cases, but in the crowded military bases, where soldiers were being trained, or prepared to ship out, it spread like wildfire. Two deaths became 20, followed by 100, followed by hundreds, then thousands.

City after city became overburdened with the sick and dying as the plague spread. Within six months as many as 50 million succumbed to the disease worldwide. In America, newspapers reported that influenza took twice as many lives as the war did.

People were becoming sick and dying faster than the system could handle. Overworked doctors and nurses also became sick and many died from the dreaded virus. The bodies piled high as the death toll mounted. Undertakers were swamped. Coffin-makers couldn’t keep up. Gravediggers were becoming too sick to bury the dead.

In New York City, a steam shovel was used to excavate trenches into which to pile the thousands of bodies that were piling up. Some cities were close to social collapse because of influenza.

Authorities feared that the truth of the epidemic would only foster panic during the state of war. Officials lied to the public about the severity of the outbreak, but the growing piles of corpses told the story and made the public distrust official assurances. Panic widened as the “Spanish Influenza” spread its deadly tentacles around the world.

Calls for volunteers fell upon deaf ears because people feared contagion. Those who did offer to help often fled from the awful sight (and smell) of the dead and dying. No one knew what caused it. No one could prevent it. No one knew how to treat it.

“The epidemic began in Europe,” stated the British Columbia Board of Health, “…and has crossed the Atlantic. It is very prevalent in Eastern cities and we may expect it in the West.” To prevent the spread, they advised isolation, covering coughs, the three C’s (clean mouth, clean skin and clean clothes), good ventilation, washing of hands, and using only eating utensils that had been washed.

Those who were still healthy, and those who attended to the sick, covered their mouths and noses with gauze or cloth masks, but they were of no value in preventing the spread of the disease.

Some authorities spread misinformation. In Philadelphia, for example, where a corrupt administration got much of its financial backing from the saloon-keepers, bars and saloons remained open throughout the epidemic, and officials recommended alcohol as a cure or preventative for the dreaded flu.

With growing apprehension Yukon citizens read letters telling of the sick and dying Outside, and perused the newspapers with dread the autumn of 1918. Were they, too, to be stricken by the deadly virus? Seattle fell to the flu in October. Mid month, 75 residents had died; by the end of the month, 350 had succumbed.

Alaska was not spared either. Juneau reported three cases at the end of October. There were eight cases on December 14 and over 100 a week later.

The remote city of Nome was hit by the scourge, despite quarantine of all passengers arriving by boat. There were no cases October 22, but by November 8, there were more than 300. The December 23 issue of The Dawson Daily News reported that there had been 1,000 deaths in the Nome area. Even if this number was exaggerated, it must have terrified Yukon.

Fairbanks placed sentries on all the trails into town and imposed a five-day quarantine, but the dreaded flu still appeared. Influenza knew no class boundaries; anyone could be stricken regardless of race, gender or social class, although some groups were hit more deeply than others.

Native communities throughout Alaska were decimated. In one settlement, only a half dozen survived. In another community, 22 of 24 adults had perished, leaving 16 orphans. Of 10 villages visited by one doctor, three were wiped out entirely, while the other settlements suffered 85 per cent mortality. Children whose parents had died then starved or froze to death.

The Dawson Daily News and Whitehorse Star reported the mounting death toll from around the world. Yukon citizens waited with uneasiness. They could feel the circle of death closing in from all directions.

from: Yukon News
— — — — — — — — — —

Indian Summer Fishing Village, Yukon River

1900YukonNativeCamp
by Cantwell, J. C. (1904) Report of the Operations of the U. S. Revenue Steamer Ninivak on the Yukon River Station, Alaska, 1899-1901, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office

During the summer of 1900 many of these villages were almost depopulated by the ravages of sickness and starvation.

source: Wikimedia
— — — — — — — — — —

Yukon and the flu epidemic of 1918 Part 2

by Michael Gates Feb 28, 2014

The Spanish Influenza epidemic of 1918 broke out on the eastern American seaboard in early September. The deadly virus spread rapidly and within weeks, reports from various cities and military camps confirmed the news that this epidemic was highly contagious and killing people in large numbers.

The residents of the Yukon learned about this lethal scourge from reports in newspapers, and letters sent from friends and loved ones Outside. By November, the Dawson Daily News issued reports of influenza cutting a swath around the world. Dr. Alfred Thompson, Yukon’s member of Parliament, confirmed the dire situation in a letter he wrote to one of his colleagues in Dawson City. Members of his family had also been stricken.

The Yukon took action November 9, when R. B. Knight, acting gold commissioner, issued a notice to the assistant medical health officer for Whitehorse, Dr. W.B. Clarke, to take all necessary steps to prevent the spread of influenza. Dr. Clarke was in close communication with Dr. Gable, the medical health officer in Skagway, where all incoming passengers were placed in quarantine for five days. No cases had been reported so far.

Fearing the worst, the government started making preparations. Thinking that contagion could be spread by handling incoming mail, Dr. Gable at Skagway had all mail from Juneau and Haines fumigated. Outside mail, which took more than five days in transit, was not considered to be a health risk.

If the epidemic reached the Yukon, would the territory be prepared for the onslaught? In Dawson, Territorial Secretary J. Maltby asked Mother Superior Mary Mark what the capacity of St. Mary’s Hospital was if they had to deal with an outbreak in the gold rush capital. Ninety beds, and eight staff, was her reply.

Maltby also contacted local businesses and determined that 15 additional beds, 15 mattresses and 25 sets of blankets were available if needed. With an estimated 10 per cent of the population likely to be stricken with the flu, would these be enough?

Dawson City continued to function normally. Christmas was enjoyed without the spectre of death, and the arrival of the New Year was celebrated with the annual masque ball at the Arctic Brotherhood Hall on New Year’s Eve.

Early in the New Year, 1919, word was received that the “Copper River Indians” were suffering from influenza. Instructions were sent out to discourage any contact with them that winter. When a report reached authorities that a party of Chilkat Tlingit from Haines had set out to visit Champagne, the Mounted Police were sent to intercept them. A temporary quarantine station was set up in the village until January 17. Travelers were also intercepted at the town of Forty Mile, where only the mail carrier was allowed to proceed into the Yukon.

Advice from Ottawa was confusing regarding a serum treatment for influenza. While stating that there was no serum to treat the illness, an unproven serum developed in Kingston was sent to the Yukon as a precautionary measure. At the end of January, the annual winter patrol to Fort McPherson carried 100 doses of the serum, wrapped in buffalo robes with a small charcoal foot warmer to prevent the serum from freezing.

Pressure mounted to remove the quarantine in Skagway, which occurred February 22, but a month later, with an outbreak of 50 cases in the coastal Alaskan port, the incoming train was intercepted by the local Mounted Police, and a temporary quarantine was established in Carcross for the thirty incoming passengers. The line of defense was drawing closer and closer to Whitehorse.

This temporary Carcross quarantine station proved inadequate and inconvenient; requests were put forward to move the quarantine station to Whitehorse. Meanwhile, Alaska Governor Riggs imposed a five-day quarantine on all outgoing and incoming traffic at Skagway. Despite large alarmist headlines on the front page of the Dawson Daily News March 21, there was not one actual case of influenza in the territory. Dr. Clarke, who was reported to have been stricken, had only suffered from a minor cold. Three people in Skagway, however, died from the deadly virus.

Finally, inbound passengers were allowed into Whitehorse for their quarantine period. On April 18, the quarantine was lifted in Skagway, and Whitehorse followed on May 2. During the critical period, from November 1918 to May 1919, not one case of influenza was reported anywhere in the Yukon. By the spring of 1919, the virulent virus that had swept the globe had mutated and lost its potency. The Yukon seemed to be spared.

Before freeze-up each autumn, when river transportation came to an end, Dawson City stockpiled essential supplies in large warehouses in sufficient quantities to last through the winter. During the height of the epidemic, the gold rush town was secure in its isolation. With only one means of access, via rail to Whitehorse, and then five days by sleigh over the snow-covered winter trail to Dawson, it was possible to control the spread of infection in the territory.

That, combined with the coordinated efforts of the administration during this period, meant that the Yukon was one of the few jurisdictions on the planet, during the critical six months, that was not ravaged by the pandemic.

Once the quarantine was lifted, however, influenza made a quick arrival in the territory. There were cases reported at Carmacks on the Whitehorse-Dawson Trail, and Mr. and Mrs Alguire, the proprietors of the Nordenskjold Roadhouse, came to the hospital in Whitehorse for treatment. Local resident Mrs. Jack Oliver was so ill that she too had to be moved to the hospital, and Charley Baxter, the big game outfitter and the hunting party he was guiding had to remain at Bear Creek, en route to Kluane Lake, for several days until they recovered from a bout of the flu.

The hardest hit, however, was the First Nation population. Dr. Clarke rushed to Champagne on May 25 to deal with an outbreak; 37 natives were afflicted. He sent for a nurse and a cook to tend to the sick. By the time they arrived, there were 48 stricken, and the first death. Fifteen cases were reported at nearby Mendenhall, and another three at Canyon Creek. According to the Anglican Church newsletter Northern Lights, there were eventually11 victims at Champagne.

Almost a year later, influenza struck again. Residents from the native community at Carcross fell sick while working in Skagway. They were sent home before they had recovered, and the entire village was infected, save one individual, and four died, including Kate Carmack. The nearby residential school was also afflicted and one student succumbed to pneumonia caused by influenza.

After the post gold rush depopulation, the wartime exodus of men, federal government spending cuts and reduction of the civil service and the tragic loss of so many citizens with the sinking of the Princess Sophia, the Yukon was spared, almost, a final indignity – the deadly influenza epidemic of 1918.

from: Yukon News
——————–

Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)

Idaho History Mar 14, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 48

Idaho Newspaper clippings April 11-14, 1919

Photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 11 (continued)

The Kendrick Gazette. April 11, 1919, Page 1

19190411KG1

School Notes

Monday the seventh of April began a week of monthly tests for the high school Only seven more weeks of school remain to complete the term.

Miss Payne resumed her school duties on Monday, after an absence of two weeks on account of the influenza. Also several students returned: Arthur Wegner, Minnie Torgerson, Ruby Sloane and Mary Burger.
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Linden Items

School is closed this week on account of the absence of the teacher.
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Big Bear Ridge

Dr. W. A. Rothwell was called on the ridge Tuesday by the illness of Mrs. Hans Sneeve.

Mr. and Mrs. Oscar Huffman’s infant baby was buried at the Wild Rose Cemetery Sunday.

Several from here are taking the eighth grade exams in Deary this week.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 11 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. April 11, 1919, Page 6

19190411KG2
Look Out You Don’t Get “Sleeping Sickness”

Washington. — Although 183 cases of lethargic encephalitis, or “sleeping sickness,” with 14 deaths, were reported to the United States public health service up to March 29, officials of the bureau still are undecided whether the disease of the type prevalent in Europe has reached the United States.
— —

Typhoid Fever Cured

Washington. — General March says the purpose of the circular of instructions issued by the chief medical officer of the expeditionary force ordering greater precautions against typhoid fever did not mean that the army had failed to curb the disease. The circular charged that many officers had been guilty of negligence and carelessness.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. April 11, 1919, Page 8

Gleanings

Dr. Rothwell reports a number of cases of flu in Juliaetta this week. At this writing, so far as known, Kendrick is free from the disease.

Donald Miller, son of Mrs. H. T. Brammer, was called to Warsaw, Indiana the first of the week on account of the serious illness of his father.
— —

Stoney Point Items

Mrs. Wm. Schetzle spent Saturday evening with Mrs. Fred Johnson who is ill.

(ibid, page 8)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., April 11, 1919, Page 5

19190411DSM1

19190411DSM2Crazed Yank Seeks Wife
Soldier Returning From War Finds His Family Dead – Brain is Affected.

Philadelphia. — From factory to factory and from plant to plant, for the last ten weeks, Roy W. Miller, former soldier in the United States army, has been seeking for news of his wife, who was formerly Miss Romaine Hummel of Lancaster, PA., and his year-old-son, Roy Weitzel Miller.

He has been unable to find them for the reason that both are dead. The nineteen-year-old mother and the child perished together in the influenza epidemic, when Miller was almost on his way home from Europe.

When Miller heard the news he was unable to believe it, and he does not believe it now. Physicians say his brain has been affected. There is a dark spot in his consciousness, which apparently may never be filled.

He is harmless, friendly, honest and able to make a living. But when he gets together a few days’ pay, he begins his hopeless round among the factories and the mills.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 11 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Idaho Recorder. April 11, 1919, Page 2

19190411IR1

19190411IR2President Wilson Confined To Bed
Nothing Grave, However, Is Noted In His Condition By Attending Physicians
Treaty Is Almost Ready

Paris, April 5. — Reassuring news from President Wilson’s bedside was sent to the peace delegates last evening, although the news indicated that the president’s condition was such as to make it advisable that he remain in his room at least for today.

Study of the case has caused Rear Admiral Grayson, the president’s personal physician, to reach the conclusion that the president is not suffering from influenza, but that the severity of the cold is such that the patient will require careful watching.
— —

Idaho State News

Spanish influenza has broken [out at] the state industrial training school [at] St. Anthony, about ninety cases [have] developed.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 11 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. April 11, 1919, Page 4

May

James Quinn, who is at the O’Neil ranch, is very ill.

The Big creek masquerade given a week ago was not largely attended.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. April 11, 1919, Page 5

Salmon Locals

A child of Lew Wells is reported seriously ill at the Salmon river home of the family. Dr. Stratton was called to see the patient on Wednesday.

Ed Williams of the Pioneer store has been kept at home this week because of a severe attack of illness, being now out and around again.

Word has been received by Mrs. Watkins, county superintendent, that there will be a six weeks’ session of [?] beginning in June, the exact date to be announced later.

A big dance marked the closing of the Boyle creek school April 5. All the patrons of the school came to the dance as a neighborhood gathering in the social center. Miss Winifred Niemann is the popular teacher. Schools also at Sandy creek, Iron creek, and Carmen have closed for the season.

Dr. and Mrs. Hanmer are at Seattle.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. April 11, 1919, Page 7

Northwest Notes

William Oglesby, former lightweight champion of the northwest, died at Helena of influenza. He was 44 years old and a native of Missouri.

Starting with April 1st, the farmers served by the rural mail route out of Ryegate, Mont., will have daily services.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — — — — — — — —

Main Street, Fairfield, Idaho

FairfieldFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 11, 1919, Page 1

19190411TIR1

19190411TIR2
Edwin Watson Recovering

Edwin Watson, who has been confined to his home most of the time for nearly a year is well enough to be around some now.

Mr. Watson had influenza and it affected his lungs, so that he has been confined to his bed for months.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 11 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 11, 1919, Page 2

Cerro Grande

A number of new pupils are expected to enroll in the school soon and surely will be welcome.
— —

Moreland

Mr. and Mrs. Vernal Leavitt and family are suffering with influenza.

Miss Lillie Belnap is visiting at the home of her sister Hazel Lindsay. She has been employed at the Lindsay-Welker store, but had to discontinue her work for a few days on account of illness.
— —

Sterling

Miss Adeline Nelson is still very ill with influenza-pneumonia, tho it is considered she has passed the crisis. Mrs. A. D. Nelson and Lilian White have also contracted the disease now.

Glenn Varley is ill with an attack of influenza.

Harley Ward is ill with an attack of the mumps.

Mrs. Gladys Chappell, who left here soon after her husband’s death for her home in Wyoming is now post mistress at a small town near Evanston, Wyo. She will not return here as she had formerly intended doing. Her household goods were shipped to her last week.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 11, 1919, Page 3

Sterling

Quite a scare over the flu situation has become prevalent in this vicinity again, but as far as known there is only one case.

Miss Adeline Nelson is still very ill with influenza-pneumonia.

Mrs. Oscar Rice Jr. is ill with an attack of asthma.

John the small son of Mrs. Von Lostawicka has been very sick the past week with the mumps.

Esther Parr is ill with an attack of the mumps.

Lorraine, the small daughter of Mrs. J. Zeigler was ill with a severe cold and mumps last week.

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Ben Atkins are ill with the mumps.
— —

Grandview

Mrs. James Shaw returned home Sunday, after caring for Mrs. Issac Pierce for the past two weeks at Aberdeen.

Anna, the little daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Horace Garter, was very ill Friday, but is somewhat improved at this writing.
— —

Kimball

The Albert Anthony family have been suffering with the flu, but are able to be around again.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 11, 1919, Page 4

Upper Presto

Ward conference that was to have been conducted at Goshen Sunday has been postponed on account of the flu.

Quite a few families in Goshen are suffering with the flu.

Ivan, the son of Orson Landon, has been ill for the past few days.

The little infant of Mr. and Mrs. R. P. Hansen is not very well.

Rafael Larsen is on the sick list this week.
— —

Lavaside

A warm lunch at noon is now being served to the school children each day.
— —

Sterling

Mr. Reese of Aberdeen died at the home of his brother A. Reese from influenza-pneumonia at 6 o’clock Sunday morning. Deceased was a son-in-law of G. W. Parsons, who lately died. When the Parsons and Reese families here became ill with influenza, he came up from Aberdeen to help care for the others and succumbed to the disease himself. The funeral was conducted from the cemetery Monday at 2 o’clock under the auspices of the L. D. S. church. Deceased leaves a wife and four small children besides a number of brothers and sisters. Interment was made in the Sterling-Yuma cemetery. The sympathy of the community goes out to the bereaved ones.

Miss Dolly Reese is very low with influenza-pneumonia and is not expected to live.

Mrs. P. P. Parsons received the sad news of the death of her father from influenza at some place in Montana.

George Andrews was on the sick list the last of the week.

Clyde Furniss has been ill this week with the mumps.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 11, 1919, Page 5

Local News

C. F. Hendrie left Tuesday afternoon for Berkley, Cal., where he will spend some time regaining his strength, after a very severe attack of the flu in the early spring.

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Eichelberger and their children are all down with influenza, and also two teachers who are with them, Miss Hay and Miss Larson.

Judge Cowen leaves for Challis Friday to conduct the regular term of court at that place.
— —

19190411TIR3
County Schools, Flu and Red Cross Pillows

The county schools will mostly stay open until the first of June. The Aberdeen school re-opened Monday, after a vacation of three weeks on account of the flu epidemic, with only 60 percent present. Several of the teachers, who have been ill are at their desks, but not yet well and strong. Several schools in the county are forced to close early this spring on account of lack of funds.

Feathers Feathers, Everywhere

The county school children have been having a delightful time gathering feathers and giving them to be used in forty-six pillows for army hospitals. There are feathers of all kinds, from the plebeian barn-yard hen and from the downy goose. Some of the kiddies fell into the spirit of the game so thoroly [sic] that they would not pass a feather on the street without stopping to pick it up for the Junior Red Cross. The collection of pillows is now taking up about two-thirds of the available space in the county superintendent’s office at the court house, but will soon be on the way.

A Premature Farewell

The parents of the Moreland district contributing children to what is called the Flagtown school, in the fullness of their appreciation gave a farewell surprise supper party in honor of the teacher, Mrs. John Queen. After the affair was all planned it was found that school would not be closed up for more than a month yet; nevertheless, the parents felt that they owed Mrs. Queen a party anyway, and a splendid feast was served Friday evening at 6 o’clock. Everything good to eat in the calendar was there, according to reliable reports, and likewise just about every parent in the district, which is a compliment to the excellence of Mrs. Queen’s work, since it has won her such support and encouragement.

A special school program had been the occasion of the gathering and it followed the supper.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 11, 1919, Page 6

Springfield

Mr. and Mrs. Rasmussen arrived last week to visit with the C. F. Sommercorn family. Mrs. Rasmussen was formerly Miss Edna Sommercorn. As soon as they reached their destination the family took down with the flu, but are all now recovering nicely.

Doctor McKinnon has been visiting patients in Springfield twice during the week.

Marvetta and Byron Thurston are recovering from an attack of influenza.

Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Wells are both reported ill.

Miss Oral Blackburn is ill with the flu.

Mrs. Fred Peterson has been quite ill recently.

Edwin Christiansen arrived in Springfield Tuesday from Salt Lake. Several of his family are recovering from the flu.

H. V. Chandler is out again after an attack of the flu.

The Hungatt family are all recovering after a serious attack of influenza.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 11, 1919, Page 7

Goshen

People never miss the water until the well goes dry and that is like Goshen now, because the town well is on the blink.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — — — — — — — —

Shoshone Journal. April 11, 1919, Page 5

19190411SJ1

Local and Personal News

Mrs. Aaron Fuller is seriously ill this week.

Mrs. Wm. Newman is ill at her home this week.

Miss Mary McMahon is seriously ill from the effects of a bad cold which proves very obstinate.

County Supt. Mrs. Leah M. Burnside, is holding in her office this week, final examinations in the eighth grade for those pupils in school that will close with the present month.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 11 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Main Street Looking East, Ferdinand, Idaho

FerdinandFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. April 11, 1919, Page 3

19190411CT1

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Roswell

Edgar Huett has been ill with influenza.

Homer Allen, son of Mr. and Mrs. Clinton Allen, is ill with influenza.

Mary Dickerson, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. F. L. Dickerson who has been very ill with influenza is somewhat better.

Mrs. Wilson, who has been caring for her mother, Mrs. Fredwell, who is ill at the home of her son, William, returned Wednesday to her home at Middleton.

Mr. and Mrs. Bed Paine, Mr. and Mrs. Ed Stempter, Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Paine, Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Allen were among the relatives who attended the funeral of Frank Soper Wednesday in Caldwell.

Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Rockwood, Mrs. Edgar Dilley, Mrs. F. Crowe, A. J. McCormick and Wm. Sharpe attended the funeral of Frank Soper in Caldwell Wednesday.

Lake Lowell

Mr. Ben Taylor’s baby has been sick the past week.

Florence Gibbens is improving slowly from her recent illness.

Evart Coon’s baby has been sick with pneumonia.

Cloro Belle Wright has been ill the past week.

Dr. Gue was called to the C. C. Gillen home Sunday afternoon.

Charlie Martin of the Gov. camp has been ill the past few days.

Evart and Almeda Gibbens have the scarlet fever.

Fairview

Mrs. Graves is in Caldwell for medical treatment.

S. W. Sails family are having the mumps.

Mrs. Bertha Foley left for her home in Norton, Kansas the past week, after recovering from her illness at the home of her parents, Mr. and Mrs. John Greer. Mrs. John Greer has been suffering from a bad cold and rheumatism for some time past.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 11 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. April 11, 1919, Page 9

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Marble Front

The baby daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Ole Larson, who has been quite ill, is reported much improved.

Mrs. G. H. Fuller is on the sick list this week.

Briar Rose

Stirling Brown is on the sick list.

The two Livingston children are in Boise taking treatment for having been bitten by a mad dog.
— —

Dies of Pneumonia

John Henry Thompson, the 19 months old son of Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Thompson of Wilder, who died Wednesday, March 26, 1919, of pneumonia was buried Thursday afternoon, April 10, from the Peckham-Case chapel at 4 o’clock. The services were in charge of the church of Christ and conducted by Rev. Z. E. Lundy.

(ibid, page 9)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Meridian Times., April 11, 1919, Page 2

19190411MT1

President Has Close Call
Wilson Threatened With Serious Attack of influenza

Paris. — “The president has come very near having a serious attack of influenza, but by going to bed at once by my direction, he has apparently escaped, but still is necessarily confined to his bed,” said a statement issued Saturday afternoon by Rear Admiral Grayson, the president’s physician.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 11 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Meridian Times., April 11, 1919, Page 4

Neighborhood News

Items from Fairview Neighborhood

Mrs. Jennie Brower was on the sick list last week.

The Eighth grade students are taking their final examinations.
— —

19190411MT2

(ibid page 4)
— — — — — — — — — —

Yakima Avenue, Filer, Idaho (1)

FilerFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 12

Evening Capital News., April 12, 1919, Page 5

19190412ECN1

Around Boise Valley Loop

Middleton

Miss Lonella Mason, who has been unable to teach the past month, has improved and returned to her work Friday morning.

Mrs. Roy McConnell went to Boise Wednesday to see Mr. McConnell, who is in a Boise hospital.

Maple Grove

Eleven children were examined by the Home Defense nurse Thursday. There are 22 under school age in the district.

Miss Sydna Pfost who is attending high school at Meridian is at home with a severe case of tonsillitis.
— —

Find Dog That Bit Girl Had Rabies; Treat Victim

Caldwell, April 12. — The 16-year-old daughter of D. B. Morrison, who reside on Avon street, has been sent to Boise to be treated, following the report of the state bacteriologist that the black spitz pup which bit her the first o the week was afflicted with rabies. The conclusion of the state official was reached after a microscopic examination of the dog’s head, which was killed and sent to him.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 12 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 12, 1919, Page 8

Little News of Boise

New Dumping Ground

The low ground in the Julia Davis park, which has been used for a city dump for several years, is now all filled and no more trash can be dumped there. Councilman Stevens says in the future all trash must be hauled across the river and dumped on the low ground on the right hand side of the bridge.
— —

Deaths – Funerals

Royer — Alda Royer, aged 33 years, died in a Boise hospital Friday evening of a complication of diseases. She is survived by her husband, Robert R. Royer, and three children, Eldredge, Louisa and Genevieve of Mayfield, also her mother, Mrs. Louisa Anderson of Gothenburg, Neb. She was a member of the Eastern Star of North Platte, Neb. The funeral will be held at the Schreiber & Sidenfaden chapel Sunday afternoon at 3:30. Rev. G. A. Herbert of the Immanuel Lutheran church will officiate. Burial will be in Morris Hill cemetery. The funeral will be by automobile.
— —

19190412ECN2

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

Freedom, Idaho ca. 1900 (1)

Freedom1900Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 13

Evening Capital News., April 13, 1919, Page 9

19190413ECN1

Around Boise Valley Loop

Star

The infant son of Mr. and Mrs. Earl Croter is very ill with pneumonia.

Dr. Spencer of Boise was here Saturday.

Caldwell

Mrs. A. W. Duncan is reported quite ill.

Hugh Ackley is reported ill with the mumps.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 13 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 13, 1919, Page 2 (Magazine Section)

Pierce Park – Collister

Miss Violet Marquis, who has been a victim of influenza, has recovered and is in school again.

John V. Wilson, who homesteaded his farm near the Soldiers’ Home in 1864, died Sunday morning after a brief illness. He is survived by four daughters, one son and a brother. One daughter, Mrs. George Nibler, lives on an adjoining farm.

(ibid, page 2 Magazine Section, Image 26)
— — — — — — — — — —

Frisco, Idaho

FriscoFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 14

Evening Capital News., April 14, 1919, Page 1

19190414ECN1

19190414ECN2
Mrs. Phoebe Hearst Dies; Was Mother of Hearst The Publisher

Oakland, Calif., April 14. — (United Press) — Private funeral services for Mrs. Phoebe Hearst, who died yesterday afternoon at her home in Pleasonton, will be held at the home Wednesday morning. A public service will be held in the afternoon.

Mrs. Hearst died at the age of 76, following an attack of influenza, which developed pneumonia. She had been in poor health for three years. At her bedside was Wm. Randolph Hearst, her only son.

Mrs. Hearst’s live was devoted to charitable acts. Among the institutions owing much to her is the University of California.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 14 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 14, 1919, Page 6

Health Notes

By M. S. Parker

The proprietor of a public eating place who will not observe reasonable health rules and regulations is a dangerous person in any community and will not be patronized by any person who is at all mindful of his health. Every dirty caterer should be made to get right in the matter of sanitation or be forced out of the business through which he seriously endangers the health and lives of his unwary patrons. …

Every community in this state should proceed without delay in the matter of a general clean up, for this is the time of year for extra efforts to be made along this line. If we want the health conditions of Idaho to be increasingly good this season, we must get busy and not stop until they are materially changed. The health of the people of this state should be held above every other consideration and we can have right conditions only by working along right lines. Let’s make Idaho one of the cleanest and most healthful states in the west.
— —

19190414ECN3
Debs Given Post As Penitentiary Nurse; Likes Surroundings
Promises to Scrupulously Obey Prison Rules and Not Preach Radical Doctrines; Has 60 Flu Cases in Charge.

Moundsville, W. Vn., April 14. — (United Press) — Its a long way from campaigning for the presidency of the United States to nurse in a penitentiary.

Eugene V. Debs, many times Socialist candidate for president, sentenced to ten years in the federal prison for violation of the espionage act, spent his first morning in the prison here in the tailor shop, being fitted with the prison gray uniform. This afternoon Debs was assigned as nurse in the prison hospital where he will have a number of “flu” victims under his care.

At the present time influenza is gaining headway in the penitentiary, over 60 cases being recorded.

Debs thanked the prison authorities for the assignment.

Warden Terrell instructed the prisoner he would not be permitted to preach the doctrines of Socialism or Bolshevism among the inmates.

Debs promised scrupulously to observe this order. He will have the freedom of the institution.

Debs said he liked the atmosphere of the prison much better than many hotels he had seen.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

Evening Capital News., April 14, 1919, Page 7

Little News of Boise

Visiting Father

Charles A. Jones, who joined the service last fall and shortly afterwards was stricken with influenza, followed by pneumonia and other complications, has returned to Idaho from Fort Rosencrans, Calif., and is visiting his father, Le Roy Jones, United States Marshal. The younger Mr. Jones was recently discharged from the hospital. While weak, he is recuperating nicely.

Supt. For Hospital

Anna H. Smith has been appointed by Bishop Page as superintendent of St. Luke’s hospital to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mrs. Lucy Emery. Miss Smith has had charge of the nurses at Camp Lewis and is regarded as extremely well qualified for the position. She will take the position either in June or July 1. Miss Mabel Berg will continue in charge of the hospital until her arrival.
— —

Deaths – Funerals

Harvey — Mrs. Elizabeth E. Harvey died this morning at the home of her son, Richard J. Harvey, 1704 North Twelfth street. A complication of diseases caused her demise. She was 68 years of age. She had been a resident of Boise for five years. Two sons survive her, Richard J. of Boise and Arthur of California. The funeral will be held Tuesday afternoon at 3:30 at the home of her son. Rev. H. J. Reynolds will officiate and burial will be in Morris Hill cemetery. The funeral will be by automobile.

Richter – The funeral of William Richter, who died Thursday, will be held at the Fry and Summers Chapel at 11 o’clock Tuesday morning. Rev. D. H. Jones will officiate. Burial will be in Morris Hill cemetery. The funeral will be by automobile.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., April 14, 1919, Page 1

19190414DSM1

Mrs. May Called By Sudden Death

Mrs. Warney May of American ridge died Saturday evening at 8:30 o’clock. Mrs. May had been ill many years of Bright’s disease, but her death came as a shock to her friends, as she seemed in better health than usual, the past week.

Mrs. May, who was 37 years of age leaves one son 10 years old. Her mother, Mrs. W. W. Wilcox lives in Kendrick.

Mrs. May is the niece of A. B. McIntire and Mrs. Costigan of Moscow. Her husband, Warney May and his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Frank May, have been for the past month on the coast, near Portland, convalescing from the influenza, from which they suffered last winter. They returned to Moscow, called home by the death of Mrs. May.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 14 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., April 14, 1919, Page 5

City News

If the person who took my umbrella, Sunday forenoon from the Third street entrance to the postoffice building, and whose identity is known, will return it to the porch of my residence, 310 Third street, no questions will be asked. – W. J. McConnell

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., April 14, 1919, Page 2

19190414DSM2

(ibid, page 2)
——————

Further Reading

Rabies: Still with us

L Nicolle, MD FRCPC National Institutes of Health

Rabies is an important historical infectious disease. The frightening presentation and clinical course, with certain mortality from encephalitis, have excited attention and fear since the beginning of recorded history. Transmissibility of rabies from animals to humans was recognized long before the germ theory was entertained. Pasteur’s dramatic experiment in 1885 is a legendary milestone in the treatment of infectious diseases. The use of postexposure prophylaxis with dried virus grown in rabbit spinal cords prevented rabies in a 12-year-old boy who was bitten by a rabid dog. Postexposure prophylaxis progressed subsequently to phenol- inactivated rabies virus in 1919, which, while effective, was neurotoxic for one in 200 patients. This preparation was used for 50 years in North America, and continues to be used in some parts of the world.

from: NIH
— — — —

Louis Pasteur

LouisPasteurExperiment-aPasteur experimenting in his laboratory.
Public Domain

Louis Pasteur December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist, and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation, and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases, and his discoveries have saved many lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax.

His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, and has been called a “father of bacteriology” and the “father of microbiology”, though the latter appelation has also been applied to Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.

Pasteur was responsible for disproving the doctrine of spontaneous generation. He performed experiments that showed that, without contamination, microorganisms could not develop. Under the auspices of the French Academy of Sciences, he demonstrated that in sterilized and sealed flasks, nothing ever developed; and, conversely, in sterilized but open flasks, microorganisms could grow. Although Pasteur was not the first to propose the germ theory, his experiments indicated its correctness and convinced most of Europe that it was true.

Today, he is often regarded as one of the fathers of germ theory. Pasteur made significant discoveries in chemistry, most notably on the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals and racemization. Early in his career, his investigation of tartaric acid resulted in the first resolution of what is now called optical isomers. His work led the way to the current understanding of a fundamental principle in the structure of organic compounds.

He was the director of the Pasteur Institute, established in 1887, until his death, and his body was interred in a vault beneath the institute. Although Pasteur made groundbreaking experiments, his reputation became associated with various controversies. Historical reassessment of his notebook revealed that he practiced deception to overcome his rivals.

Rabies

Pasteur produced the first vaccine for rabies by growing the virus in rabbits, and then weakening it by drying the affected nerve tissue. The rabies vaccine was initially created by Emile Roux, a French doctor and a colleague of Pasteur, who had produced a killed vaccine using this method. The vaccine had been tested in 50 dogs before its first human trial. This vaccine was used on 9-year-old Joseph Meister, on July 6, 1885, after the boy was badly mauled by a rabid dog. This was done at some personal risk for Pasteur, since he was not a licensed physician and could have faced prosecution for treating the boy, After consulting with physicians, he decided to go ahead with the treatment. Over 11 days, Meister received 13 inoculations, each inoculation using viruses that had been weakened for a shorter period of time. Three months later he examined Meister and found that he was in good health. Pasteur was hailed as a hero and the legal matter was not pursued. Analysis of his laboratory notebooks shows that Pasteur had treated two people before his vaccination of Meister. One survived but may not actually have had rabies, and the other died of rabies. Pasteur began treatment of Jean-Baptiste Jupille on October 20, 1885, and the treatment was successful. Later in 1885, people, including four children from the United States, went to Pasteur’s laboratory to be inoculated. In 1886, he treated 350 people, of which only one developed rabies. The treatment’s success laid the foundations for the manufacture of many other vaccines. The first of the Pasteur Institutes was also built on the basis of this achievement.

In The Story of San Michele, Axel Munthe writes of some risks Pasteur undertook in the rabies vaccine research:

Pasteur himself was absolutely fearless. Anxious to secure a sample of saliva straight from the jaws of a rabid dog, I once saw him with the glass tube held between his lips draw a few drops of the deadly saliva from the mouth of a rabid bull-dog, held on the table by two assistants, their hands protected by leather gloves.

Because of his study in germs, Pasteur encouraged doctors to sanitize their hands and equipment before surgery. Prior to this, few doctors or their assistants practiced these procedures.

excerpts: Wikipedia
— — — — — — — — — —

Phoebe Hearst

PhoebeHearst-a
Phoebe Apperson Hearst
By Hinman, Ida – The Washington sketch book; a society souvenir, Public Domain

Phoebe Elizabeth Apperson Hearst (December 3, 1842 – April 13, 1919) was an American philanthropist, feminist and suffragist. She was the mother of William Randolph Hearst and wife of George Hearst.

She died at her home, Hacienda del Pozo de Verona, in Pleasanton, California, aged 76, on April 13, 1919, during the worldwide influenza epidemic of 1918-1919, and was buried at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park in Colma, California.

from: Wikipedia
— — — — — — — — — —

Eugene V. Debs

Eugenedebs1921-aDebs leaving the White House the day after being released from prison in 1921. United States Library of Congress

Eugene Victor “Gene” Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American socialist, political activist, trade unionist, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) (“Wobblies”) and five times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States. Through his presidential candidacies as well as his work with labor movements, Debs eventually became one of the best-known socialists living in the United States.

Early in his political career, Debs was a member of the Democratic Party. He was elected as a Democrat to the Indiana General Assembly in 1884. After working with several smaller unions, including the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, Debs led his union in a major ten-month strike against the CB&Q Railroad in 1888. Debs was instrumental in the founding of the American Railway Union (ARU), one of the nation’s first industrial unions. After workers at the Pullman Palace Car Company organized a wildcat strike over pay cuts in the summer of 1894, Debs signed many into the ARU. He led a boycott by the ARU against handling trains with Pullman cars in what became the nationwide Pullman Strike, affecting most lines west of Detroit and more than 250,000 workers in 27 states. Purportedly to keep the mail running, President Grover Cleveland used the United States Army to break the strike. As a leader of the ARU, Debs was convicted of federal charges for defying a court injunction against the strike and served six months in prison.

In prison, Debs read various works of socialist theory and emerged six months later as a committed adherent of the international socialist movement. Debs was a founding member of the Social Democracy of America (1897), the Social Democratic Party of America (1898) and the Socialist Party of America (1901). Debs ran as a Socialist candidate for President of the United States five times, including 1900 (earning 0.6% of the popular vote), 1904 (3.0%), 1908 (2.8%), 1912 (6.0%) and 1920 (3.4%), the last time from a prison cell. He was also a candidate for United States Congress from his native state Indiana in 1916.

Debs was noted for his oratory skills, and his speech denouncing American participation in World War I led to his second arrest in 1918. He was convicted under the Sedition Act of 1918 and sentenced to a term of 10 years. President Warren G. Harding commuted his sentence in December 1921. Debs died in 1926, not long after being admitted to a sanatorium due to cardiovascular problems that developed during his time in prison.

continued: Wikipedia
——————-

Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)

Idaho History Mar 7, 2021

Idaho 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

Part 47

Idaho Newspaper clippings April 4-11, 1919

Photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

April 4 continued

The Idaho Republican. April 04, 1919, Page 1

19190404TIR1

19190404TIR2
Mormon Conference Is Postponed For The Flu

On account of the periodic outbreaks of the influenza, and present epidemics in certain localities of Utah and Idaho, the semiannual church conference, which was to have opened this week at Salt Lake City, has been indefinitely postponed by leaders of the L. D. S.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 04 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 04, 1919, Page 3

19190404TIR3Flu Strikes Aberdeen With Sudden Epidemic

The village of Aberdeen was quarantined for the influenza Monday, March 24, when more than 125 cases of the disease had developed almost at one time. Two deaths have occurred; the schools were hardest hit with the sickness. But on the whole it is considered a lighter form of flu than that of the winter epidemic.

County Physician W. E. Patrie said Monday that he had found cases of the flu in practically all parts of the county, and that he would isolate them all as fast as they came to his attention.
— —

Finds Rupert Booming

Robert Patterson of Pingree returned Wednesday morning from Rupert, where he had thought of leasing and going to work. He found things in a good business way, and land held high. While he was there a small ranch sold for $21,000. Patterson got out of the army only a month ago, and when he reached his home, with R. D. Collins, his relatives at Pingree, he was taken down with mumps, followed by the flu and is just getting normal again.
— —

How Books Are Sterilized
Simple Apparatus Used by French Scientists in Conducting Their Deadly Gas Attack

Almost the first thing to meet the eyes of French hygienists is their wartime campaign for protecting the younger generation was their old enemy, the circulating book, well known as a carrier of disease. The many obvious solutions of the problem shared one disadvantage while killing the germs they destroyed the book also.

For the method perfected by Doctor Marsonian, and now practiced in the Institute for Wounded and Infirm Workmen at Montreuil, it is claimed that for one-fourth of a cent for each book, and with safety to operators, books can be sterilized without the slightest injury. Two pieces of very simple apparatus are used, a beater and a disinfector.

The beater is a long box open at one end and communicating at the other with an ordinary stove. Inside of the beater are wooden rods so arranged that the turning of a handle will cause them to strike on the books placed on a sliding frame. As the roads beat the books, the heavier particles of dust fall out into a tray of disinfectant below, and the lighter are carried by an exhaust fan to a stove, where they are burned.

The books are hung, open by spring clips from a skeleton framework, and wheeled into the disinfecting chamber, which is equipped with a tank containing a solution of formaldehyde. The temperature is raised to 120 degrees Fahrenheit, the formaldehyde kills the germs, and the fumes are carried off by a funnel. – Popular Mechanics Magazine.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 04, 1919, Page 4

19190404TIR4
Girl Victim of Influenza

Lucy Fenimore, the thirteen-year-old step-daughter of Jere B. Early, who lives north of Blackfoot, between the two Snake river bridges, died after an illness of ten days at her home last Thursday, March 27. Dr. Patrie, the attending physician, gave as cause of the child’s death, influenza followed by pneumonia. The funeral was held Saturday from the L. D. S. church.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 04, 1919, Page 5

Local News

Alpha Manning of east Firth returned from a visit to Salt Lake city Tuesday evening, a visit overstayed a week on account of his having the flu there. His wife and children also were ill, but all have recovered.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 04, 1919, Page 7

Moreland

The infant son of Mr. and Mrs. H. A. Grimmett passed away last Wednesday afternoon, after suffering for a short time with pneumonia. The funeral services were held at their home Friday morning.

Glenn Foreman, who has been ill with influenza for some time at the Starkweather ranch, is reported much better and will be home some time this week.

The infant Child of Henry Munson has been very ill for some time, but is now on the way to recovery.
— —

Groveland

Funeral services were held at the cemetery for Miss Early, who died with influenza. Two more of the Early family are quite seriously ill with the same disease. Miss Hattie Pope is nursing them. The Early family just moved onto the old Sorenson place in this vicinity. The sincere sympathy of the entire community is extended to them.

The infant son of Mr. and Mrs. Junis Sorenson of this place died at Salt Lake City following an attack of influenza. Mr. and Mrs. Sorenson are also suffering with the same disease.

Johnie Sorenson who came here for a visit a short time ago, and was taken ill with influenza is recovering.

Varian Hale and baby have had bad cases of influenza, but are improving.

It is reported that the Hampton family are down with the flu.

The relief society ball given Friday evening was not patronized as well as usual. Miss Roda Hale and Mr. Reynolds took the prize for being the best waltzers.
— —

Sterling

The funeral of G. W. Parsons, who died Tuesday from an attack of influenza, was held Wednesday from the cemetery under the auspices of the L. D. S. church. Bishop R. A. Ward officiating. The speakers were R. A. Ward, James Christensen and Robert Jones. None of the immediate family were able to attend the funeral, all being bedfast with the flu. Deceased is survived by a wife and a large family of children, a father and several children. The remains were laid to rest in the Yuma cemetery. Our sympathy goes out to the bereaved ones.

Mrs. Rose Nugent and baby are reported to be on the sick list.

The McAlister family on the Judge Cowen ranch are quarantined for influenza.

The family of Robert Stone have been on the sick list this week but are improving now.

Mrs. John Munson of Brigham City, Utah came up to attend the funeral of her brother G. W. Parsons. She was the guest of the Mesdames Pete and Tony Parsons while here.

Miss Adeline Nelson has been quite ill this week with what is reported to be influenza.
— —

Upper Presto

Sand creek has been flooded worse this year than ever before. It was necessary to place a guard over it for several days last week, and for a while it threatened to force some families to move, William Stoddard’s for one. The ice was finally worked loose under the bridge and the water went down considerably.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. April 04, 1919, Page 8

19190404TIR5Mrs. Frank T. Halverson Dies Of The Influenza

Mrs. Frank T. Halverson succumbed to an attack of influenza, lasting one week, at her home at Riverside on Wednesday, April 2. Dr. W. W. Beck was called in to attend to the stricken woman on Sunday, but it was not possible to check the advance of the disease.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — —

Shoshone Journal. April 04, 1919, Page 1

19190404SJ1

Dietrich – Besslin Notes

W. O. Hamilton left Saturday evening for Yakima, Wash. to attend the funeral of his only sister who was a victim of the flu. His little daughter Betty, of that place is sick with scarlet fever.

Mrs. Campbell, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Pavlik, went to Shoshone Thursday for hospital treatment.

Mr. and Mrs. Chris Frees have returned to their home with Mr. Frees greatly improved in health after several weeks treatment at Shoshone.

Mrs. Christ has received a supply of Red Cross yarn to be knitted into children’s stockings for the refugees. Those wishing to help in this work please make a note of this.
— —

Big Wood River News

Little Laurence Rand is quick sick at this writing.

Mrs. A. L. Horne, whose condition has become so critical that Dr. Fields thought it necessary to move her to the hospital Monday.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 04 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Shoshone Journal. April 04, 1919, Page 5

Local and Personal News

C. E. Miller, father of Mrs. Murray, of the McFall hotel, is seriously ill this week.

Gordon Custer, infant son of Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Custer has been seriously ill with broncho-pneumonia the past week but Thursday evening was reported as sufficiently recovered as to be out of danger.
— —

Card of Thanks

We wish to extend our sincerest thanks to friends and neighbors for their sympathy and assistance during the sickness and death of our baby boy Stanley Devon.

Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Grewell
— —

19190404SJ2

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

Shoshone Journal. April 04, 1919, Page 7

Idaho State News

Spanish influenza has broken out at the state industrial training school at St. Anthony, about ninety cases having developed.

The case of a man, aged 35, whose name is withheld by attending physicians, a patient in the hospital at Twin Falls, who has been asleep for 14 days, has been diagnosed as one of lethargic encephalitis or “sleeping sickness.” The patient at first was fed through a tube but is now awakened for brief periods and takes his meals in a normal manner.

A resident of Kuna has sent east for some skunks and will start a skunk farm. The skunks are deodorized, and are about the size of a common cat.

(ibid, page 7)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., April 04, 1919, Page 1

19190404DSM1

19190404DSM2Children May Attend Sunday School

“The grade children may attend Sunday school on Sunday, providing the churches observe the same regulations as observed by the public schools regarding the quarantine,” stated Dr. Adair today. “As forty-eight hours will have elapsed since the children were examined at school, it will be necessary, and also the safest way, to have their temperatures taken by a competent person before being permitted to attend Sunday school.

“Two of the teachers and several of the grade pupils have the influenza this week.

“The matinee given this afternoon is restricted to the teachers and the grade pupils whose temperature has been taken this afternoon.”

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 04 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Edgemere, Idaho

EdgemereFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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April 5

Evening Capital News., April 05, 1919, Page 1

19190405ECN1

19190405ECN2Wilson Has Restful Night, Grayson Wires; Somewhat Improved
However, He’s Ordered to Remain in Bed Today And probably Sunday; May Work Monday

Washington, April 5. — Rear Admiral Grayson, private physician of President Wilson in Paris today cabled Secretary Tumulty at the White House here there is no need of worry over the president’s condition. His message read;

“The President is better this morning, but is still confined to his bed. There is no cause for worry — Grayson.”

Must Stay In Bed

By Carl D. Groat

Paris, April 5. — President Wilson rested well last night and his condition is now improved, Admiral Grayson, his physician announced today.

Grayson said the president, however has been ordered to remain in bed today and probably tomorrow.

It is not anticipated the president’s cold will develop into anything more serious. Despite rumors which have been in circulation since he was taken ill Thursday night, there are no symptoms of of influenza so far.

Wilson’s absence from the peace conference at this time is deplored by all the delegates, but they agree there is nothing to be gained in taking chances with a severe cold. The belief prevails that the president will be able to resume his work Monday.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 05 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Evening Capital News., April 05, 1919, Page 3

Church of the Good Shepard

Eusebio Guerricagoitia, a member of our congregation, died in Emmett March 31. He was buried from this church Friday, this being the first funeral held at the church. He leaves a father and mother in Spain and an uncle, Emanuel Bengoechea, of Pocatello, to mourn his early death.

Father Arregui visited at Price, Utah, during the week, where he baptized eight children. At Ogden he heard confessions and gave holy communion to a large number of men, women and children who are sick with influenza.

(ibid, page 3)
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Elo, Idaho

EloFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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April 6

Evening Capital News., April 06, 1919, Page 1

19190406ECN1

19190406ECN2
President Narrowly Escapes Flu Attack; Plans Work Monday

By Carl D. Groat

Paris, April 5. — President Wilson, although still confined to his bed by a severe cold, is expected to resume his work Monday, it was learned tonight.

That the president narrowly escaped a serious attack of influenza, was stated today by Rear Admiral Grayson, his personal physician.

“The president came very close to having a serious attack of influenza, but by going to bed at once, by my direction, he apparently has escaped it,” said Grayson.

“It is still necessary for him to remain in bed.”

The “big four,” with Colonel House again substituting for the president, met today in a room adjoining Wilson’s chamber. It was believed that much time would be saved by this plan as questions requiring the president’s attention could be promptly referred to him.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 06 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Evening Capital News., April 06, 1919, Page 5

Kuna

Mrs. F. A. Hale has received news that her mother, Mrs. Spink, well known here, is very ill at her sister’s near Aberdeen, N. D. She had a severe attack of influenza, followed by pneumonia. Little hope is held for her recovery.

Jaspar Landsburg, who has been ill for several weeks, is improving.
— —

Payette Club Women Honor Returned Nurse

Wednesday afternoon the Portia club gave a beautiful reception, honoring Mrs. Lillian Foster, the club’s Red Cross nurse, who has just returned from France. The affair was held at the home of Mrs. Mary Wilson, which, during her absence, is occupied by Mrs. E. B. Holmes, the president of the club. …

(ibid, page 5)
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Evening Capital News., April 06, 1919, Page 8

Status of City Lighting Contract
Up to Public Utilities Commission to Decide New Rate Under New System of Lighting — Present Rate Low.

As there was some discussion of the city lighting contract during the recent campaign and the question is still one of issue, Mayor Hays gave out a statement Saturday evening in order that the public might fully understand the situation. His statement follows:

“The price of Boise’s street lighting for the ensuing year is still undetermined.

“There have been numerous delays which could not be avoided. Mr. Markhus of the power company was ill in a Portland hospital for a time. Then came the influenza, and finally while the case was being considered Commissioner Graham’s term of office expired. Colonel Patch, then in France, was appointed to succeed him and has not yet arrived in Idaho. As soon as he arrives the Boise case will come up for final determination. …”

(ibid, page 8)
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Evening Capital News., April 06, 1919, Page 9

Around Boise Valley Loop

Caldwell

Mrs. W. A. Stone, who is in a Boise hospital under medical treatment, is reported to be improving nicely.

Attorney W.. A. Stone transacted legal business in Boise today and visited with his wife, who is there under medical treatment.

M. T. Hargrove, the local real estate man, who has been quite ill, is reported to be much improved.

L. G. Magee, who has been quite ill, has sufficiently recovered to be at his office again.

Star

Clark Baldwin is on the sick list.

(ibid, page 9)
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Building a railroad from Enaville to Murray, Idaho

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Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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April 8

Evening Capital News., April 08, 1919, Page 3

19190408ECN1

19190408ECN2
Isolated Idaho Points to Have Mail Service

(Special News Special Service.)

Washington, April 8. — The postmaster at Yellow Pine, Idaho, has been authorized by the postoffice department to employ temporarily a mail carrier to make one round trip every two weeks between Yellow Pine, Johnson Creek and Cascade at not to exceed $50 a trip. The carrier is not to be required to carry more than 50 pounds of mail a trip. One of the purposes of the service is to supply the office at Profile. Bids are soon to be asked for carrying the mail between these points once a week during the period from July 1 to October 1, the carrier to transport not to exceed 600 pounds the trip. This contract would cover the balance of the year with the requirement to carry only 50 pounds each trip.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 08 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Evening Capital News., April 08, 1919, Page 5

[The Washington Baseball Club]

Augusta, Ga, April 7. — …

Janvrin Mopes Around

The failure of Janvrin to join the club for spring training was quite a blow to Griff’s plans. The former Red Sox was ill with influenza and pneumonia at his home in Boston and now is too weak to do anything but loaf in the sunshine and regain his strength. He probably will not do any practicing until the middle of next month. In the meantime, Harold Shanks has been moved to second and Davis is playing short. …

(ibid, page 5)
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Evening Capital News., April 08, 1919, Page 8

Little News of Boise

19190408ECN3Epidemic About Over

J. Fred Williams, superintendent of the Idaho Industrial school [St. Anthony, Idaho] in a letter to C. S. McConnell, probation officer of Ada county, says he has been unable to give any attention to correspondence during the influenza epidemic, but now reports conditions are much improved. Only a few students are ill and they are convalescing nicely. The school expects to be out of quarantine in a few days.

(ibid, page 8)
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Evening Capital News., April 08, 1919, Page 9

Around Boise Valley Loop

Nampa

S. D. McLain of the McLain Hardware company has gone to Rochester, Minn., to take medical treatment at the Mayo Brothers’ institution.

Caldwell

Attorney W. A. Stone transacted legal business in Boise yesterday and visited with his wife who is under medical treatment in a hospital. Mrs. Stone is reported to be much improved.

Star

Mr. Corren is reported very ill at this writing.

Middleton

Miss Maud Harvey is recovering from a siege of influenza.

Mrs. Nellie Personette and little son have just returned from Nyssa, where Mrs. Personette was called to help care for the W. D. Robinson family during the influenza. While there, the little boy also had the “flu,” the second time this year.

(ibid, page 9)
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The Daily Star-Mirror., April 08, 1919, Page 1

19190408DSM1

19190408DSM2
Two Flu Flags Up

Dr. W. A. Adair, city health officer, reports two influenza flags put up yesterday, one at Synder’s, 224 Asbury street, and another just outside of town. Dr. Adair says people must not get careless because of warm weather for the danger is not past. He read from the government health reports that influenza has increased in the past week in Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Oregon, Vermont and Washington. It will be noted that two of them Louisiana and California, are southern states with mild climates.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 08 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Daily Star-Mirror., April 08, 1919, Page 5

City News

W. F. Rickets, of Spokane, is here for a few days trying to dispose of the property of his father, the late W. F. M. Rickets, who died of influenza last fall. Part of the estate consists of 15 acres on Orchard avenue.

Frank A. Hanna left yesterday for Stanford, Mont., called by the serious illness of his brother, Henry Hanna.

(ibid, page 5)
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Emida, Idaho

EmidaFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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April 9

Evening Capital News., April 09, 1919, Page 1

19190409ECN1

19190409ECN2
56,979 Yanks in Hospitals

Washington, April 9. — Patients in army hospitals March 31 totaled 56,979. Of these 38,214 have been brought from overseas, the war department announced today.

source: Evening Capital News. (Boise, Idaho), 09 April 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Business Block, Emmett, Idaho

EmmettFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idah