Category Archives: Weekly History

Idaho History Jan 16, 2022

Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic

Part 89

Idaho Newspaper Clippings March 23-25, 1920

March 23

The Caldwell Tribune. March 23, 1920, Page 3

19200323CT1

Local And Personal

Mrs. J. C. Ford left Thursday evening for Portland. She is making the trip in an effort to benefit her health and expects to be absent from Caldwell for several weeks.

Mrs. H. J. Barnes of Fair Acres underwent a critical operation at the St. Luke’s hospital, Boise, last week and is convalescing.

O. W. Worthwine of Boise, chairman of the John Regan Post of the American Legion, was in Caldwell Friday in the interest of obtaining a special car for American Legion delegates to the Twin Falls convention.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 23 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 23, 1920, Page 5

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Claytonia

Mrs. Clark Benson stayed in Caldwell week before last and came home with the influenza. We hope this is the last case in our vicinity.

Irene Stitzel of the Gem school was home for three days last week with a bad cold.

The Deel family who has been quarantined for small pox, expected to have the quarantine raised last Sunday.

Marion Masher has been a mump patient this last week.

We have been told that work on the new school house is going to begin on Monday, March 22.

Farmers in the Gem district are very busy plowing and getting their land ready for planting spring grain. Some have started to corrigate the alfalfa.

Midway News

Muriel Kline, the 12 year old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. A. W. Kline is confined to her bed with a serious case of heart trouble.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 23, 1920, Page 7

Ten Davis News

Mrs. N. Nelson is some better now.

I. J. Durnil went to Caldwell Wednesday and got R. J. Hertig who has been in the hospital there for some time. Mr. Hertig is unable to be around much yet.

Margaret Conners came back Wednesday evening. She is able to walk with the aid of crutches.

Mr. Roy Moore was taken to the Hot Springs one day last week. He is to be treated for rheumatism.

(ibid, page 7)
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 23, 1920, Page 10

Local And Personal

Nicholas Hentz, recently of Shoshone is improving slowly from an illness of influenza with complications.

G. O. Rulter’s daughter, who has been confined with measles, is recovering.

O. W. Collins is ill with bronchitis and asthma.

Charles Praul is convalescing from an attack of pneumonia.

R. A. Daniels who has been suffering from a large abscess is convalescing.

Mrs. Clyde Dilie is now able to return to her home.

A. Mr. Snodgrass Sr., who resides west of town, accidentally fell from a wagon Tuesday and sustained a fractured rib and other serious injuries.

A party of Nampa young people whose names could not be ascertained, drove an automobile off a canal bridge near the home of John Bardsley Sunday evening. The machine overturned and several persons were injured. The car bore an Oregon license. No one was so seriously injured that it was impossible for them to return to Nampa. It was the second accident of the kind that has occurred at that bridge which is on the Middleton road on Elgin street. Reports that someone had been killed in the accident are not borne out by facts.

Teachers of Canyon county schools will meet next Saturday at the Kenwood school in Nampa, according to an announcement made Saturday by Miss Margaret Knowlton, county school superintendent. The meeting will be devoted to the regular practice of demonstrating reading, penmanship and arithmetic. In addition, the uniform salary scale, as recently reported by a special investigating committee will be presented. A feature of the new scale is the fact that it provides uniform salaries on the basis of training and experience.

(ibid, page 10)
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Bonners Ferry Herald. March 23, 1920, Page 1

19200323BFH1

[Boundary County School Trustees Association Meeting]

(excerpts)

… The address of the evening was given by Dr. S. T. Faucett on the topic, “Rural Health Versus City Health.” From surveys that have been made and from his own experiences in army camps, Dr. Faucett was able to show that the average city child has fewer physical defects and better general health than the average rural child. This is due to the regular physical inspection of school children in the city schools. Defects or infections are discovered in the early stages. Free clinics are maintained. Every child whether rich or poor has the benefit of the best service that medical science can afford. Moreover matters of sanitation, disposal of garbage, and a pure water supply are under the control of the health authorities in the cities.
— —

Arbor Day and Bird Day

Mrs. Caroline W. Flood has named April 23 as the date to be observed by the schools of the county as Arbor Day and Bird Day. She recommends that the entire week be observed as clean-up week, culminating on Friday in the planting of trees and shrubs and appropriate exercises.
— —

Mrs. Erie L. Henige Dies Suddenly

Mrs. Erie L. Henige died suddenly at her home on the Northside Sunday morning at four o’clock, of goitre. The funeral and burial will take place in Spokane, the body having been shipped to Spokane yesterday.

The deceased was born November 4, 1877 in Michigan. She is survived by her husband, Henry Hanige and her father, a resident of Lenore, Idaho.

She came to this city about six months ago and was recently married to Mr. Henige.

During her short residence in this district the deceased made many sincere friends. These all mourn her sudden death and join in extending sympathy to the bereaved husband.

[Note: In the 1920s wearing bottles of iodine around the neck was believed to prevent goitre.
source: Wikipedia]

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 23 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. March 23, 1920, Page 4

Round Prairie News

Rodney and George Danquist have been sick with the influenza for the past week.

George Travers is still sick and unable to attend school.

The dance at the Settler’s Hall on Saturday evening was not so well attended as the one given two weeks ago, on account of the bad roads. The same music was furnished and was enjoyed by all present.
— —

Local Pick-ups

The little son of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Bruce underwent an operation for appendicitis on Saturday at the Bonners Ferry hospital.
— —

School Board Meets

The board of trustees of Independent School District No. 4, met last evening the entire session being devoted to hiring of teachers for the coming term.

The board has decided upon a raise in salaries for the teachers which will amount to about one-third.

Owing to resignations there will be at least six vacancies in the corps of teachers for the coming term.
— —

Cow Creek News Notes

The Cow Creek school gave a party Saturday night. While playing games Forest Bush had the misfortune to turn his ankle.

James Gibson broke through the ice into about three feet of water last Monday, near the Clyde Hinkle place.
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Copeland News Notes

Matt Ripatti was kicked by a horse last Sunday and suffered serious injuries.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. March 23, 1920, Page 5

Local Pick-ups

Mrs. L. B. Duvall arrived here today and will remain in Bonners Ferry for a time. She has been visiting in Spokane for several months at the home of her daughter. Ward Duvall is at Boise and is now recovering from a severe attack of influenza.

Mrs. J. T. Lawless returned Thursday from Spokane where she had been called last week by the illness of her daughter, Mrs. Rediger, who returned here with her mother and who plans to remain until she is in better health.

Word was received at Sandpoint last week that one of the state sanitariums for tuberculosis patients would be located at Sunnyside on Lake Pend d’Oreille. This site was chosen as the best one of all proposed North Idaho locations. Work on the proposed sanitarium will be started at once.

Saturday Miss Winifred Plato, teacher of the Naples school, purchased a five passenger Dodge auto of the Parks Highway Garage.

The county commissioners have issued an order against the dumping of any and all garbage alongside the county roads. This practice creates an unsightly and unsanitary condition and the commissioners will be compelled to prosecute people who continue it.

(ibid, page 5)
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Bonners Ferry Herald. March 23, 1920, Page 8

Robert Hamren Passes Away

Robert, the four year old son of Mr. and Mrs. John Hamren, died last Thursday of inflammation of the bowels, following an attack of pneumonia. The funeral was held Saturday at the Methodist church and the services were conducted by Rev. E. R. Henderson.

Little Robert was sick only a little over a week. He was the youngest son of Mr. and Mrs. Hamren who, in their sad bereavement, have the deepest sympathy of all their friends and acquaintances.

(ibid, page 8)
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St. Joseph’s Hospital, circa 1918

HospitalStJosephsLewiston1918-a

courtesy: Historic Lewiston, Idaho (Keith Gunther)
— — — — — — — — — —

March 25

The Grangeville Globe. March 25, 1920, Page 1

19200323GG1

Cecil Johnson Dead
Son of Mr. and Mrs. James Johnson of Red Rock, Passed Away

Cecil Johnson, aged 16 years, 11 months and 4 days, passed away at the home of his parents, Mr. and Mrs. James Johnson, in the Red Rock section, last Thursday, March 18, after an illness extending over the past year. Something like a year ago Cecil contracted scarlet fever and soon afterwards too the influenza, which left him very poorly. With the hope of regaining his health the family went away for some months, but the boy continued to fail in health until the end came.

Besides the father and mother, five brothers, Edgar I., Raymond D., Orvil J., Lester I., Irvin J., and one sister, Rena Levena, aged two years, survive him, besides many friends and neighbors whose sympathies go out to the family in their hour of sorrow.

Funeral services were held at the Mr. Zion Church on Sunday, March 21. W. N. Knox of Grangeville, officiating minister, and A. J. Maugg, funeral director.
— —

Expression of Thanks

We wish to thank our friends and neighbors for the many kindnesses and words of sympathy shown us during the illness and death of our dear son and brother; also his school mates for the beautiful floral offering. Mr. and Mrs. James I. Johnson and Family
— —

Miss Hellen Green Married
Daughter of Local Dentist United in Wedlock on 16th, in Michigan

Word was received here this week by Dr. G. A. Green announcing the marriage of his daughter, Miss Helen, to J. R. Farley, near Detroit, Michigan, on Tuesday, the 16th of March.

The bride accompanied her mother to the east last June for the benefit of the latter’s health, who after undergoing an operation was stricken with the influenza from which she is now slowly convalescing, and possibly several months will pass before she is able to return to her home in this city. The young folks did not intend to have the ceremony performed until this fall after the return of Mrs. Green, but on account of the serious condition of her health and a desire of the daughter to be with her mother during her illness, the time was set for a much earlier date.

Mrs. Farley will be remembered by a large number of the residents of this place where she attended school for a number of years and grew to young womanhood. A few years ago the doctor set up a home in Lewiston which was maintained until after Miss Helen graduated from the normal school at that place. She is a young lady of many womanly accomplishments.

Mr. Farley is a college man, owner of a large dairy farm near Detroit, Michigan, where he and his bride will make their home. Mrs. Green remaining with them until she is able to return to Idaho.

The friends of the bride in this section extend best wishes for a happy wedded life.
— —

Ed. A. Long Died At Boise
Young Mining Man Succumbed to Pneumonia Last Thursday

Ed. A. Long aged 20 years, son of James A. Long, and a nephew of County Commissioner John D. Long, became a victim of pneumonia at Boise last Thursday. His remains were shipped to this city and reached here on Tuesday evening, being accompanied by Harry M. Cone, a friend of the family of many years standing. Funeral services conducted by Rev. Father Phelan, were held at the Catholic church this forenoon were attended by a large number of friends. Interment was made at Fairview cemetery, and Undertaker A. J. Maugg directed the funeral.

Deceased had grown to manhood in this county where he was admired for his manly traits. He followed mining and stock raising, operating principally in the Warren section where his father, James A. Long, is also interested. Just a short time ago in company with J. C. Daubenspeck of Riggins, he went to Boise to file on some land. After completing their business he stated to Mr. Daubenspeck that as he did not feel well he would not return to his home for a few days. The latter returned alone and carried the news to the father. Shortly afterward Mr. Long was informed that Ed has been taken to a hospital and was a very sick man. This statement was quickly followed by announcement of his death.

In addition to the bereaved father and other relatives in this section, he is survived by one sister who resides at San Francisco.

source: The Grangeville Globe. (Grangeville, Idaho), 25 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Grangeville Globe. March 25, 1920, Page 4

Card Of Thanks

We desire to convey our sincerest thanks to the friends at Riggins and Grangeville for the many expressions of sympathy in the loss of our son and brother, and for the beautiful floral remembrances.

James A. Long and Family
— —

Whitebird News

Mr. Berry, better known as “Dad” Berry, is reported quite ill.

Fred Painter left last week to join the navy.

Miss Smith’s school closed Friday and two of her pupils, Hazel Layton and Elma Twogood entered the Whitebird school Monday.

J. L. Kirkham has purchased a new Ford car.
— —

Frank Killean Improving

Mrs. Frank Killean who accompanied her husband to the Gritman hospital at Moscow during the latter part of January, returned home early this week. Mrs. Killean stated that while her husband was far from well, it was believed he was making improvement. His leg which has been bothering him for a number of years, was not removed, but the diseased bone in that member was taken away.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

The Grangeville Globe. March 25, 1920, Page 8

Local Happenings

William Soltman returned last Thursday night from Spokane to which place he recently took his young son for an operation. The little man is getting along as well as could be expected, but was no in condition to accompany his father home.

County Superintendent Sweet is visiting schools in the Salmon river district this week.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

Idaho County Free Press. March 25, 1920, Page 1

19200325ICFP1

Funeral Services For Cecil Rhodes Johnson

Funeral services for Cecil Rhodes Johnson, 16-year-old son of Mr. and Mrs. James Johnson, were held Sunday from Mount Zion church, at Winona. W. N. Knox, minister, of Grangeville officiated. Burial, in charge of A. J. Maugg, was in the adjoining church yard.

The boy was born on April 14, 1903, at Red Rock, and had resided in Idaho county practically all his life. About a year ago he contracted scarlet fever, and later influenza. With hope that the boy would regain his health, the family took him away for some months, but he continued to fail in health, and finally succumbed.

Besides his father and mother, five brothers, Edgar L., Raymond D., Orvil J., Lester L., Irwin J., and one sister, Rena Levena, aged 2 years, survive him.
— —

William Parisot Is Victim Of Pneumonia

William Parisot, age 55 years, old-time mining man of Idaho county, died on Wednesday of last week at the Bullion mine, five miles south of Florence. Death was due to pneumonia, from which Mr. Parisot had suffered for several weeks. Dr. W. A. Foskett, of Whitebird, who was summoned to attend him, arrived only two hours before Mr. Parisot died.

Realizing he could not long survive, Mr. Parisot, a week before he died, closed his business affairs and gave directions for his burial. His body was buried Friday near the government monument, at Florence.

Mr. Parisot was well known in Idaho county, especially among the mining men. He owned a large interest in the Bullion mine, which he was developing just prior to his fatal illness. He is survived by a son, Ray Parisot.

Mr. Parisot was a printer and at one time was employed in Grangeville.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 25 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Idaho County Free Press. March 25, 1920, Page 2

19200325ICFP2She States It Mildly

While suffering with a severe attack of the grip and threatened with pneumonia, Mrs. Annie H. Cooley, of Middlefield, Conn., began using Chamberlain’s Cough Remedy and was very much benefited by its use. The pains in the chest soon disappeared, the cough became loose, expectoration easy and in a short time she was as well as ever. Mrs. Cooley says she cannot speak too highly in praise of this remedy.

(Adv.)

(ibid, page 2)
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Idaho County Free Press. March 25, 1920, Page 4

Why Colds Are Dangerous

It is the serious diseases that colds lead to that makes them dangerous. They prepare the system for the reception and development of the germs of influenza, pneumonia, tuberculosis, diphtheria, scarlet fever, whooping cough and measles. You are much more likely to contract these diseases when you have a cold. For that reason you should get rid of every cold as quickly as possible. Chamberlain’s Cough Remedy will help you. It is widely known as a cure for bad colds.

(Adv.)

(ibid, page 4)
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Idaho County Free Press. March 25, 1920, Page 7

Doumecq

The influenza epidemic is again visiting this section of the country. Several families are suffering from it, including the Fick, McCulley, and Ray Shinn families.

Miss Marguerite McAllister, having completed a successful term of the school at the Jack Pine district, left Saturday for her home at Pasco, Wn.

Elma Twogood left Saturday for Whitebird where she will attend school.

Two new pupils have enrolled in the school for the remainder of the term. They are Edith Elanor Shinn and John McCoy.

The Rev. W. J. Gamble rode from Whitebird Sunday morning to hold his regular services here. His next services here will be on Easter Sunday, April 4.

(ibid, page 7)
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Idaho County Free Press. March 25, 1920, Page 8

Local News In Brief

Judge Scales Better — Judge Wallace N. Scales, who for several days was seriously ill with influenza, is now on the way to recovery.
— —

Personal

W. G. Milliorn has left for Junction City, Ore., where he was called owing to serious illness of his father.

Sam McMeeken was in the city this week from Florence. Mr. McMeeken reported heavy snowfall at Florence recently.
— —

Edward Long Dies In Boise; Pneumonia

Less than a month before he was to have been married, Edward Long, 28, well known young rancher residing on the Big Salmon, died on Friday of last week in a hospital in Boise. Death was due to pneumonia. He had gone to Boise on business.

Mr. Long, who as a son of James Long, of Warren, and a nephew of County Commissioner John D. Long, of Grangeville was born in San Francisco, but had spent practically his entire life in Idaho county. For many years he resided with the late Theodore Swartz, on Whitebird hill. …

Mr. Long’s fiancee, Miss Wann, a school teacher in Rice creek, was present at the services. Their marriage had been set for April 15.

(ibid, page 8)
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The Nezperce Herald., March 25, 1920, Page 1

19200325NH1

News Stories Briefly Told
Items of Interest Gleaned From The Daily Life of Home Folks In Town and County

N. H. Jacobs went to Lewiston last Friday to recuperate from a recent attack of influenza.

Dr. Dunlap was over from Ilo on a professional visit yesterday.

Mrs. J. D. McCown received a message Monday bringing the sad news of the death of a sister, at the old home in Kentucky.

Mr. and Mrs. W. K. Beenders arrived in this city Tuesday night from Crete, Neb., having been summoned here on account of the fatal illness of their son Evert.
— —

Miss Esther Smith, who has been serving as nurse in the Lewiston district under the direction of the Red Cross, returned to her home here Saturday and is preparing to go to Spokane early in April to finish her course as a trained nurse.
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Death Claims Evert B. Beenders

It is with a feeling of deep regret and sadness that we undertake the recording here of the death of Evert Benard Beenders, which occurred just before one o’clock on Sunday morning, Mar. 21, at the home of his mother-in-law, Mrs. C. S. Cook, in this city. The end came as a result of pneumonia, following influenza, with which he was stricken eleven days prior to his death.

Loving hearts and willing hands and the best medical skill procurable did everything to save the patient from the dreadful malady which each day of its relentless siege gained a firmer hold upon its victim.

The funeral was conducted at 2:00 o’clock yesterday afternoon from the Christian church, Rev. Geo. H. Ellis and Elder B. J. Fike having charge of the service. The church was filled with the neighbors and friends of this fine young man, who assembled there as a final tribute to him whom all respected and esteemed. The remains were laid to rest in the local cemetery.

The deceased was born at Crete, Nebraska, on December 23, 1886. He came to this community 12 years ago last fall, and the following year was followed hither by his parents and the rest of the family, where they purchased large farming interests and have since been classed among our most extensive and successful farmers, the deceased and his three brothers taking full charge of the business last fall, when their parents and youngest sister returned to Nebraska to reside. On June 28, 1914, the subject of this sketch and Miss Bessie Cook, one of the community’s most charming daughters, were united in marriage. Besides his wife and parents, he is survived by three brothers and four sisters: John, Frank and William Beenders of this vicinity; Mrs. Ed. Oetkin, of Kamiah; Mrs. Ella Steinheider, of Dorchester, Neb.; Mrs. Omar Marshall, of this vicinity; and Miss Louise Beenders, of Crete, Neb.

The visitation of the Grim Reaper always brings sadness and sorrow, but, as in this case, the load is doubly felt when the call is made while life is at its fullest, when the foundation has been well laid for success and a vista rich in promise stretches into an apparent far future. In their burden of this, their first great sorrow, the family of Evert Beenders have the heartfelt sympathy of all who knew him.
— —

Cemetery Meeting

All who are interested in the Nezperce cemetery will please meet at the cemetery next Tuesday, March 30, for the purpose of cleaning up and repairing the same. Bring a shovel and rake with you. If a sufficient number come the work can be done before noon.

In case it is rainy or stormy that day this work will be done on the following Tuesday.
— —

Public School News

There will be no school Friday because of the teachers convention, which will be held at Ilo that day.

Last Thursday evening between the setting of the sun and the early dawn the Juniors mustered up the courage to hang upon the flag pole at half mast their colors and when the seniors arrived next morning they were asked what they (the Juniors) were going to do about it. This proved to be too much of an insult to the Senior as a mass meeting was hurriedly called in the street and ways and means were discussed as to how the pennant was to be removed. At the first onslaught of the seniors they were badly defeated. Then they retreated and enlisted the services of the Sophomores and the Freshmen rallied to the ranks of the Juniors. Finally after a general mixup the seniors and sophomores succeeded by superior strategy and harder fighting in scaling the pole and removing the pennant. After all was over everybody shook hands and outside of a few bloody noses the seniors and sophomores retreated the victors of the day.
— —

Central Ridge News

Sunday school was held at the Central Ridge school house Sunday morning at ten o’clock. This is the first time we have had Sunday school since the flu.

Mrs. Thostenson’s children are able to attend school after an attack of measles.

Eugene Goffinett has been in Peck for several days with his children, who have just gotten over the flu.

Herman Tetzlaff has been on the sick list.
— —

Legion Activities

At the joint meeting of the Legion boys and the War Mothers at the Legion hall last night considerable important business was gotten under way and a brief entertainment program was enjoyed, the striking feature of which was a dandy “chow” spread by the Mothers.

A paper on “Americanization of America” was read by Mrs. C. W. Yates. This has to do with a special program to be later presented by the War Mothers.

Plans were made for a memorial program to be given jointly by the War Mothers and the Legion boys on May 30.

The matter of securing and fixing up a memorial park in the city was debated at length, with the result that the War Mothers will take full charge of the enterprise and carry it through to success as soon as possible. …

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 25 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Nezperce Herald., March 25, 1920, Page 2

Mohler Items

Miss Edith Smith, teacher of the Sunset school, returned to her duties last Tuesday week, after a vacation of seven weeks; school being closed on account of the flu.

Mohler Sunday school reopened last Sunday after being closed on account of the flu.

Harley Brannon and family, who were sick last week with the flu, are able to be out again.

Alva Senter reports good roads on Central Ridge with the exception of one mud hole in which he got stuck and broke a singletree trying to get out. He had to call on help from neighbors before he could finish distributing mail on the route.

John Smith has been tending the Mohler store, while L. E. Williams has been away.
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[Editorial]

Another Income Tax Stinger

The supreme court of the United States has decided that come from stocks is exempt from income taxation. The fortunes of our rich men are principally invested in stocks. They carry no great amount of actual cash in banks. These rich men with their billions of dollars worth of stocks will pay no income tax on the enormous revenues from these stocks. They can, if they choose, invest all of their wealth in stocks thereby deriving their entire incomes from them, and escape the payment of any income tax at all.

It costs in the neighborhood of one billion dollars a year to run the government, and much of that amount must be raised by taxation. If the rich man is not to pay his just proportion of the income tax, WHO MUST PAY IT FOR HIM?

We have no editorial comment to make on the ruling of the supreme court. That tribunal is presumed to be the fountain head of justice, and the law is undoubtedly as they have interpreted it. But the fact that the rich man is to pay no income tax on his enormous holdings of stocks causes one to wonder if the poor man is to be required to “dig deeper and cough harder.” He has coughed much as it is.

(ibid, page 2)
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The Nezperce Herald., March 25, 1920, Page 4

Morrowtown News

The dance at Westlake Saturday night was not well attended, due to the prevalence of flu.

Miss Hazel Greene and Wm. Cooper, who were quite ill last week, are now improving nicely.

Mrs. Jos. Scherer is suffering from an attack of asthma. Toney Scherer is under a physician’s care with a chronic case of heart trouble.

A. D. Lantz lost two cows and three calves recently. Dave fails to find the cause, and knowing no other name, believes the cattle had to flu.

Now’s the time farmers are beginning the spring sport, namely swapping horses.

D. O. Lantz hauled three-quarters of a ton of feed from Ilo last Saturday with six horses. The highway can’t come too soon.
— —

The Life-Sustaining “Spud”

In popular discussion of the nutritive value of the starchy types of foods, emphasis is given to energy values. Rice and other cereals are spoken of as potato substitutes, and so may they be regarded from the viewpoint of their fuel yielding constituents.

“But the potato has the advantage over all cereals and cereal products,” says Miss Allison of the Colorado Agricultural College, “in that it supplies certain ash constituents which the body needs to correct the acidity resulting from the use of meat, eggs and cereals.

“The normal neutrality of body fluids must be maintained, for the body does its work best when its fluids and tissues are neutral or slightly alkaline. Those certain ash constituents for which the potato is valued are to be found in other vegetables and also in fruits, yet because of the craving for a very generous use of the bland type of food, as well as the sort possessing the quality which we designate as substance, as an accompaniment to meat, the potato ranks first. It is an interesting fact that a generous serving of potato supplies the necessary ash to correct the acidity resulting from an average serving of meat.” – Windsor, Col., Review

But they must be boiled with the jackets on, says a local authority, else the ash, or mineral salts, will go out in the water and be lost. Authorities claim that most people, because of eating more of acid-forming foods than of alkaline, have an acid condition of the system which causes rheumatism, as well as various other troubles that curse humanity. Eat plenty of spuds and never par-boil a vegetable, is admonition.

(ibid, page 4)
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The Nezperce Herald., March 25, 1920, Page 5

“Y” Has Money for Ex-Service Men

The Herald is in receipt of the following information from “Y” headquarters in Portland:

This is just a word from one ex-service man to others who live in the county about some money that may be yours merely for the asking. Some of you might now know that the War Work Council of the Y.M.C.A. has set aside a sum of money for this county which will be given to former service men who want to continue their education.

All you have to do, if you want to go to school, to college, take a home-study course or brush up in general, is to cut out this clipping and mail it, with your name and address, to C. A. Kells, Room 305, Y.M.C.A. Building, Portland, Oregon, and the “Y” folks will do the rest. The money allocated to this county should be applied for within the next 30 days or there is a possibility of it being used for ex-service men in other counties.
— —

19200325NH2

(ibid, page 5)
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The Nezperce Herald., March 25, 1920, Page 6

Immunity In The City

The fact, proved by United States army statistics, that there was 30 per cent more sickness among recruits from country than from urban districts in the camps, suggest to Drs. A. J. Love and C. B. Davenport that any one of the communicable disease leaves the body in a heightened state of resistance to all infections.

(ibid, page 6)
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The Nezperce Herald., March 25, 1920, Page 7

Local and Personal News Notes

Miss Myrtle Jolly, of Clarkston, was among those from the outside who attended the funeral of Evert Beenders in this city yesterday. Miss Jolly is a guest while here at the home of her sister, Mrs. Wilfred Waters.

Mrs. Mike Fuchs went to Lewiston Monday for treatment in the White hospital. She was accompanied by Dr. J. F. Gist.

Three-inch snow last night.

That spring began Sunday March 21 – according to the calendar.

(ibid, page 7)
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The Nezperce Herald., March 25, 1920, Page 8

Remedy for Influenza-Pneumonia

With the hope that good may come from the information here given, The Herald publishes the following letter and article, which are self-explanatory:

Connley, Ore., Mar. 19-20

Dear Editor Herald:

Inclosed [sic] please find an article describing a remedy for pneumonia that follows the flu. I see by the paper old Nezperce still has a few cases of influenza, and this may prove a benefit to some one.

Give my best regards to your readers. We always look forward to the coming of the paper each week.

Yours respectfully, Mrs. J. V. Taylor

The Remedy

Saturate a one-inch ball of cotton with spirits of alcohol and three drops of chloroform, to each ball. Place it between the patient’s teeth, and let him inhale the fumes in deep, long breaths for fifteen minutes. Then rest for fifteen minutes, or longer if needed. Then inhale again for fifteen minutes and repeat the operation as directed for twenty-four times, and the result will be that the lungs will expand to their normal condition and in 24 hours the patient is out of danger, and in 48 hours is cured, although weak.

Change the cotton often.

The author of this remedy, Marius A. Redding, of 921 McAlister Street, San Francisco, has this to say of it:

During my stay in Pasadena last winter I read in the Los Angeles papers of deaths from this sneaking, dreaded disease called pneumonia – from two to five every 24 hours. At last on the 8th of February, 1918, I went to Los Angeles and got the prescription inserted in four of the daily papers. The public read it, and what a change! From a high death rate during the winter and before in that city, it stopped suddenly. The papers recorded only one death a day of pneumonia and most all the victims were infants less than one year old.

What as the cause of the sudden change? It was this simple remedy, discovered 14 years ago. It is so simple, and can be had at any drug store for about 50 cents.

What prompted me to give this to the world? A friend of mine, Professor P. Loomis of Cornell University, died of pneumonia, and all his and his associates knowledge could not save him, but this, if he had known of it, might have; hence I spread it broadcast. I am ready to defend this remedy as an absolute cure for pneumonia, even in the last stages.

I have sent this prescription to Standford University, the Northwestern College of Medicine, Chicago, Cornell University, New York, and to numerous other places, even across to England.

[Note: Henry Patterson Loomis April 29, 1859 – December 22, 1907
Wikipedia:

see also:

Loomis Laboratory
In 1886, Colonel Payne established a research laboratory building across the street from Bellevue Hospital in honor of his physician, Alfred L. Loomis. His son, Henry P. Loomis was appointed Professor of Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Clinical Medicine when Cornell University Medical College was formed in 1898. At first, the medical college used the facility for student laboratories. Later, Loomis Laboratory evolved into the research facility for the medical college. The laboratory was moved to New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center in 1932, becoming part of the Department of Pathology.
more info: Weill Cornell Medical College]

(ibid, page 8)
—————-

Further Reading

Bloodletting and gas fumes: Quack treatments of the 1918 flu

By Kristen Rogers, October 17, 2020

1918CampDixgarglingsaltwater-aIn September 1918 during the influenza pandemic, these men gargled salt water after a day working at Camp Dix in New Jersey. This was a preventative measure against the 1918 flu, which had spread to army camps.

If the idea of drinking hand sanitizer, absorbing ultraviolet light and gargling salt water to prevent or treat Covid-19 sounds bizarre to you, know that this isn’t the first time humans have put themselves in dangerous situations to quell their fears.

In the face of threat by a new infectious disease, people become desperate, said Dr. Jeremy Brown, an emergency care physician and author of “Influenza: The Hundred-Year Hunt to Cure the Deadliest Disease in History.”

That desperation and a similar threat were what made people living during the 1918 flu pandemic — which killed 50 million to 100 million people worldwide — flock to dangerous quack treatments like moths to flames. That included doctors.

Although conventional doctors had just recently gained more respect than alternative practitioners by the early 20th century, mainstream doctors still “had almost nothing to offer” for the flu said Laura Spinney, a science journalist and author of “Pale Rider: The Spanish Flu of 1918 and How It Changed the World.”

Since they thought the 1918 flu was a bacterial disease instead of a virus, their knowledge and treatment efforts fell short, she said.

“Through the course of the pandemic, you see people gradually turning away from conventional medicine as they realize it can’t help and turning to the alternatives, folk medicines, quack cures and so on,” Spinney said. “Which, of course, until very recently (in the early 20th century), had been equally respectable and equally accessible.”

Doctors also “really had no concept of when a medicine becomes a poison — how medicines interact with human tissues and what the right dosing is,” Spinney added. Those questions are what “we ask in our clinical trials these days that cost so much, take so long and try to measure safety and efficacy.”

“One of the interesting things you see in 1918 is that trust broken down because people saw that their doctors were hopeless. And so they, seeking to control the symptoms, turned to alternative systems which they felt could offer more hope, more effective treatments at that point,” she added.

Devastation, desperation and an inexperienced, unregulated medical field constituted a petri dish for numerous unproven — and sometimes barbaric — treatments.

Aspirin out of control

Aspirin, made from the bark of willow trees, had been used to treat pain for millennia. Since aspirin was known for reducing fevers, too, the drug became the international first-line treatment for flu — sometimes administered in doses six times higher than what is now known to be safe, Brown said.

The problem was misunderstanding that aspirin has a “narrow therapeutic window, meaning if you give too little it doesn’t work (but if) you give too much, it can cause some very, very dangerous conditions.” They include “sweating, ringing in the ears, rapid breathing and then brain swelling and coma, convulsions and death,” Brown said.

Antimalarial drugs

Quinine, another centuries-old drug from cinchona bark, has been used mainly for treating malaria, caused by infection with the parasite Plasmodium. Like the flu, a symptom of malaria is fever.

“If you have malaria, you give somebody quinine, you attack the parasite,” Brown said. “If you don’t understand that the fever goes away because the parasite is killed by the quinine, you miss out that little step and say the fever went away because the quinine, so quinine must be good for all fevers.”

Quinine wasn’t toxic to the flu virus since the infective agent that caused flu — a virus — differed from the infective agent that induces malaria — a parasite. That modern medicine will test therapies for similar symptoms is reasonable and common, Brown said. “The problem is if you just take a drug used for one condition and you’re not testing it to see if it improves a second condition, but you’re just simply giving it on the belief that it must, should or will,” he added.


source: The Oakley Herald. February 27, 1920, Page 7

Drain their blood, rid their disease

For more than 2,500 years, medical practitioners had surgically removed blood from patients to blindly treat disease. Partly based on the Greek philosophy of four humors — black bile, phlegm, yellow bile and blood — as the basis of emotions, temperament and health, bloodletting was believed to remedy disease caused by imbalanced humors.

In the 19th century, doctors used bloodletting to treat fevers, headaches and difficulty breathing. In 1918, “having observed that some patients seemed to take a turn for the better following a gushing nosebleed, menstruation, even — traumatically — miscarriage,” Spinney wrote in her book, “some revived the ancient practice of bloodletting.”

Gas fumes for symptoms

Some British parents took their sick children to the local gasworks to sit and inhale fumes to reduce their flu symptoms.

A sanitary worker who went to investigate this claim “saw that there was indeed a relationship that while a lot of people were dying of influenza in the local area, at these gasworks where people were working, their influenza rate was much, much lower than the general population,” Brown said. “This led people to this observation that inhaling the chlorine gas would be good for you.”

Though chlorine is an effective disinfectant that, in high doses, can kill bacteria and viruses, it is also poisonous.

Laxatives, enemas and castor oil

“Evacuating the bad stuff out of the patient” was the mindset of doctors who treated their patients’ fevers with castor oil, enemas and laxatives made from magnesia or mercury chloride, Brown said.

“There was this belief that an enema would be good for you regardless, really, of what your specific disease was,” he added. “We have medical textbooks that were published as late as 1913 (or) 1914, in which laxatives were recommended as a treatment for the fevers that accompanied influenza.”

excerpted from:
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Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
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Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
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Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
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Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
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Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
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Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
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Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 63)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 64)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 65)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 66)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 67)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 68)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 69)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 70)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 71)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 72)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 73)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 74)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 75)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 76)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 77)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 78)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 79)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 80)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 81)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 82)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 83)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 84)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 85)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 86)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 87)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 88)

Idaho History Jan 9, 2022

Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic

Part 88

Idaho Newspaper Clippings March 19, 1920

Blackfoot School Bus – 1920’s.

SchoolBusBlackfoot1920-aLee Christopherson, bus driver

Photo from: Bingham County Historical Society. (Courtesy Kim Stephens.)
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March 19

Cottonwood Chronicle. March 19, 1920, Page 1

19200319CC1

19200319CC2
Plan Hospital For Community
Matter To Be Taken Up By Commercial Club Monday

Plans for a hospital for Cottonwood have received attention from time to time but it was not until a few weeks ago that the matter was again revived toward the accomplishment of this enterprise. The time is here that Cottonwood needs such an institution. The expense and inconvenience of going to Lewiston or still further for hospital services are double of what they would be if such service could be secured here in Cottonwood.

The many deaths resulting from the Flu epidemic due in many cases to lack of nursing and hospital facilities have brought a new enthusiasm and determination on the part of the people of this community to secure a hospital for Cottonwood. The need of a hospital has long been felt but at no time more than during the present Flu epidemic from which we are just emerging. Doctors found it impossible to get around to make all the calls made for them and sufficient nurses could not be secured to take care of the sick. With a hospital many of the patients could have been taken there and have had better nursing and constant attention from the doctor and at much less expense than under present conditions when a doctor must visit every home afflicted and unless some friends or neighbor is available a separate nurse must be provided, who if the patients were in the hospital could take care of three or four patients. However aside from such epidemics that occasionally sweep the country there are many cases demanding hospital care that now have to be taken to Lewiston, Spokane or Portland whereby a heavy expense of railroad fare and living expenses of some member of the family accompanying the sick person is incurred, which would be eliminated if we had a hospital here. Oftentimes the patient suffers terribly from the trip and again many cases will not permit of the delay incident to traveling such distance and must be taken care of at once and not many homes have the facilities to properly take care of the patient. Cottonwood can secure a hospital if a little effort is put forth as the people almost without exception favor such a project, in fact many farmers have voluntarily offered their help in money and good will to see the thing through. So let us get busy. Everybody put his shoulder to the wheel and we will be surprised how easy it will be. The Commercial Club will have a luncheon next Monday to which everyone is invited at which time the matter will be considered and no doubt plans formulated to immediately proceed with the project.
— —

Visiting Mr. Agnew

Dr. Connor of Oakland, Calif., brother-in-law of Mr. H. T. Agnew, and Mrs. Chrisholm of Fargo, North Dakota and Mrs. James Aspoas of Superior, Wis., sisters of Mr. Agnew arrived Saturday night for a visit with Mr. Agnew and family who have had about two months siege of the Flu. No family in the community has been harder hit by the Flu than the Agnew family, for a time the entire family being down and two nurses were constantly in attendance and sometimes three. Several of the nurses contracted the Flu while nursing there, necessitating several changes of nurses and for a while a change of doctors while Dr. Orr was suffering with the dreaded malady. Mr. Agnew himself seems to have had the worst case of any of the family and is still bed fast although never critically ill seems unable to regain his strength and it is likely to be several weeks before he can get out. The sympathy of the entire community is extended the Agnews, who although residents here for only a short while have made hosts of friends who wish them speedy recovery and are willing to do anything that can be done for them.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 19 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Cottonwood Chronicle. March 19, 1920, Page 2

County Seat News Items

A. R. Harlan and two daughters, Miss Opal and Mrs. O. T. Lingo, returned on Saturday night’s train from Rochester, Minn., where they went some weeks ago. While away Mrs. Lingo underwent a very successful operation for goiter and while she is still weak is getting along in good shape. Miss Opal did not have the contemplated operation on account of her health. Shortly after arriving she contracted the “flue” [sic] and the Mayo Bros. advised against it.
— —

Just Scales Ill

The district court at Grangeville was adjourned until March 25 because of the illness of Judge Scales. Judge Scales is confined to his home because of a slight indisposition and it was learned he is suffering from a light attack of the influenza.

(ibid, page 2)
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Cottonwood Chronicle. March 19, 1920, Page 6

School Notes

(By Wm. A. Lustie)

Mr. Hannon is still on the sick list.

Miss Sweet has declared April 23 to be Arbor Day for Idaho county.

Why are minors in Cottonwood allowed to frequent pool-rooms and to smoke cigarettes? Do the citizens of Cottonwood think it is alright?

(ibid, page 6)
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Cottonwood Chronicle. March 19, 1920, Page 8

Cottonwood And Vicinity
Personal Mention and Local Happenings of the Week in This Vicinity.

Mr. and Mrs. T. C. Keith returned Tuesday evening from a week’s visit at Yakima. The short vacation has greatly improved his strength and Wednesday morning T. C. again resumed management of the Cottonwood Mercantile Co. after a forced layoff caused by influenza.

Sheriff Eller and wife and Mr. and Mrs. Bert Tefft of Grangeville were in Cottonwood Wednesday to attend the funeral of Mrs. Myrtle Smith, who died at Clarkston last Sunday.

Joe Eller of Greencreek was in the city Wednesday to attend the funeral of Mrs. Myrtle Smith, who as buried here on that date.

If you are not in favor of paving and want to get converted, drive your car up King street somewhere about opposite the Catholic church and from reports we have had about a certain mud hole there, you will be baptized in mud so deep that it will take a team of good horses to pull you out and the conversion to paved streets will be a living faith with you ever after.
— —

Dies At Mt. Angel

Word was received in the city of the death of Mrs. John B. Aichlmayr, wife of John Aichlmayr, former residents of this section of the country.

Mr. Aichlmayr and his wife removed from here to Clarkston some time ago and last fall removed to Mt. Angel, Oregon to make their future home. Mrs. Aichlmayr died of pneumonia and pleurisy brought on by influenza. Mr. Aichlmayr was also afflicted with influenza and according to word received here is still very sick with pneumonia. Mrs. Aichlmayr is a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Ben Von Tersch, prominent people of the Ferdinand section.
— —

Died At Clarkston

Mrs. Myrtle A. Smith, wife of W. D. Smith, and a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Beasley, died at Clarkston, Sunday afternoon from complications caused from child birth. Mr. and Mrs. Smith and family until last fall were residents of this section, having made their home on a farm 5 miles northwest of Cottonwood.

(ibid, page 8)
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The Kendrick Gazette. March 19, 1920, Page 1

19200319KG1

Aletha May Deobald

Aletha May Deobald, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Carl Deobald of Potlatch ridge, passed away last Monday. Her death was caused by a complication of diseases following influenza. She was nearly two years old at the time of her death.

The funeral was held on American ridge, Rev. Anderson having charge of the services.
— —

Big Bear Ridge

The program and Pie social to be given at the Steele school house Saturday evening was postponed on account of rain, to Saturday evening, March 20th at 7:30 p.m. Cake and coffee will also be served. Come for a good time, and to help make this a success.

Miss Delcie White closed a successful term of school at Taney Friday. Miss Claribel Ingie is teaching the remaining two weeks so Miss White could accept a four months term at Baker, Oregon. She departed Saturday and began teaching there Monday.
— —

Southwick Items

Elton McCoy of Canada has been seriously ill with pneumonia, following an attack of the flu. Mrs. Clarence Grant sends word that Elton’s condition has improved considerably.

Mrs. Claud King is so much improved in health that Mrs. Triplett, who has been nurse for her daughter, returned home Monday.

Mrs. J. M. McIver of Canada is recovering from an attack of flu.

Mr. Wm. Hewett who came from Sunnyside recently, was taken sick almost as soon as he arrived here, but is improving again.

Mr. Frank Thompson is home from the Carither’s Hospital at Moscow, where an operation was performed on his foot the latter part of January. Mr. Thompson stood the trip home nicely, last Monday.
— —

Linden Items

Miss Eva Smith went to White Bird Tuesday to attend the closing day exercises of the “New Starr” school where Miss Anna Smith has just closed a successful seven months term.
— —

Word comes from the sheriff’s office that anyone seen running an automobile without a license will be arrested and fined. Notice was given that after March 15, this law would be rigidly enforced. The law is plain the matter and will have to be followed by automobile owners.
— —

19200319KG2Random Shot

I shot an arrow into the air; it fell to earth, I knew not where, till a neighbor said that it killed his calf, and I had to pay him six and a half ($6.50).

I bought some poison to slay some rats, and a neighbor swore that it killed his cats; and, rather than argue across the fence, I paid him four dollars and fifty cents. ($4.50).

One night I set sailing a toy balloon, and hoped it would soar till it reached the moon; but the candle fell out on a farmers straw, and he said I must settle or go to law.

And that is the way with the random shot; it never hits in the proper spot; and the joke you spring, that you think so smart, may leave a wound in some fellow’s heart.

– Ex.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 19 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. March 19, 1920, Page 2

Leland Items

Dr. Stoneburner returned from Lewiston, Wednesday.

With the good weather prevailing the farmers will begin the spring seeding next week, the plowing having been almost completed last fall.
— —

Teakean and Cavendish

Mrs. Fred Choate, Jr., was taken to Lewiston a short time ago to undergo an operation for abscess.

Rain all last week but the roads in rather bad condition in this vicinity.

Bruce Dancy traded his car for some hogs.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. March 19, 1920, Page 8

Gleanings

Mrs. N. C. Thomas recovered the first of the week from quite a severe siege of illness.

Dr. J. W. Stoneburner of Leland went to Lewiston Tuesday afternoon on professional business.

Dr. Stoneburner returned from Lewiston Wednesday morning. He said that it was found to be necessary to operate on Herman Meyer. A section of one rib was removed and the lung tapped. Dr. Stoneburner believes he will recover as he stood the operation very well.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Idaho Recorder. March 19, 1920, Page 4

19200319IR1

Boyle Creek

Mrs. Bowler has been on the sick list the last few days.

Mrs. Wm. Sutter was called to Tendoy Tuesday on account of the illness of her daughter, Miss Hattie Sutter, who has been staying with Mrs. Chas. Carlson the past month.
— —

Long Ride And Walk In Deep Snow, From Interior

Mrs. Werrick, mother of Walter Wade, Three Forks rancher and stockman, rode to Salmon last Tuesday alone. She is more than sixty years of age. This side of Leesburg Mrs. Werrick was met in the way by Ferrill Terry, the stage man, who found her leading her horse. He thought there might be danger for her in the deep snow and when he reached Leesburg he telephoned to Ray Dryer to go up and meet her. The Dryers and Mrs. Werrick were neighbors when the former lived at Three Forks. Accordingly Mr. Dyer hurried up the mountain road. Mrs. Werrick was still trudging along leading her horse, being unable to remount. It was then 9 o’clock. She is now visiting the Dryer home before taking the train on a visit outside. The old lady did not suffer at all in her long ride and walk but expressed her gratitude both to Mr. Terry and to Mr. Dryer for coming to her assistance.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 19 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. March 19, 1920, Page 5

19200319IR2Pine Creek Victim of Flu

Thomas Hardy, who was among the first of the lower Salmon river persons attacked, died of the flu at the home of his mother, Mrs. Stewart, on Pine creek, on Tuesday, March 16. Pneumonia developed after the patient had shown marked improvement and indeed after he had been pronounced well on the road to recovery. The mother of the young man is the widow of Scotty Stewart and he was born in Scotland about 25 years ago.
— —

Spring Creek

We have had snow, rain, sunshine and other whimsical weather stunts.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. March 19, 1920, Page 8

Leadore And Upper Lemhi

Leadore

Mrs. Maurice Martell has been on the sick list during the past week but is now very much improved.

A baby was born at Junction some fourteen years ago and during all this time has never been able to stand alone till the past two weeks. The youngster is known as the “Baby Joe.” His daddy says it wasn’t tal-a neck but hammer and drill treatments that put Joe on his feet. He knows.

The meadow larks have come, and, not being able to find the meadow, may not stay.

Leadore School Notes

Little Emma Purcell, who had a severe attack of pneumonia, is recovering rapidly. Miss Roberts, a Salmon nurse, is with her.

Ethel Maes is back in school after a two weeks’ illness.
— —

City Water and a Church

About this time some enterprising citizen should get a franchise for a water system. The time is ripe and the city is very much in need. It will help hold the city together. It will be an inducement for outsiders to come here. A few trees, flowers and grass would make our little city beautiful and within two years would pay the promoter a big interest on the capital invested. And a good live church with a resident preacher will appeal to the better class of home-seekers far more than three or four poker joints even though they were open every night. A live church wields a powerful influence against such institutions. Let’s get the church and and make the tinhorn work.
— —

All Kinds of Mud

Mud, deep mud, soft mud, sticky mud – any old kind of mud. We haven’t a word to say against it. There never was mud before that could compare with this mud. We are glad to see the mud; it’s the best mud what is.
— —

Two Crews Were Stalled

Last Sunday the rotary left here about four o’clock a.m. to open the road over the divide to allow passage for the Armstead train and both got stuck in drifts of the “beautiful,” and early Monday morning a crew on an extra engine left with coffee and sandwiches for the passengers and crews of the stalled trains. Sunday’s blizzard was one of the severest of the winter.

Some people are just mean enough to lay the responsibility of Sunday’s blizzard onto the shoulders of Harry Knight. Several old-timers got to figuring things relative and claim that Harry has brought a tie-up every trip. If there were snow whales Harry would stand a pretty good chance of being thrown overboard.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

Shoshone Journal. March 19, 1920, Page 1

19200319SJ1

Shoshone Hospital Notes

Fred Riggin and his helpers began the alterations on the hospital building Monday. The plans call for the enclosing of the two large porches on the east side – One of these will be used for the nurse’s sitting room – The west half of the front porch will be enclosed making a room 16×10 which will be used as the office and reception room for visitors. A toilet and lavatory will be built down stairs. In the attic two rooms 14×15 will be finished for nurses sleeping rooms. This will give seven rooms for the working staff of the hospital. For the care of patients, there will be two large wards each of which can accommodate five patients. These rooms are on the first floor. On the second floor will be the operating rooms, bath rooms and five private rooms for patients. The house-keeper is already busy getting the house cleaned and the man in charge of the grounds is on the job. The hospital will have its own cows and hens and raise all its vegetables. The papers for incorporation have gone to Boise.
— —

High School Notes

Pearl Hainsworth is on the sick list this week with the mumps.

The D. S. class wishes to express their gratitude to Miss Smith who so kindly refrained from giving exams last Friday.

St. Patrick’s day was not observed as well as might be as for as COLOR was concerned. Of course the usual number was tardy.

To the great delight of members of the “flunker’s class”, Mr. Werrell announced Monday that the class had been abolished. Those who failed in some subjects were made to stay after school every night until 4:15. The reason the flunkers had been abolished was because the pupils had advanced so well in the subjects.
— —

[Richfield]

The well which supplies the town of Richfield with water went dry about ten days ago, and it has become necessary for the water users to haul water in tanks from Little Wood River. It is not known why the well has gone dry unless it is because of the general lack of moisture which is being experienced in this part of the country. It is a great inconvenience and has of course put the village water works entirely out of commission.
— —

Dietrich Precinct Notes

O. E. Borden is confined to the house with illness that may be flu.

J. M. Clark is sufficiently improved in health as to be able to settle down again to railroad work in Dietrich. He and Mrs. Clark now occupy the upper rooms of the depot building and the village is well pleased to have them among us again.

A. M. Smith who has been acting station agent here in Mr. Clark’s absence, and has made many friends in our little community, has returned to his former position at Glenn’s Ferry handling lightening.

Bernard Town has turned his attention towards railroad work and is now assisting Mr. Clark in the work of the station.
— —

Dietrich School Notes

A bunch of the young people went to a St. Patrick’s dance at Richfield on the 17th.
— —

Darrah Community Notes

Mrs. Winigar has been sick with a severe cold.

Mrs. Bert Calhoun has been ill with flu.

The work hands on the middle Darrah ranch experienced a little shock when one of the hands broke out with something resembling small pox.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 19 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Shoshone Journal. March 19, 1920, Page 4

Additional Local News

Mr. and Mrs. E. L. Clinger and daughter, Miss Erma, were all confined to their home last week with an attack of influenza.

County Superintendent, L. M. Burnside, was called to Wendell Friday evening on account of the illness of her daughter, Mrs. Fred W. Chapman and her two children, all of whom are having an attack of the influenza.

Miss Leoma McFall who was attending school at Moscow, has returned home from Hot Lakes where she spent a number of days. Miss McFall states that due to ill health she was unable to finish her freshman year at Moscow.

Several automobile loads of Shoshone people went to Gooding last Friday to attend the aviation show given by Hugh Barker and Jude Furcht. All reported a most interesting exhibit.

(ibid, page 4)
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Shoshone Journal. March 19, 1920, Page 5

Local Items
I can not say what the truth may be, I tell the tale as ’twas told to me.

Mrs. J. W. Lundin is on the sick list this week.

George W. Stoner, has just returned from three months spent at Centerville, Iowa, his old home. He had an attack of the flu while away, but excepting that misfortune, had a good time visiting with his relatives and old friends. This is his first visit to his former home in many years.

Sheriff Clarence Wheeler returned Friday night after an absence of about six weeks most of which time he was in Minneapolis taking treatment in a hospital. He also visited his parents at his old home in Iowa. He has returned much improved in health.

A number of the Shoshone young people attended the box social held at the Grange Hall on Big Wood River Saturday evening.

(ibid, page 5)
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American Falls Press. March 19, 1920, Page 4

19200319AFP1

Roy and Vicinity

Mr. and Mrs. C. G. Bartlett returned from Washington last week where they had gone for Mrs. Bartlett’s health several weeks ago. We are glad to state that Mrs. Bartlett has returned much improved.

An accident that was very near serious occurred in front of Jim Hartley’s Saturday night when a car driven by Mr. Wixson ran over a dog and turned turtle landing in a ditch. Mrs. Wixson and Mr. and Mrs. Hendricks, the other occupants of the car, were badly shaken and it was thought that Mrs. Wixson and Mr. Hendricks were suffering internal injuries, but from last reports everyone seemed to be getting along nicely.

The graveling of the road between Landing and Roy under the supervision of Marvin Robinson was finished Saturday.
— —

Lower Rock Creek

The Kramer family are all able to be out again since the flu visited their home.

The dance committee of the Eliasen school will give a masquerade at the school house March 26th. J. O. Cotant will furnish the music and P. O. Sheer the masks. The general public is invited to attend. Lunch will be served during the evening by the committee. Put on your mask and jazz shoes. We furnish the rest.
— —

Prosperity

Lidia Walters has been confined to her home the past week with pneumonia.

Several of the farmers began pulverizing their summer fallow last week.

John Deeg is the proud owner of a new Ford car.

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 19 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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American Falls Press. March 19, 1920, Page 5

Local Briefs

Dr. and Mrs. Danner left the first of the week for Pocatello where the doctor has gone for medical aid.

Arthur Davis will soon move his undertaking establishment to the Schmidt building where accommodations will be more spacious. It is reported that he will also engage in the real estate business as a partner of W. Schmidt.
— —

19200319AFP2Hencley Children Adopted Into Matheopole Family
Children Whose Mother Died of Influenza Find Home With People in American Falls – Made Happy

Mrs. and Mrs. P. Matheopole have been trying for several years to find a little girl or boy or both whom they could take into their home and raise, having no children of their own. A few months ago they were required to give up a bright little girl that they had fathered and mothered. She was not legally adopted and much to their sorrow she was taken from them after a strong bond of affection had been welded. Since then Mr. and Mrs. Matheopole have heard no childish prattle in their home and the home fires have not burned as brightly as formerly.

Their opportunity to satisfy their hopes came, however, upon the death of Mrs. Verner Henseley who succumbed to influenza during the recent epidemic. She left four children, a burden that the father could not easily carry in the circumstances in which the family were left. Mrs. Matheopole liked the two younger children, both girls and she and Mr. Matheopole asked that they be allowed to adopt them. The oldest girl is over three years and the youngest not yet two years of age.

The consent of Mr. Henseley was obtained and the legal aspects settled finally before Judge R. O. Jones Tuesday of this week. The little girls who were formerly Henseley sisters are now Misses Marie and Irene Matheopole.

Mr. and Mrs. Matheopole have lived in American Falls for several years and have many friends. They are known for the many kindnesses they perform among the needy and have the general respect of all. Mr. and Mrs. Matheopole came from Roumania [sic]. Both are good American citizens and wonderfully proud of their two newly adopted daughters.

(ibid, page 5)
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American Falls Press. March 19, 1920, Page 8

Hospital Notes

Moses Kinear of Rockland is a patient at the hospital, suffering with a broken leg.

A St. Patrick’s party was given Tuesday evening by Mrs. A. A. Whittemore. Cards formed the chief amusement followed by a delightful lunch.

(ibid, page 8)
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Montpelier Examiner. March 19, 1920, Page 1

19200319ME1

Louise Cherry Home From The Hospital

The many friends of Miss Louise Cherry, daughter of M. B. Cherry, local manager for the Consolidated Wagon & Machine company, will be pleased to learn that she has sufficiently recovered to be able to return to her home here. Miss Cherry was a victim of the flu some eight weeks ago, and it affected her so that it was necessary for her to be confined in a hospital for more than eight weeks. Mrs. Cherry was at the bedside of her daughter during the greater time of her illness, and accompanied her to her home here the middle of the week. Miss Cherry was making her home in Pocatello at the time she became ill with influenza.
— —

John A. Blake Of St. Charles Laid To Rest

St. Charles, March 18. — Funeral services were held here in the St. Charles church yesterday at 11 a.m. for the late John A. Blade, who died at his residence here March 13th, after a lingering illness of nine weeks. Mr. Blade was born in Stockholm, Sweden, 57 years ago. He came to this place with his mother and two sisters when he was a small boy, and lived here ever since. He held the office of ward clerk for 32 years.

He was justice of the peace and school trustee for a number of terms. Mr. Blade was a quiet and unassuming man; had a pleasant and kind word for every one; a hard working man and a kind neighbor. … Through respect for Mr. Blade, as a member of the board of trustees of the school district, the schools were dismissed during the services.

Mr. Blade married Miss Josephine Jensen and to them have been born four sons and nine daughters. …

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 19 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier Examiner. March 19, 1920, Page 2

19200319ME2

(ibid, page 2)
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Montpelier Examiner. March 19, 1920, Page 8

Why Colds Are Dangerous

It is the serious diseases that colds lead to that makes them dangerous. They prepare the system for the reception and development of the germs of influenza, pneumonia, tuberculosis, diphtheria, scarlet fever, whooping cough and measles. You are much more likely to contract these diseases when you have a cold. For that reason you should get rid of every cold as quickly as possible. Chamberlain’s Cough Remedy will help you. It is widely known as a cure for bad colds.

(Adv.)

(ibid, page 8)
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Montpelier Examiner. March 19, 1920, Page 11

Local News

The Montana quarantine against Idaho hay ordered by Governor Stewart on March 10, has been modified and restrictions removed against all counties in the state except eight southern counties, including Bear Lake county.

Traveling Guard Walker of the state penitentiary took William Galbreath to Boise Wednesday to begin serving a sentence of from two and a half to fourteen years in prison for the assault with a deadly weapon committed on his wife in this city. Galbreath has been in jail in Pocatello since his conviction.
— —

Bennington Notes

The health of the community is in perfect condition. We haven’t a single case of sickness of any kind.

Mrs. A. G. Richards was called to Jerome by the severe illness of her sister.

(ibid, page 11)
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Montpelier Examiner. March 19, 1920, Page 14

Local Brevities

Mrs. Joe Turner has been ill during the past week with a severe attack of tonsillitis but is reported much improved today.

Dog taxes for 1920 are past due. The tags are available by calling on Police Chief R. L. Robison. All dog taxes must be paid at once or owners are liable to prosecution.

Easter egg dyes for the kiddies’ fun at Riter Bros. (Adv.)
— —

Probate Court

The case of Mrs. Phelps, an infirm lady of this city, was up before Judge Grimmett of the probate court Tuesday. The court, after examining the aged lady, decided not to send her to any state institution, but to arrange for her care at home.

(ibid, page 14)
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 19, 1920, Page 3

19200319CT1

Local And Personal

W. F. Lobbs home is quarantined with scarlet fever.

R. J. Hertig, who has been under medical treatment in the local hospital for five weeks, is rapidly recovering and will soon be able to return to his home.

Simon Crosler died Sunday evening at his home four miles east of this city. The body was brought to the Peckham undertaking parlors and the funeral was held from the chapel of that establishment at 1:30 Tuesday afternoon. The services will be held at the family home. Interment will be held at Kohlerlawn at Nampa.

Ira Wilson who broke his wrist Saturday while placing a belt on a food chopper, was taken to the Caldwell sanitarium after a preliminary examination of his injury was made Saturday and it was found necessary to amputate the hand as the fracture was such that it would have probably been impossible for it to have healed.

Governor D. W. Davis was a visitor in Caldwell Tuesday. He came down from the state capital to attend the annual farm bureau livestock excursion which visited the Idaho experimental farm near Caldwell and other farms of interest to livestock men.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 19 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 19, 1920, Page 8

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Pleasant Ridge

Several from Pleasant Ridge attended the funeral Sunday of William Eames who quietly passed away at his home in Caldwell last week.

Mr. Ira Christp purchased a new Ford car last week.

Lake Lowell

Mrs. W. A. Adams was ill the first of the week with tonsillitis.

Mrs. Cecil McAdams had the misfortune to run a crochet needle in her hand which is causing her much pain.

Several from Lake Lowell attended the literary exercises at Huston school house Friday night.

E. E. Gibbens gave a St. Patrick’s dance at their place on Wednesday night.

North Sunny Slope

Roy Horrace returned to school Wednesday after a siege of the mumps.

Fred Caldwell, Mrs. Frandenburg and Mrs. J. K. Horrace are on the sick list this week.

Miss Vinnie McCormick and the pupils of the seventh and eighth grade attended the show “Evangeline” in Caldwell Tuesday afternoon.

Fairview

Mr. Nichols is still improving slowly.

Word came over from Sunny Slope that Mrs. Anna Spencer was able to sit up a part of the time.

Mr. Jones of Lower Dixie is much better, his asthma has been causing him much trouble all winter. He is under the care of Dr. Kaley.

Notus Items

Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Gipson smashed out a kitchen window last week.

(ibid, page 8)
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 19, 1920, Page 10

Roswell

Edgar Dilley is recovering from an attack of influenza.

Mr. and Mrs. B. M. Campbell were in Boise several days this week where the former is taking medical treatments.

F. E. Maxin was taken to Boise Monday for medical aid, having suffered severely for a week with hiccups.

The boys of the agriculture class were taken to Nampa, Wednesday for a feeders excursion. There were 12 boys making the trip beside their instructor. W. E. Goodell and E. G. Tuning and A. J. Rockwood who took the class over in their cars.

(ibid, page 10)
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 19, 1920, Page 11

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Midway News

Mrs. H. A. Oeder went to Mercy hospital in Nampa, Monday and Tuesday morning submitted to a serious operation. Mrs. S. W. Rowland is the special nurse in charge.

Doris Oeder is staying with her cousin, Mrs. Earl Campbell of Caldwell while her mother is in the hospital.

As Earl Haines was returning from Nampa Saturday afternoon with a horse and buggy and was near Marks station, a large touring car ran into his rig, injuring the horse so badly, it had to be killed. Mr. Haines escaped unharmed.

Canyon News

W. Ihli is taking his cattle to Owyhee county to pasture.

Arena Valley Items

Clarence and Wilbur Moore are quite ill with mumps.

An all day park meeting will be held here Saturday. All the men who can possibly help should bring teams and fresnos and the ladies will bring a vlenty [sic] to eat.

Rev. Welch will hold regular services here Sunday afternoon.

Wilder Items

Mrs. Dr. Boeck entertained a number of ladies Friday afternoon; Mrs. Dr. Bauer being the honor guest.
— —

19200319CT2For colds, Catarrh or Influenza

Do you feel weak and unequal to the work ahead of you? Do you still cough a little, or does your nose bother you? Are you pale? Is your blood thin and watery? Better put your body into shape. Build strong!

An old reliable blood-maker and herbal tonic made from wild roots and barks, is Dr. Pierce’s Golden Medical Discovery. This “nature remedy” comes in tablet or liquid form. It will build up your body and protect you from disease germs which lurk everywhere. One of the active ingredients of this temperance alternative and tonic is wild cherry bark with stillingia, which is so good for the lungs and for coughs; also Oregon grape root, blood root, sone root, Queen’s root, – all skillfully combined in the Medical Discovery. These roots have a direct action on the stomach, improving digestion and assimilation. These herbal extracts in the “Discovery” aid in blood-making and are best for scrofula. By improving the blood they fortify the body against an attack of grip or colds.

Catarrh should be treated, first, as a blood disease, with this alternative. Then in addition, the nose should be washed daily with Dr. Sage’s Catarrh Remedy.

Send 10c for trial pkg. of Medical Discovery Tablets or Catarrh Tablets to Dr. Pierce’s Invalids’ Hotel, Buffalo, N. Y.

(Adv.)

(ibid, page 11)
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 19, 1920, Page 12

Local And Personal

Dr. Stewart of Boise was in the city Wednesday on duty at the sanitarium where several operations were made.

H. H. Conklin residing west of the city, is now carrying the mail on route two, in place of Wesley Vaugn who resigned.

Thirty autos passed through south Caldwell at 10:30 Wednesday on their way to Deer Flat and Nampa. Stockmen and bankers had a good day for their trip.

Briar Rose

Mr. Shaw was on the sick list first of last week.

The road grader has improved some of the roads in the neighborhood.

Mr. Christopher sold his sheep last week.

(ibid, page 12)
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The Meridian Times., March 19, 1920, Page 2

19200319MT1

News Of A Week In Condensed Form
Record Of The Important Events Told In Briefest Manner Possible
Happenings That Are Making History – Information Gathered from All Quarters of the Globe and Given in a Few Lines

Intermountain

Classifying the plight of families in the drought regions of Montana and North Dakota as “amounting to a public disaster,” the American Red Cross as appropriated $50,000 for relief and to meet obligations incurred by local chapters.

Domestic

The American Legion has received from the Y.M.C.A. $400,000 of the gift of $500,000 promised, representing surplus from operation of Y.M.C.A. canteens and post exchanges in France during the war, it was announced at New York on March 12.

The loss to the government as a result of the supreme court’s decision declaring stock dividends not taxable as income will be nearly half a billion dollars.

Aerial bombs dropped from army planes are being used to break ice jams that menace two Maryland towns on the Susquehanna river.

Washington

The bodies of about 50,000 of the American dead in France will be returned to the United States, while between 20,000 and 25,000 will remain permanently interred overseas, Secretary Baker has announced.

More shipping was saved by keeping track of German submarines and routing vessels clear of them than by any other single measure, Rear Admiral Sims told the senate investigating committee.

Vital statistics for the present year compiled by the census bureau show a general increase in births for January and February, as compared with the same months last year. The increase is practically uniform throughout the country.

Foreign

Joseph Williams, an employee of the American Smelting & Refining company plant at Pedricena, Mexico, is a captive in the hands of Francisco Villa, held for $50,000 ransom.

One hundred and thirty-six miners have not been accounted for in the El Bordo mine at Pachuca, a mining city near Mexico City, in the state of Bidalgo, where fire broke out.

“Not for sale,” is the headline of the London Times editorial Monday on the question of the transfer of the British West Indies to the United States in payment of Great Briton’s war debt.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 19 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Meridian Times., March 19, 1920, Page 7

Inland Northwest

The Oregon Short Line is one of three railroads in the United States which maintains a sanitary inspector. This official travels constantly over the line and in every way safeguards the health of the railroad employees.
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19200319MT2

(ibid, page 7)
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The Meridian Times., March 19, 1920, Page 8

Meridian News Notes

Floyd Adams who has been at a Boise hospital was able to be moved to his home in Meridian this week. He is still quite a sick boy, but has a splendid nerve and cheerful disposition, and this should help towards his recovery.

Miss Ethel Bales, grade teacher, was absent Wednesday from her school duties on account of illness. Mrs. J. F. Kitching of Boise substituted for her.

At a recent meeting of the rural high school board Mrs. Mayme Hand was re-elected to the position of commercial teacher at the high school, at an increase in salary.

Mrs. Otis Rife returned from Rock Springs, Wyo., Saturday, where she was called by the death of a sister. Mrs. Rife brought home with her the seven-months-old baby boy.

Mrs. C. L. Dutton is slowly improving at St. Alphonsus hospital from an operation for appendicitis.

Mrs. P. L. Tawney is expected home in a few days after a successful operation at a Boise hospital.

James W. Rice, the pharmacist, was in Boise Friday.
— —

Danger Of Making Concentrated Cider

We tremble for the safety of our people, especially in this “apple belt” round Meridian. There is a new cider that is mentioned in a department of agriculture bulletin. A way has been discovered by which five gallons of ordinary apple cider can be converted into one gallon of concentrated cider. All which is lovely enough, as it saves shipping, storage, etc., of so much bulk. If it was confined to the common variety, all right, as it only carries with it the aroma of orchard sunshine. Concentrated sunshine is not dangerous.

But the peril lies in the likelihood that the cider consumers will attempt the same concentration with apple jack, that has been allowed to get hard. Just imagine five gallons of the stuff that makes peaceful citizens went to tear up an oak tree or push a street car off the track, should be concentrated into one gallon. It would be something like concentrated nitroglycerine.

(ibid, page 8)
—————–

Further Reading

Open-AirTreatmentInfluenza-aNo citation given

source: The Economist (site requires sign-up)
— — —

The Open-Air Treatment of Pandemic Influenza

Richard A. Hobday, PhD corresponding author and John W. Cason, PhD – October 2009

Abstract

The H1N1 “Spanish flu” outbreak of 1918–1919 was the most devastating pandemic on record, killing between 50 million and 100 million people. Should the next influenza pandemic prove equally virulent, there could be more than 300 million deaths globally. The conventional view is that little could have been done to prevent the H1N1 virus from spreading or to treat those infected; however, there is evidence to the contrary. Records from an “open-air” hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, suggest that some patients and staff were spared the worst of the outbreak. A combination of fresh air, sunlight, scrupulous standards of hygiene, and reusable face masks appears to have substantially reduced deaths among some patients and infections among medical staff. We argue that temporary hospitals should be a priority in emergency planning. Equally, other measures adopted during the 1918 pandemic merit more attention than they currently receive.

Three influenza pandemics occurred during the last century: in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Each was caused by a novel type A influenza virus of avian origin. The H1N1 influenza pandemic of 1918–1919 is notorious because of the infectivity of the virus and the number of lives it claimed. Although the fatality rate was relatively low, the incidence of infection was so great that the number of deaths was high. No other pandemic in history killed so many in such a short time.

Global mortality from the pandemic is not known, because there are large areas of the world for which there is little information. In the 1920s, it was estimated that the disease had killed 21 million people. In 1991, this figure was revised to between 24.7 million and 39.3 million, and more-recent scholarship suggests 50 million to 100 million people may have died. Morbidity was high, at anywhere from 25% to 90%, and the fatality rate was between 1% to 3%.3 However, some regions reported mortality rates for the entire population as high as 5% to 10%. Most deaths occurred between mid-September and mid-December of 1918. Unusually, many of those who died were young adults, who normally have a low death rate from influenza. Another striking feature was the discoloration of the seriously ill, who often exhibited “heliotrope cyanosis,” which is characterized by a blue-gray tinge to the face and other parts of the body. Many victims died of pneumonia caused by secondary bacterial infections. Others succumbed to a condition similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome that could kill within days or hours. Pleurisy, hemorrhage, edema, inflammation of the middle ear, meningitis, nephritis, and pericarditis were among the many complications reported.

There were 3 waves of infection between 1918 and 1919. The first, in the spring of 1918, spread through parts of the United States, Europe, and Asia. This was a fairly mild form of influenza and caused relatively few fatalities. The second wave, which spread around the world in a few months, was disastrous. In less than a year, 220 000 influenza-related deaths occurred in Britain, and between September 1918 and June 1919 it proved fatal to at least half a million US citizens. Death rates in Africa were comparable to or higher than those in North America and Europe. Figures suggest that China was spared the worst of the pandemic, although this may simply reflect a lack of accurate records. The mortality in India alone has been estimated at 18 million. According to one estimate of the period, 800 of every 1000 people who showed symptoms suffered from uncomplicated influenza. This was more severe than the so-called “three-day fever” of the spring of 1918, but no worse than ordinary influenza. The remaining 200 suffered pulmonary complications; of these, the mortality rate for those developing heliotrope cyanosis was 95%.

With so many infected, and so many dying within a few weeks, the burden on medical staff and the funerary industry were immense, as was the accompanying economic and social disruption. There was much debate about the origins of the illness and whether it was indeed influenza. The symptoms were so severe that there was speculation that it was some other disease such as “trench fever,” dengue, anthrax, cholera, or even plague. Mortality reached alarming levels. The pandemic arrived in Boston, Massachusetts, early in September and by October 19 had claimed 4000 lives out of a total population of less than 800 000. At the peak of the outbreak, more than 25% of patients at an emergency hospital in Philadelphia died each night, many without seeing a nurse or doctor. The bodies of those who succumbed were stored in the cellar of the building, from where they were tossed onto trucks and taken away. Attempts at therapy for those still alive were described as “exercises in futility.”

The demands of wartime meant that many doctors had been called into military service; those not in uniform were caring for the wounded in hospitals at home or inspecting potential recruits at medical boards. The shortage of nurses was even more acute: as they and other medical staff fell ill, patient care rapidly deteriorated. Hospitals were turning patients away; mortuaries were overflowing, some handling 10 times their normal capacity. Gravediggers, many of whom were ill, could not keep up with the demand for burials. Early in October 1918, a delegate from a health department in the US Midwest went east to find out how best to combat the infection. Officials there offered the following advice:

When you get back home, hunt up your wood-workers and cabinet-makers and set them to making coffins. Then take your street laborers and set them to digging graves. If you do this you will not have your dead accumulating faster than you can dispose of them.

This was not meant to cause undue alarm; it was merely a practical solution to a problem that had to be addressed once the pandemic arrived. In an attempt to prevent the infection from spreading, many cities banned public assembly, closed their schools, isolated those infected, and mandated the wearing of surgical face masks. Recent studies suggest that when such measures were introduced quickly — before the pandemic was fully established — and then sustained, death rates were reduced. Yet for those who contracted the disease and went on to develop pneumonia, the prospects were poor. Anyone fortunate enough to gain admission to an “open-air” hospital, however, may have improved their chances of survival.

The Origins Of The Open-Air Regimen

By the time of the 1918–1919 pandemic, it was common practice to put the sick outside in tents or in specially designed open wards. Among the first advocates of what was later to become known as the “open-air method” was the English physician John Coakley Lettsom (1744–1815), who exposed children suffering from tuberculosis to sea air and sunshine at the Royal Sea Bathing Hospital in Kent, England, in 1791. Lettsom’s enthusiasm for fresh air attracted little support at the time, and the next doctor to recommend it met with fierce opposition. George Bodington (1799–1882) was the proprietor of the first institution that could be described as a tuberculosis sanatorium, at Sutton Coldfield near Birmingham, England. He treated pulmonary tuberculosis with a combination of fresh air, gentle exercise in the open, a nutritious, varied diet, and the minimum of medicines.

In 1840, Bodington published the results of his work in An Essay on the Treatment and Cure of Pulmonary Consumption, On Principles Natural, Rational and Successful. Bodington’s essay includes accounts of six cases; one patient died, as he acknowledged, but the others were either cured or greatly improved. This was at a time when, he estimated, one in five people in England were dying of the disease and little was being done to prevent it. Tuberculosis was generally regarded as hereditary, noninfectious, and incurable. Bodington argued otherwise, objecting strongly to the use of blistering, bleeding, and the popular purgative drugs of the day as well as the practice of confining patients in warm, badly ventilated rooms to protect them from the supposedly harmful effects of cold air, “thus forcing them to breathe over and over again the same foul air contaminated with the diseased effluvia of their own persons.”

Bodington had noticed that people who spent their time indoors were susceptible to tuberculosis, whereas those who worked outdoors, such as farmers, shepherds, and plowmen, were usually free of the disease. He reasoned that patients should copy the lifestyles of those who appeared immune to tuberculosis. They should live in well-ventilated houses in the country and spend much of their time outside breathing fresh air. According to Bodington,

The application of cold pure air to the interior surface of the lungs is the most powerful sedative that can be applied, and does more to promote the healing of cavities and ulcers of the lungs than any other means that can be employed.

It is not known when Bodington started treating tuberculosis in this way, but there is evidence that he was doing so by 1833. By 1840, he had taken the tenancy of the “White House” at Maney, Sutton Coldfield, to provide suitable accommodation for his tubercular patients. Bodington’s tenancy of this seminal building was brief — only three to four years. The Lancet published a sarcastic review of his essay and methods, and he abandoned the White House to devote himself to the care of the mentally ill.

George Bodington had anticipated the principles of sanatorium treatment that were to become the main line of defense against the disease. By the 1850s, Florence Nightingale (1820–1910) was writing about the importance of sunlight and copious amounts of fresh air in the recovery of hospital patients, but her ideas were slow to gain acceptance. And so it was in Germany that the open-air regimen reemerged, most notably at the Nordrach-Kolonie in the Black Forest, a sanatorium established in 1888 by Otto Walter (1853–1919). It was so well known that “Nordrach” became the term for open-air sanatoria. By 1908, there were at least 90 of them in Britain, many of which were enthusiastic imitations of Nordrach. An open-air recovery school for tubercular children, founded in 1904 at Charlottenburg, a suburb of Berlin, was the first of its type and, as with Germany’s open-air sanatoria, was widely imitated. In 1884, Edward Livingston Trudeau (1848–1915) opened America’s first sanatorium at Saranac Lake in New York State. The first open-air orthopedic hospital was set up in the Shropshire village of Baschurch in England in 1907. In the two decades before World War I, charitable associations, leagues, and societies dedicated to preventing and eliminating tuberculosis among the poor flourished, as did sanatoria.

The Open-Air Treatment Of The Wounded

There is evidence that the open-air regimen may have improved the health of some tuberculosis patients. Records for the Dreadnought Hospital in Greenwich, one of the first British hospitals in which such methods were adopted, appear to show that there were benefits to this approach. From 1900 to 1905, the overall mortality of consumptive patients in open-air wards was less than half that of those who received the orthodox treatment of the day. An improvement in their state of “well-being” was also reported. Later, during World War I, the use of open-air therapy extended to nontubercular conditions, and on a large scale. Temporary open-air hospitals were built to take casualties from the Western Front.

An early example stood on one of Cambridge University’s best cricket pitches at the King’s and Clare Athletic Ground. The First Eastern General Hospital, which was mobilized in August 1914, was originally designed to provide 520 beds and to be erected in 4 weeks. It proved so popular with the authorities, however, that within 8 weeks its complement of beds more than doubled to 1240. The hospital’s wards were completely open to the south except for some low railings and adjustable sun blinds.

In June 1915, the eminent scientist and Master of Christ’s College, A. E. Shipley (1861–1927), judged the open-air treatment of sick and wounded soldiers at the First Eastern a success, particularly for those with pneumonia. Some 6600 patients had passed through the hospital, with a death rate of 4.6 per 1000. Sixty patients with pneumonia had been treated, and 95% of them recovered. Critics ascribed the low mortality at the hospital to the absence of “bad cases,” but according to Shipley, some convoys arrived from the trenches almost entirely made up of them. In his opinion, the open wards produced much better results than closed ones. Instead of patients losing their bodily health and strength during the period of recovery from infections or wounds, they maintained their vigor and even improved it. The only people who felt the cold at the hospital were apparently the nurses, the patients having comfortable beds with plenty of blankets and hot-water bottles. Nearer the front, the British Army put its casualties in tents. As the military surgeon Lieutenant Colonel Sir Berkeley Moynihan observed in 1916,

In the treatment of all gunshot wounds where the septic processes are raging, and the temperature varies through several degrees, an immense advantage will accrue from placing patients out of doors. While in France I developed a great affection for the tented hospitals. There is great movement of air, warmth and comfort; when a sunny day comes the side of the tent may be lifted and the patient enjoys the advantage of open-air treatment.

Influenza At The Camp Brooks Open-Air Hospital

When the influenza virus pandemic took hold in the United States in 1918, emergency hospitals were started in schools, halls, and large private houses, and open-air hospitals were being “thrown up” all over the country. In the harbor of East Boston, 1200 out of 5100 merchant sailors onboard training ships had contracted influenza. The seriously ill were too numerous for local hospitals to accommodate. The Massachusetts State Guard responded by building the Camp Brooks Open Air Hospital at Corey Hill in Brookline, near Boston. The hospital comprised 13 tents, 12 of which were occupied by one or two patients each and the other by the head nurse. The State Guard took seven hours to erect the tents, make sure the site was properly drained, and provide running water, latrines, and sewerage. Portable buildings were then set up for the medical staff and nurses. From the time the camp opened on September 9, 1918, until its closure a month later on October 12, a total of 351 victims of the pandemic were admitted, one third of whom were diagnosed with pneumonia. In total, 36 of the 351 sailors received at the hospital died.

The treatment at Camp Brooks Hospital took place outdoors, with “a maximum of sunshine and of fresh air day and night.” The medical officer in charge, Major Thomas F. Harrington, had studied the history of his patients and found that the worst cases of pneumonia came from the parts of ships that were most badly ventilated. In good weather, patients were taken out of their tents and put in the open. They were kept warm in their beds at night with hot-water bottles and extra blankets and were fed every few hours throughout the course of the fever. Anyone in contact with them had to wear an improvised facemask, which comprised five layers of gauze on a wire frame covering the nose and mouth. The frame was made out of an ordinary gravy strainer, shaped to fit the face of the wearer and to prevent the gauze filter from touching the nostrils or mouth. Nurses and orderlies were instructed to keep their hands away from the outside of the masks as much as possible. A superintendent made sure the masks were replaced every two hours, were properly sterilized, and contained fresh gauze.

Other measures to prevent infection included the wearing of gloves and gowns, including a head covering. Doctors, nurses, and orderlies had to wash their hands in disinfectant after contact with patients and before eating. The use of common drinking cups, towels, and other items was strictly forbidden. Patients’ dishes and utensils were kept separate and put in boiling water after each use. Pneumonia and meningitis patients used paper plates, drinking cups, and napkins; paper bags with gauze were pinned to pillowcases for sputum. Extensive use was made of mouthwash and gargle, and twice daily, the proprietary silver-based antimicrobial ointment Argyrol was applied to nasal mucous membranes to prevent ear infection.

Of the camp’s medical staff — 15 doctors, 45 nurses and aids, 20 sanitary corps men, and 74 sailors acting as orderlies — only six nurses and two orderlies developed influenza. In five of these cases, exposure to the virus was reported to have taken place outside the camp. A few medicines were used to relieve the patients’ symptoms and aid their recovery, but these were considered less important than were regular meals, warmth, and plenty of fresh air and sunlight.

Ventilation And Sunlight

The curative effects of fresh air were investigated at length by the physiologist Sir Leonard Hill (1866–1952) in the years following World War I. He reported favorably on the effects of sun and air when judiciously applied, particularly for tuberculosis. In 1919, Hill wrote in the British Medical Journal that the best way to combat influenza infection was deep breathing of cool air and sleeping in the open. Whether the patients at Camp Brooks or other temporary hospitals were spared the worst of the influenza pandemic because they slept in the open is uncertain. The apparent success in reducing the number of infections and deaths reported at this open-air hospital may simply have been caused by patients and staff experiencing levels of natural ventilation far higher than in a conventional hospital ward. Significantly, the minimum amount of ventilation needed to prevent the spread of infectious diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and tuberculosis is unknown. Much more fresh air may be needed than is currently specified for hospitals, schools, offices, homes, and isolation rooms.

The patients at Camp Brooks recovered in direct sunlight when available. This may have kept infection rates down, because laboratory experiments have shown that ultraviolet radiation inactivates influenza virus and other viral pathogens and that sunlight kills bacteria. In addition, exposure to the sun’s rays may have aided patients’ recovery, because sunlight is known to promote healing in other conditions such as septic war wounds. There is evidence that heart attack victims stand a better chance of recovery if they are in sunlit wards. Depressed psychiatric patients fare better if they get some sun while hospitalized, as do premature babies with jaundice. In one study, patients in hospital wards exposed to an increased intensity of sunlight experienced less perceived stress and less pain and took 22% less analgesic medication per hour. One advantage of placing patients outside in the sun is that they can synthesize vitamin D in their skin, which they cannot do indoors behind glass. Rickets, the classic childhood disease of vitamin D deficiency, has long been associated with respiratory infections; it has been hypothesized that low levels of vitamin D may increase susceptibility to influenza.

The surgeon general of the Massachusetts State Guard, William A. Brooks, had no doubt that open-air methods were effective at the hospital, despite much opposition to the therapy. Many doctors felt that patients would get the same benefits if the windows of a conventional ward were open or the patients were put in a hospital “sun parlor.” Brooks, however, held that patients did not do as well in an ordinary hospital, no matter how well ventilated, as they did outdoors. Patients in indoor sun parlors were not exposed to direct sunlight all day as they were when outdoors. He reported that in one general hospital with 76 cases, 20 patients died within three days and 17 nurses fell ill. By contrast, according to one estimate, the regimen adopted at the camp reduced the fatality of hospital cases from 40% to about 13%. Brooks wrote that “The efficacy of open air treatment has been absolutely proven, and one has only to try it to discover its value.”

Coincidentally, in 1918 a British soldier, Patrick Collins, reached a similar conclusion. When Collins developed the first signs of influenza, he dragged himself and his tent up a hill away from his regiment. There he sweated, shivered, and was delirious for several days, sustained only by his rum ration. He was one of the few survivors of his regiment.

Discussion

The seeming success of the medical team who confronted pandemic influenza on Corey Hill in 1918 was in stark contrast to others’ experience of the infection. The high standard of personal and environmental hygiene upheld by staff at the camp may have played a large part in the relatively low rates of infection and mortality there compared with other hospitals. Significantly, the outbreak of SARS in Hong Kong in 2003 showed that basic infection controls, such as those employed at Camp Brooks Hospital, can help to contain the spread of a virulent respiratory infection.

Of the measures introduced to combat pandemic influenza at the hospital, the use of improvised facemasks — including their design and the frequency with which they were changed — is noteworthy.

Another is the fresh air the patients enjoyed. When Major Harrington, the medical officer at Camp Brooks, discovered that sailors from the most poorly ventilated areas of the ships in East Boston also had the worst cases of pneumonia, he put his patients outdoors. Sailors, such as those on board the ships at East Boston, were particularly vulnerable to influenza infection, because the influenza virus is readily transmitted in confined quarters. In 1977, for example, an influenza outbreak on board a commercial airliner with deficient ventilation resulted in an infection rate of 72%. The aircraft was grounded for over four hours with the passengers on board and the ventilation system turned off.

There is still much uncertainty surrounding the transmission and epidemiology of influenza. As yet, the proportion of influenza infections that occur by the airborne route is not known, nor is there any evidence to support the idea that fresh air helps those infected to recover. Given the threat to public health posed by the avian influenza virus, both merit further study. So too does the part played by sunlight in preventing the spread of the virus. Solar radiation may retard its transmission by directly inactivating virions and by increasing immunity to them. A combination of outdoor air and sunlight could also reduce the likelihood of secondary respiratory infections.

The current H5N1 avian influenza virus has high virulence and lethality but as yet is not readily transmitted from person to person. We do not know how virulent the next type A pandemic will be, but should it prove to be as pathogenic as that of 1918, there could be 180 million to 360 million deaths globally. Vaccines, antiviral drugs, and antibiotics may be effective in controlling avian influenza and dealing with secondary infection; however, for much of the world’s population, access to them will be limited. In many countries, the only viable strategy would be to disrupt the transmission of the virus by banning public gatherings, closing schools, isolating infected people, and wearing surgical masks, as was the case during the 1918–1919 pandemic.

Epidemiological studies show that the wearing of masks in public places in Hong Kong and Beijing during the SARS outbreak was associated with a lower incidence of infection. However, no controlled studies have been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of surgical masks in preventing influenza from passing from one host to the next. In addition, it is uncertain whether transmission of the influenza virus from person to person is chiefly by large droplets or aerosols. If droplets are the main mode of transmission, the isolation of patients in private rooms and the use of ordinary surgical face masks may suffice. If airborne transmission is significant, reusable respirators could be pivotal in preventing infection, because surgical masks do not offer reliable protection from aerosols. Also, measures that prevent the influenza virus from spreading through buildings would assume greater importance. Improvements in air-handling equipment, portable filtration units, and the introduction of physical barriers in the form of partitions or doors may offer some protection.

However, more might be gained by introducing high levels of natural ventilation or, indeed, by encouraging the public to spend as much time outdoors as possible. It might also be prudent to stockpile tents and beds, because hospitals in the United Kingdom, the United States, and elsewhere are not prepared for a severe pandemic. Temporary accommodation would be required to deal with the most seriously ill, just as it was in 1918. The Camp Brooks Open Air Hospital might serve as a useful model.

source: NIH (w/references) Articles from American Journal of Public Health are provided here courtesy of American Public Health Association
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Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
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Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
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Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
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Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
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Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 63)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 64)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 65)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 66)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 67)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 68)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 69)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 70)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 71)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 72)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 73)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 74)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 75)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 76)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 77)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 78)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 79)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 80)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 81)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 82)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 83)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 84)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 85)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 86)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 87)

Idaho History Jan 2, 2022

Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic

Part 87

Idaho Newspaper Clippings March 17-19, 1920

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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March 17

The Challis Messenger., March 17, 1920, Page 1

19200317CM1

Gone Home

On Wednesday of last week, this community lost one of its highly esteemed ladies.

After a protracted illness and intense suffering, Mrs. Mary Kieupfer departed this life at her home in this city at 7 a.m.

She was born in Helsinborg, Sweden, March 4, 1854, and came to the United States in 1888 with her three little daughters to join her husband in Custer Idaho, as he had some ahead to prepare a home for them.

A few months after locating in Custer, the entire family was caught in a snowslide. She and her husband had a narrow escape but the little girls lost their lives. Being a woman of true Christian faith, she bravely bore her loss.

She was ever ready to answer the call of distress or sickness, and was a devoted mother and a staunch friend.

Since coming to Custer county her genial manner has won her a host of friends.

We shall miss her but what a blessing to know that she is now reaping her reward and is united with her loved ones who awaited her on the other shore. …

Besides a host of friends, she leaves a daughter, two sons, a grand son, a sister and three brothers to mourn her loss.

The sympathy of the entire community goes out to the bereaved family.
— —

Card of Thanks

We take this opportunity to thank our many friends for their thoughtful kindness during the illness and the passing away of our beloved mother.

George and Elva Johnson
Lilly and Earl Millick
— —

Card of Thanks

I wish to extend my heartfelt thanks to all those friends who came to my assistance and rendered their kindness in so many ways, during the illness, death and burial of my beloved ones.

Mrs. Eileen Frazier Tracht

source: The Challis Messenger. (Challis, Idaho), 17 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Challis Messenger., March 17, 1920, Page 4

19200317CM2Warning!
Beware of Auto Flu

If your car has a fever, sneezes and coughs, and then lays down – call a specialist. Phone 28, (3 rings) Challis, Ida, specialists in troubleshooting.

Preventative of Auto Flu

See that your car has a full outfit of our new rubbers on its feet. Have it examined and adjusted here and you will be ready for a good, healthy, summer’s work.

Transcontinental Garage
Challis, Idaho
Edwin Woffinden – Albert Woffinden, Mgr.
(Adv.)

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

The Challis Messenger., March 17, 1920, Page 5

Items About People You Know

Nickerson Ill — Frank Nickerson was taken very ill last Friday night and for awhile his life was despaired of. He is much improved at this time and contemplates leaving soon for the outside for medical attention.

Much Improved — John Stephens, who was reported as seriously ill last week is much improved and is apparently on the road to recovery.

Unimproved — J. H. Van Camp, who has been suffering from a severe rheumatic attack for some time past, is unimproved.

St. Patrick’s Day — Today is St. Patrick’s Day and is being celebrated throughout the country in honor of the saint who drove the snakes out of Ireland, Old Man Prohibition is trying pretty hard to drive the “snakes” out of the U.S.A., but bootleggers and moonshiners see to it that “snakes” may be seen at any time by anyone who has the price.

Postponed Again — The income tax man, who has been giving us several dates for his visit here, asks us to announce that he will be here around the 18th for two or three days.

Court Postponed — The spring term of District Court which was to have convened here the latter part of this month, has been postponed to the 22nd of April.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Idaho Republican. March 17, 1920, Page 2

19200317TIR1

[Editorial]

Another Widow Spoiled by the Pension

S. E. Roundy and family moved into Idaho and made their home. After two or three years Mr. Roundy died of influenza on October 17, 1918, at Blackfoot, and on December 7, 1918, the name of Cassie D. Roundy was placed on the county pay roll to receive a widow’s pension of $25 per month. On the 4th of September, 1919, her allowance was raised from $25 a month to $30 a month at her request because she said she needed more money to clothe the children for school.

On the 5th of December, 1919, she stated to a reporter of the Idaho Republican that she was about to be married to Moses Childs of Springville, Utah, and she introduced Mr. Childs. She further stated that she was very happy and had very bright prospects, as Mr. Childs was a fine man and owned a great deal of property. They were then on their way to be married in the Salt Lake temple, according to Mrs. Roundy, and we have no information that their plans miscarried.

Marries But Draws Pension

Mrs. Roundy’s pension warrant for November, 1919, was due to have reached her just before they started on this trip. On the 1st of January, another pension warrant for $30 was mailed to her at Blackfoot, Idaho, the pension clerk having no knowledge of her marriage and having no control over pensions, or authority to do anything but issue the warrants till the order was countermanded. The January warrant has not been returned to the auditor’s office, and the inference is that the letter containing the warrant would go as usual to the home of her relatives who live near Blackfoot, and they would forward it to her at Springville. She did not return it to the officers of this county and did not notify them of her marriage. She left no forwarding order with the postoffice at Blackfoot.

On the 1st of February, 1920, another warrant for $30 was mailed to her at Blackfoot, and it has not been returned, payment has not been declined, and she has not notified the officers of her marriage. The inference is that she is not grateful to the people of Idaho who so faithfully provided her with cash after her husband’s death, and up to the time when she married this wealthy Mr. Childs, Moses by name. The inference is that she is not only willing to accept sums under the polite name of pension while she has no income and is living with well-to-do relatives, but she is willing to keep right on accepting it after her marriage to a man, who as she says, has a great deal of property.

We Told You So

We have heretofore expressed our belief that a widow’s pension is a good thing if it could be rightly administered, and we have at various and sundry times furnished our readers with proof that it cannot be rightly administered under our present political system and with human nature constituted as it is. We have brought it to the attention of our readers that a large percentage of the widows do not look upon it as alms, but as something they have coming by reason of the fact that they have survived a husband, and it is looked upon as a triumph to receive it, rather than as something to be accepted in humility and with gratitude to the people who furnish it.

We have said before, and we repeat it, that such a large percentage of widows take these views of aid, that the act authorizing its payment ought to be repealed, because it is largely misapplied aid, and a large number of the widows who receive such aid are not such good citizens as they were before they received it. We have pointed out the fact that widows living with husbands are not eligible to receive pensions, and that many of them apply for and receive help as indigents, and them some of them spend the money for luxuries, and because we have opposed the repeated allowance of money or orders for merchandise to people who do that way, we have gained the reputation of being opposed to helping the poor. And this is partly correct inasmuch as we are opposed to helping the crooked and immoral poor. When they show their ability to expend their allowance for useful things which they need, and when they show their ability to act out consitent and moderately moral lives about like other people who have a struggle for existence, then we approve of helping them by the use of public money.

Free Like Salvation

A good many of these poor people who receive public money in one form or another, think that public money rains down from out the skies as manna did among the children of Israel, or as the water flowed because Moses tapped the rock, but recent investigations show that some of this public money is filched from the pockets of corporations, profiteers and members of the “kept press.” It has also come to light that many people pay taxes who are only well-to-do or who are owners of a great deal of property like this modern Moses of Utah whose surname is Childs.

In addition to all that, it has been found that a good many poor people pay taxes – people who have only one bread-winner in the family, and many members to be fed and clothed during these days of high cost, etc., and it makes our stingy heart bleed to know that so many dry farmers and other farmers who are not so dry, have to dig up their hard-earned money to supply money to a mixed lot of widows and near-widows, only part of whom are really in need of it. A good many people in this country have borrowed money to pay their share of the taxes, and many others are wearing their old clothes and thin underwear because it took all their money to pay the taxes. It is out of such slender purses as these that a large part of this widow’s pension money is drawn, and the editor of this little sheet again raises his voice against the law and the system that permits it.

System is Wrong

But the law will never be repealed. There is not a legislature that would have the courage to repeal it for fear somebody would say about them just what some people have said about ye editor when we have objected to the results the law brings. The average candidate is afraid to express his real opinions about such matters, and it took us ten years to repeal or modify a fool law which we call the direct primary. A candidate would be afraid of losing the votes of a hundred widows in his county even if he knew he was going to gain five hundred by declaring he would vote to repeal the law. It is easy to get laws enacted that are a mistake, but it is very difficult to get them repealed, just because of politics.

Another One Complaining

Only a few days ago a woman at Aberdeen got the probate judge on the long distance telephone and said that she had been a widow for nearly a year now and that she was not getting any pension yet. She probably thinks that is is an endurance contest and that if she waits long enough she will get hers. She seemed to be reproaching the judge because he had not boxed up some money and sent it to her as a reward of merit for outliving her husband and waiting so long without kicking up any fuss. A judge is not supposed to go out over the county sifting or advertising for persons entitled to pensions. If they are really in need they will probably make application for aid and submit their claims for consideration instead of wiring a kick to the court house because the money has not arrived before it was asked for or before the court knew she was in existence.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 17 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. March 17, 1920, Page 5

Amos Atkinson and his little daughter have been visiting a few days with Mr. Atkinson’s relatives, Mr. and Mrs. O. W. Bills. Mr. Atkinson married Mrs. Bills’ sister, Miss Pope, tend years ago, and she died of influenza about six weeks ago.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. March 17, 1920, Page 3

Local News

Miss Jenny Hymas was called to Bear Lake, Utah, Sunday on account of the illness of her mother.
— —

Shelley

An opening dance was held in the Ensign hall last Saturday evening. This being the first regular Saturday night dance held in the hall for about two months. A fairly good sized crowd was in attendance and a good dance was enjoyed again by all present. The Hansen orchestra furnished some snappy music, playing the latest dance pieces.
— —

To the relatives of each man who died overseas the Red Cross is sending a photograph of the grave.

(ibid, page 11)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. March 17, 1920, Page 4

Willie Sequetsie, Indian Cowboy, Dies

Willie Sequetsie, a fine indian cowboy, about twenty-one years of age, died at his parents’ home last Friday, March 12, after suffering with an illness for many weeks that weakened him and left him too frail to keep up the fight against death.

His father is Jimmie Sequetsie and the young man was a grandson of the old Indian scout, Jack Hurley.

Willie was a familiar figure in Blackfoot during a day or season of sports when the Indian cowboys are so much appreciated by their white friends. Willie had a good education that helped him greatly in making him a big asset to his own people. One of his brothers, Tommy, is being educated in the Blackfoot schools this term, being enrolled at the Irving. The remains of the young man were buried at the Mission house Monday, in charge of Mr. Wagner.

(ibid, page 12)
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Pythian Castle, Kinghts of Pythias, Weiser, Idaho ca. 1911 (1)

KinghtsofPythiasWeiser1911Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

March 18

The Emmett Index. March 18, 1920, Page 1

19200318EI1

St. Patrick’s Dance a Success

The American Legion’s St. Patrick’s Day ball last evening was largely attended and was a grand success. The ball was gay with green and white decorations, and the floor was taxed to its capacity to accommodate the large number of dancers.
— —

Died

Mrs. Samantha Phillips died Sunday night of pneumonia at her rooms in the Colonial rooming house. Mrs. Phillips was the mother of Mrs. S. T. Johnson of the bench, and with her son Henry came from Fruita, Colo., about ten weeks ago. She was a member of the Mormon church and 62 years old. A short service was held at the Bucknum chapel yesterday afternoon, and the body, accompanied by Henry Phillips and Mrs. Johnson, was taken to Fruita, Colo., for burial beside the husband who had preceded her in death.

source: The Emmett Index. (Emmett, Idaho), 18 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Emmett Index. March 18, 1920, Page 3

Ola

(Too late for last week)

Springtime is coming gentle Annie, and fencing is the order of the day.

Mrs. W. F. Rose is on the sick list this week having taken a relapse after the flu.

Mother Whitlock went to Emmett last Saturday with her little grandson, who will be under the doctor’s care for a while.

Mr. and Mrs. L. S. Park are able to be out again after a two weeks siege with the flu.

Mr. Beach, who had been working at the logging camp in Round Valley, came home sick last week. He died later.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Emmett Index. March 18, 1920, Page 4

Red Cross Annual Report

We, the undersigned, auditing committee of Gem County Chapter The American Red Cross, have examined and audited the books and records of said chapter, covering the fiscal year ending June 30, 1919, and from such examination and audit we report as follows:

Receipts

Total received from memberships … $2829.85 …

Expenditures

… Nursing influenza … $8.00 …
— —

Ola

Died — Mr. A. W. Beach died Thursday, March 11th from a complication of diseases following the flu. Altila W. Beach was born in Wisconsin, March 26, 1861, was married at Blackwell, Colo., in 1887. He is survived by his wife Mrs. Maud Beach, two brothers and one sister. They are Marion Beach of Cannon City, Colo., Orn Beach of Netherlands, Colo., and Mrs. Olive Bingham of Calahan, Calif.

Mrs. W. F. Rose is quite sick at this writing.

The way people are fencing, it begins to look like the outside range is a thing of the past.
— —

Is Having Great Time

Will McCall went down to Boise some time ago for a little vacation, and had a slight nasal operation performed. Then he got the flu. After he got on his feet he had his tonsils removed, and now he’s in the hospital with the small pox. He is having a great time, and expects to be home as soon as he has the measles and the mumps and appendicitis and a few more things running loose in Boise the Beautiful. — McCall Star
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The Future Newspaper

The newspaper office of the future, according to Oscar Roesen, vice president of R. Hoe & Son, press builders, will be one without presses, casting boxes, typesetting machines or any of the other machines so common in a newspaper office today. His prediction is that a newspaper office will be composed of a large room filled with telegraph instruments and operators, each instrument connected with thousands of wires forming a cable running under ground to the houses of all subscribers, with a stock ticker printing arrangement connected by a wire with the main instrument in the publication office. Before the subscribers goes to bed he puts in a fresh sheet of paper, and while he sleeps the news is printed on the sheet and read at his breakfast. Some service.

(ibid, page 4)
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The Emmett Index. March 18, 1920, Page 5

[Emmett News]

W. T. Crouch is confined at home this week by illness.

W. T. Crouch was able to be up town today, after being sick at his home the past few weeks.

The mother of Mrs. J. C. Loyd is critically ill and her children from distant parts have come to be at her bedside.

C. A. Whitman is confined to his home by sickness.

John Burger, who has been ill for two weeks, was taken to a Boise hospital on Sunday for treatment.

Mrs. Ray Stinson underwent a serious operation in a Boise hospital on Monday. Late reports state that she is improving slowly.

F. N. Luse came over from Nampa on Monday and took back with him that afternoon his wife, who has been very ill at the home of her brother R. B. Shaw in this city. Mrs. Luse is suffering from a stroke of paralysis and is in a serious condition.

Dr. W. E. Allen was taken to Boise yesterday to consult osteopathic physicians who are in attendance at a clinic from Los Angeles and other cities. Dr. Allen has not been improving as well as had been hoped, and will remain there for treatment.

Mrs. Robert Holbrook left Monday for California to bring her parents, Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Wells home. Mrs. Wells health has been very poor.

Jerry Boren returned Sunday from Texas, where he was called by the illness of his mother. He left her improved and indications are for a recovery.

Miss Grace Exum passed thru Emmett from Boise Saturday enroute to McCall, where she goes to take a position as stenographer in the U. S. Forestry office. Miss Exum is one of our High school graduates who is making good.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Emmett Index. March 18, 1920, Page 10

News Of Gem County
By The Index’s Correspondents

South Slope

There are some thirty teams at work on the Canyon canal in the vicinity of Rocky Point, carrying their work forward in fine shape to meet the line of teams from Ray Stinson’s camp working down from Picket corral hill. All indications point to early water in this canal and plenty of it.

Montour

Leu Idle is very ill at his home with the mumps. Mrs. McMurran is caring for him.

Mrs. F. L. Palmer, who has been ill for several weeks, is slowly improving.

Mrs. H. A. Gatfield received a phone from Dr. Montgomery of Caldwell Tuesday, stating that Harry was improving and would be able to leave the hospital in a few days.

Bissell Creek

Dr. Harry Smith has been real ill the past week.

Thos. Slone is still pretty sick with the mumps.

Mr. and Mrs. Walter Craig attended the funeral of Clem Dunn Thursday.

The spring plowing here is in full swing.

Letha

Mrs. R. L. Battan was quite ill the least of the week, but is on the road to recovery at this writing.

Mrs. Bayston, county superintendent, visited the Letha school Tuesday morning.

H. C. Riggs met with a painful accident Tuesday when he was working with a fresno. His ankle was dislocated and the tendons of the leg twisted and a small bone broken. He will be laid up some time.

Jim Butler helped Ed Bott carry Mr. Riggs to the house the day he was hurt. His army experience, carrying wounded men, made it easy to pack him with the least possible pain.

Central Mesa

The box social at the Central Mesa school has been postponed on account of sickness.

Hanna

Master Phillip Carter is a recent victim of mumps.

The little daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Jack Norwood is reported to be improving, which is welcome news to their many anxious friends.

Mrs. Samantha Phillips, mother of Mrs. S. T. Johnson, died in Emmett Sunday night of pneumonia. The body was taken to Fruita, Colo., for burial.

(ibid, page 10)
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The Wallace Miner. March 18, 1920, Page 6

19200318WM1

19200318WM2Drinking Water in Mines

The drinking water used by miners underground is of as much importance as that in use on the surface. The water used for drinking purposes underground should be free from filth or contamination. Many diseases are spread in this manner, among which are common colds, influenza, pneumonia and syphilis. Where drinking water is piped underground a simple sanitary device may be arranged by means of a pipe with a union on the end too big to be placed in the mouth. It is better so to place this union on the end of the pipe that the water will not come in an upright stream, but pour out on the side.

source: The Wallace Miner. (Wallace, Idaho), 18 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Idaho County Free Press. March 18, 1920, Page 1

19200318ICFP1

19200318ICFP2Cecil Johnson Is Dead At Age Of 16

Cecil Johnson, 16-year-old son of Mr. and Mrs. James Johnson, residing ten miles north of Grangeville, died Thursday morning as a result of complications following scarlet fever and influenza.

He is survived by his parents, five brothers and one sister.

The funeral will be held Sunday from the Zion church, Winona. A. J. Maugg, of Grangeville will direct the funeral.
— —

Throngs At Dance

What perhaps was the largest crowd to attend a dance in Grangeville in many months was present at the overall and apron dance given the evening of St. Patrick’s day, by Neighbors of Woodcraft, in I.O.O.F. hall.
— —

C. B. Knorr, 77, And Mrs. Julia Garber, 73, Wed

Stealing a march on their friends, C. B. Knorr, 77 years old, and Mrs. Julia Garber, 73, hied their way to Lewiston Wednesday morning, where they were married. The “young” couple left for a honeymoon, which will include a visit to Portland, and possibly California.

The bride and bridegroom are pioneer residents of Idaho county and had known each other for years. Close friends of the couple, however, were much surprised, when they learned, on Wednesday, that the years of friendship had culminated in a romance which led to the alter.

Mr. and Mrs. Knorr, following their wedding tour, will reside in Grangeville.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 18 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Idaho County Free Press. March 18, 1920, Page 2

Whitebird

(Special Correspondence)

Ethelyn Zerr, Dorothy Chamberlin and Lloyd Mahurin, were severely ill last week, but are recovering.

Harry Zerr of Whitebird made a business trip to Grangeville, returning home Saturday. He went outside on horseback, owing to bad roads. As this was his first horse back ride in twenty-five years, Harry was compelled to secure first aid in the shape of a team and buggy to bring him home.

Contractor William Campbell of Grangeville has started repairing that part of the school house which was washed away by the flood a few years ago. Part of the old building will be removed and the remainder will be remodeled by the use of cement blocks.

Mr. Granger of Grant Smith & Co., Camp 3, was badly injured last week while uncovering a blast. Three kegs of powder had been placed in the hole but were covered by a landslide before the powder could be exploded. Mr. Granger was engaged in removing the dirt when a spark touched the powder, causing it to explode. He incurred many cuts about the head, while a helper who was blown about twenty feet in the air, escaped injury. Dr. W. A. Foskett was summoned to care for Mr. Granger.

(ibid, page 2)
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The Nezperce Herald., March 18, 1920, Page 1

19200318NH1

Postpone Court Till May – Judge Scales Ill.

[Act]ing on the advice of his physician, Judge W. N. Scales, who … of influenza, yesterday notified ? L. Schnell, clerk of the … court, that the Lewis … term of court, which was … March 22, would be postponed … to May 31.

… is the regular February .. of court, which had been adjourned from February 2, last, to March 22 on account of the influenza quarantine which was in effect in this county. The … to date, shows only a … small nunber of … however, and it is likely … will still be a light one … held in May.

… Judge’s many Lewis county friends will be glad to know … his influenza attack is of the mild form, but owing to the serious nature of the malady, …doctor advised against any … until he was entirely …

[side of page unreadable]
— —

Local News

Assessor E. H. Ratliff has been confined to his bed the past several days by a severe attack of stomach ailment.
— —

Morrowtown News

Wm. Cooper is seriously ill with the flu.

John Cooper is under the physician’s care.

As The Herald goes to press the word comes that Evert Beenders is extremely low from complications following the flu and little hope is entertained for his recovery, which news is sadly received by the community, for everyone holds in high esteem this fine young man.

Mail Carrier Johnson came in every other day this week, owing to the bad roads.

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 18 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Nezperce Herald., March 18, 1920, Page 2

Central Ridge News

Dr. Horswell, of Orofino, was called to the Ridge Tuesday.

Nando Thomas’s daughter, Viola, is ill.

(ibid, page 2)
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The Nezperce Herald., March 18, 1920, Page 7

Local and Personal News Notes

Evert Beenders, one of our best known and most highly esteemed young farmers, is very ill at the Cook home in this city of a complication of bronchitis and stomach trouble, following an attack of influenza. His case became serious last night and no improvement is apparent this afternoon.

The son born to Mr. and Mrs. R. E. Moser last Friday, died yesterday morning. Mrs. Moser, whose condition was critical following the ordeal, is said to be much improved.

The Red Cross is sending to the relatives of each man who died overseas a photograph of his grave.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — — — — — — — —

Josephine Hospital, Weiser, Idaho

HospitalJosephineWeiserFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

March 19

The Rathdrum Tribune., March 19, 1920, Page 1

19200319RT1

Only Routine Work Transacted By Town Board Tuesday Night

Owing to the presence of but a quorum, the village trustees considered only routine matters at the adjourned meeting Tuesday night. Bills were allowed to the amount of $245.65. Of this sum, $67.50 was for the recent digging out, thawing with fire and repairing of a stretch of frozen water main in the south part of town. The pipe froze in February and the expense was incurred to restore service to three homes.

The clerk was instructed to publish a notice that unlicensed dogs running at large after March 29 will be impounded and 50c penalty added to the license to redeem them, and that owners can save the said penalty by paying the regular license before that date.

The marshal reported only one home quarantined with influenza, all others having been released.

Action on the proposed water bond issue, the appointment of a new trustee to fill the vacancy on the board, and some other matters was deferred.

Bills allowed:
W. H. Cleland, pole wood for thawing pipe … $5
R. C. Hite labor thawing pipe … 36
Cecil Feoreto ” ” … 2
A. T. Gaston ” ” … 7
C. E. Powell ” ” … 7.50
S. Beck labor and material repairing frozen water main … 10
Geo. W. Flemming, marshal … 81
Rathdrum Ele. Co. Feb light … 79.50
F. G. Hart salary as bandmaster month of Feb. … 10
J. R. M. Culp, paid for dog tags and phone tolls … 3.65
E. W. Cady, marshal Feb. 29 … 4
— —

From Over The County

Post Falls

The Post Falls water company is complying with an order of the public utilities commission to repair and improve the system within 60 days.

Harrison

The W. H. Bartells residence was destroyed by fire the night of March 7, and several neighboring buildings were saved only by prompt and hard work. The Y.M.C.A. building was damaged and the hospital buildings were threatened.

No services have been held lately in the Methodist church, the church being without a pastor.

Spirit Lake

The working people of Spirit Lake want the daylight saving time schedule restored.

Coeur d’Alene

Percide Secaur, age 23, wife of Albert Secaur, died Saturday night of pneumonia, following an attack of influenza. The deceased leaves a husband and two children.

A 20 per cent increase in the county school tax levy was recommended by the school trustees of Kootenai county at their annual meeting. The increase was declared necessary to meet the advance in teachers’ salaries. It was pointed out that this would mean an increase of only 10 per cent in the total school revenue, as only about one-half of the school funds have heretofore been raised by the county levy.
— —

Idaho State News Items

Idaho school children are being asked to give one penny each for “America’s Gift to France,” a statue to be erected by Americans on the battlefield of the Marne. Ethel E. Redfield, state superintendent of public instruction, notified county superintendents that the week of March 22-27 as been set aside for making such gifts.

Idaho’s share of the $257,000,000 federal appropriation for road building in 1920-21 is $1,159,967

In the 12 months ended November 1, 1919, 1503 men were injured in the timber industry in Idaho, and 807 in mining and quarrying.

Lumbering is Idaho’s most dangerous industry. Mining ranks second. Thirty years is the workingman’s most reckless age. Most injuries in Idaho come from falling, rolling or flying objects (stones, logs, pieces of machinery, etc.); and hands and feet are the members most often injured. These are interesting facts gleaned from an annual report submitted to Governor Davis last week by the industrial accident board of Idaho.
— —

World News In Brief

The American Legion now has a membership of more than a million in 8475 posts.

A proposition is before the U.S. congress to vote a cash bonus to ex-service men of $50 for each month served. It is estimated the proposed bonus would necessitate the expenditure of two and a half billion dollars.

The United States has an army of 13,000 men under General Allen in the sphere of occupation in the Rhineland. The force is entirely motorized and ready to do its part in enforcing the armistice terms on Germany.

Herbert Hoover testifying before the senate committee investigating the navy department’s conduct of the war, on March 13 expressed the belief that American participation turned the scales in favor of the allies at the critical period of the war, although it was incorrect to say that the United States won the war.

source: The Rathdrum Tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 19 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Rathdrum Tribune., March 19, 1920, Page 3

Personal Mention

J. J. Bradbury was in town yesterday for the first time since recovering from the flu. Eight of the family, including Rudolph Myer, were ill at the same time. Mr. Bradbury has gotten behind in his efforts to keep his customers supplied with wood but expects to be at it again as soon as he is able.

W. S. Gill was taken to Spokane yesterday morning for an operation to prevent recurrence of hemorrhages from the head. Mr. Gill has been in poor health all winter and recently suffered a severe attack of influenza.

C. B. Sanders, who had the misfortune to cut his arm so badly while operating a wood saw last week, is reported doing as well as could be expected by friends who call to see him in the hospital in Spokane.

Elmo Morris, who came home from Connell, Wash., several days ago suffering with appendicitis, went to Spokane Wednesday for an operation which had been deferred on account of the overcrowded condition of the hospitals.
— —

Local Paragraphs

The local Red Cross branch wishes all persons who have discarded clothing or shoes to turn same into the Rest room for benefit of local service work. The Red Cross officers desire a good attendance of members at the regular meeting on Tuesday, March 23, at the Rest room.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Oakley Herald. March 19, 1920, Page 8

19200319OH1

In the Gem State

Dr. L. C. Henderson, state veterinarian, is conferring with stockmen regarding the hog cholera situation in the southern part of the state. Last fall the disease gained quite a start, but was finally put under control and the state veterinary department has been keeping close watch on it since.

The expansion of ice on Payette lake has caused the lake to swell. Because of the shoreward movement of ice, piles driven near the edge of the lake have been tilted to an angle of 45 degrees and wharves and buildings along the lake have been damaged.

Montpelier is now in line for free delivery of mail, and the Boosters club has taken up the proposition of naming the streets and numbering the homes.

Lewiston has appointed a motorcycle policeman who will patrol the main streets of the city with the duty of enforcing the city traffic and speed ordinances.

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 19 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Clearwater Republican. March 19, 1920, Page 1

19200319CR1

19200319CR2
Four Die During Past Week

Mrs. Marilla Keller, aged 83, died of old age here Saturday night, March 13th, at the home of her nephew, Harry L. Walrath. …

Elmer Hibbeln, aged 44, died at his home just south of Orofino, Friday night, March 13th after several day’s illness from pneumonia. He had been in the employ of the Crustaline Lime Company, working night shift in the tunnel being sunk into the company’s holdings here. He was born in Wisconsin February 7th, 1876, and was a laborer by vocation. He is survived by a widow and six children, the eldest son, Lawrence, being in the navy and stationed at San Francisco and just recovering from the influenza. The funeral was held Sunday from St. Joseph’s church, the Rev. Father Couffrant conducting the services.

Amelia Wheeler, the 11 year old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Sam Wheeler of the Grangemont section, died Saturday March 13th from cerebral meningitis, while enroute to Orofino for medical treatment. Burial took place Monday in the Sanders cemetery on Eureka Ridge.

Mrs. Elizabeth Farris, aged 74, died at the Northern Idaho Sanitarium March 9th from artery sclerosis. She was committed to the sanitarium March 3, 1920, from Coeur d’Alene …
— —

Card of Thanks

We wish to sincerely thank all friends and neighbors who kindly assisted us in our bereavement of our aunt, Mrs. Armilla Keller.

H. L. Walrath and family

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 19 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Clearwater Republican. March 19, 1920, Page 2

Recent Deaths

Spokane — Death claimed Saturday two of the oldest inhabitants of the city. Both were more than 100 years old.

Thomas Street, who would have been 101 on his next birthday, March 21, died at his home W3518 Hoffman avenue. His daughter, Mrs. Jennie Schiedegger, died of influenza Jan. 31, and Mrs. Schiedegger’s daughter, Mrs. Anna Sharp, died Feb. 11 of the same disease. It was the grief caused by their deaths which was the beginning of the end. He was stricken with a form of apoplexy two days before he died.

The other centenarian’s death was that of Samuel Merritt. Mr. Merritt was 100 years old January 18 when he entertained a large number of his friends. Mr. Merritt was a member of Reno post, G.A.R., came to Spokane from Topeka, Kan., in 1902, and has made his home with his daughter, Mrs. E. F. Boyles.
— —

Fighting The “Flu” In Chicago
19200319CR3
This picture shows a doctor in the city laboratories preparing the anti-toxin for Chicago patients who are suffering with the influenza.
— —

Summary Of The World’s Events

Hope has been abandoned in Paris for a Russian steamer chartered by the American Red Cross, which left Novo Rossisk on the Russian east coast of the Black sea, for Constantinople with 500 wounded and sick refugees.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

Clearwater Republican. March 19, 1920, Page 5

What Your Friends And Neighbors Are Doing

I. R. Crow, publisher of the Orofino Tribune, has been confined to his bed this week with an attack of the “Flu.” He took ill last Friday and was unable to publish the Tribune until Wednesday afternoon. At this writing he is reported to be rapidly improving.

Charley McNew, son of W. M. McNew, of Eureka Ridge, almost severed the thumb of his left hand while splitting wood at home, on Thursday evening. Dr. Horswill and Fairly attended the young man in Dr. Horsewill’s office and rendered the required surgical aid. It was necessary to place the boy under the influence of ether to put in several stitches. The bone of the thumb was not entirely severed but a tendon was cut which Dr. Horswill hopes to unite.
— —

19200319CR4

(ibid, page 5)
———–

Further Reading

Idaho Vaccination Clinic

1930sIdahoVaccinationClinic-a

This photo of a Depression-era outdoor vaccination clinic was taken at an unidentified location in Idaho.

source: National Laboratory of Medicine via ID AHGP
— — — — — — — — — —

The State of Science, Microbiology, and Vaccines Circa 1918

John M. Eyler, PhD US National Library of Medicine – National Institutes of Health

Synopsis

The influenza pandemic of 1918–1919 dramatically altered biomedical knowledge of the disease. At its onset, the foundation of scientific knowledge was information collected during the previous major pandemic of 1889–1890. The work of Otto Leichtenstern, first published in 1896, described the major epidemiological and pathological features of pandemic influenza and was cited extensively over the next two decades. Richard Pfeiffer announced in 1892 and 1893 that he had discovered influenza’s cause. Pfeiffer’s bacillus (Bacillus influenzae) was a major focus of attention and some controversy between 1892 and 1920. The role this organism or these organisms played in influenza dominated medical discussion during the great pandemic.

Many vaccines were developed and used during the 1918–1919 pandemic. The medical literature was full of contradictory claims of their success; there was apparently no consensus on how to judge the reported results of these vaccine trials. The result of the vaccine controversy was both a further waning of confidence in Pfeiffer’s bacillus as the agent of influenza and the emergence of an early set of criteria for valid vaccine trials.

When the great influenza pandemic of 1918–1919 began, the most important sources of knowledge about epidemic influenza were studies conducted during and immediately following the previous pandemic, that of 1889–1990. The 1889–1890 influenza pandemic was the first to occur in the Western world after the pandemic of 1848–1849. That meant that it was the first to have taken place since more prosperous nation states had created active, professional health departments and systems of vital statistics, and the first to be studied using the methods of modern pathology and bacteriology. The 1889–1890 pandemic generated a very large literary output and two particularly important biomedical syntheses. In 1891, Franklin Parsons, a member of the Medical Department of the Local Government Board in London, published a 300-page report on the pandemic based on surveys of all sanitary districts in England and Wales and on local studies in selected areas. Five years later, drawing on continental, especially German, scientific and clinical literature, Otto Leichtenstern published the definitive scientific study of influenza in Hermann Northnagel’s multi-volume handbook of special pathology. These two major works, particularly Leichtenstern’s, were the well from which American authors of medical textbooks and reference works, such as William Osler and Frederick Lord, would draw for the next two decades and the standards against which medical authorities would judge their observations and conclusions during the next great pandemic.

It says volumes about the rudimentary state of scientific knowledge of influenza in the early 1890s that the most important and lasting conclusion of these two seminal works was that influenza was a specific, communicable disease. It did spread very rapidly, more rapidly than any other known communicable disease, and it produced explosive local outbreaks. However, it never arose spontaneously, nor did it travel faster than humans travel. Close investigation easily debunked accounts of outbreaks occurring without precursor cases or in places without contact with infected individuals. Furthermore, isolated populations, such as those within prisons in heavily infected cities, sometimes escaped entirely. Although influenza occurred more often in winter and spring months, the pandemic struck in all latitudes of both hemispheres, at all altitudes inhabited by humans, and in all climates. It was clearly not caused by overt climatic or environmental factors. A serious influenza epidemic was seldom a solo event. A major epidemic was often followed within months by one or more additional outbreaks. Authorities of the early 1890s recognized that the diagnosis of influenza was difficult, and that mild cases were easily confused with other respiratory and catarrh-like disorders. They were quite certain from clinical and epidemiological records that the influenza of the great pandemic of 1889–1890 was the same disease that had caused the influenza pandemics of the past, such as that of 1848–1849. The more vexing problem was whether this pandemic influenza was the same disease as the disorder commonly known as influenza or grippe that occurred almost every year. Parsons thought they undoubtedly were distinct diseases; Leichtenstern agreed, although less adamantly.

Influenza Types

Its clinical features and its opaque identity made influenza seem an especially protean disease. Writing in 1907, Clifford Allbutt, Regius Professor of Medicine, “observed influenza is of protean diseases the most protean; more diversified even than syphilis.” Individual cases were characterized by their sudden onset and by extreme prostration, which was out of all proportion to other pathological features. The disease’s regular target was the respiratory tract, and pneumonia was the most serious complication of influenza and the major cause of mortality during an outbreak. But Leichtenstern observed that cases might exhibit no respiratory symptoms at all. In addition to the typical respiratory cases, both he and Parsons passed on a division of three subtypes inherited from earlier authors: nervous, catarrhal, and gastric. In succeeding years, the number of recognized clinical types swelled enormously. In 1907, when Frederick Lord wrote his chapter on influenza in Osler’s multi-volume reference work, Modern Medicine, he described no fewer than 10 clinical types, including influenza of the circulatory system, of the genito-urinary system, of the joints, and of the skin. Influenza, it seems, was having an identity crisis. This is a point to which we will return.

The generation working after the pandemic of 1889–1890 also classified influenza cases according to their occurrence and presumed cause. Leichtenstern proposed a tripartite division of influenza types: pandemic influenza vera (the disease that occurred in great global outbreaks), endemic-epidemic influenza vera (the disease having the same cause but which occurred in smaller outbreaks following a pandemic), and endemic influenza nostras (pseudo-influenza due to different causes). Both Osler and Lord passed on this classification to their readers, although Lord significantly altered the third category to endemic influenza vera, suggesting that cases in this classification must have the same cause as those occurring in epidemics.

The experience with the 1889–1890 pandemic taught medical authorities that pandemic influenza was a disease of very high morbidity and low case fatality, although it seemed that in the outbreaks immediately following a pandemic, morbidity rates could be expected to decline and case fatality rates to rise. Given the problems of differential diagnosis and the existence of mild cases, exact statistics were difficult to obtain. Authorities concluded, however, that in 1889–1890 the infection was very widely distributed in European nations. Leichtenstern estimated that as much as 50% of the German population had been infected, while Parsons put the estimate for Greater London at 25%. Reported incidence rates for employees of British institutions ranged from 9% for troops stationed in Britain to 33% for postal employees.

The experience of 1889–1890 suggested that pandemic influenza had distinct patterns of age-specific morbidity and mortality. Continental figures indicated that morbidity was highest between ages 20 and 40 and lowest after age 50, while case fatality rates were highest among the elderly. Deaths registered as due to influenza in England and Wales were highest in the age group 40–60 at 36%, while 24% of influenza deaths took place between the ages of 20 and 40 and 22% between the ages of 60 and 80. Parsons demonstrated that this mortality pattern was very different from that of the inter-pandemic period. Between 1876 and 1889, 33% of deaths attributed to influenza occurred in the first year of life and another 34% occurred after age 60.

The Bacteriology Of Influenza

During the pandemic of 1889–1890, researchers used the new methods of medical microbiology in unsuccessful efforts to identify the microbial cause of influenza. An apparent breakthrough came in 1892, during a subsequent outbreak, when Richard Pfeiffer announced in a single-page preliminary publication, and a year later in a more substantial article, that he had found influenza’s cause. Pfeiffer reported finding in every case of influenza he examined a rod-shaped organism. In uncomplicated cases he found these bacilli in overwhelming numbers and frequently in pure culture. Pfeiffer’s bacillus was challenging to work with. It was very small and fastidious. It would only grow on blood argar plates. It could not be stained with Gram’s stain, but it would accept Loeffler’s methylene blue stain, and it displayed characteristic polar staining, making it easy to confuse with diplococci. Pfeiffer was never able to find an animal model for influenza, although he innoculated mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, pigs, cats, dogs, and monkeys. To further complicate matters, although he had focused his investigation almost exclusively on influenza cases, he reported finding in a few cases of “diphtheric bronchopneumonia” a bacillus that was indistinguishable from his own bacillus on the grounds of morphology and of culture and staining characteristics. He labeled this organism pseudo-influenza bacillus.

In retrospect, Pfeiffer’s chain of evidence may seem more shaky than it did to his contemporaries. Pfeiffer, a protege of Robert Koch, was, after all, a productive and distinguished bacteriologist. Contemporaries respected the technical skill he exhibited in isolating and characterizing his bacillus. The failure to satisfy Koch’s Postulates by producing an experimental disease in animals by the inoculation of pure culture was not in itself damning. Koch, himself, had sometimes failed in this regard. The existence of the pseudo-influenza bacillus would seem to his contemporaries no more implausible than the existence of the pseudo-diphtheria bacillus. While the scientific response to Pfeiffer’s discovery is difficult to characterize concisely, it does seem fair to conclude that most medical authorities believed that Pfeiffer was basically correct in his identification, even though his evidence might not be complete. (Although the organism that Pfeiffer isolated was most likely what we know today as Hemophilus influenzae, we refer to it in this article in the way it was referred to during the period under discussion: Pfeiffer’s bacillus and Bacillus influenzae [B. influenzae]).

Parsons published before Pfeiffer’s announcement, but Leichtenstern published three years after, and he endorsed Pfeiffer’s discovery with only modest qualification. “Should the Bacillus influenzae, discovered by R. Pfeiffer in 1892, continue to maintain in future pandemics its place as the exclusive cause of the disease, as may certainly be expected, its discovery may be considered as the most important achievement of our latest influenza pandemic.”

In succeeding years there was keen interest in Pfeiffer’s bacillus. In 1892, when Pfeiffer announced the discovery of B. influenzae, Americans had little, if anything, to add to the discussion. By 1918, on the other hand, they were active participants. By that time, laboratory courses in medical bacteriology were being taught in most American medical schools, diagnostic laboratories operated in many hospitals and in some public health departments, and in some laboratories American bacteriologists were already doing world-class research. The active participation of medical officers in the U.S. Army in 1918 and 1919 is an indication of how widely disseminated the new laboratory techniques were in the American medical profession. These laboratories may seem rudimentary by 21st century standards. Microorganisms were identified primarily by morphology and by basic culture and staining techniques. Routine clinical diagnosis, sputum examinations for tuberculosis, and throat cultures for diphtheria, for example, had begun to exploit these basic laboratory techniques. More specialized techniques, such as the Widal examination of typhoid fever and complement fixation tests such as the Wassermann test for syphilis, were early examples of the exploitation of immunological phenomena. Filterable viruses were known to exist, but very little was known about them, and there were very few techniques for working with them.

In the years immediately following Pfeiffer’s discovery, many investigators confirmed his findings by isolating his bacillus from influenza cases. But there were complications. Others reported isolating organisms indistinguishable by contemporary laboratory methods from B. influenzae from other diseases and even from normal throats. For example David J. Davis, from the Memorial Institute for Infectious Diseases in Chicago, reported in 1906 isolating Pfeiffer’s bacilli from all but five of the series of 61 cases of whooping cough he studied. He also found them in 40% to 80% of a smaller number of cases of cerebro-spinal meningitis, varicella, measles, and bronchitis. Significantly, he succeeded in isolating Pfeiffer’s bacilli in only three (18%) of 17 cases of influenza.

Such results suggested to some that Pfeiffer’s bacillus was merely a secondary invader. But these findings might also indicate that this organism was a key player in a more complex etiology. W. D’Este Emery, clinical pathologist at King’s College Hospital, London, drew attention to the fact that B. influenzae grew more readily in culture in the presence of other organisms and seemed to be more virulent for animals in the presence of killed streptococci. Emery wondered whether Pfeiffer’s bacillus might be a “harmless saprophyte” most of the time but be capable in the presence of other pathogens of being transformed into “the pathogenic bacillus which occurred in the pandemic of the nineties.”

The confusion over the etiology of influenza on the eve of the pandemic of 1918–1919 is well illustrated in the eighth edition of Osler’s textbook of 1912. In the definition of the disease he states that “a special organism, Bacillus influenzae, is found,” and in the section on bacteriology he also states that this organism “is recognized as the cause of the disease,” but he also points out that it is commonly found in other diseases and is “probably constantly with us.” Despite such reservations, medical authorities recognized that Pfeiffer’s bacillus was the only viable candidate for the cause of influenza. On the eve of the pandemic of 1918–1919, it was deeply implicated in the understanding and even the definition of the disease. That great expansion in clinical types of influenza identified in Frederick Lord’s synthesis of scientific knowledge was made possible because B. influenzae had been isolated from the blood, from heart valves, from the joints, and from the urinary tract. In an age when etiological definitions of disease were of growing importance and bacteriology was beginning to provide the gold standard for differential diagnosis in infectious diseases, Pfeiffer’s bacillus had become indispensable.

Influenza Vaccines

The fate of Pfeiffer’s bacillus as the probable cause of influenza is reflected in the use of vaccines in the United States during the pandemic of 1918–1919. By 1918, the successful use of some vaccines, especially those against rabies, typhoid fever, and diphtheria, as well as the use of diphtheria anti-toxin, had raised high expectations for a vaccine against influenza. Those who already had a vaccine in hand were quick off the mark to promote their vaccines as sure preventives or cures for influenza. Drug manufacturers aggressively promoted their stock vaccines for colds, grippe, and flu. These vaccines were of undisclosed composition. As public anxiety and demand swelled, there were complaints of price gouging and kickbacks. Preexisting vaccines of undisclosed composition were also endorsed by physicians such as M.J. Exner, who actively promoted in newspaper interviews and testimonials the vaccine developed some six years earlier by his colleague, Ellis Bonime. Bonime was a late champion of the tuberculin treatment of tuberculosis and an adherent of the opsonin theory of immune response and of the therapeutic use of vaccines. His vaccine was claimed to prevent pneumonia, influenza, and blood poisoning. Exner’s boosterism paid some dividends. At least one municipality, Far Rockaway, New York, announced that it would provide Bonime’s vaccine to all its citizens.

Early in the pandemic, more highly respected and well-placed authorities developed vaccines based explicitly on Pfeiffer’s bacillus. On October 2, 1918, Royal S. Copeland, Health Commissioner of New York City, sought to reassure citizens that help was on the way, because the director of the Health Department’s laboratories, William H. Park, was developing a vaccine that would offer protection against this dreaded disease. Park’s successes in combating diphtheria with anti-toxins and vaccines developed in these same laboratories gave Copeland’s announcement much weight. Park explained to his colleagues that he and his staff consistently had been able to isolate Pfeiffer’s bacillus from influenza cases, and that his laboratory had isolated the current strain, shown that animals injected with it developed specific antibodies, and developed a heat-killed vaccine that was to be administered in three doses at two-day intervals.

Park’s was not the only Pfeiffer’s bacillus influenza vaccine to make an early appearance during the pandemic. At Tufts Medical School in Boston, Timothy Leary, professor of bacteriology and pathology, developed another Pfeiffer’s bacillus vaccine. His was developed from three locally isolated strains, and it was heat-killed and chemically treated. Leary promoted his vaccine as both a preventive and a treatment for influenza. Other Pfeiffer’s bacillus vaccines soon followed. Faculty from the Medical School of the University of Pittsburgh isolated 13 strains of the Pfeiffer’s bacillus and produced a vaccine from them by modifying the techniques Park had used. In the crisis atmosphere of the pandemic, the Pittsburgh vaccine developers isolated their strains, prepared the vaccine, tested it for toxicity in some laboratory animals and in two humans, and turned it over to the Red Cross for use in humans — all in one week. In New Orleans, Charles W. Duval and William H. Harris from Tulane University’s Department of Pathology and Bacteriology developed their own chemically killed Pfeiffer’s bacillus vaccine. Their justification for its use was the common presence of the bacillus in influenza cases and the example of the typhoid vaccine whose administration schedule they followed.

It was not only heads of bacteriological laboratories who acted on the assumption that Pfeiffer’s bacillus was the cause of influenza and developed vaccines on that assumption. Some private physicians did the same. Horace Greeley of Brooklyn, New York, reported isolating 17 strains of the bacillus from 17 patients, and from these “strains,” he developed a heat-killed vaccine intended to be administered in three increasing doses. With it he immunized his own patients, and he distributed eight liters to colleagues who did the same.

These vaccines were widely used. Park’s vaccine was released to the military for use in Army camps as well as to private physicians. It was also used as corporate policy among industrial workers, including the 14,000 employees of the Consolidated Gas Company and 275,000 employees of the U.S. Steel Company. Leary’s vaccine was used frequently during the epidemic in state custodial institutions of the Northeast and by some private physicians. Duval and Harris reported immunizing approximately 5,000 people, most of whom were employees of large New Orleans companies. Almost without exception, those reporting on the use of these Pfeiffer’s bacillus vaccines reported that they were effective in preventing influenza.

The Faltering Case For Pfeiffer’s Bacillus

At first the apparent success of these vaccines served to increase confidence in the role played by Pfeiffer’s bacillus. But other evidence was accumulating. Initially, when observers reported difficulty isolating Pfeiffer’s bacillus from influenza cases, they found their technique and experience questioned. But slowly the evidence against Pfeiffer’s bacillus mounted, first ambiguously and then emphatically. J.J. Keegan, a naval medical officer working in the Boston area, published an early report on studies undertaken during an outbreak of 2,000 cases in the First Naval District during the two-week period between August 28 and September 11, 1918. Keegan made a special effort to study the outbreak bacteriologically. He had difficulty isolating Pfeiffer’s bacillus from throat washings or from sputum in both influenza cases and from patients admitted to the hospital with other conditions. He wondered whether the organism might be harbored in the sinuses or some other place more inaccessible to him. When he resorted to lung punctures in life and lung cultures at postmortem, he succeeded in isolating Pfeiffer’s bacillus in 82.6% of 23 cases.

Other ambiguous results came from Edwin Jordan, a future American influenza expert. Jordan reported on a large bacteriological study of patients diagnosed with influenza and with other diseases during and after the epidemic at the University of Chicago. He reported finding no consistent bacteriology in his cases. No microorganism was present in all influenza cases. Although he identified Pfeiffer’s bacillus in 64% of influenza cases, and this was more frequent than any other organism, its relative abundance varied a great deal among cases. He also isolated B. influenzae in 14% of colds and other infections.

A group from the medical staff of Cook County Hospital in Chicago undertook a careful study using 3,000 blood agar culture plates and procedures that they held should have detected B. influenzae, if it were present. They found that Pfeiffer’s bacillus was present in only a small number of cases: in only 4% of cultures made from washed sputum samples and in only 8.7% of postmortem lung cultures. They did find the organism in near pure culture in the lungs of a soldier who had died of influenzal pneumonia. They regarded Pfeiffer’s bacillus as the cause of that case of pneumonia. They found that pneumococci were the most common organisms isolated in this study, appearing in 70% of sputum cultures and in 38% of throat swab cultures. Type IV pneumococci were isolated in 50% of lung cultures made at autopsy. Types I–III were all also present but at lesser frequencies.

By early 1919, evidence was running more strongly against Pfeiffer’s bacillus. In February, David Davis, employing strict morphological and culture criteria, reported that he had succeeded in isolating what he identified as B. influenzae in only 8% of 62 cases of influenza he studied. As noted, he had earlier isolated this organism in higher percentages of cases of measles, varicella, tuberculosis, and pertussis. There was no doubt, he argued, that Pfeiffer’s bacillus was pathogenic for humans. He had isolated it from the spinal fluid in all cases of meningitis accompanying bronchopneumonia where B. influenzae was also present in pure or nearly pure culture. He concluded that whatever the cause of influenza might be, its most serious features were due to secondary invaders including streptococci, pneumococci, and B. influenzae. Frederick Lord and colleagues at Boston reached similar conclusions. Like Davis, Lord had already isolated B. influenzae from diseases other than influenza. In this pandemic, he and his colleagues isolated organisms resembling Pfeiffer’s bacillus in 84% of 38 hospitalized influenza cases, but also in 41% of the throats of members of the Harvard Students’ Army Training Corps, who had no record of illness for the previous three months. Lord concluded that B. influenzae should be regarded as a part of the normal flora of the human throat, but that there was no way to be certain whether the organisms found in normal throats and in other diseases with similar morphology and culture and staining characteristics were really identical to those found in influenza.

There remained, it seemed, a possibility that would clarify recent bacteriological findings and still rescue a place for Pfeiffer’s bacillus in the etiology of influenza. Perhaps, as would prove to be the case with diphtheria, there was a pseudo-influenza bacillus or different strains of B. influenzae, not all of which caused influenza. In that case, the finding of organisms morphologically identical to Pfeiffer’s bacillus in other diseases was not evidence against the role of Pfeiffer’s bacillus in influenza.

Several researchers investigated this possibility by trying to type strains of Pfeiffer’s bacillus, but their findings did little to buttress faith in B. influenzae’s role in influenza. F.H. Rapoport, a naval medical officer from Chelsea, Massachusetts, employed the complement fixation test for antibodies to B. influenzae in convalescent sera from cases of influenzal pneumonia and from normal control sera. He concluded that specific antibodies against Pfeiffer’s bacillus were formed during convalescence from pneumonia accompanying influenza, but that these had weak complement-binding properties. He could not determine whether one or more strains of Pfeiffer’s bacillus were circulating during the epidemic, although he observed that polyvalent antigens in his samples gave no better results than did monovalent ones.

Park and his associates studied cultures taken from 100 cases of influenza. In some cases, cultures were taken repeatedly over time. Careful antigen typing showed that there was a large variety of types of B. influenzae, that the organisms taken from an individual were quite stable over time, but that there were differences among the many types isolated from different individuals. He suggested that, like pneumococcus, B. influenzae had over the years in the throats of healthy carriers altered into distinct types. Pfeiffer’s bacillus in cases of influenza, he concluded, must be regarded as a secondary invader.

Alternative Etiologies, Other Vaccines

Other candidates had been proposed as the cause of influenza during the pandemic, but these were disposed of rather quickly. An Army medical officer, Captain George Mathers, who died of influenza during his investigation, isolated and characterized a streptococcus that produced a green color on blood agar plates. At Fort Mead, he isolated his green-producing streptococcus from 87% of influenza and pneumonia cases, while he was able to isolate Pfeiffer’s bacillus in only 58% of these cases.

The Mathers streptococcus attracted some attention during the early months of the pandemic. Jordan, for example, systematically looked for it in his study but found no evidence that made it seem a more probable cause than B. influenzae. Then, in both Europe and America, investigators considered the possibility that influenza might be caused by a filterable virus. At issue was the disputed finding that influenza could be caused in humans by inoculation of material from the noses or throats of influenza patients that had been passed through a bacterial filter. French and Japanese investigators had reported succeeding in transferring influenza by this method. American researchers failed to confirm these findings. The researchers from Cook County Hospital used this method to inoculate seven human volunteers without causing disease. They did the same with cultures made from the lungs of influenza pneumonia victims and inoculated two Rhesus monkeys with similar results. Other laboratory and human inoculation experiments aimed at detecting a filterable virus were also negative. These negative findings were also confirmed by extensive human experiments with influenza sponsored by the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Public Health Service.

As confidence in the role of Pfeiffer’s bacillus in influenza waned, the strategy of prevention by vaccine changed. Vaccines developed later in the pandemic — and almost all developed in the middle of the country and on the West Coast—were composed of other organisms either singly or in mixtures. Increasingly, vaccines were justified as preventing the pneumonias that accompanied influenza. Killed streptococci vaccines were developed by a physician in Denver and by the medical staff of the Puget Sound Naval Yard. The latter was used among sailors and also among civilians in Seattle.

Mixed vaccines were more common. These typically contained pneumococci and streptococci. Sometimes staphylococci, Pfeiffer’s bacillus, and even unidentified organisms recently isolated in the ward or morgue were included. The most widely used, and historically the most interesting, was the vaccine produced by Edward C. Rosenow of the Mayo Clinic’s Division of Experimental Bacteriology. Rosenow argued that the exact composition of a vaccine intended to prevent pneumonia had to match the distribution of the lung-infecting microbes then in circulation. For that reason, he insisted that the composition of his vaccine had to be frequently readjusted. His initial vaccine consisted of killed bacteria in these proportions: 30% pneumococci types I, II, and III; 30% pneumococci type IV and a “green-producing diplostreptococcus;” 20% hemolytic streptococci; 10% staphylococcus aureus; and 10% B. influenzae. He later dropped Pfeiffer’s bacillus entirely. The Mayo Clinic distributed Rosenow’s vaccine widely to physicians in the upper Midwest. No one seems to know for sure how many people received this vaccine, but, through physicians, Rosenow received returns for 93,000 people who had received all three injections, 23,000 who had received two injections, and 27,000 who had received one. Rosenow’s vaccine received even wider distribution. It was adopted by the City of Chicago. The Laboratories of the Chicago Health Department produced more than 500,000 doses of the vaccine. Some of it was distributed to Chicago physicians and the rest was turned over to the state health department for use throughout Illinois.

Vaccine Controversy And Standards For Vaccine Trials

As was the case with Pfeiffer’s bacillus vaccines, most of the early reports on the use of these mixed vaccines indicated they were effective. Readers of American medical journals in 1918 and for much of 1919 were thus faced with the strange circumstance that all vaccines, regardless of their composition, their mode of administration, or the circumstances in which they were tested, were held to prevent influenza or influenzal pneumonia. Something was clearly wrong. The medical profession had at the time no consensus on what constituted a valid vaccine trial, and it could not determine whether these vaccines did any good at all. The lack of agreed-upon standards was exacerbated by the informal editorial procedures and the absence of peer review in scientific publication in 1918. During the pandemic of 1918–1919, the profession was forced to develop standards for vaccine trials. Park and George McCoy, director of the Hygienic Laboratory of the Public Health Service, led the assault pointing out the fallacies in design or inference of current reports. Most trials began after the first cases of influenza had appeared locally, often after the epidemic peak had passed, and hence the most susceptible may already have been attacked and could not appear in the vaccinated group, and the more resistant were likely to be assigned to the vaccinated group. Little effort was usually made to minimize selection bias in assignments to experimental or control arms or to match each group by age, sex, and exposure. And too many trials operated with poor observation and imperfect data collection.

McCoy arranged his own trial of the Rosenow vaccine produced by the Laboratories of the Chicago Health Department. He and his associates worked in a mental asylum in California where they could keep all subjects under close observation. They immunized alternate patients younger than age 41 on every ward, completing the last immunization 11 days before the local outbreak began. Under these more controlled conditions, Rosenow’s vaccine offered no protection whatsoever. McCoy’s article appeared as a one-column report in the December 14, 1918, edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).

At the meeting of the American Public Health Association (APHA) later that month, McCoy and Park used their positions on the Executive Sub-committee on the Bacteriology of the 1918 Epidemic of Influenza to issue a manifesto that appeared in APHA’s “Working Program against Influenza.” APHA declared that because the cause of influenza was unknown, there was no logical basis for a vaccine to prevent the disease. There was a logical basis for believing that a vaccine to prevent the secondary infections might be developed, but there was no evidence that any of the vaccines currently available were effective. The association then specified the criteria that a trial must meet, if its conclusions were to be valid. There must be a control group, the association specified, and the vaccinated and the control group must be equal in size. The relative susceptibilities of the two groups must be equivalent as determined by age, sex, and prior exposure. Their degree of exposure must be of equal duration and intensity, and should take place during the same phase of the epidemic.

The reformers’ campaign had an impact. Following its publication — although the basic design faults of many trials remained — some authors now acknowledged shortcomings in their data or qualified their conclusions, and a few cited APHA’s new standards as authoritative. By the beginning of 1919, Rosenow, the most vocal defender of vaccines, found himself on the defensive. During the discussion of his paper at APHA’s annual meeting, he faced hostile comments from both McCoy and Victor Vaughan. The next month, JAMA ran an anonymous critical editorial accompanying his first article on the use of his vaccine. Perhaps the best evidence that professional standards were changing is found in two studies sponsored by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company during the 1919–1920 influenza season. Both were unprecedented in the influenza literature in the care taken in trial design and analysis. Park and his associate, Anna Von Sholly, studied the use of two mixed vaccines among the employees of the home office of Met Life. Edwin Jordan and W.B. Sharp studied the effects of a single mixed vaccine in three residential schools and two large mental hospitals in Illinois. While adhering to the standards APHA had set forth, both studies concluded the vaccines used were ineffective.

Epidemiological Studies

American epidemiologists also devoted much attention to the 1918–1919 pandemic. Some of their studies — such as the substantial study on the epidemic in Connecticut by Winslow and Rogers, or the study of trends from 1910 to 1918 that W.H. Frost prepared for the Public Health Service, or Raymond Pearl’s statistical analysis of the epidemic curves of major American cities — were large-scale studies based on mass mortality data. Some of the more illuminating, however, were smaller-scale studies in which chains of transmission could be traced and incubation periods estimated in small, isolated populations such as inmates in a prison or residents on a small island. Among the most important were studies that acknowledged that accurate information on cases of influenza, rather than simply influenza and pneumonia deaths, was both lacking and critically important. The Public Health Service made a major effort to obtain records of illness through household surveys it conducted in 10 communities across the nation in which it was already doing research. A more intensive study was undertaken by Warren T. Vaughan in a population of 10,000 in six carefully chosen districts in Boston during the 1920 flu season. He also obtained information retrospectively on household illness during 1918–1919.

This epidemiological research confirmed many of the findings from 1889–1890 about pandemic influenza’s rapid spread, explosive local outbreaks, and very high morbidity rates. Frost’s analysis of the household returns show a range of local influenza morbidity rates ran from 150 to 530 cases per 1,000, although both he and Vaughan concluded that 200 per 1,000 was more typical for 1918–1919. Those enormously high rates of incidence explained how a disease with case fatality rates these authors found to range from 0.8% to 3.1% could cause so many deaths. These studies also showed that differences in case fatality rates were more important than differences in incidence rates in explaining the age group mortality patterns, including the high death rates among young adults during the pandemic.

Vaughan was unusual in paying attention to the question of population immunity. Although the cause of influenza must have been widely distributed in his districts in 1918–1919, some people showed remarkable resistance to the disease. Fifty-five percent of those in his study groups who shared a bed with an influenza victim during the pandemic escaped the disease. He argued that the patterns of incidence and death during the 1918–1919 pandemic could not be explained by immunity acquired during the pandemic of 1889–1890, and he suggested, perhaps more sagaciously than he realized, that understanding of herd immunity would be the key to understanding the epidemiology of influenza. If measles produced no lasting immunity, he pointed out, its outbreaks in cities would be as explosive as those of the great pandemic of 1918–1919.

Perhaps the most interesting epidemiological studies conducted during the 1918–1919 pandemic were the human experiments conducted by the Public Health Service and the U.S. Navy under the supervision of Milton Rosenau on Gallops Island, the quarantine station in Boston Harbor, and on Angel Island, its counterpart in San Francisco. The experiment began with 100 volunteers from the Navy who had no history of influenza. Rosenau was the first to report on the experiments conducted at Gallops Island in November and December 1918. His first volunteers received first one strain and then several strains of Pfeiffer’s bacillus by spray and swab into their noses and throats and then into their eyes. When that procedure failed to produce disease, others were inoculated with mixtures of other organisms isolated from the throats and noses of influenza patients. Next, some volunteers received injections of blood from influenza patients. Finally, 13 of the volunteers were taken into an influenza ward and exposed to 10 influenza patients each. Each volunteer was to shake hands with each patient, to talk with him at close range, and to permit him to cough directly into his face. None of the volunteers in these experiments developed influenza. Rosenau was clearly puzzled, and he cautioned against drawing conclusions from negative results. He ended his article in JAMA with a telling acknowledgement: “We entered the outbreak with a notion that we knew the cause of the disease, and were quite sure we knew how it was transmitted from person to person. Perhaps, if we have learned anything, it is that we are not quite sure what we know about the disease.”

The research conducted at Angel Island and that continued in early 1919 in Boston broadened this research by inoculating with the Mathers streptococcus and by including a search for filter-passing agents, but it produced similar negative results. It seemed that what was acknowledged to be one of the most contagious of communicable diseases could not be transferred under experimental conditions.

The Pandemic And Biomedical Knowledge

While the experience of the great pandemic of 1918–1919 had given American medical researchers a heightened appreciation of the dangers of pandemic influenza, and while it permitted epidemiologists to enlarge the fund of descriptive information on influenza outbreaks, it had done little to unlock the mysteries of the disease. If anything, the experience of 1918–1919 served to deconstruct existing biomedical knowledge.

This void in fundamental knowledge would not be filled soon. When Jordan published his massive, 500-page authoritative synthesis of the influenza literature in 1927, the most basic and fundamental features of influenza were still unexplained. Jordan told his readers that influenza could only be defined by its pattern of occurrence — its epidemiology. Its cause was unknown, and its pathology was indefinite. It was uncertain whether there was acquired immunity for influenza, and, if there was, how long it lasted. Why pandemics occurred when they did and why they spared some places were also unknown. It was also uncertain whether the disease called influenza that occurred every year in sporadic cases and small outbreaks was the same disease that circulated in the pandemics. He continued the practice of distinguishing “influenza” from “epidemic influenza.”

Jordan did suggest that changes in virulence of the still unknown agent of influenza might be important and that this agent might be filterable, but in 1927 these were still speculations for which there was no direct evidence. In short, the three decades that had passed since Leichtenstern published his major synthesis had seen remarkably little addition to the fund of basic scientific knowledge of influenza, in spite of concerted efforts by researchers employing the best available research tools.

source: NIH with References
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Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
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Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 86)

Idaho History Dec 26, 2021

Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic

Part 86

Idaho Newspaper Clippings March 12-16, 1920

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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March 12

Montpelier Examiner. March 12, 1920, Page 1

19200312ME1

19200312ME2Native of Bear Lake Dies At Afton, Wyo.

The Star Valley Independent of last Saturday chronicles the death in Afton a week ago Sunday of Leona Rich Gardner, wife of Bishop Franklin Gardener of that city. Mrs. Gardener had been ill for three weeks, the original cause being an attack of influenza.

An extremely sad feature of the death of Mrs. Gardner is that she leaves three small children besides her husband to mourn her loss. The oldest of the children is less than three years.

Leona Angelia Rich was born in St. Charles, Idaho, on February 17, 1891, being just a little more than 29 years of age at the time of her death. Four years ago she was united in marriage to Franklin R. Gardner of this city, to which union were born three children.

Mrs. Gardner was a graduate of the Fielding Academy of Paris, and after graduating from that school came to Star Valley and taught in both the grade and district school of Star Valley. She was always active in church work, and for a time was president of the Mutual.

Aside from a heart broken husband and three children, Mrs. Gardner leaves a father, mother, six sisters and three bothers to mourn her loss.
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Many School Truants Have Been Reported

Truant Officer E. J. Phelps asked The Examiner to call the attention of parents to the urgent need of sending written excuses in every instance where their children are kept out of school. There is a law requiring this. Many complaints have been received by Mr. Phelps from the teachers of the various schools of numerous cases of absence, and in a number of cases investigated by the officer, these boys have been found loitering about the city, and when approached regarding their absence from school would offer some kind of flimsy excuse. Mr. Phelps has inaugurated a campaign that will do much to reduce truancy or unwarranted absence of young boys.

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 12 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier Examiner. March 12, 1920, Page 4

[Editorial]

Some of the business men of the city are wondering if the people generally realize that all the dangers attendant upon the last epidemic of flu are now passed into oblivion. Some of the professional men in particular complain of slackness in business, which they believe is due to the fact that people in outlying districts are still fearful of the flu. We believe that the flu has completely vanished from this section of the state and that business can go on unhampered.
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Paris Notes

Funeral services for Mrs. Anna Nate Passey were held here in the Second ward chapel last Saturday afternoon. Speakers were Robert Shepherd, President Wm. L Rich, L. Tracy Shepherd and other friends of the deceased. All the speakers extolled highly the live of Mrs. Passey, of her faith, her many good works, her qualities as a wife and mother. Music was furnished by the ward choir. …

(ibid, page 4)
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Montpelier Examiner. March 12, 1920, Page 9

St. Charles Notes

We are very pleased to learn that Mr. Johnnie Pugmire who has been ill for the past month is now on the road to recovery.

Mrs. Thomas Michaelson’s little daughter is reported to be much improved also.

Brother Blade is very sick. He has been laying very low the past two months and is seriously sick at the present.

(ibid, page 9)
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American Falls Press. March 12, 1920, Page 2

19200312AFP1

Correspondence
News of Interest From Nearby Towns and Settlements

Rockland

Little Logan Ewing, son of Mr. and Mrs. Robert I. Ewing, has been very ill with pneumonia but is now on the road to recovery.

Roy and Vicinity

Mrs. Berl Byerley was called to Seattle last week by the serious illness and death of her sister, Miss Eva Shields, who died from the effects of influenza. She was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. S. S. Shields of Milton and visited with her sister, Mrs. Byerley last summer and made a number of friends during her stay here. The heartfelt sympathy of the community is extended to Mrs. Byerley in her bereavement.

Mrs. J. D. Lower and Miss Claire Lower came in from the Falls Saturday. Mrs. Lower has been taking medical treatments at American Falls.

Prosperity

Mrs. W. Wetzel was ill last week, but is recovering.

Jack Walters, who has been seriously ill with pneumonia, is slowly recovering.

Many of the Prosperity farmers are out of straw and are buying hay for their stock.

Arbon Central School Notes

There was no school Tuesday due to the stove smoking.

Arbon and Vicinity

Eynon Davis returned home last week from near Jerome where he was called by the illness of his father.

The infant son of Mr. and Mrs. Geo. Houck, has been quick sick the past week.

The infant child of Mr. and Mrs. Perry Howell is very ill at their home here.

The infant son of Mr. and Mrs. Perry Howell is quite ill with pneumonia.

The dance was well attended at Central hall Friday evening especially by a crowd of drunken men and young men, some of them from Pauline. The boys were merely boys who have been attending school There is a strong suspicion where the liquor was obtained.

Some of the telephone lines have been down during the recent storm and are being repaired.
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19200312AFP2

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 12 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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American Falls Press. March 12, 1920, Page 5

Local Briefs

Miss Goldie Drake has been confined to her home this week with a severe attack of bronchitis.

Mary G. Fisher, the school mistress at Bonanza Bar, has been visiting in American Falls this week.

Phillip and Philo Stilson stopped last week-end in American Falls to visit with Mr. and Mrs. Jack Stuart and family, and many other old friends from eastern Washington. They were on their way home following a trip to eastern Washington to attend the funeral of their sister and mother, both of whom died suddenly.

(ibid, page 5)
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American Falls Press. March 12, 1920, Page 8

Hospital Notes

Ora Kramer who has been ill with influenza and pneumonia returned to Rockland today.

Mrs. Frank J. Winzel of Aberdeen, who was operated upon about ten days ago returned home today.

Mrs. N. W. Chapman of Raft River was operated upon yesterday and is getting along nicely.

Miss Annie Schroeder of Aberdeen is a patient at the hospital, suffering from an ear affection.
— —

Eight Arrests Made For Violation Of Speed Laws

Eight auto drivers were arrested Sunday for exceeding the speed limit of 15 miles an hour within the city limits. These arrested were C. Lee French, W. H. Philbrick, W. L. Newton, H. F. Fitzpatrick, U. R. Smith, W. H. Griswold, Calvert Sallee and George Bowman. All paid the fine of $5 and costs.

The sudden decent of the speed “cop” on the main thoroughfare of the city caught the drivers totally unawares. It was the first recent effort of the city council to curb the recklessness of auto drivers who dash through town at forbidden speeds. Joe Watts held the watch on the drivers and in a few hours had made arrests that will pay for several yards of graveling during the spring months.

(ibid, page 8)
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The Idaho Republican. March 12, 1920, Page 3

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Idaho State News

Joe Auola, a sheepman, was fined $110 and costs in Mountain Home for exposing range to sheep scab.
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Shelley

Last Monday N. R., Lambert demonstrated the Fordson tractor by hooking on to a road drag and dragging Main street and some of the other business streets of the town.

No more teams will be allowed to tie on Main street by order of the village board. A long row of hitching posts just north of the postoffice has been put up for the accommodation of the farmers and others who wish to tie up their teams while in town. A severe penalty will be enforced on those who disregard the signs on the telephone posts on Main street to this effect.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 12 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Republican. March 12, 1920, Page 5

Local News

Dr. Bernhisel is reported on the sick list.

Mrs. Maude Turman has returned from Hamer, Idaho, where she attended the funeral of her brother.

Sheriff A. H. Simmons returned yesterday from Vancouver, where he was called to the bedside of his brother who was seriously ill. The sheriff reports his brother much improved at the present time.
— —

Cheering. — “Did the doctor seem encouraged about your condition?”

“Yes,” said Mr. Grabcoin, “I have an idea he thinks I’m going to be one of the most profitable patients he ever had.”

— Birmingham Age-Herald.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Idaho Republican. March 12, 1920, Page 6

Firth

William Jolley is at his place of business after a week’s absence due to influenza.

Mr. Scarborough wishes to thank the many friends who so kindly assisted him during the illness of his beloved wife, also for the many beautiful floral offerings.

Mrs. L. J. Firth is improving after a week’s illness.

Miss Gertrude Berquist has charge of the Y. W. C. A. drive here. Everyone should respond to this good cause, “The betterment of conditions for the working girl.”
— —

Rose

Bishop J. S. Gardner, while chasing sheep last Sunday, fell and cut a severe gash in his head. Dr. Mitchell was called and the wounds were dressed.

Mrs. J. S. Gardner, who has been ill, has recovered sufficiently to enable her to resume her duties.

(ibid, page 6)
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The Idaho Republican. March 12, 1920, Page 7

Centerville

Little Hazel Haynes is listed among the sick this week.
— —

Minors May Be Pinched For Smoking In Public

Minors under eighteen who smoke or use cigarettes, cigars or tobacco in any form upon public highways or other public properties may be declared “delinquent” and committed to a reformatory, according to a ruling made by Attorney General Black in answer to a Paris, Idaho inquiry.

Section 8363 of the complied statutes, to which he called attention in his ruling, provides that “every minor person who shall smoke, etc., shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.” Section 1010, also quoted, provides that children under the age of eighteen years “who violate any law of this state” may be declared “delinquent.”

(ibid, page 7)
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Shoshone Journal. March 12, 1920, Page 1

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An (Un)important Announcement

The Journal shop is now takin [sic] its turn with “unavoidable circumstances” the same as some of the rest of ’em.

Last week one of the printers heard “the call of the wild” – only in this case it was the call of the mother-in-law, which is the same as far as results go, and forwith [sic] departed. Another man was scheduled to take his place but was prevented from showing up on account of sickness or something else – anyway he has not yet appeared. Early in the week the Chief Cause of the Journal publication flew home with the flu and went to roost. Not dangerous but plenty sick enough to obey orders with no back talk when the doctor told him to go to bed for several days.

Naturally this leaves the Journal force somewhat crippled, whether above or below is left for the reader to decide, but we’ll do our best, angels can do no more, and hope for better working conditions before next issue.
— —

Additional Local News

The meeting of the home nursing class has been postponed. The date of meeting will be announced later.

Joe Riley, Janitor at the County Court House is sick at his home with influenza and Pearl Burns is attending to his duties at the Court House.

Miss Brooks, one of the teachers in the Shoshone public schools, was able to resume her duties Monday morning after an absence of about three weeks caused by illness with the influenza.

Mrs. Frank Clem, returned last Friday from Hot Lake, Oregon, where she had been with her husband, who was quite ill for some time, but is now recovering.
— —

High School Notes

Only nine more weeks of school!!

Miss Brooks is back in school after several weeks absence.

Martha Bernard is back in school after several weeks vacation with the “flu.”

The term examinations are to be held this week. Watch for the list of “Flunkies.”

Some of the “flunkers” are in hopes that the “flunkers class” will be discontinued after Friday’s examinations. We hope so.
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Dietrich Precinct Notes

Jens Jorgensen living out in the southwest corner of the tract is suffering with a hard case of the flu.

Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Morrow have had a hard struggle fighting the flu that has been attacking their several little children. On Thursday the fourth instant their little baby girl, Mary, passed away a victim of the dread disease.
— —

Card of Thanks

We wish to thank our friends and neighbors for their kindness during the illness and death of our dear baby Elizabeth Anne.

Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Morrow
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Dietrich School Notes

Quarterly examinations are held this week, Thursday and Friday. Mary Crist was substitute cook Tuesday on account of the illness of Mary Brennen.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 12 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Shoshone Journal. March 12, 1920, Page 5

Local Items
I can not say what the truth may be, I tell the tale as ’twas told to me.

Miss Stella Cook, County Treasurer, is back in her office after being confined to her home for several days with a severe cold.

Dr. H. G. Baugh for the past several [days] has been confined to his bed suffering from a severe attack of sciatica rheumatism. He is slowly improving and hopes soon to be at his office.

C. W, Wernicke is able to be out after being confined to his home for two weeks with an attack of influenza. A part of the time he was severely ill.

Mrs. Stephens of the Colonial Hotel, is able to be out of the house for the first time since she became ill two months ago, and underwent a serious operation. She is now rapidly recovering her health.

L. M. Zug, who served two terms as sheriff in Lincoln County, for the past few weeks has been very ill at his home in Jerome. He has had a severe attack of rheumatism, but last reports were somewhat improved.

The first air plane visited Shoshone Wednesday afternoon and attracted much attention. It flew above the town at a low altitude for a few minutes after which it departed toward Richfield. The plane was recently bought by the Furcht company of Gooding and will be used by them to carry passengers either on business or pleasure. Friday, March 13th, has been designated by Gooding as aviation day and it is understood that quite a celebration is to be held at that place featuring air plane flight.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Idaho Recorder. March 12, 1920, Page 1

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May

The May school reopened a week ago Wednesday, with small attendance.

Last Thursday the little two-year-old baby of Mr. and Mrs. James Artie died of the flu. All the other members of the family were quick sick at the time but are able to be up now.

Dr. and Mrs. Gilman are both down with the flu. These seem to be the only new cases in the upper valley.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 12 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Idaho Recorder. March 12, 1920, Page 5

Idaho State News

Shoshone is to have a new, well equipped hospital.

The mining companies in the Coeur d’Alene district announced last week an increase in wages to all employees of 50 cents per day.

So many arrests have been made at Gooding in the past few days that the jail is crowded to the limit. If malefactions continue, additional bastile quarters will be needed.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Idaho Recorder. March 12, 1920, Page 6

Fourth Of July

Mrs. Theodore Gautier, Sr., who has been suffering with a cold for some time, is on the mend at this writing.
— —

Boyle Creek News

The eighth grade pupils of the Boyle creek school passed their mid-year examinations with high grades.

(ibid, page 6)
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The Idaho Recorder. March 12, 1920, Page 7

Salmon Locals

Mell Howe was misquoted about the prospects of oil and gas in the Salmon country and wishes to disavow saying what the reporter attributed to him in that connection. Howe says the Salmon country has plenty of wealth without claiming for it gas and oil.
— —

Spring Creek

Snowed every day this week which is a sure sign of spring, but they say this is fine for the range.

Last Sunday a team of Charles Hull’s horses ran away. No one was hurt except the harness and the bobsled, these were scattered along the road through the lane.

(ibid, page 7)
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The Idaho Recorder. March 12, 1920, Page 8

Northwest Notes

Every inhabitant of a Paiute Indian village in the Inyo county, Cal., near Dyer, Nev., has been stricken with influenza, according to a report brought to Tonopah by a rural mail carrier. He said there had been more than 100 deaths and none had received medical attention.

The official report of the department of agriculture indicates that the elk in Jackson’s Hole are in no danger of extermination, thanks to the co-operation of residents of that section with the state and government officials.

In a shooting, which took place at the Erickson ranch, six miles west of Glasgow, Mont., Ernest Erickson was killed, presumably by his son, Ben, who is thought to be insane.

(ibid, page 8)
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The Idaho Recorder. March 12, 1920, Page 10

Leadore And Upper Lemhi

Leadore

Mrs. Bernard Allhands and little daughter Virginia left last Tuesday for Yakima, Wash., where they expect to remain several months. Mrs. Allhands has suffered considerably this winter with bronchitis and it is thought a lower altitude will be very beneficial to her health.

Jack Hain was taken violently sick while driving his engine and was conveyed at once to Dillon. Indications point to pneumonia.

The ice harvest is in full blast this week. The Keating ice house is full and carpenters are busy putting the roof on and otherwise inclosing the building. The crop this season was of the fine quality, thick and clear, most of it being cut from the Bert Wilson lake.

Jim Potter, the sawmill man from Ten-Mile, is in town again for a few days. Jim’s auto still stands marooned in the snow where he got stuck trying to reach here last month for the masquerade. He says it will keep for some time as it is well covered with snow.

Leadore School Notes

Marguerite Saline is back in school again after a two week’s absence. She is taking a course in typewriting alone.

Yes, and here’s Genevieve Smith. Just walked in. All our school will be back soon at this rate. Daisy Yearian is also here.

Ethel Maes has the appendicitis.

A number of us who are not in the domestic science class would like to know where to find Prof. Adams at 3:30 p.m. We know he’s fond of lemon pie and cookies but he won’t confess. And Mrs. Burr, why does she run to the water fountain after eating blackberry pie cooked in the domestic science department. Salty?

(ibid, page 10)
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 12, 1920, Page 5

19200312CT1

Local And Personal

Mrs. Katherine Hammond, age 23 years, died at her home Wednesday evening at 5 o’clock after a lingering illness. She leaves a husband and ten months old baby. Funeral services will be held Friday morning at ten …

Dr. J. W. Boone’s Ford car, which was stolen Sunday evening from the street in front of the Presbyterian church, was found Monday morning by H. D. Blatchley near the sawmill west of town. The car suffered considerable damage.
— —

College Notes

In an exposition in class the other day on heathen health rules, Prof. Hayman suggested that people stay awake at night to see that they sleep properly and that mustard plasters on the brain be substituted for chiropractic treatment.

Mrs. Vance, who has been seriously ill the past week from nervous prostration is recovering slowly.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 12 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 12, 1920, Page 9

Midway News

Mrs. T. R. Lupton of Lone Star whose husband died recently is keeping house for J. H. Pack and sons.
— —

Marble Front

Mrs. Arthur Randolph who has been ill for some time was taken to Mercy hospital in Nampa Thursday and underwent an operation Saturday. She is doing nicely. Mr. Randolph is also a patient at the hospital suffering from inflammatory rheumatism.

L. A. Rucker of Caldwell visited Sunday with his sister, Mrs. H. E. Harshman who is ill.

(ibid, page 9)
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 12, 1920, Page 10

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Wilder

Smallpox and whooping cough seem to be having their own way around Wilder. No one is seriously ill.

Rev. J. T. Ford of Boise is occupying the pulpit at the Baptist church for a few Sundays while the pastor, Rev. L. G. Black and family are in quarantine with small pox.

The public schools were dismissed Monday and Tuesday this week to give opportunity for oiling the floors.

Claytonia

We yet have some influenza in our neighborhood. Clarence Aden and Helen Garrity are down this week. Bill Jackson is quite sick with pneumonia at his sisters, Mrs. Smith of Homedale and Ed. Molton, near the Gem school, is down with it.

A Mr. Deal family that lately moved to one of Mr. Walter’s places has been quarantined for small pox.

Quite a number of children were attacked by the mumps during school last week, but no bad cases are reported. Roy Hansbrough is also a mump patient.

Ben Lindh was not able to move all of his family to Wilder last week due to three of the little girls having the mumps.

Many farmers have been busy burning weeds and thistles during last week.

Sunny Slope

Miss Alta Rogers has been quite ill for several days with the mumps.

(ibid, page 10)
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 12, 1920, Page 11

Fairview

Mrs. Anna Spencer is getting some batter from her recent attack of rheumatic fever.

Grandma Nichols has been very sick but is improving slowly.

Mrs. Connell is able to be up again.

(ibid, page 11)
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The Meridian Times., March 12, 1920, Page 8

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Meridian News Notes

Miss Frances Bryce arrived home last Thursday night from Corvalis, Oregon, where she has been attending college. She visited Portland and Walla Walla while enroute home. Illness of her father and her own recent recovery from the influenza, were reasons for her return from Corvallis sooner than she had planned.

Mrs. Amos Whiteley was in Boise Wednesday. She says little Floyd Adams continues to improve and has a big appetite.

A meeting of the teachers of the county at Boise recently favored a minimum of $100 per month for new contracts next fall.

A box social is being planned for next Wednesday, the 17th, for the Meridian Cemetery association. The program will be interesting and boxes will be auctioned off to the highest bidder, except that children’s boxes will be 50c. The Odd Fellows hall is the place and next Wednesday evening – St. Patrick’s day in the evening – is the time. Everybody come and help a good cause.
— —

Obituary

Virgil Morris Sooter, the infant son of Mr. and Mrs. Elbert M. Sooter, of Eagle, died March 9, 1920. The funeral service was conducted Thursday March 11, at 2:30 from the Mateer undertaking parlors, Carman E. Mell officiating. Burial took place at the Meridian cemetery. Mr. and Mrs. Sooter were formerly of Dietrich, Idaho, having recently come to the Boise valley.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 12 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Kendrick Gazette. March 12, 1920, Page 1

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School Notes

Owning to the crowded condition in the primary room it was found necessary to secure assistance. In order to have an accredited high school it is necessary to have accredited elementary work as a foundation. The crowded condition in the primary room has been relieved by fitting up a room in the basement and putting it in charge of Mrs. Keller, who has been secured for the remainder of the year at a small salary.

The large number of children in the lower grades is due to the fact that many of the younger children were not returned to school last year after the influenza epidemic. This condition will probably not exist next year.
— —

Big Bear Ridge

Miss Neva Nelson is at the Sam Monk home in Deary. Mr. and Mrs. Monk and Miss Betty Randall are recovering from an attack of influenza.

The rain Monday night delayed plowing for some time.
— —

Southwick Items

In a letter to his mother, Elton McCoy states that the flu in Canada is still raging. He and the Grant family have avoided taking it however.

Mrs. Claud King is steadily improving in health, we are glad to say.

Mr. Hewett of Sunnyside, Wash., recently visited us and told us his family and himself included, all had the flu recently.

Mrs. Fred Darby is recovering from a severe attack of the flu. The elder Mrs. Darby is also better.
— —

Dr. Rothwell returned from Spokane last Sunday, where he spent a week or more. He worked very hard here during the recent flu epidemic and needed a rest.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 12 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Kendrick Gazette. March 12, 1920, Page 8

Gleanings

Herman Meyer of Potlatch ridge was taken to Lewiston Thursday afternoon to undergo an operation for pleural pneumonia. Dr. Stoneburner accompanied him to Lewiston and he said he believed it would be necessary to tap the lung. This case of pneumonia followed an attack of influenza, which Mr. Meyer contracted some time ago.

On account of the illness of County Agent Fletcher, the meeting advertised to take place here Thursday afternoon was called off. It was impossible for Mr. Fletcher to be here.

Mrs. M. L. Anderson became quite ill last week but is much better at this time. Rev. Anderson was in Tacoma at the time but returned as soon as he received the telegram telling of his wife’s illness.

Charles Schultz of Potlatch ridge brought a hen’s egg to the Gazette office last Saturday that weighed 4 ounces. It is a double yolk egg and as large as a goose egg.

(ibid, page 8)
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Undertaker, American Falls, Idaho (1)

UndertakerAmericanFallsFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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March 16

The Caldwell Tribune. March 16, 1920, Page 1

19200316CT1

The Junior Promenade, the first all college dance which has been permitted since the lifting of the influenza quarantine, was given in the University gymnasium on Saturday night, March 6. The gymnasium, which was beautifully decorated in pink, white and green, made a fitting back ground for the young women in their lovely frocks. …

Ted Turner, freshman at the University of Idaho, has been hobbling around on crutches during the past week as a result of blood poisoning in his left foot. This is the second time Ted has been on the “casualty” list, as he but recently recovered from an attack of influenza.

Spring cleaning work on the ditches is well under way now. Superintendents E. M. Brown and John May are in charge of this work.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 16 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 16, 1920, Page 3

Local And Personal

H. W. Van Dyke, who was reported ill Monday with influenza, is improving.

Miss Brenton, superintendent of the Caldwell sanitarium, as been sick the past few days but was able Saturday to again be on duty.

E. M. Hendon is unable to attend to his duties at the First National bank on account of illness.

Myrtha Langford, 11 year old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John Langford, of Star, was brought to the sanitarium, Friday morning and operated upon Saturday morning at 9 o’clock. She is doing as well as can be expected. She had the influenza, then pneumonia, has suffered for five weeks, a drain tube had to be inserted into the left lung.

Mrs. Heddenburg of Provo, Utah is staying at the Edd Meek home, while Mrs. Meek is ill.

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Randolph who live north of this city, were taken to Nampa hospital Friday. Both are seriously ill.

Funeral services were held Sunday afternoon at the Peckham chapel for William Eames. The Rev. W. J. Boone conducted the services. Mr. Eames, a former resident of Melba, died Friday at Pleasant Ridge of tuberculosis. He was 38 years of age.

(ibid, page 3)
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 16, 1920, Page 5

Wilder Items

Mr. Black, who has been ill, resumed his work as manual training teacher in the schools Monday.

Mrs. E. M. Small received the sad news of the tragic death of her sister and her brother-in-law who lived in California. Mrs. Small left immediately for the coast.

Willie Hines came in contact with a base ball Tuesday necessitating 3 stitches over the right eye.
— —

Canyon News

D. B. Myers has been among the shut-ins, but is now improving.

Farm work is being pushed on all the ranches. Plowing is interfered with by the rain, but repairing of the fences, fertilizing, cleaning out the ditches and other necessary work is being done.

(ibid, page 5)
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 16, 1920, Page 6

Ten Davis News

Mrs. N. Nelson is quite sick.

Sidney McLaughlin has been sick this week and was unable to attend school

Mrs. Etta Stone is driving the school wagon at the Lower end of the district now.
— —

Midway News

Mrs. Ella Marks of Nampa is quite ill at the home of her daughter, Mrs. George R. Marks.

The community social at the school house, Friday evening, proved a success. There was a large crowd and all had a pleasant time. …

(ibid, page 6)
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The Caldwell Tribune. March 16, 1920, Page 7

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Arena Valley Items

Mr. and Mrs. Z. B. Barker and Burnard were Caldwell visitors last Saturday. Mrs. Barker called at the W. E. Owens home, where Miss Mildred is still bedfast with inflammatory rheumatism.

The literary Friday evening was held at the school house and was well attended. The general program was short but the lecture on the Panama canal was especially fine. John Johnson had with him a splendid photograph of the canal and used blackboard diagrams which made his descriptions of the locks very interesting. …

Roswell

W. H. Kneifle returned Tuesday from Lamoure, N. D., where he was called last week by the death of a brother’s wife. Mr. Kneifle reports a great deal of snow and wind with 28 degrees below zero temperature.

(ibid, page 7)
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Bonners Ferry Herald. March 16, 1920, Page 4

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Local Pick-ups

Mrs. J. T. Lawless left on Friday for Spokane to attend her daughter, Mrs. Rediger, who is reported to be seriously ill.

Miss Mae Nelson, stenographer for the First State Bank, has resumed her work after having been absent for a week on account of an attack of influenza.

Mrs. Mary Gallas and children returned Sunday from Portland, Oreg., where Mrs. Gallas has been having her little girl treated by a specialist for the past several months.

J. A. Walden has just received a large supply of pretty and novel St. Patrick’s Day shamrocks, one design for ladies and the other for men and one of these souvenirs will be given free to anyone calling at the store.

The thaw and rains of last week raised havoc with the roads in the city and country, particularly on the hill roads. Workmen are now repairing the worst of the damage done. In front of the Gleed residence in the east part of town a large part of the street washed out, the damage being due in part to a broken water main. Great Northern train service has been handicapped for several days on account of washouts in Montana and on Sunday and yesterday train No. 2 was sent over the Northern Pacific line from Sandpoint.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 16 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. March 16, 1920, Page 5

Local Pick-ups

Town Marshal Worley is able to be up and around again after a severe attack of the influenza.

A. Klockmann, president and general manager of the Idaho Continental Mining Company, was a business visitor in town Wednesday and Thursday, leaving Thursday for the mine at Klockmann. He was accompanied here from Spokane by his sister-in-law, Miss Selma Neitzel, who is at the Bonners Ferry hospital recovering from an operation for the removal of her tonsils, performed Saturday by Dr. S. T. Faucett.

John Frisch, one of the oldtimers of the Porthill district, was in town Wednesday on his way from Spokane to Porthill. Mr. Frisch has been taking treatments for asthma, of a specialist in Spokane.
— —

Cow Creek News

J. C. Parker was moved Sunday from the Bonners Ferry hospital to his Cow Creek home and is reported to be considerable improved in health.

Walter Parker has not been hauling logs the past week on account of the bad roads. He expects to resume his hauling in the near future.

(ibid, page 5)
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Bonners Ferry Herald. March 16, 1920, Page 8

Round Prairie News

The Traver children are sick with bad colds – probably influenza. The disease is appearing in a mild form in all parts of this vicinity.

The influenza has been an unwelcome guest at the H. C. Ward home this week but so far has not made its appearance at the Danquist home on the adjoining ranch.

Charles Wagner is recovering from an attack of the influenza.

Miss Dysart, of the Addie store, has been on the sick list this week.

The roads are getting soft and bad in places and on the Stoneklift hill it is impossible for a car to run owing to the heavy rains of Friday and Saturday.
— —

Copeland News Note

Eddie Cooper returned from Bonners Ferry last Saturday where he has been under the care of Dr. Fry.

Boyd Stockton is on the sick list this week.

Orlando Kerr is suffering from an attack of rheumatism.

(ibid, page 8)
—————–

Further Reading

Lessons of the 1918 Flu Pandemic and Today’s Homeland Security

By Thomas Beers, MPA, EMT-P, NHDP 3.15.20 Journal of Emergency Medical Services

1918NurseMask-aA nurse wearing a mask as protection against influenza. September 13, 1918. (Photo/National Archives)

Authors Note: This article was originally written in 2018, but never sought publication. In light of the recent events unfolding around COVID-19, this article serves as “food for thought” why pandemic diseases are such a vulnerability and why public safety leaders should be taking any epidemiological threat seriously. While reading, consider the lack of free travel, EMS services and even the concept of emergency rooms in 1918. That is why the current threat climate is, shall I say, “novel” to us as emergency responders. There are lessons to be learned.

Nearly one century ago, beginning in 1918, a disaster which the modern world had not experienced yet began to systematically kill an estimated 50-to-100-million people worldwide over the course of 24 months. Within the United States alone, low end estimates of 670,000 citizens were killed by the virus.1 To put that into modern perspective, this disaster killed the equivalent number of U.S. citizens as over two hundred 9/11 attacks. Today, the two most frightening aspects of this disaster are that the threat is still here and will happen again, and you cannot see it. This threat is pandemic influenza.

While the exact origins of the 1918 to 1920 influenza pandemic are not agreed upon, what is for certain is that this strain of flu, colloquially referred to as The Spanish Flu, is exclusively a human pathogen known to scientists and physicians as the H1N1 viral strain.

The prevailing theory of how this virus was spread globally lies in the parallel history of world events. The first reported cases within the United States, based on records from the time, point toward an origin located in central Kansas at a U.S. Army training facility named Camp Funston. In March 1918. Camp Funston was an initial training center for U.S. Army troops who were deploying to Europe for World War I. After graduation, troops from Camp Funston were sent to their units across the United States before being dispatched to Europe.

Within weeks of the first reported cases of what was considered seasonal influenza at Camp Funston, 24 of the 36 large military bases began reporting outbreaks of influenza. By September of 1918 at Camp Devens, which was situated just outside of Boston, the base hospital was overwhelmed with influenza. In a single day that month, 1,543 soldiers reported being sick with influenza.

What was not known at the time in the United States was that infected soldiers had already deployed and had their boots on the ground in France. Many departed their ships and onto European soil complaining of what the soldiers themselves had termed “the three day fever” and suggested that it was due to the conditions in the merchant marine and military ships in which they were transported. From here, any and all ability to contain the virus was lost.

The numbers of deaths were staggering. No population within the United States was left unscathed. Native American tribes were hit especially hard and some Alaskan Inuit tribes became extinct. During this time period of the H1N1 pandemic, global life expectancy declined by 12 years.

Today, the Department of Homeland Security is tasked with preparing the nation for the next pandemic event. Almost everyone in the scientific community and those tasked with defending the homeland agree that the next pandemic flu or other viral outbreak is not a matter of if, but rather a matter of when. Comparing a snapshot of the nation today to its own image in 1918, experts note that the travel and spread of diseases, whether naturally occurring or weaponized for criminal intent, is much more complex and rapid today than a century ago.

The Spanish Flu spread across the globe via steamship and across the routes of conflict and war. Today, a small outbreak of a disease in nearly any part of the world can easily be transmitted to multiple points of the globe within hours due to air travel.1 Most recently in 2014, the deadly virus Ebola easily escaped the small African nations of Guinea and Sierra Leone despite the presence of the United Nations and other non-governmental organizations attempting to contain the virus. With a 50% mortality rate for those who contract the disease, it is the world’s most deadly virus.

In the 2014 outbreak, there were 36 cases reported outside of the African continent. Eleven of those cases were here in the United States and it was the first time Ebola was seen in North America. A 2018 poll showed that frontline responders, namely EMS and fire, were unprepared for an outbreak of Ebola, and therefore perhaps even a pandemic of any nature to include influenza. The poll, ran during EMS Week of 2018, showed 80% of first responders had done no additional training in pandemic response since the 2014 initial Ebola threat in the United States. Another 20% had no knowledge that Ebola was still a threat.

On a national scale, the Department of Homeland Security has taken dramatic efforts to combat influenza and other pandemic diseases because of the seriousness in which pandemics pose to the homeland based on the lessons of 1918’s Spanish Influenza. The Department of Homeland Security’s response leverages the capacity of the agencies under their command to monitor and prevent further outbreak. This includes, diverting flights inbound to the United States and its territories, additional screening by TSA agents at airports, using the U.S. Coast Guard to monitor vessels from effected nations, initiating FEMA’s response centers, and securing borders with various assets at its disposal. Further, during a pandemic disease outbreak, the DHS combines efforts with the Center for Disease Control and the National Heal Service.

In 2005, then DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff wrote: “A severe pandemic influenza presents a tremendous challenge as it may affect the lives of millions of Americans, cause significant numbers of illnesses and fatalities, and substantially disrupt our economic and social stability. It is imperative for government officials and business leaders to work together now to develop effective pandemic related business continuity plans and to implement successful preparedness and protective strategies.”

While homeland security is filled with many disasters and the lessons learned paid for with lives of the innocent, no other event in our nations or the modern world’s history has had such a dramatic impact as the 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic. The H1N1 virus and its variants are here still to this day. The Spanish Flu was never eradicated. Couple that fact with this staggering statistic: the average American is more than five times more likely to die from a human-extinction event than in a car crash, yet we still wear our seatbelts.

source: Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 63)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 64)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 65)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 66)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 67)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 68)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 69)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 70)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 71)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 72)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 73)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 74)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 75)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 76)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 77)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 78)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 79)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 80)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 81)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 82)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 83)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 84)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 85)

Idaho History Dec 19, 2021

Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic

Part 85

Idaho Newspaper Clippings March 8-12, 1920

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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March 8

The Idaho Republican. March 08, 1920, Page 1

19200308TIR1

19200308TIR2
Remove Patients From Local Asylum
Forty Are Taken to the Home for Feeble-Minded at Nampa

Forty inmates of the Blackfoot asylum have been removed to the state institution for the feeble-minded at Nampa. A number of those moved to the Nampa institution were “railroaded” to the asylum and were never insane.

The transfer was made for the purpose of relieving the crowded condition of the state asylum. So crowded had the asylum become that the violently insane and the mild cases were housed together under the most pitiful circumstances. These conditions existed through no fault of the asylum and state health authorities but because of inadequate housing facilities and because of the increased burden of caring for the railroaded cases, coupled with the fact that no patients are permitted to be cured unless by medical practice, the chiropractors and osteopaths being barred from treating the patients at all.

It was stated, following an official investigation, that the asylum had been “loaded up” with mildly insane or eccentric persons by relatives who did not wish to care for them and passed the burden to the state.

A private car was used for the transfer of the forty patients from Blackfoot to Nampa and the trip was made under the direction of Dr. D’Orr Poynter, superintendent of the Nampa institution.

Dr. Hoover states that he has a 250-egg incubator operating at the asylum under electric heat. He says the current is absolutely steady and has not varied more than a tenth of one degrees in the ten days it has been operating.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 08 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. March 08, 1920, Page 4

Shelley

Mrs. Grover T. Bennett has been teaching in the grade schools for the last two weeks or so during the recent illness of Miss Van Aken. Miss Van Aken is back at her duties again as teacher of the fourth grade.

Holger Christensen has been ill for some time with the flu and complications. It is thought he is getting along as well as could be expected under the circumstances.

We are sorry to state the death of Earl G. Frandsen of pneumonia following a severe case of influenza. Mr. Frandsen lived near Monroe but was well and favorable known in this community and his death was indeed a surprise to the entire vicinity.
— —

Clinic Has Proved Worth
Organization Established by Boston Firm Well Worthy of Imitation by Other Employers

A pioneer medical clinic, established 15 years ago to protect the health of 600 employees, and gradually enlarged and expanded until it now cares for a total of 2,700 — that is the record proudly held today by a well-known Boston firm. At the time of its organization the medical director was in charge of of the clinic in the capacity of director and visiting nurse. Now the clinic is in charge of a practicing physician and surgeon, assisted by three full-time graduate nurses.

During the influenza epidemic of last winter, over 350 employees were treated per day, with only six deaths during the entire course of the dreaded disease. All cases were given careful individual attention and, in instances where no family doctor was in attendance, immediate arrangements were made for medical care.

It is the policy of the nurses in the clinic to advise all employees with whom they come in contact to be insured, an activity which the firm itself handles through an employees’ organization. The purpose of such advice is to secure insurance for all employees in order that they may receive its benefits after one week’s illness.

This arrangement does not place a premium upon the employees’ being ill, and at the same time the clinic cooperates in the matter of insurance.

A dental clinic is in a formative state and, no doubt, will be established in a short time. The plan and method of administration and organization is simply in the making, but is safe to say that the dental clinic will be as efficient as the medical clinic.

The Modern Hospital, in describing the clinic, says that it has fully proved its value in protecting the health of the employees of this particular company and merits the commendation and imitation of other mercantile and industrial establishments.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. March 08, 1920, Page 5

Earl Frandsen

Earl Frandsen son of Erastus and Annice McArthur Frandsen, was born at Mt. Pleasant, Utah, October 25, 1884. He moved to Basalt in April, 1903, and married Mabel Porter February 20, 1907. He is survived by his wife and five children, whose ages range from sixteen months to ten years. His father died June 20, 1918, and those of his brothers and sisters living are Aurella Stewart, Victor, Perry, Raymond, Athol, There Nielson, Loomis, Burke, Allen, Buelah, Blenda and Lyle. Three brothers and two sisters have died.

Earl was an honorable man and his word was reliable with all who knew him. He was very sincere in his church work. The many flowers at his funeral bespoke in silence of the esteem in which he was held.

(ibid, page 5)
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Idaho Sanitarium for the Feeble-minded and Epileptic

NampaSanitarium-a

Idaho State School and Hospital was built in Nampa in 1910, for the state’s developmentally challenged population. It opened in 1918. The institution was largely self sufficient. It had a large farm which was worked by the residents. The higher functioning residents also cared for residents who couldn’t do anything for themselves. Much has changed in the care of persons with developmental disabilities from the time of the state school’s opening. The old farm has been sold as a golf course, and residents no longer give primary care to other residents. The institution is much more modern and remains in operation, though a few of the old buildings are now used to house juvenile offenders.

source: Wikipedia
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March 9

The Caldwell Tribune. March 09, 1920, Page 1

19200309CT1

College Notes

Sidney McLaughlin of Voohrees hall is ill at him home in Ten Davis.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 09 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. March 09, 1920, Page 5

Local And Personal

William Ballard, who has been ill for some time with influenza, is able to be out again.

Mrs. Richardson is convalescing.

J. E. Proctor, who has been suffering from sepsis infection is out now.

The condition of Benjamin Calvert, who has been ill with typhoid fever, is greatly improved.

Clark Travis, who died late Sunday evening of pneumonia and complications, was buried Friday at 2:00. Rev. H. H. Hayman conducted the funeral services.

Mrs. H. R. Cleaver is recovered from a case of mumps.

According to advices received here by Dr. G. D. Bishop, hog cholera specialist with bureau of animal industry, the department of agriculture is making a cut from $642,045 to $422,045 in the federal appropriation for control of hog cholera, sheep scab and tuberculosis. According to Dr. Bishop, this reduction in the appropriation will mean and abandonment of the work now being conducted in at least 11 states. This situation is regarded as a serious one by livestock men interested in matters pertaining to the control of these diseases.

A little son of Mr. and Mrs. Moore of south Kimball ave. rode home from school on the back part of a wagon Thursday, when he reached home, he jumped off and started towards the house, thinking he could cross the road ahead of a car he saw coming, but it caught him and ran over him, broke his leg, and cut his face badly, it was thought at first when taken to the hospital that he could not live, but last reports are more favorable.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. March 09, 1920, Page 6

Midway News

The Midway P. T. A. met at the school house Friday afternoon, the first meeting since January 9, owing to sickness in the community. There was a good attendance, 37 ladies being present. … A letter was read from Dr. Laubaugh, of the state board of health, and pamphlets distributed to those present. …

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. March 09, 1920, Page 7

Ten Davis News

Mrs. Enoch Ashcraft was called to Hyde Park, Utah last week on account of the illness of her mother.

Ruth Miller has gone to her home in Nampa. It will be some time before she will be able to come back and teach again.

Miss Byerly was unable to attend school Tuesday.
— —

Fruit Cake

Wash and cream 1 pound of butter, add 1 pound of brown sugar and cream thoroughly. Then beat in 12 eggs, adding 1 at a time. Mix and sift 4 cups (1 pound) flour with 1 teaspoon baking powder, 2 teaspoons cinnamon, 1 teaspoon cloves and 1 grated nutmeg. Mix 6 pounds seeded raisins with 3 pounds currants, 2 pounds citron, 2 pounds candied cherries, 2 pounds candied apricots and 2 pounds pineapple. Combine mixtures, beat thoroughly, add 1 cup loganberry juice and turn into well greased and floured pans. Steam 5 or 6 hours then bake in a slow over 1 hour.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. March 09, 1920, Page 8

Claytonia

March came in smiling but soon proved it was subject to winds and rain.

The influenza patients are improving nicely. Harry Reynolds is able to sit up and the sick ones at the Garrity home are all doing nicely.

Velda and Maurine Lindh and Violet Bruno and Maurine Lindh from the Gem school are taking care of the mumps.

(ibid, page 8)
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Bonners Ferry Herald. March 09, 1920, Page 1

19200309BFH1

19200309BFH2
No Liquor On Prescriptions

The national prohibition law has practically no effect in Idaho so far as actual theoretical prohibition of the use of intoxicating liquor is concerned, according to a recent article in the Boise Evening News. This is brought about by the fact that the Idaho law makes it a felony even to possess liquor, so that there is no way in which the thirsty Idaho citizen may take advantage of the few exceptions under the federal law by which one may possess liquor.

Where the state law is stricter than the federal law, the state law takes precedence, says Lewis Williams, the collector of internal revenue, when the question was propounded to him recently.

The possession clause in the Idaho law leaves no chance of any exception by which one may have liquor in his possession, says Attorney General Roy L. Black.

It is possible, by reason of the difference between the state and federal laws, for the operator of a still in Idaho to stand trial on two charges, one in the state courts for having liquor in his possession and the other in the federal courts for operating a still without license.

Not even when one is sick can he get liquor on the prescription of a physician. This question was recently raised by the Sunny Brook Distillery Co., of Chicago, in a letter to Attorney General Black, who made the following reply:

“Under yours of the 13th inst you submit the following question: May druggists or pharmacists in the state of Idaho dispense liquors on physician’s prescriptions provided they comply with the federal requirements?

“Answering same will say that they cannot do so under the Idaho law.

“You will find the Idaho statutes set forth as Chapter 126, new Idaho compiled statutes, 1919 edition, being sections 2604 to 2649. These are lengthy and I have no pamphlet which I can send you, but you can find them in your public library perhaps.”

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 09 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. March 09, 1920, Page 3

Round Prairie News Notes

Mr. and Mrs. Stoneklift and daughter, Ruby, and Gus Anderson have been laid up with influenza for the past week but all are recovering and expect to be out again soon.

The friends of Dee Chapen, of the Round Prairie district, will be sorry to hear of the serious illness of Mrs. Dee Chapen, at Sandpoint, with pneumonia.

Nels Jeydstaup went to Bonners Ferry Monday for a few days rest and treatment for a lame back which, however, he did not consider serious enough to prevent him from attending the dance at Round Prairie hall on Saturday evening.

A. Stoneklift started for Addie Friday with the intention of taking the train for Spokane. At the Settler’s hall his horse became sick. He was able to get the animal back to Tuttle’s barn but has little hope of its recovery.
— —

Copeland News Notes

Mrs. Erickson, mother of William Bailey, is reported to be seriously ill.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. March 09, 1920, Page 4

Local Pick-ups

Dr. H. M. Dummitt and family plan to leave in the near future for southern Idaho where they will visit with relatives and where Dr. Dummitt will investigate business openings. He intends to open an office for the practice of dentistry and may decide to go to Nez Perce. Dr. and Mrs. Dummitt will leave as soon as Dr. Severns recovers from an attack of the influenza.

County Superintendent of Schools, Mrs. Caroline W. Flood, is visiting the McRae and McKinley schools today and tomorrow she will visit the Porthill schools.

Owning to the condition of the roads in springtime the school wagon at Porthill will be discontinued and the remaining term for the Van Etten school will be taught by Miss Goodal.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. March 09, 1920, Page 5

Local Pick-ups

Dr. W. S. Severns has been confined to his bed the past week with an attack of influenza.

Mrs. Minnie Jarvis is quite sick with Spanish influenza, the second attack she has suffered this winter.Mrs. W. M. Meader was on the sick list last week with influenza but is now able to be up and around again.

Frank B. White, one of the proprietors of the store of White & White, has been ill since Saturday with an attack of Spanish influenza.

City Marshall [sic]  J. A. Worley is one of the latest victims of the Spanish influenza. Mrs. Worley and son are just recovering from an attack of the same illness.

Frank Inoue, proprietor of the International hotel, is on the sick list with influenza. This is the second attack within the last few weeks and Mr. Inoue has been seriously ill for several days.

County Commissioner G. S. Collins, and wife, returned on Thursday from a several months visit with friends and relatives in middle west states. Mrs. Collins has been seriously ill and was forced to submit to operations. She is still weak but her health is improving rapidly.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. March 09, 1920, Page 8

Mrs. Harry Nugent Dead

Word was received here Sunday of the death of Mrs. Harry Nugent last Saturday at her home at Inchelium, Wash., after illness with Spanish influenza. The deceased is a daughter of Mrs. I. J. Brant and a niece of Mrs. A. E. Bunting.

Mrs. Nugent was well known here and many sorrowing friends join with the bereaved relatives in mourning her untimely death.
— —

Olaf Dahlen Goes To Norway

Olaf Dahlen left Wednesday for his old him at Urskog, Norway, where he will live with relatives.

Dahlen has lived here for several years and for some time past has been a cripple. Neighbors made up a purse of about $30 and gave him a number of presents to help make his trip back to the old country a happy one. Mr. Dahlen desires to thank all these friends through the columns of the Herald and to express to them his appreciation of the many kindnesses extended.

(ibid, page 8)
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Challis Public School, Challis, Custer County. Idaho

SchoolPublicChallisFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

March 10

The Challis Messenger., March 10, 1920, Page 1

19200310CM1

19200310CM2
More Flu In Pahsamaroi

Word reached this city the latter part of last week to the effect that another epidemic of flu had appeared in Pahsamaroi valley, there being at this time 14 cases in all. It is also reported that Dr. Gilman, the only physician in the valley has been taken ill with the disease.

To date no serious cases have been reported and it is hoped that the spread of the disease is checked.

The quarantine guard at the Watt Bridge has been put on duty again.

source: The Challis Messenger. (Challis, Idaho), 10 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Challis Messenger., March 10, 1920, Page 5

Items About People You Know

Income Tax Man — The representative of the internal revenue department, who was to have been here in the interests of the income tax drive from the 23rd to the 26th of this month, advises us that his visit has been postponed to around the 11th of this month on account of the flu quarantine.

Down from Bayhorse — Messrs. Patrick and Merritt were down from Bayhorse last week, the first time since the flu epidemic. They reported everything as running along smoothly there now.

Decorate Pastime — During the quarantine Messrs. Wilcox & Kirk, proprietors of the Pastime Pool Hall, have had the interior of their place painted and other improvements made.

Broken Leg — Wn. McGinn, a miner in the employ of the Ramshorn Mining Company at Bayhorse, suffered a broken leg when a portion of the tunnel in which he was at work, caved in. He was brought to this city last Friday night and the fracture was reduced by Dr. Kirtley. The patient is getting along nicely now.
— —

19200310CM3

(ibid, page 5)
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The Challis Messenger., March 10, 1920, Page 7

Idaho And Idahoans

The public schools of Lewiston have been reopened after having been closed for two weeks because of the influenza.

Pocatello will have a free tuberculosis clinic and a clinic for crippled children for several weeks at the end of the Red Cross and anti-tuberculosis census, which was begun Feb. 16.

Squire Hepworth, aged 83, residing with his son near Elba, arose from his bed at night and wandered into the mountains south of town. He was found thirty-six hours later almost frozen to death. He was clad only in his night garments.
— —

Many Westerners Lose Lives
Report of Loss to Idaho, Utah and Wyoming Forces in France.

Washington. — Three hundred and two Utah men laid down their lives for their country during the war against Germany, seven being officers and 295 enlisted men. In addition seventeen officers and 680 men from Utah were wounded, and seven taken prisoner by the enemy, making Utah’s total casualty list 1006.

Idaho’s total casualties numbered 1361, of which number 409 lost their lives, and 933 were wounded.

Wyoming casualties numbered 676, of whom 233 gave up their lives and 440 were wounded, three being taken prisoners and later repatriated.

(ibid, page 7)
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L D S Hospital, Idaho Falls, Idaho

HospitalLDSIdahoFallsFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

March 11

The Filer Record., March 11, 1920, Page 1

19200311FR1

19200311FR2
Mourn Death Of Editor’s Child

Katherine, the little daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Harry Barry, of Buhl died Sunday February 29, when but four days old. Mr. Barry is editor of the Buhl Herald.

The baby became ill on Wednesday evening from which illness she never recovered. The little body was laid to rest in the Buhl cemetery on Sunday evening at four o’clock following a brief funeral ceremony at the grave, which was conducted by the Reverend M. M. Van Patten.

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 11 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Filer Record., March 11, 1920, Page 5

In The Gem State

Doctors declare that Bernard Sandgren of Buhl, who has slept practically all the time since January 20, has a pronounced case of sleeping sickness. The boy shows signs of consciousness early in the morning, but soon lapses into a stupor.

Plans are being formulated for the construction of a $300,000 L. D. S. Hospital at Idaho Falls.

Acting upon the recommendation of the Idaho nurses’ examining committee, the state department of law enforcement has reduced the age requirement for probationary nurses to 18 years.

Pocatello jails are classed as dirty, unsanitary and relics of bygone days by the investigating committee of the Red Cross survey. The county jail is said to be slightly better than the city jail.

(ibid, page 5)
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Idaho County Free Press. March 11, 1920, Page 1

19200311ICFP1

19200311ICFP2
John Romain Dies At Keuterville

John Romain, aged about 40 years, and a long-time resident of the Keuterville section, died Sunday evening in his home at Keuterville, as a result of influenza. Mr. Romain had practically recovered from the disease, when he suffered a relapse.

Mr. Romain is the fourth member of the family to die from influenza in the last month. His father-in-law and mother-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. Frank Winkley, and his son, Arthur, died of the disease in February.

Mr. Romain is survived by two daughters, Laura and Beatrice; by two brothers, Dominic Romain, of Keuterville, and Fred Romain, of Montana; by a sister, Miss Annie Romain, in Montana, and is father, Frank Romain, also of Montana. His wife died ten years ago.

Funeral services were held Tuesday morning, from the Catholic church in Keuterville. Burial was at Keuterville. A. J. Maugg, Grangeville funeral director, was called to Keuterville owning to the death of Mr. Romain.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 11 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Idaho County Free Press. March 11, 1920, Page 2

Whitebird

(Special Correspondence)

Miss Dorothy Chamberlin is suffering a relapse from influenza.

The up-river road was closed near the Doumeecq ranch last Sunday, for an indefinite period. A large blast carried the entire bluff away, completely blocking the road. The mail will be carried over the high trail by mean of pack horses.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

Idaho County Free Press. March 11, 1920, Page 4

She States It Mildly

While suffering with a severe attack of the grip and threatened with pneumonia, Mrs. Annie H. Cooley of Middlefield, Conn., began using Chamberlain’s Cough Remedy and was very much benefited by its use. The pains in the chest soon disappeared, the cough became loose, expectoration easy and in a short time she was as well as ever. Mrs. Cooley says she cannot speak too highly in praise of this remedy.

(Adv.)

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

Idaho County Free Press. March 11, 1920, Page 6

Local News In Brief

Old Resident Leaves — “Uncle” Joe Greenfield left last Thursday for an indefinite stay with relatives at Kennett, Mo., his home of many years ago. Thirty-five years ago Joe first arrived at Cottonwood, having made the journey from Dayton, Wn., then the nearest railway point for this section of the country. Since first coming to Idaho county in the early 80’s Joe has watched the country develop and has seen numerous changes. At all times during his long residence here, Joe has been identified with those who have stood for progress and betterment in the community. Very naturally, his friends regret to have him leave. About three months ago, while attending his duties at the Imperial hotel, he had the misfortune to be severely injured by falling down the stairs. This accident, together with failing eyesight, made a change desirable. However, during the late influenza epidemic Joe proved himself equal to the emergency successfully by nursing a family of four persons through two weeks’ illness. Friends of Mr. Greenfield hope the change of climate and surroundings may prove beneficial, and that he may again decide to sojourn in our community. — Contributed.

Will the person who took Wikoff’s wagon tongue from the rock quarry please return the tongue at once?
— —

Personal

W. J. Soltman and small son were in Lewiston the first of the week, to consult with a specialist regarding an ailment of the boy’s ear.

Lem Neal and family have returned from Lewiston, where they spent a month while their small daughter received treatment for an ailment of the ear.

Mrs. S. P. Gray of Puyallup, Wn., arrived in the city Saturday evening to visit her sister, Dr. E. Bingham-Davis, who is convalescing from a serious illness of five weeks.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Nezperce Herald., March 11, 1920, Page 1

19200311NH1

… Stories Briefly Told
… of Interest Gleaned From … Daily Life of Home … Folks in Town and County.

Mr. and Mrs. Vern Swartz are … the flu. [edge of page cut off]

Mrs. and Mrs. Frank Arment returned last Friday from California, where they spent the winter. Mr. Arment is just recovering from an attack of the flu, and made the remark that that pesky ailment seems to be no respecter of places or people.
— —

Morrowtown News

There are still a few scattered cases of the flu around Morrow and Westlake.

Mrs. M. E. Jobe is at Orofino attending her daughter, Mrs. Sam Snyder, who is ill.
— —

Central Ridge News

(Covering the past two weeks)

All the flu patients will soon be out again.

The Liberty school opened Monday, after three weeks’ vacation on account of the flu. The Steele school was closed one week.

Ira Coon was called to his home in Clarkston on account of the illness of his son, Merrian. Mr. Coon was helping to care for his sister, Mrs. Ben Powell, and family, who were ill of the flu.

John Parsons returned to his farm from Orofino last Saturday. Mrs. Parson is still with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Willoughby, at Orofino, not having sufficiently recovered from a recent illness to return.

Mrs. Aaron Tetzlaff, of Kamiah, was called to the Ridge on account of the serious illness of her mother and brother.

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 11 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Nezperce Herald., March 11, 1920, Page 5

Don’t Be Scared of Grip

“The surest way to precipitate an evil is to become obsessed in the anticipation of it,” says the Medical Press and Circular (London), in deprecating the too oft-repeated warnings against influenza. Which means that there is not likely to be a recurrence of last year’s epidemic unless people get scared into it.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

Chamberlain’s Cough Remedy

ChamberlainsCoughRemedy-a

Chamberlain’s Cough Remedy Advertisement (The Hamilton Spectator January 10, 1905

source: Research Gate uploaded by D. Ann Herring. Content may be subject to copyright.
— — — — — — — — — —

March 12

The Oakley Herald. March 12, 1920, Page 1

19200312OH1

Vipont News

By The Kitten

We are glad to report the return to Vipont of our wandering Tom Henry. Tom left here last fall, afflicted with cold feet and overgrown bank account. He wintered in Salt Lake, on Easy street. But he says the browsing now looks good up here.
— —

Boulder News

Cluff Little and his two children are just recovering from flu.
— —

Churchill News

It seems that the gray hairs accumulated by worry regarding shortage of irrigation water this year are all in vain. Authentic reports claim a heavy snowfall on the headwaters of our streams. Such worry will be eliminated to a great extent after we get those Artesian Wells.
— —

In The Gem State

More than 800 delegates attended the recent Shriners’ convention at Burley.

Harry Smith, senior at the Pocatello high school, won first prize awarded by the local army recruiting for the best essay written to stimulate army recruiting.

Nearly $1500 worth of morphine and other “hop” was taken into custody as the result of a raid staged at Pocatello by officials, the “dope” being found in a woman’s room at a hotel.

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 12 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Oakley Herald. March 12, 1920, Page 3

Locals

Mayor George A. Day is up and about this week, the first time for almost a month. He left for Boise on business Tuesday.

There will be preaching at the Union church next Sunday, morning and evening.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Oakley Herald. March 12, 1920, Page 6

Local Mention

Albert Watts returned to work at the mine this week. He has been down for some time on account of illness.

Arther Green, having recently been discharged from the army, returned home Monday. He had been stationed in Siberia.

The village hitching lot is rapidly materializing this week.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Rathdrum Tribune., March 12, 1920, Page 1

19200312RT1

From Over The County

Post Falls

Misses Corinne Wright and Hazel Lansing of Hauser Lake returned to Rathdrum to resume their studies in the high school.

Harrison

Ice in the small lakes made it so difficult to move logs that the Export Lumber company had to shut down its mill a few days.

Spirit Lake

Marshal Brown was instructed to collect the dog license which was fixed at $2 and $5.

Coeur d’Alene

The school board has raised Sup’t. Buck’s salary to $3600 for next year. A ten months term is to be held next year and the salaries paid in 12 equal installments.

James C. Evenden, commander of the local post of the American Legion, has been instructed that the French testimonial pamphlets have been received for distribution to all American soldiers who served with the American forces in France. Its purpose is stated as follows: “To state in a few words what your presence has meant to the French people, to express to you their gratitude, and to recount briefly the part you played in winning the war.”
— —

Teacher Problem
Acute Situation Reported By School Heads

Boise, Idaho. — America will suffer a shortage of school teachers in 1920-1921 even more serious than that now being experienced, predicted Dr. E. A. Bryan, state commissioner of education, on Monday as he summed up for Idaho instructors developments at the recent National Education association in convention in Cleveland.

“Not only did school superintendents generally report a very acute shortage of teachers this year,” the commissioner said, “but the presented figures showing that the crop of new teachers in the normal schools is far below the average and that the number of high school graduates intending to enter the teaching profession is far less than usual.

“The shortage of teachers is closely bound up with the problem of teachers’ salaries,” the commissioner added.

Maintenance of high teaching standards in American school vied with Americanization projects for first place in importance at recent educational conferences in Cleveland, according to Ethel E. Redfield, state superintendent of public instruction.

The state superintendent found the same sentiment everywhere to which Commissioner Bryan referred. States that have maintained teaching standards in the face of a shortage of teachers were highly commended, she said, while the states that had let down the bars to inferior teachers were unpleasantly criticized.

Americanization was an important subject, said Miss Redfield. Steps were taken at Cleveland to co-ordinate the work of the various states in the Americanization of foreigners to the end that no class or classes should be overlooked. It was generally admitted that this type of education deserves a place of high consideration in the educational world.
— —

Idaho State News Items

The public school teachers of Sandpoint have joined in a petition to the school board asking for a bonus of $200 each for the present school year. To grant the bonus would cost the district $8000 in excess of the budget fixed last September.

Returned service men are exempted from payment of the road poll tax, according to Roy L. Black, Idaho attorney general.
— —

World News In Brief

A “smokeless American by 1925” is the slogan and aim of the International Cigarette league organized in Chicago.

source: The Rathdrum Tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 12 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Rathdrum Tribune., March 12, 1920, Page 3

Personal Mention

E. W. Cady served as quarantine officer Sunday, Marshal G. W. Flemming taking the day off.

Mrs. Frank Vogl of the Rimrock district has been in town this week taking treatment for blood poisoning in the hand.
— —

Local Paragraphs

Several homes in Rathdrum are reported still on the influenza quarantine list.

Typical March weather this week, with rain, snow, wind and sunshine. The frost is coming out of the ground rapidly and roads are muddy.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — — — — — — — —

Clearwater Republican. March 12, 1920, Page 5

19200312CR1

What Your Friends And Neighbors Are Doing

R. H. Prettyman and wife of Kamiah came to Orofino a week ago, the former accepting a position with the Orofino Meat and Cold Storage Co. during the convalescence of Austin Luttropp, who has been slowly recovering from pneumonia following influenza.

Dr. Horswill left Wednesday morning for “somewhere” down the Clearwater. He didn’t say where, but suffice it to say that he had a full kit and was prepared for any emergency his profession might encounter.

Robert H. Weston went to Moscow on Saturday’s morning train, to receive further medical treatment at the Gritman Hospital.

The Ladies Aid will meet next Wednesday afternoon at two o’clock in the Methodist church. All are invited. Mrs. Lindgren and Mrs. Groves will serve.

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 12 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Clearwater Republican. March 12, 1920, Page 7

Idaho News Paragraphs
Recent Happenings in This State Given in Brief Items for Busy Readers

To State Health Survey

Lewiston — Miss Minnie Huermann of Battle Creek, Neb., newly appointed public health nurse for Nez Perce county, began a health survey of the city schools Monday.

Latah Population Less

Moscow — Further evidence that Latah county has lost population has been received from Boise in the form of notice that the county loses one-third of its representation in the lower house of the state legislature because of the falling off of the vote in the last election.

[Note: the last election referred to was Nov 1918 during the height of the epidemic.]

(ibid, page 7)
— — — — — — — — — —

Cottonwood Chronicle. March 12, 1920, Page 1

19200312CC1

19200312CC2
Death Takes John Romain
Fourth Member Of Immediate Family To Pass Away

John Romain, who was known to practically every man, woman and child in Cottonwood passed away in his home at Keuterville Sunday evening at 5:15 p.m., being the fourth member of his immediate family to have answered the call within the last three weeks.

John, as he was better known to his many friends, contracted a severe case of influenza some three weeks ago and during the time he was bedfast witnessed the death of his father-in-law and mother-in-law, Mrs. and Mrs. Frank F. Winkler, who were raising his children, and his thirteen year old son, Arthur. Mr. Romain had been up and around for about a week when he was again taken down, the last sickness causing his death Sunday evening.

John Romain had been employed by the Hoene Hardware for the past seven years, as their head mechanic, and when it came to machinery he stood second to none.

The deceased is survived by two daughters, Laura age 12, Beatrice, age 14, two brothers, Dominic Romain of Keuterville and Fred Romain of Marias, Mont., a sister, Miss Anna Romain, of Maris, Mont. and an aged father, Frank Romain. He was born at Livelygrove, Ill., in 1878, where his mother died when he was a young boy. His wife died at Keuterville some 12 years ago at the time his youngest daughter was born.

Mr. Romain was a member of the Cottonwood Council No. 1389 Knights of Columbus.

The funeral services were conducted from the Catholic church at Keuterville Tuesday morning in charge of Rev. Fr. Martin, and was attended by a large number of friends and clearly shows the esteem in which he was held by his fellowmen. The remains were laid to rest in the Keuterville cemetery.

The two young daughters of Mr. Romain, Laura and Beatrice, have the heartfelt sympathy of the entire community, in the loss of their father, which now leaves them to grow up alone in the world without the care and sympathy that only a father and mother can give.
— —

School Notes

(By Wm. A. Lustie)

Mr. Hannon, principal of the High School, has been on the sick list for the past few days.

Basket Ball

The Grade girls defeated the High School girls in a score of 8 to 4.
— —

“Of the 110,000,000 citizens of this country 45,000,000 are physically imperfect, 15,000,000 die annually; 3,000,000 are in bed all the time; 1,000,000 have tuberculosis; 2,500,000 contract venereal diseases each year; from 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 are cases of hookworm and malaria. Only 37,500,000 are fairly healthy and 19,500,000 in full vigor.” Dr. W. S. Rankin president of the American Public Health Association.

“There are more persons in the insane asylums in this country than in all the colleges and universities and it costs more to maintain them (the asylums.)” – Dr. Rankin.
— —

Dr. Orr returned Saturday evening from Spokane where he consulted Dr. Hopkins a noted eye, nose and ear specialist.
— —

Want Cavalry Horses

The war department has just telegraphed the adjutant general of Idaho authority to purchase horses locally through Idaho for the regiment of cavalry now being organized in this state. Colonel Patch is now getting in touch with horse dealers and owners to secure desirable mounts of the cavalry type.
— —

News Around The State
Items of Interest From Various Sections Reproduced for Benefit of Our Readers

Idaho has 23,000,000 acres of forested land and 130,000,000,000 feet of merchantable timber says W. D. Humiston, secretary treasurer of the North Idaho Forestry association.

William H. Emery, constable of Priest River precinct and prominent citizen of that village where he has a soft drink establishment and barber shop, was arrested Saturday on the charge of bootlegging.

Minors under 18 who smoke or use cigarettes, cigars or tobacco in any form upon public highways or other public properties may be declared “delinquent” and committed to a reformator, according to a ruling made by Attorney General Black.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 12 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Cottonwood Chronicle. March 12, 1920, Page 7

19200312CC3Death Took Old and Young

During the war the London Times, either wittingly or unwittingly, published innumerable items about the very old men and women in the British empire who were dying off. Their great age, their longevity, formed a melancholy contrast to the slaughter of youth then going on in Europe. During six months in 1918, 312 persons over 100 hundred years old died in the British isles, but the figures of young men who fell during that time before the guns of the enemy and who died with influenza mounted towards a million. Not one of the old, be it said in passing, died from “flu.”

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

Cottonwood Chronicle. March 12, 1920, Page 8

Cottonwood And Vicinity
Personal Mention and Local Happening of the Week in This Vicinity

Miss Regina Holthaus, who has spent some time in a hospital at Spokane returned home Saturday evening.

R. A. Nims accompanied by his son, Raymond, departed for Lewiston Monday morning where they will spend some time for the benefit of their health. R. A. has not been in the best of health for some time and his son, who is just recovering from influenza is not doing as well as might be expected. Climatic conditions is hoped will restore them back to normal health. They expect to be gone about two weeks.

William Rooke was in Cottonwood Sunday for the first time since his recent severe attack with the flu in Lewiston. Mr. Rooke stated that he felt fairly well but that the disease left him weak. He departed Sunday evening for Grangeville on business and from there will return to Lewiston to take the boat for his stock ranch on Snake river.

Mrs. and Mrs. T. C. Keith departed Monday morning for Yakima, Wash., where they will spend several days visiting with relatives and also in the hopes that the change of climate will greatly improve Mr. Keith’s health. Mr. Keith whose life hung on a balance for almost a week with influenza, while recovering from the disease is left in a most weakened condition, and it is hoped by his friends that the trip will bring back to him health and vigor of former days.

(ibid, page 8)
—————-

Further Reading

Wear a Mask and Save Your Life: The 1918 Flu Pandemic

April 15, 2020 By Jessie Kratz, Posted In – World War I

This post, by Megan Huang in the National Archives History Office, was originally published in 2018 marking the centenary of the 1918 influenza. It has been updated with additional images.

1918StreetCleaner-aMasks as protection against influenza. Street cleaner wearing the influenza mask, 10/16/1918. (National Archives Identifier 45499357)

The 1918 influenza pandemic was a pandemic in the truest sense possible, affecting not just major population centers but also the most remote communities in the Pacific Islands and among Inuits in the far north.

About 500 million people may have been infected at some point, with 675,000 deaths in the United States alone. Globally, more people were killed by the influenza than by World War I, a concurrent, global conflict that lasted twice as long as the pandemic.

The war, however, contributed to the disease’s rapid spread. Crowded wartime conditions and troop movements across the Atlantic and throughout the war zones carried the flu worldwide.

1918HospitalFrance-aInfluenza hospital ward in France, 12/28/1918. (National Archives Identifier 86697895)

The initial appearance of the disease in the United States was in the spring of 1918, but its effects were mostly benign and not much more severe than the seasonal norm.

It was not until autumn that the sickness made its most fatal strike — most of the estimated 20 to 100 million total deaths took place in a span of just several weeks in October and November.

Although medicine had made great strides since the end of the 19th century with the discovery of germ theory, doctors and scientists seemed to have been powerless against the flu, owing to the rapidly mutating nature of its virus. Responses instead focused on containing its spread. One of the most commonly promoted pieces of advice was to wear a mask.

1918RedCrossBostonMasksRed Cross workers of Boston, Massachusetts, removing bundles of masks for American Soldiers from table where other women made them, 1918. (National Archives Identifier 45499363)

The scale of the disease created mass panic. Churches and schools were closed, while local businesses and services that remained opened struggled with staff shortages. Too frightened to go out in public, people isolated themselves in their homes, leaving the streets nearly empty.

A medical student in normally bustling Philadelphia recalled, after driving 12 miles without passing a single other car, that “the life of the city had almost stopped.”

Yet the severe isolation was lamented by a strained medical community. The head of Philadelphia’s Emergency Aid turned bitter when desperate pleas for more volunteers went unanswered: “There are families in which the children are actually starving because there is no one to give them food. The death rate is so high and they still hold back.”

Among the people who stayed home were shipbuilders who were essential to the war effort. At L.H. Shattuck Co. in New Hampshire, only 54 percent of its workers showed up, and 41 percent at Connecticut’s Groton Iron Works.

Men on the front and would-be soldiers were also affected. One of the most alarming aspects of the 1918 flu was its penchant for targeting previously healthy young adults. Past flu outbreaks had killed more of the elderly and very young, but the 1918 strain targeted those who were in the prime of their life, who might have been on the battlefield if not for the illness.

The third wave began in early 1919 and ran through spring, which wasn’t as devastating as the fall but still caused significant illness and death. The outbreak finally ended in the summer of 1919. Scientists now know it was caused by an H1N1 virus, which continued as a seasonal virus for the next 38 years.

source: A blog of the U.S. National Archives
——————

Fun History:

Cheyenne Bans “Shimmy”

Cheyenne, Wyo. — There will be no more shimmy dancing in Cheyenne if the city administration has power to stop it, according to a statement by Mayor E. P. Taylor. “There is no intention to interfere with decent dancing,” said the mayor, “but we are not going to stand for anything else. If you want to see two insane-looking people, just watch a couple standing still on a dance floor and squirming, as they stare each other in the face.”

Clearwater Republican. March 12, 1920, Page 3
— —

Shimmy Dancing is Prohibited – 1920

A scandalous roaring 20s 2-Step. Small steps, close embrace, lots of body wiggle.


———————-

Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 63)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 64)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 65)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 66)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 67)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 68)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 69)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 70)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 71)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 72)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 73)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 74)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 75)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 76)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 77)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 78)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 79)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 80)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 81)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 82)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 83)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 84)

Idaho History Dec 12, 2021

Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic

Part 84

Idaho Newspaper Clippings March 2-5, 1920

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

March 2

The Idaho Republican. March 02, 1920, Page 1

19200302TIR1

19200302TIR2
Mrs. Ball Dies At Idaho Falls

Word has been received of the death of Mrs. E. B. Ball of Idaho Falls, after suffering three weeks from influenza. Mrs. Ball was thirty-four years of age at the time of her death and is survived by her husband and seven children. She is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Hatch of this city.
— —

A Good Insurance Company

Idaho has a life insurance company of its own that believes in protecting people on their policies and practices what it advocates. The Idaho State Life Insurance company, of Boise, represented in Bingham county by William Anthony of Blackfoot, has just demonstrated the value of its insurance policies by something that happened in the Kimball neighborhood recently. Just one year ago, March 3, 1919, John P. Jorgensen, a poor man living at Kimball, places his order for $1000 of life insurance, agreeing to pay $23 premium on the fifteenth of the following November, for which he gave his note.

Mr. Jorgensen had a family of seven, it was not a very good season, and he was unable to pay the note. On the first day of February, 1920 Mr. Jorgensen died of influenza, leaving the note unpaid. Mr. Anthony, the local agent, reported the death and notwithstanding the fact that nothing had been paid on the policy, the company very prompty [sic] issued a check to Mrs. Jorgensen for $1000 and paid the claim in the usual way, accepting from her the delayed payment of the premium after the death of the insured.

The company organized some ten or twelve years ago at Boise, and Edward S. Chadwick, general manager, stated that they were glad to pay this claim and thus place a sum of money where it would do a good service.
(ad.)

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 02 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. March 02, 1920, Page 5

Local News

Mrs. Cecil Lint has recovered from her recent illness and has returned to her school at Kimball.

Earl Frandsen of Basalt died Friday night after suffering for some time with the influenza.

Mrs. Mabel Felt of Wapello is reported very ill with the pneumonia.

Mrs. LeRoy Jones has taken the position of fifth grade teacher at the Central school made vacant by the death of Mrs. Garvin.

Mrs. Hazel Von Lostiwicka returned to her school in Groveland, after an absence of a week.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. March 02, 1920, Page 7

Firth

The nine year old son of L. P. Walker died at his home in Basalt Monday morning after a few days illness.

Mrs. Duff Quinn, who has been seriously ill with pneumonia is reported out of danger.

Miss Jessie Firth came home Saturday from her school in Blackfoot and was unable to return due to illness.

Chaplain Knowl, who was to have given a lecture at the Lutheran church Sunday morning failed to keep his appointment on account of being ill with the influenza.

Jack the three year old son of Mr. and Mrs. M. M. Farmer became very ill Sunday evening while visiting in Blackfoot, but is improved at this writing.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. March 02, 1920, Page 5

19200302CT1

Midway News

Charles Metcalf is suffering from an attack of the influenza.

Mrs. Charles Gulley of Columbus, Indiana who was called here three months ago by the illness and subsequent death of her brother, H. D. Burnett, left for her home last week.

Midway friends of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Marek of Bowmont, former residents of Midway will be sorry to hear of the death of their three year old son, which occurred Tuesday from diphtheria.
— —

Card Of Thanks

We desire to thank our many neighbors for their kindly sympathy and assistance during the illness and the death of our beloved husband and father, also for the many beautiful floral offerings.

Mrs. Susan B. Crogan and family

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 02 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. March 02, 1920, Page 7

Canyon News

Mrs. G. H. Myers is sick with the influenza. She is getting along well and is now in a state of convalescence.

Mrs. Frank Ihli has been suffering with an affection of the lachymal duct. She is under the care of her mother, Mrs. D. B. Myers.

Florence Sumers has been suffering for weeks with a severe case of blood poisoning. This was caused by neglecting a trifling accident.
— —

Maple Grove

Mr. and Mrs. Corn have been having the influenza.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. March 02, 1920, Page 8

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Claytonia

There are some cases of influenza in this district. Three cases have been reported from Garrity. There are several cases near Claytonia. Grandma Reynolds was taken to the hospital thinking she had the influenza but we are glad to state she soon came home again.

Mr. R. Dale was seen on the streets of Caldwell last Friday afternoon.

Some of the farmers in this neighborhood are wishing for spring to begin. Some are burning weeds and some have made an attempt to plow.

Ten Davis News

Mr. and Mrs. L. E. Small returned Monday evening from Portland where they attended the funeral of Mrs. Small’s brother. They would have stayed for a short visit but all their relatives were quarantined with influenza.

Miss Ruth Miler who has been ill with pneumonia is able to be up and around now.

Maple Grove

Mrs. Edith Starr is recovering from an attack of the mumps.

Clenton Northroup is able to again enter school after a long absence due to pneumonia followed by the influenza.

Mrs. E. R. Jones has been very poorly the past week.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. March 02, 1920, Page 10

Local And Personal

Mr. E. Barnes’ baby who has been ill from auto-intoxication is convalescing.

E. C. Kickok is out after an extended confinement with the influenza.

Clark Travis died of pneumonia and other complications Sunday night at 11 o’clock at the home of his father-in-law, Mark Newman, at Lake View. Mr. Travis recently returned from Oregon. No arrangement have been made as yet for funeral services.

Mrs. John Caldwell went to Boise this morning to spend the week with her sister-in-law, who is very ill.

(ibid, page 10)
— — — — — — — — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. March 02, 1920, Page 4

19200302BFH1

Local Pick-ups

Miss Ruth Buchanan returned home last Tuesday from Spokane where she had been called by the illness of her sister. While in Spokane Miss Buchanan contracted an attack of influenza.

Miss Esther Johnson, teacher of the primary grade of Independent School District No. 4, has been ill with Spanish influenza for several days and in her absence Miss Mildred Reid is in charge of the pupils.

Tom Nicholson returned last Tuesday evening from Hot Springs, Oreg., where had had spend a couple of weeks taking treatment for rheumatism. He says that the baths helped him a great deal. On his way home he stopped off in Spokane and purchased a carload of Canadian beef cattle which were shipped here Thursday.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 02 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. March 02, 1920, Page 5

Local Pick-ups

E. E. Saunders, of the Hawks Drug Store, is an influenza victim and has been confined to his bed since Saturday.

J. J. Eitelbuss was able to be up and around yesterday after a severe attack of the influenza. He was taken sick here on his way home to his ranch near Perkins Lake, after a visit in Sandpoint. Mrs. Eitelbuss was here to nurse her husband.

Mrs. Frank B. White left last Tuesday for Portland, Oreg., in response to a telegram telling of the serious illness of her sister.

The Delphian society was entertained yesterday afternoon at the home of Mrs. E. L. Palmer. The regular program was dispensed with on account of the illness of many members and the afternoon was spent in sewing and social conversation.

Olaf Dahl plans to leave Monday for his home in Sweden and yesterday his friends circulated a paper to raise funds to help pay the expenses of the trip. Dahl has been crippled for several years.

The War Department has just telegraphed The Adjutant General of Idaho authority to purchase horses locally through Idaho for the Regiment of Cavalry now being organized in this state. Colonel Patch is now getting in touch with horse dealers and horse owners to secure desirable mounts of the Cavalry type.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. March 02, 1920, Page 8

Copeland News Notes

Miss June Cook is quite ill with influenza. She is missed at the Copeland school and we all hope for her speedy recovery.

Mrs. and Mrs. Lamson and family are all sick this week with the Spanish influenza.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — — — — — — — —

Josephine Hospital, Weiser, Idaho ca. 1908 (1)

HospitalJosephineWeiser1908Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

March 4

The Filer Record., March 04, 1920, Page 9

19200304FR1

Maroa Notes

Grace Malone and Grace De Moss are out of school with the “flu.”

Mrs. McAtee is on the sick list.

The future as well as the present looks bright at Maroa. The electric line is completed and part of the fixtures are placed.
— —

Elmwood Items

Miss Esther Chapman was absent from school Wednesday on account of illness.

Miss Clenca Daud, teacher of the higher grades was unable to teach Thursday and Friday on account of illness.

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 04 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

Idaho County Free Press. March 04, 1920, Page 1

19200304ICFP1

School Trustees Of County To Assemble

Annual meeting of school trustees of Idaho county will be held in the courthouse in Grangeville on March 19, opening at 10:30 a.m., Miss Margaret Sweet, county superintendent of school, announces. A meeting of trustees also will be held in Kooskia on March 12. …

During the last two weeks Miss Margaret Sweet has visited fourteen schools in the Clearwater section. She reports that, despite many cases of influenza in that country, most of the schools have resumed work. There was little snow but much ice along the mountain roads. Sheets of ice are still stacked to the height of five to ten feet along the margins of the Middle Fork of the Clearwater.
— —

Can’t Sell Rum in Idaho, Even on U. S. Permit

Druggists in Idaho are not permitted to sell whiskey or other intoxicating liquors for medicinal purposes, under the federal permit system, according to a ruling issued by Roy L. Black, attorney general at Boise

Despite the prohibition amendment to the U. S. constitution, the government allows pharmacists to dispense liquors on a prescriptions from physicians, in states where the state laws to suppress the liquor traffic are not more drastic than federal regulations.

The question involving right of physicians to prescribe intoxicants in Idaho, and druggists to fill the prescriptions, was placed before the attorney general, who replied positively:

“They cannot do so under the Idaho law.”

Therefore, old-time imbibers in Idaho, who thought they could again quench their thirst from the cup that cheers, have suffered a decided setback.

Louis Williams, internal revenue collector for Idaho, has asserted that the state law governs, and that, in Idaho, the bone dry law, which is more severe in its terms than the federal law, abrogates that provision of the federal act relating to dispensing liquors on a physician’s prescription, for the state prohibits such action, and can prosecute offenders.

Governing provisions of the state law are cited as Sections 2604 and 2649, Chapter 125, complied statutes 1919 edition.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 04 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Idaho County Free Press. March 04, 1920, Page 2

Whitebird

(Special Correspondence)

Mrs. Emma Holden left Saturday for the Wyatt ranch, where she will care for her sister, who is suffering a relapse from influenza.

Anna Lauretts Maharin, infant daughter of Mr. and Mrs. T. C. Mahurin, died Friday night at 9, at the family home in Whitebird, as a result of bronchial pneumonia.

Anna Lauretta was 5 months, 14 days of age. She was born Sept. 13, 1919 in Whitebird.

Surviving her are her parents, two brothers, Russell and Louis, and a sister, Maude.

Funeral services were held in the church Sunday afternoon at 2 o’clock, in charge of the pastor, the Rev. Mr. Gamble. Burial was in the Whitebird cemetery.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

Idaho County Free Press. March 04, 1920, Page 3

Fenn

(Too late for last week)

Mrs. Marion Weber is recovering from a severe attack of influenza.

J. E. Withrow is still confined to his home with influenza.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

Idaho County Free Press. March 04, 1920, Page 6

Personal

Cecil Church has returned home from Corning, Cal., where he spent the winter for benefit of his health. His condition is much improved, though he was taken ill with influenza immediately he arrived in Grangeville.

J. Frank Sims has gone to Hot Lake, Ore., in hope of benefiting his health.
— —

19200304ICFP2Why Colds Are Dangerous

It is the serious diseases that colds lead to that makes them dangerous. They prepare the system for the reception and development of the germs of influenza, pneumonia, tuberculosis, diphtheria, scarlet fever, whooping cough and measles. You are much more likely to contract these diseases when you have a cold. For that reason you should get rid of very cold as quickly as possible. Chamberlain’s Cough Remedy will help you. It is widely known as a cure for bad colds.

(Adv.)

(ibid, page 6)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Nezperce Herald., March 04, 1920, Page 1

19200304NH1

Local News

Easter comes on April 4. Get your glad rags.

Chas. J. Larson, the Reubens merchant is visiting his son, Albert, and family in this vicinity this week. The senior Mr. Larson has just recovered from a siege of the flu and is taking a little vacation to recuperate his strength.

Miss Stella Boothe, the Red Cross nurse who recently conducted classes in home nursing in Nezperce, Craigmont and Winchester, and has since been directing the Red Cross work against the influenza epidemic at Lewiston, was last week appointed to take up the training of home nursing classes at Kamiah, Kooskia, Stites and Peck.

Dr. and Mrs. J. L. Kelly were visitors in the city from Winchester Tuesday.

The big social gathering and program planned to have been held some time back by the local Camp of the Woodmen of the World, is set for next Wednesday night, March 10; when it is hoped all Woodmen and Circle members and their families will attend and take part in and enjoy the festivities.

Harry Herrick went off duty March 1 as rural mail carrier on Nezperce route No. 3, and that job is now open to applicants. It pays about $150 per month.

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 04 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Nezperce Herald., March 04, 1920, Page 7

Local and Personal News Notes

Of the 48 cases of influenza during the recent epidemic on Central Ridge all are either recovering or are on the road to recovery.

Supt. C. J. Skinner of the public schools was off duty this week as the result of a wrenched back, sustained while at the gym practice with the high school boys last Friday night.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — — — — — — — —

Carethers Hospital, Moscow, Idaho

HospitalCarethersMoscowFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

March 5

The Rathdrum Tribune., March 05, 1920, Page 1

19200305RT1

19200305RT2
Flu Ban Is Lifted
Schools Re-open; Church, Show, Lodges Resume

The flu ban in Rathdrum was lifted last Saturday afternoon, when Chairman C. F. Borell of the village board, upon advice of Dr. F. Wenz, local health officer, rescinded the closing regulations established under authority of ordinance No. 63 two weeks before.

School re-opened promptly Monday morning with Superintendent Swenson and all the teachers at their posts, excepting Miss Layton, who had not sufficiently recovered.

The church remained closed last Sunday but regular services and Sunday school and young people’s meetings will be resumed March 7.

Lodges have resumed meetings, and the Star theatre is open again. All other public and social activities are also back on a “pre-flu” basis.

All but two or three homes in Rathdrum are again free from quarantine, and so far there have been no deaths here during this epidemic.
— —

Questions For School Boards

[excerpts]

2. Should the per capita school tax levy be increased for next year/

3. What, if any thing, can be done to relieve the shortage in the supply of teachers? Should the standard of qualification be lowered, or wages increased, or should opportunities for qualifying be made more convenient?

5. Should county superintendents have more authority with reference to granting permits to teach in emergencies until the next teachers’ examination?

9. What about teachers’ salaries during vacations, and closing for contagious and infectious diseases?
— —

From Over The County

Spirit Lake

Spirit Lake teachers who gave their services as nurses during the influenza epidemic were Misses Payne, Ankbus [?], Lortz and Nicholson.

The town marshal has begun collecting dog taxes.

Harrison

The school at Rose Lake had to be closed because of the influenza epidemic.

Harrison post No. 51, American Legion, holds regular meeting first and third Thursdays of each month.

Coeur d’Alene

Edith Berryman, age 13, died last Sunday of influenza-pneumonia, after an illness of three weeks.

William Evans died recently of pneumonia. He was a brother of E. Evans who moved to this vicinity from near Rathdrum last year.

Mrs. Harriet Olson, age 42, died Tuesday of pneumonia following influenza.

J. V. Buck was reelected superintendent of the Coeur d’Alene public schools after a fight against him led by E. R. Whitia who sought to induce the board to employ a new man.
— —

County Tax On Dogs
Canines Also Hit By Village License

Field deputies have begun assessing dogs of Kootenai county by order of the county commissioners, acting under authority of Section 1913 of the Idaho Complied Statutes of 1919, which provides a “county dog tax” of $2 and $4.

This section is in chapter 77, which seeks to protect sheep and goats. The owners or harborer of a dog is made liable for damages if the dog worries or kills sheep or goats, and any owner of sheep or goats catching dogs worrying or killing his stock may kill such dogs without incurring any penalty for so doing. Furthermore, the statute provides that any person is guilty of a misdemeanor who permits his dogs to run at large in town or country after notice has been served on such owner that complaint has been filed against his dog.

The attention of dog owners in Rathdrum was attracted to this law last week when the field deputy assessor began listing canines along with other property. As the village trustees are collecting a license on dogs, under an ordinance enacted some years ago, some persons are of the opinion that is constitutes a double assessment. However, there appears to [be] nothing in the law prohibiting the collecting of a village license on dogs.
— —

Idaho State News Items

The war department has issued a statement showing that of 105,337 Idaho men who registered under the draft law 1484 shirked their duty and are now carried as deserters or draft dodgers. Of this number 786 deserters have been apprehended and their cases disposed of, while 698 are still at large, and their cases still pending.
— —

World News In Brief

The U. S. quartermaster department has sold to soviet Russia by bid 150,000 pairs of army shoes at $1.25 to $2 per pair.

source: The Rathdrum Tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 05 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Rathdrum Tribune., March 05, 1920, Page 2

[Editorial Page]

That pneumonia follows influenza even as late as five weeks after with, in many cases, fatal results, proves the wisdom of taking more than ordinary care of the health for some times after recovery seems complete.
— —

Twin Lakes Lad Died In Spokane

Henry Young, 16 years, died in Spokane Saturday evening of pneumonia following an attack of influenza five weeks before.

The body was brought to Rathdrum his former home, and buried from O. W. Stone’s chapel Tuesday forenoon Rev. G. E. James officiated.

Deceased is a son of Mr. and Mrs. E. J. Young, who came to Idaho many years ago and has resided on a farm on upper Twin lakes. Last fall the family took apartments at the Willard hotel in Spokane that Henry might attend the Lewis and Clarke high school, in which school he was a sophomore. Besides his parents he is survived by two brothers, Marvel and Reland at Twin Lakes and two sisters Mrs. Ross Miller of Los Angeles and Mrs. Idena Bacon of Seattle.
— —

Died Near Garwood

Mrs. Lester O. Zornes, age 25 years, died of influenza last Monday, March 1, at the farm near Garwood, about six miles east of Rathdrum. The funeral was held from O. W. Stone’s chapel Wednesday afternoon, Rev. G. E. James officiating. A large number of neighbors, including the members of the farmers’ union, were in attendance.

Lilly Pearl Barry was born in Atlas, Ill., Feb. 26, 1895. She united with the Congregational church at the age of 11, and was married to Lester O. Zornes Feb. 11, 1914. She leaves to mourn her loss a husband and three children; also, father and mother, three sisters and three brothers.
— —

The School Column
From The School

School Notes

Mr. C. L. Harlan of Lewiston spent Monday and Tuesday of this week in the elementary school administering tests and measurements. His work represents a new innovation in education. Certain standards have been evolved by giving tests to several thousand pupils and then striking a medium for each grade.

Intelligence tests, similar to those given in the army, are first given, then standardized tests in individual subjects. The first will tell what a pupil is able to do, the others will indicate whether or not he is up to grade. The medium as shown for an entire grade in a subject, when compared with the standard for that grade, and when the intelligence average is normal, – gives a good idea of the work being done there. If a grade is shown up as being weak in Reading but above standard in Arithmetic, more time may be spend on the one and less on the other. If an individual pupil is shown to have the ability, in one particular subject, of a pupil in the grade above but proves to be below grade in another subject, the teacher may then permit such a pupil to devote more time to the latter at the expense of the former subject.

It is obvious that, as a usual thing, the possibilities of a pupil are not given much attention. We deal with pupils in groups, not recognizing that they have different kinds of talent. This is a situation that is, of course, hard to remedy because a teacher’s time is limited. However, while these tests may not be infallible, they help the teacher to diagnose her room and bring forcibly to her attention the individual needs of her pupils.

Capt. Harlan, during the war, was a member of the Psychological Board whose duty it was to sift the recruits by means of “army tests.” Before his enlistment he was connected with the Department of Psychology of the University of Minnesota.

The giving, scoring and tabulation of this work is a big task. Mr. Harlan had time to give only three tests. We intend to give others before long. But we are grateful to the local Board of Education for making it financially possible for us to make a beginning along this line. Rathdrum is the third school in Idaho to request Mr. Harlan’s services.
— —

19200305RT3

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

The Rathdrum Tribune., March 05, 1920, Page 3

Personal Mention

Ernest Reiniger is in his store again, having had but a light attack of the influenza.

Mr. and Mrs. Henry Meider were here Tuesday from Blanchard to attend the funeral of Henry Young.

Miss Gladys House returned to Spokane after several days’ stay caring for influenza patients at the home of her parents, Mr. and Mrs. H. F. House near town.
— —

Local Paragraphs

Another home, that of H. C. Jensen, was quarantined with influenza Wednesday. Several members of the family are ill. These are the only new cases reported in town this week.

The town dog tags arrived last Friday and [?] to date nineteen individuals have paid license on their canines.

A two-inch snow fall Thursday morning broke the winter drouth and settled the dust on the roads. According to the Spokane weather bureau February, 1920, was the dryest [sic] February since 1881.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — — — — — — — —

Cottonwood Chronicle. March 05, 1920, Page 2

19200305CC1

School Notes
By Wm. A. Lustie

Monthly summary of High School for February.

Total enrollment for the month 46.
Total enrollment to date 54.
Total enrollment for same month last year 42.
Average daily attendance 40.
Per cent of attendance 90.
Total number days absent 52.
Number of visitors 4.

This is not an average report since there were only 10 school days in February. …
— —

Word was received from Mrs. Geo. Whitson of Melrose that they were all recovering nicely from the effects of the influenza, which is welcoming news to their many friends here.
— —

Give Your Number

In writing to the War Department for any information, or the War Risk Insurance department, ex-service men are requested to always give their Insurance Certificate Number. No doubt thousands of times where this has been omitted your name as been connected with the wrong person, yet perhaps with the same name.

In the files of the Bureau of War Risk Insurance the name Willie Smith, appears 3212 times, John Johnston, 2138 times, Wm. Johntson [sic] 2032 times. There are 51900 Smiths, 48000 Browns, 47000 Williams, 28050 Jones, 22000 Andersons, 18500 Walkers and 2500 Millers. 52 John J. O’Briens, 14 of whom made allotments to wives named Mary. The Rodriguez family from Porto Rico sent 894 men having only 7 first names, Domingo, Francisco, Jose, Juan, Romon, Tomas, and Antonio, all serial numbers in the 600,000’s.

Some of the odd names found are, Mih Gosh, Asad Experience Wilson, Velvet Couch, Will Swindle, Owen Money, Great Britton Turner, Dinner Bell Page, Fine German, Lloyd George Parliment, Willie Darling, E. Pluribus Brown, Slaughter Bugg, Wash Day Clouds, Green Berry Bush, Little Kiffie Karr, Brasse Mule, and Isaac Did-not Butcher. The longest one found is Harry Adolph Thomas Richard Eugene Bullock. …

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 05 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Cottonwood Chronicle. March 05, 1920, Page 8

Cottonwood And Vicinity
Personal Mention and Local Happenings of the Week in This Vicinity

The Mat Seubert family, who have all been down with influenza are now able to be out again.

Dr. W. F. Orr is again able to be out after having been confined to his home with a severe cold. He departed Monday morning for a business trip to Spokane.

Dick Cooper, the mail carrier between Cottonwood and Keuterville was again able to resume his duties Monday after a siege with influenza for almost two weeks. While somewhat late in announcing the fact, during his absence on the mail route he also became the father of a big boy, who arrived at the Cooper home on Lincoln’s birthday.

Miss Lulu Adams, trained nurse, is home from Cottonwood, where she was called several weeks ago to nurse influenza cases. Miss Adams remained at Cottonwood throughout the epidemic and assisted in caring for a large number of the afflicted people. She was stricken about two weeks ago and is now recovering from the disease. — Lewiston Tribune

Tom Parker who has been afflicted with influenza for the past week was again able to resume his duties at the First National Bank Wednesday.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

Montpelier Examiner. March 05, 1920, Page 4

19200305ME1

19200305ME2Warning To Public

Parents are hereby warned to keep their children from all public gatherings. There is a great deal of whooping cough prevalent in the city and some outside districts, and children must be protected from becoming exposed to the disease. Failure to comply with this request will mean prosecution to the guilty ones.

Signed, Dr. H. H. King, County Health Officer
— —

Paris Notes

A severe epidemic of whooping cough is being felt here. None of the cases have been serious, but several have been reported.

Miss Eva Wallentine is teaching school for a week in Georgetown, taking the place of the regular teacher, Mr. Walter Clark.

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 05 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Montpelier Examiner. March 05, 1920, Page 9

Local News

Arthur Eborn of Lanark is reported seriously ill with an attack of pneumonia.

Mrs. Lysander Berry of Cedar Fort, Utah, arrived in Montpelier yesterday and will attend the funeral services of Mrs. John T. Passey at Paris tomorrow.

Mrs. George Clifton of Magrath, Canada, reached Montpelier today, and will go to Paris tomorrow to attend the funeral services of Mrs. John T. Passey.

William Crossley and John Brewer, prominent residents of St. Charles were in Montpelier on Monday on Business matters. The gentlemen brought in loads of potatoes for the local market. They report everything as getting along nicely in their community.

Miss Nora Beckstrom spent Sunday in the city with her father. She had been at the hospital in Pocatello for a week taking treatment for ear trouble. She returned to Hazelton Monday to renew her duties as teacher in the public schools. She was accompanied by Oren Campbell, principal of the high school at Paul.
— —

Card Of Thanks

We desire to express our heartfelt thanks to our many friends for the kindness they have shown in our sad bereavement, especially Bishops Perkins and Crockett, members of the Masonic Lodge, the Odd Fellows and Rebekahs, the B. of L. F. & E. and the Auxiliary and the Neighbors of Woodcraft for the beautiful floral offerings. Also the friends who furnished their cars.

Mr. and Mrs. Wm. E. Richards
W. E. Richards

(ibid, page 9)
— — — — — — — — — —

American Falls Press. March 05, 1920, Page 1

19200305AFP1

19200305AFP2Influenza Decreases

A noticeable decrease in influenza cases has been noted the past week according to local physicians who have been watching most of the cases. A few cases have developed but most of them are very mild and border on severe colds rather than influenza. Smallpox cases developed in the Stanger and Morgan families and other cases are expected as a result. Mr. Stanger became ill at Rupert and was brought home in a condition that rapidly developed into smallpox.

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 05 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

American Falls Press. March 05, 1920, Page 5

Local Briefs

Mrs. Henderson, who has been nursing influenza cases at Landing the past few weeks, returned home Wednesday. She reports the flu situation in that section improving.

Mrs. J. A. Ford has been ill the past week.

Mrs. Saling was confined to her home Wednesday with a cold.

Governor Davis and Adjutant General L. V. Patch were in American Falls Friday.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Idaho Republican. March 05, 1920, Page 3

19200305TIR1

Thomas

Ezra Kunz and family are all suffering from the flu. Miss Eva Williams has been assisting them until last Wednesday when Mrs. Louisa Kunz of Berne, Bare Lake county came to the aid of her son and family.

France Hawks has had a very sick baby for some days past.

Nate Goodwin is improving from his recent severe attack of influenza-pneumonia.

Hans Christensen, who was recovering from the flu, has taken a back-set and is again very sick.

Ave Goodwin and family are suffering from the flu.

Miss Isabelle Maughan is recovering from an attack of the flu.

Mrs. Dora Anderson is suffering from an attack of gall stones.

Mrs. William Bingham of Rockford died at her home on the night of February 27. She leaves a husband and five children to mourn her sudden taking away. The sympathy of the whole community will go out to the bereaved ones in their sad hour.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 05 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. March 05, 1920, Page 7

Local News

Mrs. W. A. McVivar is reported ill.

Miss Jessie Firth is ill at her home in Firth.

Marie Burgraff is able to be back at Seeger’s after a short illness.

C. W. Spalding has been ill at his home on East Judicial street for some time.

Misses Henley and Schroeder have resumed their school duties after several weeks’ absence on account of illness.

Rev. Gillilan was out Wednesday for the first time after a stay in the house for nearly a week, necessitated by a severe cold.
— —

Rose

Mrs. J. S. Gardner and small son are on the sick list this week.

Clifford Plant has been substituting for Mrs. Gardner, who is ill.

Mr. and Mrs. U. W. Taylor visited Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Conkle of Blackfoot Tuesday evening. Mr. Conkle is very ill.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. March 05, 1920, Page 10

Firth

The Riverview school has been closed this week, due to the illness of the teacher Bert Winchell.

Mr. Scarborough has returned to his duties as freight agent at the O. S. L. depot after an extended absence due to serious illness.

William Jolley is unable to be at his duties in the Jolley garage due to the influenza.

(ibid, page 10)
— — — — — — — — — —

Shoshone Journal. March 05, 1920, Page 1

19200305SJ1

High School Notes

Many of the teachers and pupils who have been ill with the flu are back at school again.

If the influenza ban is lifted the basket ball girls will be at the Twin Falls tournament March 5.

Miss Brooks is still under the doctor’s care but it is hoped she will be with us next week.
— —

Dietrich Precinct Notes

Carol Borden has been suffering with the flu for a week past but is now recovering.

Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Kislini, of Seattle, formerly of this place, have lost their little three months old baby, the only child of the family.
— —

Dietrich School Notes

The Morrow, McClure, Barrachoa and Gallentine children have recovered from the flu and are back in school again.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 05 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Shoshone Journal. March 05, 1920, Page 5

Local Items
I can not say what the truth may be, I tell the tale as ’twas told to me.

Emil Lacey was confined to his room last week with a mild case of influenza.

Mr. and Mrs. Clinger have had a visit from the flu but are recovering.

Bud Yaden has been unable to attend to his duties this week on account of a severe attack of tonsillitis.

The two months old infant of Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Cantrill, who resides about two and one-half miles south-east of Dietrich, was buried in the Shoshone cemetery last Wednesday afternoon.

Six and a half feet of snow is reported at Galena Summit, and still snowing.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

Shoshone Journal. March 05, 1920, Page 8

Darrah Community Items

Bad colds and coughs have interfered greatly with school attendance the past three weeks.

Mrs. J. H. Scott has been confined to her bed with the flu.

Mrs. Jim Holmes and Mr. Ritter are both reported to be ill with the flu.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. March 05, 1920, Page 3

19200305CT1

Local And Personal

Mr. and Mrs. Omer Starr of Meridian motored here Sunday to spend the day with Mr. and Mrs. John Reed of Logan street. Mr. Starr was taken suddenly ill in the evening, a doctor was called, who pronounced it the influenza. Mrs. Starr is a niece of Mrs. Reed. They are doing everything they can to make their patient comfortable.

Mr. and Mrs. Isaac Carson’s children are still ill from relapse of influenza.

Mr. Hagans who was sent for last week on account of the serious illness of his daughter, returned to his ranch near Weiser, Wednesday.

C. H. Dowman, superintendent of the Caldwell schools, returned Monday evening from Toledo where he attended a meeting of National educations association. According to Mr. Dowman there were about 8000 educators in attendance at the meetings. Facilities for handling the enormous crowd were taxed to the utmost.

Harry Balcom went to Spokane last week where he was called by the death of his mother.

Mr. Robert H. Weed, deputy horticulture inspector of Parma, Idaho, visited the south part of the city Monday looking after scale on shrubbery and fruit trees and ordered citizens to spray.

Miss Del Carey, formerly engaged in the corset department of the Cougal-Southwick department store of Seattle, arrived in Caldwell Tuesday evening to take charge of the corset department at Oakes Brothers. Miss Carey is a thoroughly experienced corsetiere and an expert fitter.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 05 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. March 05, 1920, Page 8

College Notes

Miss Lois Jackson returned to school Monday after an illness of several days.

Miss Mary Thompson is ill with the mumps.

Students who have been aware of the great calamity which struck Miss Rudy on her return trip from the debate at Gooding will be relieved to know that she recovered her lost hat.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. March 05, 1920, Page 9

Marble Front Items

Miss Alice Mason returned to school Monday after having been confined at home for about two weeks with the mumps.

Wilder Items

Miss Elizabeth Russell took up her duties on Monday as assistant post mistress of Wilder.

(ibid, page 9)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. March 05, 1920, Page 10

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Sunny Slope

Our correspondence has been silent quite long enough. There has been such a siege of sickness through the community for the last six weeks that every one has been very much occupied. And while ye correspondent would like to give the names of the ailing ones he hesitates to do so, for fear some one will not be mentioned and might be offended. It is safe to say that we have all been sick.

Mr. N. C. Croghan passed away at his home last Thursday morning after an illness of several weeks duration. Mr. Croghan leaves a wife and four children to mourn his loss. The family moved here but recently and the sympathy of the community is extended to them.

Mrs. G. E. Gammon entertained the ladies aid last Wednesday afternoon. Last months meeting was postponed on account the influenza epidemic.

Roswell

Mrs. H. A. Bushley, who was quite ill last week is improving.

Harvey Hunt has been confined to his home for several days on account of illness.

George Camp is on the sick list.

The agricultural class, under their instructor, W. E. Goodell are testing samples of milk from different dairy herds, at the high school laboratory.

A. J. Rockwood’s car was stolen from street in Parma, near where he was working. It was reported to Chief O. G. Boyd at once and a search started but no car could be located. Next morning when John Burgher came to work he found the car right where it was taken from, so he took it to the garage. Raymond Dickerson confessed to the theft and was arrested and taken before Judge Walter Kerrick where he plead guilty and was fined $15 and costs. Raymond Dickerson had taken the car to Meridian to a dance. The car was not damaged in any way and there was more gasoline in the tank than when taken.

Midway News

T. F. Fry is confined to his bed with a serious case of heart trouble.

(ibid, page 10)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Meridian Times., March 05, 1920, Page 6

19200305MT1

Inland Northwest

19200305MT2Every inhabitant of a Piute Indian village in Inyo county, Cal., near Dyer, Nev., has been stricken with influenza, according to a report brought to Tonopah by a rural mail carrier. He said there had been more than 100 deaths and none had received medical attention.

An anti-vaccination league has been formed at Marshfield, Ore., with more than 100 members, for the purpose of preventing the vaccination of school children.

The school trustees of Boseman, Mont., have decided on a rise of salary for teachers, to go into effect at the beginning of the next term in September.

Smuggling liquor from Canada by airplane into Oregon is said to be the latest scheme to evade the law.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 05 March 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Meridian Times., March 05, 1920, Page 8

Meridian News Notes

A local doctor presented the telephone force four boxes of delicious candy one day this week, “In appreciation of splendid work during the flu.”

Floyd Adams, who was taken to a Boise hospital several days ago, in a critical condition, with lung trouble, is better at this writing, and the doctors think the boy has a chance to recover. Floyd has lots of friends who wish for his speedy return to health.

Lois Ellis is ill with a slight attack of scarlet fever.

Mrs. C. P. Wickland, daughter of Mrs. Budd Davis, is seriously ill in a Boise hospital.

Mrs. Charles Mace died at her home near Meridian yesterday. The deceased is survived by her husband and two children.

The funeral service of James M. Grooms was held Saturday afternoon from the Christian church, and a large crowd was present. Rev. C. E. Mell spoke of the worthy life of the deceased and of his many good qualities.
— —

Death Of Little Daughter Of Leo Marsters

Gladys Marsters, the 13-year old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Leo Marsters, residing on a ranch north of Meridian, died at a Boise hospital Wednesday night at 10 o’clock from a complication of diseases following influenza.

(ibid, page 8)
—————

Further Reading

Vaccine Hesitancy in the 1920s

As Progressive Era reforms increased the power of government, organized opposition to vaccination campaigns took on a new life.

By Matthew Wills July 28, 2021 JSTOR Daily

1920vaccinehesitancy-avia Wikimedia Commons

Since their introduction in early nineteenth-century America, vaccines have given rise to anti-vaccine movements. Opposition has come from various ideological quarters, driven by what scholar James Colgrove calls the “linked claims” of perceived health dangers and threats to personal liberty. Concentrating on the 1920s, Colgrove describes a movement that sounds familiar one century later.

As Colgrove writes: “Antivaccinationism was a response to two broad and interrelated trends… first, the proliferation of biological products for preventing and treating illness; and second, reform efforts that expanded the reach of the state into previously private spheres.”

Dubious manufacturers and ineptly run vaccination campaigns gave the first vaccinations a poor reputation. Safety took a big leap forward in 1902, with the US Public Health Service’s authority to license and inspect vaccine manufacturers. In 1905, the Supreme Court affirmed the constitutionality of compulsory vaccinations.

Vaccination originally meant using cowpox to fight smallpox. By the 1910s, however, there were vaccines for cholera, plague, and typhoid. The new century looked promising, with hopes for combating tuberculosis, pneumonia, and even cancer through vaccination.

But scientific achievement “provoked an anti-modernist backlash against the paternalistic and potentially coercive uses to which scientific advances might be put,” Colgrove writes. Opposition arose to state and civil institutions that had “expanded their purview over matters once reserved to the individual, the family, or the church.” Earlier Americans may have spent their lives without visiting a doctor, but life insurance and worker’s compensation required medical examinations. Health professionals took an increasingly large role in people’s lives. Requiring that children be vaccinated for school attendance was another bone of contention.

Antivaccinationists decried the elitism of public and private bureaucracies. They argued that there was “a well-laid plan to medically enslave the nation” and that “state medicine” was socialism. “Barbarous medical child-slaughter” was a not-atypical 1920s description of vaccination.

Such rhetoric came from groups like the Anti-Vaccination League of America, founded by two wealthy businessmen; the Citizens Medical Reference Bureau (“In Defense of Parental Control over Children”); and the American Medical Liberty League. The latter’s spokesperson was Lora C. W. Little, one of the few women leaders of the antivaccinationists.

Meanwhile, Christian Scientists, Swedenborgians, and some homeopathic and most chiropractic practitioners also opposed vaccination. Antivivisectionists weren’t necessarily against vaccination, but they did decry the use of calves in developing the smallpox vaccine.

Publisher Bernarr Macfadden was one of the most influential of the antivaccinationists. His media empire reached some 40 million Americans through magazines like Physical Culture, True Story, and True Detective Mysteries. His New York Evening Graphic, a tabloid specializing in sex and crime stories, was particularly tabloid about vaccination. Macfadden was not above fake news, eventually admitting that the Graphic’s sensational story “Vaccination Killed My Two Sisters” wasn’t, as originally claimed, written by a doctor.

The antivaccination movement of the 1920s faded with the Great Depression and the deaths of its most notable personalities. But antivaccination tendencies never completely disappeared. In the 1980s, controversy over the safety of the pertussis vaccine saw a return of the fears and rhetoric of the Twenties.

source: JSTOR Daily provides context for current events using scholarship found in JSTOR, a digital library of academic journals, books, and other material. We publish articles grounded in peer-reviewed research and provide free access to that research for all of our readers.
— — — —

Seattle always had anti-vaxxers — even during smallpox

In 1920, the city’s commissioner of public health called Seattle “a hot bed for anti-vaccination, Christian Science, and various anti-medical cults.”

by Knute Berger May 21, 2020 Crosscut

1922vaccinatedkids-a
School children in Tacoma showing off their new vaccinations, likely for smallpox or diphtheria, in 1922. (Washington State Historical Society)

Anti-vaccine activism has a long history in America. It dates back to Boston Puritan preacher Cotton Mather, who in the early 1700s learned from African slaves about inoculation against smallpox and became an advocate for such preventative measures. In response, other settlers accused the fire-and-brimstone minister of satanic behavior for putting devilish disease into the blood of people who were not sick. Our Founding Fathers believed in the inoculation, too, including the authors of the Constitution, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. George Washington ordered that the Continental Army be inoculated for fear of losing too many troops to the disease.

Historians say as people saw inoculation work against the disease, it generally became more accepted in the first part of the 1800s. It was when the disease receded, partly because of inoculation’s success, that by the late 19th century, skepticism again flared. People wondered if the cure wasn’t worse. Opponents saw vaccination and inoculation — not entirely unhazardous — as tantamount to murder. Many activists claimed to have lost children to the procedures, while others said compulsory vaccinations took away personal liberty and declared themselves vaccine “conscientious objectors.”

Some complained that vaccines were a conspiracy of the medical profession to make money and take power from the people. At the turn of the 20th century, anti-vaccinators complained of the “medical trust,” the “medical ring” and “medical statism,” which amounted to what some today might call “socialized medicine.” Some saw public health as a threat both to individual liberty and against the natural course of events dictated by God. Any mandatory public health orders, some argued, were “tyranny.” Others analogized it to slavery. Many of these arguments are still invoked today.

The pandemic of 1918 fed frustrations, partly because vaccines and serums developed to treat Spanish flu were not yet proven to work. Some pointed out that members of the military, who during World War I were among the most vaccinated and inoculated Americans, were still sick and dying in droves—leading activists to suggest vaccines were worse than useless.

This was all contrary to reality. Vaccinations and inoculations saved lives. In a 1918 syndicated column in The Seattle Times, a doctor from Johns Hopkins University, Leonard Keene Hirschberg, defended the Army’s health record and use of vaccination. He questioned the mentality of the anti-vaccination activists, describing them: “A few benighted, sodden, obstinate individuals with Hun minds [who] still spread propaganda against inoculation to prevent sickness.” Hun, of course, was an epithet to describe the German enemy.

One of the most vocal opponents of vaccines in the Pacific Northwest was a progressive activist from Portland named Lora C. Little. Little gained notoriety in 1913 by leading the fight to overturn a state-sponsored sterilization law in Oregon. Riding the success of that effort, she turned her attention to opposing vaccinations, which she claimed were responsible for the death of her young son. She was an inveterate pamphleteer, speaker and unlicensed practitioner of what we would call alternative medicine. She traveled the region promoting the anti-vax cause.

In the spring of 1918, she fell afoul with her criticisms of the military. She was arrested in Bismarck, North Dakota, under the broad World War I-era Espionage Act for distributing literature “attacking [the] compulsory vaccination system practiced in the Army and intimating that the Army was in league with the ‘medical trust,’” reported the Bismarck Tribune. She was accused of inciting “insubordination, disloyalty and mutiny,” among other things, for urging resistance to compulsory smallpox vaccinations. She was held on a charge of sedition for undermining the war effort. The charges were eventually thrown out, and Little continued her crusade.

At the time of Little’s activism, smallpox was rearing its ugly head, notably on the freewheeling, rules-resistant frontier, where anti-vaccination and anti-medical sentiment abounded. The new form of the disease was less deadly than the version that swept the country in earlier times and wiped out so much of the Indigenous population. (The first recorded outbreak in the Northwest was in 1775, thought to have been brought by fur traders. It ravaged coastal tribes, and many more outbreaks followed.)

But the milder form of the disease could still cause disfigurement and blindness, and spread rapidly in schools among children during the early 20th century. Many parts of the country had instituted compulsory vaccination laws to protect children, but not without resistance from vaccine skeptics. One predictable result was an increase in cases, especially on the West Coast.

The scourge of smallpox intensified alongside the Spanish flu pandemic. In 1917, in California, there were 329 cases of reported smallpox; by 1919, there were over 2,000 cases. In Oregon, there were 122 reported cases of smallpox in 1917, and 2,626 in 1919. In Washington state, over the same time span, smallpox leaped from 390 to 4,369 reported cases, a figure one state health official called “inexcusable.” These numbers come from a 1920 report on smallpox data published by the American Statistical Association, which observed:

“[I]n the face of this great increase in the prevalence of the disease, certain groups in the Pacific Coast communities have this year conducted campaigns for anti-vaccination constitutional amendments in California and in Oregon. Each would take from the constituted health authorities the scant police powers they now possess to control the smallpox menace.”

The Washington state Legislature was also pecking away at the power of schools to require smallpox vaccinations for students. “Vaccination of pupils cannot be required if it is objected to by the parents,” reported The Seattle Times in March 1919, about a change in state law. The timing was mindboggling — at that very moment, a smallpox outbreak was occurring in Seattle’s public schools, on the heels of the worst of the Spanish flu outbreak.

At that point, the virus had cropped up in six Seattle schools. Over a period of two weeks in March, smallpox cases were found at Ballard, Broadway and Queen Anne high schools and Lowell, Lafayette and Alki grade schools. The school district’s health officer, Dr. Ira Brown, and the city’s top physician, Dr. Hiram M. Read, gave students of the affected schools three alternatives: come to school with a recent proof of vaccination, let the school vaccinate you or, if the child is unvaccinated, stay home under quarantine for the incubation period of two weeks. “The situation is not alarming,” said Read, “and we have it well in hand, but vaccination is the only way in which it can be controlled and its spread checked.”

For most families, this was a fine set of alternatives, but there was fierce pushback by some. The day after the rules were implemented, The Seattle Times reported that 265 students at Ballard High refused to be vaccinated at school. Ninety were identified as likely long-term holdouts. The district’s Dr. Brown said most students would be vaccinated, but that Ballard was a particular problem “due to the leadership of some of the older boys who opposed vaccination under any circumstances.” Most students, however, were described as cooperative.

Some parents, though, protested and went to the school superintendent and the school board to complain. But the district refused to overrule the directive of the public health board, which had wide support from local physicians. Many parents were concerned about their children missing more schooling on top of what they had missed in late 1918 due to the ban on gatherings to combat the flu outbreak.

Unvaccinated students were quarantined and ordered to stay indoors, while city health inspectors placed quarantine cards on their residences. All told, 400 to 500 students were put under quarantine, but these containment efforts weren’t a panacea; a handful of smallpox cases still popped up in schools. Some of the patients were sent north of the city to the Seattle-run hospital Firland Sanitarium, which had been built for tuberculosis patients.

In one local quarantine case, a mother openly rebelled. In early April, Laura Harley’s son, Frederick, was sent home from Broadway High School after being exposed to smallpox and refusing to be vaccinated. A quarantine sign had been posted at their home, but Harley took it down the same day and was later arrested. She was fined $10 in police court weeks later. By that time, many students were permitted to return to school after their two weeks in isolation, just in time for exams.

Vaccine resistance continued, but Dr. Read was having none of it. He had been a prominent Seattle doctor before leaving town to serve in the U.S. Army as a chief sanitation officer and epidemiologist during WWI. He was a real veteran, telling the Seattle Star: “A red hot fight on the Western Front could not have been worse than the ‘Flu’ epidemic at Camp Dodge, Kansas” that he confronted when stationed there in 1918. On his appointment in early 1919 to his city job, the paper described him as “a quiet, neat, mild-mannered, albeit forceful, man.…” Mayor Edwin Brown, under whom Read served as the city’s health czar, later noted that the doctor was “[h]onest in his conclusions to the point of ruggedness, almost gruffness. You knew, in talking to him, that he was a ‘square shooter.’…”

He vented his frustration about anti-vaccination conscientious objectors in his 1920 annual health report. There were 900 reported cases of smallpox in Seattle that year. He estimated that 95% of those people had not been vaccinated. “The number of unvaccinated persons in this city is large. The city being a hot bed for anti-vaccination, Christian Science, and various anti-medical cults, and it is difficult to enforce vaccination,” he wrote. He recommended more stringent laws requiring vaccination. The following year, Read barred an anti-vaccination pamphlet from being distributed at schools. It read, “Medical Autocracy or Freedom — Which?” Read wondered if it were a “direct incitement to riot.”

Seattle has always been attractive to free thinkers, libertarians, people of conscience, progressives, alternative medicine practitioners, radicals and people across the political spectrum suspicious of authority. The 1920s marked the end of the Progressive Era, and while most progressives supported vaccination, they also instituted laws — the power of recall, initiative and referendum — that strengthened populist opinion over conventional authority, a phenomenon we’re still living with today.

Anti-vaccination activism, then and now, crosses ideological lines. Little, the progressive activist In Portland, for example, was opposed to eugenics laws, animal experimentation, vaccinations and Prohibition, the latter supported by most in the Progressive movement. Besides being an early advocate of natural medicine, she also supported a low-meat, no-sugar diet. She encouraged people to “be your own doctor.”

Writing in Oregon Historical Quarterly, historian Robert D. Johnston, who has studied both the Progressive period and alternative medicine, suggested that “Little’s attacks on the established medical profession perhaps resonated strongly in Oregon, where, because of Progressive Era reforms, average citizens took expanded democratic powers to polling booths. Issues emphasizing home and family may also have been especially appealing during the 1910s, after Oregon women, in the November 1912 election, had gained the right to vote.”

Those same forces were active in Seattle. Washington women had won the right to vote in 1910 and had flexed their Progressive reform muscle in Seattle by playing a key role in recalling a corrupt mayor, Hiram Gill, who encouraged prostitution and gambling. Women wanted a greater say in politics and in deciding how to take care of their children.

At the same time skepticism rose more broadly. Scientific evidence mounted that vaccines and inoculations could have wider life-saving consequences beyond smallpox. Treatments for typhoid, diphtheria and other diseases were coming online or being refined. So, too, the benefits of public health generally. But a significant minority rejected what science had to say, despite the success of a global effort to eradicate smallpox from the world. It ceased being endemic in the United States in the 1940s and was globally eradicated by the 1980s. Still, low vaccination rates have been held responsible for recent outbreaks in the U.S. of preventable diseases like whooping cough and measles. Anti-vaccine resistance is raising its profile in these coronavirus times, too.

What scholars call “denialism” has persisted over the centuries in the face of facts. It often stems from a hodgepodge of thoughts, impulses and ideologies ranging from legitimate skepticism and religious conviction to full-blown ignorance, often mixed with conspiracy, paranoia and other beliefs impenetrable by reason, or as Seattle’s Hiram Read observed, cultlike behavior. A lesson for today is that epidemics generate fear, and fear can be very contagious.

source: ©2021 Cascade Public Media. All Rights Reserved.
—————-

Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
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Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 63)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 64)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 65)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 66)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 67)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 68)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 69)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 70)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 71)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 72)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 73)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 74)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 75)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 76)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 77)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 78)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 79)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 80)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 81)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 82)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 83)

Idaho History Dec 5, 2021

Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic

Part 83

Idaho Newspaper Clippings February 27, 1920

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

February 27

The Rathdrum Tribune., February 27, 1920, Page 1

19200227RT1

19200227RT2
May Soon Lift Ban
Influenza Situation Shows Improvement

That the flu ban might be lifted in Rathdrum within a few days was indicated by reports received by the village trustees at their meeting Tuesday night. A motion was adopted authorizing Chairman C. F. Borell to rescind the closing regulations when, upon report of Dr. F. Wenz, the epidemic shall have sufficiently abated to warrant such a step being taken with safety.

On Tuesday the number of homes under quarantine in town had dwindled to seven, but on Wednesday another family, that of D. Z. Lyon, was added to the list.

However, the reports Tuesday night indicated that the situation is town was clearing up very encouragingly. In the country conditions were not so good, many families being affected. On this account and to give recent patients time to recover strength it was deemed wise to keep the restrictions at least until the end of the week.

The board transacted little routine business.

Bills allowed:

G. R. Sparks, cleaning creek, (applied on account) $7
Mrs. L. E. Tucker, librarian salary, and books $27.99
G. W. Flemming, marshal $37
Tribune printing $3.25
— —

From Over The County

Post Falls

The flu ban was lifted Sunday.

Dorothy Marjorie, 4 year old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Chas A. Teters, died of influenza pneumonia Feb. 16.

An abatement is noted in the influenza situation in East Greenacres and Hauser lake districts.

School was closed for a week at East Greenacres on account of the epidemic.

Spirit Lake

An order was made by the town board lifting the flu ban last Saturday evening. The ban had been on 12 days.

A ban on dogs is being advocated by citizens on the ground that they are too numerous.

The human bones found in the woods near camp 32 proved to be those of Jack Wade, a cook who had resided in Spirit Lake. He is believed to have died from exposure after becoming lost in the woods two years ago last Christmas. Identification was established by the gold fillings in his teeth, and by his watch and jewelry and wearing apparel.

Coeur d’Alene

Harold, the 2 1/2 year old son of Mr. and Mrs. Floyd Bro, died of pneumonia last Sunday.

The 2 1/2 year old son of A. N. Bloomster of Dalton Gardens died from the effects of falling into a tub of scalding water prepared for use in butchering a hog.

Dr. Drennan, health officer, in lifting the flu ban last Sunday, said he believed “half the people have had influenza during the last month.” He declared the danger is not passed.

Robert Kercheval resumed his desk in the auditor’s office Saturday, after ten days absence on account of the flu and pneumonia.

Three deaths from pneumonia were reported Tuesday.
— —

Idaho State News Items

Five inches of snow fell in Boise Feb. 22 and 23.

The number of horses in Idaho in January was estimated at 270,000, a decrease of 2 per cent since a year ago.
— —

World News In Brief

The average family expenditures for food in the United States increased 2 per cent in the month ended Jan. 15, or 104 per cent since January 1913, according to statistics of the labor department at Washington.

Potatoes are now being used as standard currency in certain remote agricultural districts of Poland.

source: The Rathdrum Tribune. (Rathdrum, Idaho), 27 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Rathdrum Tribune., February 27, 1920, Page 2

[Editorial]

The influenza epidemic, now happily receding, has so far been less terrible in its toll of lives than the visitation of a year ago, but it is attended by its old time treachery and inspired a wholesome fear which probably did much to stimulate greater intelligence in handling and in the application of medical science for control of the disease and its eradication. The disease has been less virulent in form, but those who have had it are a unit in declaring it is not a malady to be considered lightly.
— —

Dog License Notice

Owners of dogs in the incorporated limits of Rathdrum are hereby notified to pay the 1920 license to the village clerk at his office, on or before March 1, 1920, under penalty of the village ordinance. License for male dogs $1; female $2.

By order of the board. J. R. M. Culp, Village Clerk

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

The Rathdrum Tribune., February 27, 1920, Page 3

Personal Mention

Mrs. C. E. Gillespie has been at Sandpoint for two weeks assisting in caring for influenza patients. At one time Sandpoint had 300 cases and the situation was considered serious.

Miss Edna Layton is the only teacher of the Rathdrum public schools, who is now reported ill with influenza. She is at the C. B. Sanders home on the prairie where she went last week to help care for the sick.
— —

Local Paragraphs

One new case of influenza was reported in town yesterday. Ernest Reiniger, the well known groceryman. Mr. Reiniger was among those who were caught in the epidemic a year ago.

The nine months old son of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Bowers, of the Georgetown district, died last Friday of influenza, the entire family having been ill with the disease at one time. The funeral was held Saturday, Rev. G. E. James officiating. Interment was in Pine Grove cemetery.

There is no announcement yet, but it is believed that if the influenza closing order is rescinded by Sunday, the locals schools may re-open next Monday. Sup’t Swenson is about again and all the teachers, with the exception of one, are said to be ready to resume work.

Washington’s birthday was observed in Rathdrum Monday, the bank being closed and the rural mail carriers taking the day off.
— —

Died In South Dakota

Word was received yesterday by W. J. Tucker announcing the death of Miss Jennie Downing at Redfield, South Dakota, on Feb. 24. There were no particulars. A. O. Skinner had received a telegram a few days previously stating that Miss Downing was ill with influenza and very low.

Miss Downing was well known in Rathdrum, having lived here about 15 years, being occupied most of the time as telephone operator.
— —

19200227RT3Seven Flu Preventatives

Eat good, wholesome food.
Chew what you do eat well.
Sleep eight hours every night.
Work ten hours every day.
Boost instead of knocking.
Wear a good pleasant smile
Buy everything to eat and drink at the Ivy Store. – Trueblood.
(ad)

(ibid, page 3)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. February 27, 1920, Page 1

19200227KG1

Big Bear Ridge

The attendance is normal again at the four schools, and all are doing splendid work.

Mrs. Grant Thayer has returned from Kendrick and is recovering from an operation and an attack of the influenza. She is at the home of her parents, Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Fairfield.

Dr. Kelley of Kendrick was called to the Fred Newman home last week by the illness of their little daughter.

The funeral services of Martin Norman were held at the Wild Rose Cemetery Thursday afternoon. Rev. M. L. Anderson of Kendrick had charge of the services. The floral offerings were many and beautiful. He was the oldest son of P. A. Norman, and was well known and highly esteemed in this neighborhood, where he has attended school and grown to manhood. The entire community has expressed their deepest sympathy for the family in their hour of bereavement.
— —

Auctioneer N. R. Shepherd of Troy was in Kendrick Wednesday. He left his Ford here last fall and came down to herd it home.
— —

Southwick Items

Religious meetings were resumed again, the 22nd.

Mr. J. M. McFadden informs us that he is still head nurse and cook at his house. Does any one wonder that the sick people are convalescing nicely?

Ralph Wright and family are recovering nicely from their illness.

Mrs. Juliun Hoppe is ill from an attack of appendicitis. The doctor advises an operation at once.
— —

Rom Daugherty of Leland went to Spokane Tuesday to be with his son, Clyde, who was seriously ill with pneumonia.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 27 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. February 27, 1920, Page 2

[Editorial]

Kendrick ought to have a fire alarm that could be put into action on short notice. In days gone by the general custom was to fire a gun, but of course this might be confused with a murder, which isn’t very satisfactory in case an emergency should arise. An electric gong that could be released by the telephone central would be a very efficient way of rousing the citizens of the town in case of fire. It is the first few minutes that count in extinguishing a fire.

(ibid, page 2)
————

The Kendrick Gazette. February 27, 1920, Page 7

Cavendish and Teakean

The school at Cavendish, which was closed on account of the flu, is again in session.

S. A. Sutton was on the sick list last week.

The farmers around Cavendish have been busy plowing since last week.

The roads have been worked around Cavendish and are in good condition.

Mrs. Alice Parsley of Teakean received a telegram to the effect that her son, who lived in Oregon, had passed away. His death was caused by influenza.
— —

Linden News

School reopened Monday after being closed two weeks on account of sickness in the neighboring communities.

Several of the farmers were plowing Monday. This has been an ideal winter for the farmers.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. February 27, 1920, Page 8

Gleanings

School began again the first of the week with a very good attendance. The teachers have all returned and everything is moving along nicely. Neither flu nor scarlet fever in town.

In a letter from Michael Bleck, a former Kendrick citizen, he says that he and his wife have just recently recovered from influenza, but are still in a weak condition. They were ill for over a week.

Mrs. Enoch Harrison of Leland, who was very ill from the effects of influenza, is reported to be recovering.

Ira Gentry was taken to Spokane Thursday afternoon, where he will probably have to undergo an operation. He was recovering from an attack of pneumonia until a pus sack formed on one of his lungs. Dr. Rothwell advised surgical treatment. Mrs. Gentry, his brother Dave Gentry and Dr. Rothwell accompanied him to Spokane.

C. G. Compton was up town, Wednesday, the first time for a number of weeks. He is getting very much stronger and believes that he will soon feel as well as ever.

Mrs. S. P. Callison is critically ill at a Moscow hospital. She was taken to the hospital last week and has been gradually growing weaker. Mr. Callison, his son and daughter, Ben and Mrs. Frank Roberts and Mrs. Ben Callison, have been with her most of the time during her illness.

The Charles Lewis family had a very serious time with the flu. Mrs. Lewis is just beginning to regain her strength after an illness of three weeks. He was out Monday, the first time in two weeks.

Frank O. Wittman of Potlatch ridge was in Kendrick Tuesday on business. The members of his family have practically recovered from the flu. They had a trained nurse but in spite of this good care it was impossible to save the life of their little son, who died about three weeks ago.

M. V. Thomas and Mrs. Ben Callison went to Central ridge last Sunday to attend the funeral of their sister, Mrs. A. D. Hunter.

The lack of social events caused by the flu epidemic, has apparently taken some of the life out of the town. Now that the ban has been lifted the same social spirit that prevailed before will no doubt again be with us. Kendrick people know how to have good times.

Idle rumors have been floating around in this community that there have been some successful “home brew” parties in the vicinity. A “home brew” party is a comparatively simple thing. When a fellow makes up his mind to hold one he puts “old hen settin'”. It isn’t a real hen but is called that because brew has to set 3 weeks before the concoction of raisins, sugar, yeast and water is ready for consumption. When the liquid produces “frog eyes” it is ready and has the kick.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 27, 1920, Page 1

19200227DSM1

19200227DSM2Mrs. Lindley Shows Improvement

Slight improvement is reported in the condition of Mrs. E. H. Lindley, wife of President Lindley of the University of Idaho, today. Dr. Newman of Spokane, came down last night and administered anti-toxine and Mrs. Lindley got several hours sleep. At 4 o’clock this morning a change for the better was noted and the improvement in her condition continued for some time. Her temperature dropped to 99 and she seemed stronger after the sleep. Dr. and Mrs. Lindley’s eldest son, Ernest, reached home today at noon from Oregon, where he has been with the basket ball team of which he is captain. His presence has seemingly had a good effect on Mrs. Lindley, who is still a very sick woman, but strong hopes for her recovery are entertained today. Mrs. Kidder, Mrs. Lindley’s mother, continues to show marked improvement.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 27 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 27, 1920, Page 2

[Editorial]

February, which began and ends on Sunday, will pass into history as midnight Sunday night and it will be 28 years before there will be another February with five Sundays. It was 40 years since the last February with five Sundays, that being 1880. But February will not be remembered in the Palouse country so much for its five Sundays as for its abnormal beautiful, mild and spring-like weather.
— —

Broke All Mulish Records
If Animal Committed Suicide He is the First of His Tribe Thus to Shuffle Off

We are not prepared to accept without mental reservation the story from Brooklyn, that a mule, perhaps an ex-service mule, committed suicide by plunging through the plate-glass front of an undertaker’s office, after imbibing freely of 2.75 per cent beer. We know the mule; have known him from an early age, and we know the decimal [sic] stuff that passes for beer. That is today, we have heard about it. No self-respecting mule – particularly if he came from Missouri – would drink 2.75 in the first place, and in the second place, if he did drink it it would not go to his head. It might go to his legs, his hindlegs, which are naturally of a nervous temperament, and likely to reach out at any time. We can imagine no better way to put a “kick” in the brew than by first putting the brew in a mule.

The average mule is looking for an excuse for kicking, anyway. Feed him up on the beer of commerce and leave the rest to his natural predisposition. He will register disgust in the obvious way.

And then again mules never commit suicide. We have heard of men committing suicide by twisting the mule’s tail, but the hybrid himself is much in love with life. There’s even a rumor in the South and Southwest that mules never die; that, barring accidental dissolution, they live forever. Be that as it may, we do not recall that we ever saw a mule suffering from age, or that was feeble in his right hind shoe.

— New York Morning Telegraph

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 27, 1920, Page 5

City News

Frank H. La Frenz, graduate of the university in ’15, and since manager of the experiment farm of the university at Sandpoint, has resigned his position to take charge of his brother’s farm at Coeur d’Alene, his brother having been incapacitated by a recent attack of influenza.

Mrs. D. M. Scott is on the road to recovery from a recent attack of influenza.

Mrs. Sam Callison of Kendrick is at a Moscow hospital for medical treatment.
— —

Don’t Blame Mosquito

We have lately been taught that the mosquito was the only disseminator of malaria, and that we should be safe if we should get rid of mosquitoes. But Doctor Roux, formerly chief physician of the St. Louis hospital at Jerusalem, asserts as the result of his own experience of 20 years and that of many colonial physicians, that malaria often exists where there are no mosquitoes.

He points out that everywhere in malarial countries the disease breaks out just at the time when the soil is broken for planting. He does not deny that the anopheles mosquito spreads malaria, but he says this is evidently not the only means of infection.

The old theory that malaria was caused by the bad air of swampy districts or by certain emanations from the soil may be correct after all.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

Clearwater Republican. February 27, 1920, Page 1

19200227CR1

Weippe

The Weippe country can boast of going through last year and this without a single case of the influenza – a record few towns in the northwest can claim.

Plowing is being carried on in the Weippe prairie section at this time.

source: Clearwater Republican. (Orofino, Idaho), 27 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Clearwater Republican. February 27, 1920, Page 5

What Your Friends And Neighbors Are Doing

The regular monthly meeting of the American Legion, Clearwater Post, will occur Tuesday evening, March 2nd. The February meeting was postponed on account of the influenza.

R. H. Weston went to Moscow on Saturday’s train to consult Dr. Gritman. Bob is gradually improving and hopes to be able to resume work shortly.

Dr. E. A. Schilling was an outgoing passenger on Sunday’s morning train, for Lewiston.

Spring plowing and general farm operations started in the different sections of the county this week.
— —

19200227CR2No Liquor In Idaho

Boise, Idaho, Feb. 21. — The Sunnybrook Distillers company of Chicago has written to ask Attorney General Roy L. Black whether or not druggists or pharmacists in the state of Idaho may dispense liquor on a physician’s prescription provided they comply with the federal requirement. “They cannot do so.” The attorney general replied.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

Cottonwood Chronicle. February 27, 1920, Page 1

19200227CC1

News Around The State
Items of Interest From Various Sections Reproduced for Benefit of Our Readers

Application from physicians in various parts of the state seeking permits to issue prescriptions for the use of alcohol, have been coming into the internal revenue office in increasing numbers recently, according to D. O. Doherty, deputy revenue collector.

Two congressional medals of honor and 22 Distinguished Service crosses were awarded Idaho soldiers in the recent war, according to report from Washington.

The completion of the war department’s compilation of the casualty figures for the entire American expeditionary forces, shows the total casualties of Idaho troops numbered 1351, of which number 409 lost their lives, 933 were wounded and 9 taken prisoners by the enemy, all of whom were later repatriated.

The sale of over 13,000 acres of Nez Perce Indian lands on the Fort Lapwai reservation is attracting attention. The sale will be held April 20. The 13,000 acres are appraised at over $700.000.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 27 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Cottonwood Chronicle. February 27, 1920, Page 3

County Seat News Items

Every habitable house in Grangeville now is occupied, Mrs. W. S. Jackson who has just completed taking the federal census in the city, has discovered. Mrs. Jackson is prohibited by law from revealing details of the census.
— —

19200227CC2(ad)

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

Cottonwood Chronicle. February 27, 1920, Page 6

School Notes

(By Wm. A. Lustie)

School attendance is almost normal. There were absent from the High School – 5, the 7th and 8th grades – 0, the 5th and 6th grades – 1, the 3rd and 4th grades – 1, the 1st and 2nd grades – 4.

The Domestic Science Bungalow has been sufficiently repaired so that it can be used again.
— —

Oh, Why should the teachers sit out in the bleachers
When up in the grandstand is where they belong?
We owe a concession to this great profession
And while we withhold it our system is wrong –
And if duty well done deserves fair compensation
Why are not our school teachers getting more pay?
Ten splendid instructors in any great college
May earn, in the aggregate, annual pay
Which yields them as much for their wisdom and knowledge
As a heavyweight prize fighter earns in one day!
If rewards come to such as give most satisfaction,
Why are not our school teachers getting their due?

W. F. Kirk

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

Cottonwood Chronicle. February 27, 1920, Page 7

[Local News]

John Hoene and Barney Seubert who have both been absent from their duties at the Hoene hardware for the past week on account of influenza are again able to resume their work.

Geo. Killmar of Winona was a business visitor in Cottonwood Wednesday and stated that the roads between Cottonwood and his ranch are the best he has ever seen them, even excelling the roads in the good old summer time.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

Cottonwood Chronicle. February 27, 1920, Page 8

Cottonwood And Vicinity
Personal Mention and Local Happenings of the Week in This Vicinity.

William Ruhoff is one of the latest victims of influenza and while not critically ill is reported to be a very sick man.

Mrs. Rhett was able to again resume her duties at the Cottonwood Mercantile Co. after a week’s layoff on account of influenza.

Frank Wimer, who had a very severe tustle [sic] with influenza is able to be up and around the house. However, somewhat weak he expects to be himself again within a few weeks.

Leasel Hussman, one of the popular telephone operators at the Pacific Telephone office of this city is this week absent from the office and is doing nursing work at the home of Dominic Duclos

Dr. W. F. Orr, one of Cottonwood’s doctors who has been on the go for the past month day and night administering to the influenza patients was forced to quit his practice Monday on account of a severe cold and an attack of the flu. The doctor, however, is getting along nicely and no doubt within a few days will again resume his practice which at the present time is being take care of by Drs. Blake and Shinnick.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

State Hospital for the Insane, Orofino, Idaho ca. 1908

HospitalInsaneOrofino1908Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

The Idaho Recorder. February 27, 1920, Page 1

19200227IR1

19200227IR2Flu Victims in Lost River

The deaths of Mrs. Charles Lemon, Mrs. Jimmy McKelvey and Mrs. Gather Perkins, all prominent Lost river women from Influenza, are reported, the two former dying at their homes in Lost river valley and the latter dying in California where she and her husband were spending the winter.

Mrs. Al West and daughter, Mrs. Laura Ivie, are reported as seriously ill from the flu in the Mackay hospital.

On February 23rd at 4 a.m. occurred the death of Mrs. Allie May Stephens, at her home about 4 miles north of Challis, of influenza, of which she had been a sufferer but a short time.
— —

State Game Census

The game census of the forests in the fourth district, comprising the states of Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Nevada and Arizona, as been made public. It shows that Idaho is the only state in the district that has all varieties of game listed. The census of this state is as follows: Deer, 20,140; elk, 1,721; mountain goats, 4,275; mountain sheep, 1,018; moose, 200; antelope, 324. Wyoming has 20,256 elk, which is the largest number in any state. Dr. Scarbourough has published a statement to the effect that elk are holding their own very well.

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 27 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. February 27, 1920, Page 4

Lemhi

H. G. Anderson has been very sick with flu but is now improving.

Martin Pyeatt is having a telephone installed at his upper ranch, near Lemhi.
— —

No Serious Cases

The family of W. C. Smith has been under quarantine this week from a slight attack of flu, the youngest child of the family, little Anne, being the patient. There are no serious cases of the malady reported.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. February 27, 1920, Page 5

Salmon Locals

Commissioner W. A. Briney has … Salmon this week on personal … matters. He is recovering … that he thinks was a mild attack [of] flu.

Israel Cannon, Kirtley creek rancher, has been quite ill for the past fortnight at the Salmon home of Miss Amelia Proksch, who is caring for him. Dr. Stratton has the case in hand and the patient is reported in satisfactory condition for recovery. Walter Schofield is looking after the ranch of Mr. Cannon.
— —

Ellis Brevities

The flu is not here yet.

The school closed for a week. The good trustees and teacher are trying to keep out the flu.

The Ellis school teacher takes pleasure in expressing his appreciation of the kind treatment given him by the patrons of the district.

Some members of the John Hammond family are indisposed.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. February 27, 1920, Page 9

Idaho State News

The public schools of Lewiston have been reopened after having been closed for two weeks because of the influenza.

Pocatello will have a free tuberculosis clinic and a clinic for crippled children for several weeks at the end of the Red Cross and anti-tuberculosis census, which was begun Feb. 16.

Urging that a determined effort be made to save the tubercular cattle test for Idaho, the Buhl chamber of commerce has asked Congressman Addison T. Smith to appear before congress with a petition, asking for further appropriations for the continuance of this testing.

Idaho’s $900,000 capitol wings building fund will be increased by the addition of all interest and other accruals on and to the fund.

(ibid, page 9)
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. February 27, 1920, Page 10

Leadore And Upper Lemhi

Leadore

Mrs. Keating, who has been quite sick with a complication of jaundice and pneumonia, has passed the danger point and is rapidly recovering. Dr. Keller was in attendance.

Mrs. Bernard Allhands has been quick sick but at this writing is much improved. She has been struggling with a severe attack of bronchitis, lagrippe and tonsillitis all at once. Next week, accompanied by little Virginia, she will leave to spend a couple of months at Yakima, Wash.

Last week Thursday snow begun falling here with but short intermission till Sunday morning. The fall easily total 18 inches but the melting and settling process held it down to approximately 10 or 12 inches in the valley. It will be rather hard on livestock for the time but will mean much to ranchers later on.

Leadore School Notes

It seems as though the Leadore high school has had more than its share of sickness this winter. This week those absent on account of colds, jaundice and tonsillitis are: Mrs. Buer, Genevieve Smith, Edith Benedict and Daisy Yearian.

Forest Stewart has resumed his studies after a two week’s siege of jaundice. Ruth Barrows is also in school again.

Dell Smith has recovered from the flu. She is taking a course in business and accounting at the university of Utah.

Ethel Maes was absent three days last week.

(ibid, page 10)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Idaho Republican. February 27, 1920, Page 1

19200227TIR1

19200227TIR2
Mrs. J. F. Garvin Loses Life Fight
Ten Days Struggle with Attack of Influenza and Pneumonia Weakens Heart

After an illness of nearly two weeks Mrs. J. F. Garvin died at a local hospital Tuesday evening of influenza and pneumonia. She was thirty-six years of age.

Mrs. Garvin had been teaching at the Central school until the time of her illness. She was prominent in social and club activities of the city and numbered a host of admiring friends.

Mrs. Garvin was born in Wisconsin and spent considerable of her girlhood in Frankfort, Mich. She married Mr. Garvin in 1910 and came immediately to Blackfoot.

She is survived by her husband and two small children, Frances aged six and Edwin aged 5.

Funeral services were held at the Catholic church Thursday morning and the body shipped to Frankfort, Mrs. Garvin’s former home.

Business houses were all closed between 9 and 10 o’clock Thursday morning as a mark of respect to the memory of Mrs. Garvin.
— —

Spelling Contest To Be Held Soon

The Bingham county spelling contest will be held next Thursday and Friday at the various schools of the county. The contest was to have been held this week, but owing to the closing of a number of schools it was postponed.

Winners of the school contests will meet in Blackfoot in the near future to decide the spelling champion of the county.
— —

Mr. and Mrs. George Stone of Ashton were in Blackfoot Thursday on their way home from a six weeks trip to California. They report everybody healthy on the coast and no sickness to speak of.

Sam Wright is out again after being ill for some time.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 27 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. February 27, 1920, Page 2

[Editorial]

Lamb In Wolf Skin

As in all times of epidemic we have had lately in Blackfoot many influenza patients who did not have the “flu.” Some of them believed it when told they had it and others refused to have it.

Whenever an epidemic starts it is noticeable that the number of “victims” picks up as soon as everybody hears about it.

On the other hand it is almost necessary to scare folks into taking care of common colds. They are so used to such discomforts resulting from overeating, lack of proper amount of sleep and stinting on fresh air, that they lay themselves open to the deadly pneumonia.

Just an ordinary cold is really a rather complete disorganization of physical system. The heart is doing extra duty and the kidneys and digestive organs are busy throwing off poisons. At such a time it is the part of wisdom to avoid heavy eating, hard exercise and exposure. The body’s usual forces of resistance are at low ebb. — F. C. K.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. February 27, 1920, Page 3

Wicks

Mrs. George Dunn returned on Wednesday from Trenton, Utah, after attending the funeral of her sister, who died from influenza.
— —

Firth

The high school pupils were dismissed Wednesday, due to the illness of Miss Burquist.

Mrs. Duff Quinn is seriously ill at this writing.
— —

Idaho Dry Laws Are Most Stringent

Because of the stringent dry laws of Idaho, the enforcement of the federal statute will have little effect on the duties of the state officials as the Idaho law gives them greater power than the federal law according to an opinion recently made public by Attorney General Roy L. Black.

Pharmacists in this state cannot dispense liquor on a physicians prescription according to the attorney general.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. February 27, 1920, Page 5

Local News

The family of M. O. Monroe have recovered from a siege of the flu.

John Short, of the express office, is reported to be seriously ill with pneumonia.

Miss Mattie Waters has returned to her place at the farm bureau office, after a week’s illness.

Jack, the small son of Mr. and Mrs. M. M. Farmer, was taken down Wednesday with an attack of pneumonia at the A. M. Farmer home in Blackfoot.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. February 27, 1920, Page 7

Rose

Donald Swensen the infant son of Mr. and Mrs. Peter Swensen was ill last week.

Neal Gushwa entered school again Monday.

Mr. and Mrs. Leo Gushwa are wearing a smile over the arrival of a baby boy, born last week. The baby has been very ill, but is slowly improving.

Ephraim Sorensen attended his brother’s baby’s funeral at Shelley Sunday.
— —

School Tests Cows

The Dietrich school trustees in Lincoln county have purchased the same kind of outfit as has been used by the Darrah school, and will run tests each week under the direction of Professor C. O. Custer. Some of the poorest cows already have been eliminated by school tests, and the farm bureau expects that creation of a cow testing association will eventually result.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — — — — — — — —

American Falls Press. February 27, 1920, Page 1

19200227AFP1

19200227AFP2“Flu” Still Exacting Death Toll In County
Mrs. A. F. McAllister Is Latest to Succumb – Epidemic Spreading Into County – Red Cross Has Situation Well Controlled.

Influenza is still exacting a toll from the people of the county in spite of the best efforts of local nurses and physicians. Mrs. A. F. McAllister died Sunday evening after an illness of two weeks, Mr. McAllister is in a weakened condition and the four children are suffering severely in various stages of the “flu.” Ora Kramer is ill at the Bethany Deaconess hospital with pneumonia. Mrs. Alice Upham and Mrs. S. H. Laird are ill with influenza but their condition is not regarded as serious. Albert Cazier, who has been ill for several weeks is in the hospital and is reported in an improved condition. Other minor cases have developed, in most cases among the older people of the community.

While epidemic conditions are much improved in the city, the country districts are experiencing their most serious stage. Few cases have been reported from town while many have come from outlying districts. The Red Cross chapter of the county is endeavoring to keep in touch with all cases but has considerable difficulty with those in remote sections. Few calls come for help for rural communities. The Red Cross is caring nicely for local cases and is ready to answer more distant calls when they arrive.

Mrs. M. M. Myers reports for the local branch, that she is corresponding with two applicants for the position of social service worker for the county. She has no definite recommendations to make yet but expects soon to submit her findings to the chapter in regular meetings.
— —

Student Pranks Score Hit In “Private Tutor”
High School Players Capture Audience in Play Filled With Many Amusing Situation – Two Hundred Patrons Make Play Financial Success

The efforts of two college boys to hoodwink their parents into believing them real students captured a large audience in the Auditorium theater Friday evening of last week and led to the successful presentation of one of the most enjoyable comedies seen in American Falls for many months. “The Private Tutor,” played by students from the American Falls high school, was well adapted to the capabilities of the amateur players who played their roles exceptionally well. At no time did the interest of the spectators wane and the series of minor climaxes kept interest in the development of the play predominant at all times.

The scenery and wardrobe used in the play lent much to its effective presentation and speaks well for those who directed the performance. Strenuous work was necessary to overcome the handicaps inflicted by the influenza epidemic, and though substitutions were made necessary due to the illness of principals in the cast, the final effect was not marred in any way nor was the presentation of the play noticeably affected. …

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 27 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

American Falls Press. February 27, 1920, Page 4

Arbon Items

The little son of Mr. and Mrs. John Bullock is ill with pneumonia at their home here. Dr. C. F. Schiltz of American Falls was called out to Arbon Monday to attend to this case.

Mr. and Mrs. George Bandy, who are residing in Pocatello this winter, received word Friday of the death of their daughter, Mrs. Rachel Dutro who lived near Walla Walla, Washington. All of the Dutro family have been ill with the influenza and Mrs. Bandy received word two weeks ago of the serious illness of Mr. Dutro of pneumonia and since then had heard nothing until the telegram came stating their daughter had passed away. Mr. and Mrs. Bandy left at once for Washington.

Eynon Davis was summoned to Jerome a few days ago on account of the illness of Mr. Davis’ father.

Mr. and Mrs. Joe Abter and son, Hugh, visited in Pocatello last week at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Julius Abter. While there Mr. Abter received word that his brother, J. E. Abter, of Malad, had the pneumonia but that his condition was slightly improved.

A light wet snow has been falling the past two or three days making more moisture for fall grain.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

American Falls Press. February 27, 1920, Page 5

Local Briefs

Dr. Danner has been ill the past few days with a sore throat, following an attack of the flu.

Chester Green is able to be out again after an attack of the influenza.

Mrs. L. S. Upham and her mother, Mrs. Lee, are ill this week with the influenza.

James Kemper of Aberdeen has been confined to his room at the Baugh hotel the past week with a light attack of the flu.

Harold and Howard Misenheimer, sons of Mr. and Mrs. P. W. Misenheimer of Little Creek, are confined to their homes this week with the influenza.

Bishop Allen announces that church and Sunday school services will be resumed in the L. D. S. church beginning Sunday. Services were indefinitely suspended during the more serious stages of the epidemic of influenza.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

American Falls Press. February 27, 1920, Page 6

Correspondence
News of Interest From Nearby Towns and Settlements

Rockland

On account of influenza in the vicinity the dance that was to have been given by the local post of the American Legion, Saturday night, has been postponed until later. The date will be published.

There are a number of cases of influenza throughout the valley around the Roy neighborhood. Entire families are down with it. There are only a few cases in town.

Prosperity

Rudolf Martel was confined to his home last week with an attack of the flu.

A dance was given at the Washington school house last Friday night. A large crowd was present and everybody had a good time.

The farmers were all ready for spring work. John Meyer had commenced to harrow when the snow storm put an end to it all. The snow is good for the winter wheat.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Oakley Herald. February 27, 1920, Page 1

19200227OH1

Vipont News

By Duke Few-Clothes

The flu epidemic at Vipont Mine has slowed up considerably during the past week.

Quite a snow fell at Vipont on George Washington’s birthday.
— —

Boulder

William Read, Jr., has been sick the last few days, but is much improved.

The farmers are rejoicing over the recent snowfall.
— —

Card of Thanks

We desire to thank the people of Basin and Oakley for their kindness and assistance during the illness and death of our beloved wife and mother.

J. Alma Butler and Family

source: The Oakley Herald. (Oakley, Idaho), 27 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Oakley Herald. February 27, 1920, Page 3

Churchill News

(Received too late to be published last week.)

Very few families here have escaped the flu. We are glad to state, however, that there have been no deaths. All seem to be getting along as well as can be expected.

John McArthur is about after having the flu, followed by a very severe case of heart trouble. He and all the children were down, leaving Mrs. McArthur to wait on all and do the house work. At this writing all are doing nicely.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Oakley Herald. February 27, 1920, Page 6

Vipont News

By The Kitten

Mr. and Mrs. Newbold had a siege of the Vipont flu. Mrs. Thorn was down from the Mine, and she fixed them up in fine shape. They are both feeling much improved, and we hope they will be around in a few days all O. K.

Eric Erickson has been sick with the flu. He is now able to be present at the table three times a day.

Capt. Billy West is here, and we intend to keep him. He’s become very essential to the life of Vipont. No blues with Billy around.
— —

Local Mention

All the teachers of the public school are back at their posts this week.

Miss Inez Matthews returned home from Salt Lake City to recuperate from an illness of flu and pneumonia before resuming her studies at the U. of U.

The state inspector visited our town last week and said that the Central Market had the cleanest slaughter house in southern Idaho.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

The Oakley Herald. February 27, 1920, Page 7

19200227OH2(ad)

(ibid, page 7)
— — — — — — — — — —

State Asylum, Blackfoot, Idaho ca. 1910

HospitalInsaneBlackfoot1910Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. February 27, 1920, Page 3

19200227CT1

Local And Personal

H. D. Hanna is quarantined at his home with small pox.

Funeral services were held Wednesday afternoon for Olaf DeLain, for 11 years a faithful city employee in the street department. Burial was in Canyon Hill. Mr. DeLain is survived by his wife and six children.

Ed DeLain arrived in Caldwell last Tuesday evening. He was called here by the death of his father, Olaf DeLain.

Retroactive settlements made prior to January 1 by Director R. G. Hholmeley [sic] Jones of the bureau of war risk insurance in Idaho reached the sum of $97,172.49. This amount was distributed to Idaho veterans in accordance with the terms of the increased compensation provided for disabled service under the new law which became effective December 24. Through out the United States, the grand total of $23,562,424.97 was distributed.

Heinie Johnson’s Oldsmobile was stolen Wednesday evening from in front of the Huree theatre Wednesday evening. Efforts to recover or find it were futile until a late hour Thursday.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 27 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. February 27, 1920, Page 6

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Greenleaf Snaps

There was no school in the upper room of the Greenleaf public school last Thursday as the teacher, Mrs. Revearse was ill.

Dorothy Elaine the infant daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Ambrose Tiah is much improved from the influenza.

Mr. G. W. Davenport is very ill with the pneumonia. Mr. Charles Hanson of Caldwell is now caring for him.

Pleasant Ridge

Miss Georgia Lamson who has been quarantined with scarlet fever for the past six weeks was able to take up her school duties again this week.

Mrs. John Shelp is spending a few days in Caldwell with her mother, Mrs. DeVault who has been quite ill.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. February 27, 1920, Page 7

Wilder

There are many new cases of small pox in the Wilder community.

Miss McKee, one of the Wilder teachers is ill with small pox at the home of Mrs. Aliver Temple.
— —

Briar Rose

Mrs. J. P. Braun is slowly recovering from the influenza.

Mr. Ed Meek is recovering from a bad spell of the influenza.

Mr. Webster is having the time of his life with a crippled food.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. February 27, 1920, Page 9

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Marble Front Items

O. O. Campbell of Caldwell was brought to the county farm suffering with small pox.

It has been decided to postpone the meeting of the P. T. A. for February. Plans are being made for an interesting meeting the second Friday in March.

Lake Lowell

Mr. Bowls is ill with pneumonia, a trained nurse is in charge.

The Blanksmas are recovering from the influenza.

The Tipton family have recovered from a severe attack of the influenza.

Midway News

Mr. and Mrs. H. S. Baker, recently of Minersville, Utah, who buried a seven year old son from the influenza two weeks ago, had another child, a boy of four years, die from the same disease last week and was buried Saturday. Mr. and Mrs. Baker are at the Peter Allen home now and Mrs. Baker is quite ill. They will move to their home they recently purchased as soon as Mrs. Baker is able.

Mrs. Jon Fuss is quite ill with pneumonia, following the influenza.

A. W. Kline was able to be out the last of the week, after being confined to his home for over three weeks with the mumps and influenza.

James P. Walters is quite sick with the influenza.

Mr. and Mrs. F. W. Jordan are sick with the mumps.

The regular meeting of the Midway P. T. A. will be held at the school house Friday afternoon March 5. Mrs. Kate Kelly of Seattle, who is in charge of the home service work of the Nampa chapter of the Red Cross will be present and give a talk on the home service training course to be given to the ladies of Nampa and vicinity.

Fairview

Most of the children are back in school after the influenza and mumps.

Mrs. Anna Spencer is sick with rheumatic fever at the home of her son, H. C. Spencer of Sunny Slope.

Mrs. Thompson is home from the hospital and much improved.

(ibid, page 9)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Meridian Times., February 27, 1920, Page 1

19200227MT1

19200227MT2Death of Prominent Meridian Citizen

James M. Grooms, 64 years of age, died suddenly at his home in Meridian Wednesday, at 5:30, of heart failure. He had been ill for several days with the prevailing influenza but feeling better on the morning of Wednesday, went about his work and received a backset and grew rapidly worse.

Deceased is survived by his wife and son Guy, and two daughters, Mrs. Frank Seran, and Mrs. Pearl Hyde, who reside here, also two daughters, one living in Kansas, and the other in Nebraska. The former will arrive here for the funeral, which will take place at the Christian church at 2:30 to-morrow (Saturday) afternoon. Rev. Mell officiating.
— —

Parents Should Visit The Public School

Meridian teachers have asked the parents to visit the schools. Few men ever take an hour for this purpose. Women do so a little more, but not very much. Some of those who criticism the schools never go into the school house door.

If one is to erect a house he holds daily consultations with the carpenter and mason, but if he is going to build the furniture of a child’s mind he “passes the buck” to the teacher and then stands off and finds fault.

The work of developing the mental talent of the young is a big job and one in which the school and home should unite. Careless parents can pull down faster than a conscientious teacher can build. A school in which the teacher feels himself backed up by the personal interest of the parent stands a greatly increase chance of being a good school. If the teacher is regarded as a hired servant, working merely for the money, it is hard for him to keep his enthusiasm but if parents visit the school and will discuss the problems with the teachers, the latter will feel that they have the cooperation and support of those at home.

Another thing has been suggested to the Times. Teachers who come to a new town feel lonely among strangers and this feeling lasts during the greater part of the first term. They should be taken into the homes of the people, socially, and made to feel that they are a vital factor in the town’s life. If we “get next” to the teacher he can explain away many things about your boy or your girl, in which you think you and yours are not receiving a fair deal.
— —

A scientist has discovered that a snail can travel half a miles in seven days. That’s fast compared to getting a letter delivered mailed from Meridian to Boise.

source: The Meridian Times. (Meridian, Idaho), 27 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Meridian Times., February 27, 1920, Page 8

Meridian News Notes

Mrs. Ray Prow is seriously ill at her home.

Miss Mary Wolfe is absent from her school duties this week on account of illness.

Floyd Adams who had a slight relapse this week, is gradually getting better. The boy has been severely ill with lung and throat trouble.

(ibid, page 8)
—————-

Further Reading

‘Mask Slackers’ and ‘Deadly’ Spit: The 1918 Flu Campaigns to Shame People Into Following New Rules

Cartoons, PSAs and streetcar signs urged Americans to follow health guidelines to keep the pandemic from spreading.

Becky Little – History.com

Many of the methods Americans used in 1918 to try to prevent the spread of the flu are similar to what people began doing during the COVID-19 pandemic: Close schools. Wear masks. Don’t cough or sneeze in someone’s face. Avoid large events and hold them outside when possible. And no spitting.

Health and city officials got the word out about these guidelines in all kinds of ways. In Philadelphia, streetcar signs warned “Spit Spreads Death.” In New York City, officials enforced no-spitting ordinances and encouraged residents to cough or sneeze into handkerchiefs (a practice that caught on after the pandemic). The city’s health department even advised people not to kiss “except through a handkerchief,” and wire reports spread the message around the country.

In western states, some cities adopted mask ordinances, and officials argued wearing one was a patriotic duty. In October 1918, the San Francisco Chronicle ran a public service announcement telling readers that “The man or woman or child who will not wear a mask now is a dangerous slacker”—a reference to the type of World War I “slacker” who didn’t help the war effort. One sign in California threatened, “Wear a Mask or Go to Jail.”

1918MaskOrJail-aA group of mask-wearing citizens, Locust Avenue, California, during the flu pandemic of 1918. Photograph: Raymond Coyne/Courtesy of Lucretia Little History Room, Mill Valley Public Library. © The Annual Dipsea Race.

‘Wear a Mask and Save Your Life!’

The PSA in the Chronicle appeared on October 22, just over a week before San Francisco had scheduled its mask ordinance to begin on November 1. It was signed by the mayor, the city’s board of health, the American Red Cross and several other departments and organizations, and it was very clear about its message: “Wear a Mask and Save Your Life!”

For the most part, San Franciscans listened.

“Red Cross headquarters in San Francisco made 5,000 masks available to the public at 11:00 A.M., October 22. By noon it had none,” wrote the late historian Alfred W. Crosby in America’s Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918. “By noon the next day Red Cross headquarters had dispensed 40,000 masks. By the twenty-sixth 100,000 had been distributed in the city… In addition, San Franciscans were making thousands for themselves.”

People Followed Make-Your-Own Mask Instructions

Newspapers printed instructions for how people could make their own masks at home. People who didn’t comply might face prison time, fines or having their name published in the paper, revealing they were a “mask slacker.”

Crosby writes that flu cases in San Francisco declined in early November. Residents continued to wear their masks through the November 5 midterm elections. After armistice on November 11, San Francisco ended its mask order. A spike in January 1919 led the city to implement a second masking order, but this one faced more resistance.

‘Keep Your Bedroom Windows Open!’ and Other Advice

Around the same time the San Francisco Chronicle ran its mask PSAs, newspapers around the country published a cartoon of a man hacking in public that warned, “Coughs and Sneezes Spread Diseases: As Dangerous As Poison Gas Shells”—again linking fighting the flu to fighting World War I. Newspapers used the cartoon to illustrate coverage of a special bulletin from Surgeon General Rupert Blue about the flu and how Americans could protect themselves from it.

“The value of fresh air through open windows cannot be over emphasized,” Blue said. “When crowding is unavoidable, as in street cars, care should be taken to keep the face so turned as not to inhale directly the air breathed out by another person. It is especially important to beware of the person who coughs or sneezes without covering his mouth and nose.”

Many newspaper carried large-print PSAs with similar advice. One announcement featuring a large picture of a masked woman urged, with unusual phrasing, “Do not take any person’s breath.” In Cincinnati, a board of health sign posted on streetcars told everyone to “Keep Your Bedroom Windows Open!” Like many other PSAs, the sign emphasized that precautions against the flu could also prevent the spread of other deadly infectious diseases like pneumonia and tuberculosis.

Messaging in 1918 also emphasized that special health measures weren’t just important because they kept the person who followed them safe. They were also important because they helped protect those around them. Cartoonist Clifford T. Berryman highlighted this in an illustration of a sneezing little boy and an older man who stood in for “The Public.” Looking at the little boy, the man said: “Use the handkerchief and do your bit to protect me.”

1918publichealthwarning-aScience History Images / Alamy Stock Photo

source:
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Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 6)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 7)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 8)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 9)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 10)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 22)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 24)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 25)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 26)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 27)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 31)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 32)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 63)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 64)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 65)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 66)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 67)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 68)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 69)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 70)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 71)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 72)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 73)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 74)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 75)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 76)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 77)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 78)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 79)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 80)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 81)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 82)

Idaho History Nov 28, 2021

Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic

Part 82

Idaho Newspaper Clippings February 25-26, 1920

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

February 25

The Challis Messenger., February 25, 1920, Page 1

19200225CM1

19200225CM2
Mrs. John W. Stephens Is A Flu Victim

On February 23rd, at 4 a.m., occurred the death of Mrs. Allie May Stephens, at her home about 4 miles north of this city, of influenza, of which she had been a sufferer but a short time.

Interment was made in the Challis cemetery on Tuesday afternoon at 2 o’clock.

This well known lady was born at Pittsfield, Maine on the 13th day of March, 1886, and lacked but a few days of being 34 years of age at the time of her death.

On Christmas day, 1905, she became the wife of John W. Stephens, who, with a little son, survive her. Besides the husband and son she leaves her mother, sister and three brothers to mourn her loss. …
— —

19200225CM3Prominent Lost River Women Victims Of Flu

The deaths of Mrs. Charles Lemon, Mrs. Jimmy McKelvey and Mrs. Gather Perkins, all prominent Lost river women, from influenza, are reported, the two former dying at their homes in Lost river valley and the latter dying in California where she and her husband were spending the winter.

The report that Charlie Lemon had died from the flu was not correct.

Mrs. Al. West and daughter, Mrs. Laura Ivie, are reported as seriously ill from the flu in the Mackay hospital.

source: The Challis Messenger. (Challis, Idaho), 25 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Challis Messenger., February 25, 1920, Page 2

19200225CM4Would Fight Flu With Whisky
Representative Sabath Proposes Temporary Suspension of Dry Measure.

Washington. — Representative Sabath, Democrat, Illinois, has offered a resolution declaring that whisky is needed as a “cure for influenza, which is alarming [sic] increasing,” and proposing suspension for ninety days of provisions of the national prohibition law requiring special permits and reports from druggists, doctors and others as to the use of liquor for medicinal purposes.

The resolution declared its purpose was to the “end that whisky may be prescribed and obtained for medicinal purposes without unnecessary hindrances and delay.”
— —

More Pay for Teachers

Chicago. — An average salary increase of $50 a month will be given to Chicago school teachers after February 1. More than 1000 teachers failed to report Wednesday and 15,000 pupils were without instruction.
— —

Women Flogged In Prison
Story That sounds Like Page From Spanish History

Atlanta, Ga. — Whipping of women at the city stockade has been ordered discontinued entirely by the prison committee of the Atlanta city council after a public hearing of charges brought by the Atlanta Humane society that women had been strapped to a contrivance resembling a chair and flogged.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

The Challis Messenger., February 25, 1920, Page 5

Items About People You Know

Everything Closed — During the early days of the spread of the flu in this section the schools, picture show and pool halls were closed down and a ban placed on public gatherings of all kinds. This section has been responsible for containing the disease in a great measure, to those who had already been exposed.

Out of Quarantine — Bill Vogel and Jesse Zilkey, the first ones quarantined in this valley for the flu were released the fore part of the week. No new cases, other than those already under quarantine, have developed during the past few days and it is believed that the situation is under control now.

Income Tax Man — The revenue department, who was to have been here in the interests of the income tax drive from the 23rd to the 26th of this month, advises us that his visit has been post poned to around the 13th of next month on account of the flu quarantine.

News is Lacking — In these days of quarantine there is a scarcity of news – no one coming or going except in cases of absolute necessity.

From Ramshorn — The Challis boys, who were sufferers from the flu at the Ramshorn mine, have recovered and quite a few of them have come down to their homes to rest up during their convalescence.

Verne McGowan Home — Verne McGowan returned home the latter part of last week from a trip to Salt Lake and Elko, Nevada. He reports the flu as thick on the outside as it is here.

To Mackay — Mrs. Frank Nickerson was called to Mackay last week by the serious illness of her sister, Mrs. Al. West.

Heavy Snowfall — A heavy fall of snow visited this section the latter part of last week and has been followed by colder weather.
— —

19200225CM5

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Challis Messenger., February 25, 1920, Page 7

Idaho And Idahoans

Internal revenue collectors will begin soon to visit all the cities and towns of the state to preparation of the collection of current internal revenues. The deputies will receive income tax returns, and also will arrange their schedule so as to spend a few days in each town to aid taxpayers in making out their returns.

The ice crop is about harvested and the quality of the ice secured is exceptionally good. In Adams county the ice cut was twenty-eight inches thick. In Bear Lake county one company alone has harvested more than 12,000 tons of high grade ice.

The roads throughout the state are improving with use and in most sections are now worn smooth. In the panhandle the roads were deeply rutted before freezing, and as a result they are still rough.
— —

Thirty Nations in Red Cross

Washington. — The first general council of the league of Red Cross societies will meet at Geneva March 2 to map out a program for the advancement of health, prevention of disease and alleviation of distress throughout the world, the American Red Cross announced Tuesday. Delegates from each national society have been invited.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Challis Messenger., February 25, 1920, Page 8

19200225CM6Quarantine Regulations County Health Officer

Whereas a contagious and infectious disease, known as Influenza has again made its appearance in many states and particularly in certain parts of Custer county, public health demands that prompt and efficient measures be taken to prevent the spread of said disease to those portions of Custer county not yet infected.

1st. Now, therefore, it is ordered by the County Health Officer of Custer county that all of that portion of Custer county which drains into Salmon River shall and is hereby declared to be a quarantine district for the purpose of preventing the introduction of Influenza into the said district. Said quarantine district and this order creating the same shall remain in full force until the further order of the Board of Health of said Custer county, Idaho.

2nd. All persons are prohibited from entering said district without a permit from the County Health Officer.

3rd. The County Health Officer is hereby authorized and empowered to appoint as many quarantine guards and to create as many quarantine districts as may be necessary to enforce these rules and regulations.

4th. The County Health Officer of Custer County, Idaho, shall cause to be printed suitable permits and quarantine cards in harmony with law and these regulations and place a sufficient number of said permits and quarantine cards at each quarantine station with the quarantine guards stationed there to meet all such necessary demands. It is hereby and herein further ordered and directed that the County Health Officer shall provide all quarantine guards at each quarantine station with “yellow flags” of suitable size, to be used by said quarantine guards in placing or causing same to be placed on the vehicle in which said person or persons are traveling.

5th. All persons coming into said district and desiring to remain therein shall be quarantined for a period of four days, at the home of such person or persons, in case they have a home in said district, and if not, then in some suitable place prepared and designated by the County Health Officer.

6th. All persons have business to transact in said district may enter said district and attend to [?] business, and depart again from said district; but all homes or other places to which such person are allowed to stop and enter must be quarantined for a period of four days; such person or persons so entering under the provisions of this [Order?] shall stop at the first quarantine station on the road [?], that such person or persons enter said quarantine district, and procure a written permit therefor; said permit shall direct such person or persons to travel the most direct public highway to and from his or her, or their homes or place where they seek to go, without stopping; and that each home of place where such person or persons shall go or stop, shall be quarantined by the placing of a proper quarantine card up in a conspicuous place on said residence or place where such person or persons shall go or stop as aforesaid; said quarantine card shall be applied such person or persons by said quarantine, such quarantine to be and remain in full force and effect for a period of four days from and after such person or persons shall so enter as aforesaid; and in the event any such person or persons or others in said home shall become afflicted with said disease, then in such case, said quarantine of said home or place shall be and remain in full force and virtue until ordered discontinued by said County Health Officer. It is further hereby and herein provided that all persons entering said quarantine district as aforesaid, shall place in a conspicuous place on the vehicle in which they travel a “yellow flag” and keep said flag thereon for a period of four days provided they remain in said quarantine district for such period of time; said flag to be supplied by the quarantine guard.

7th. All persons desiring continuous passage through said district shall be granted such privilege, but such person or persons shall first procure from such quarantine guard a permit and flag therefor, and all homes and other places in which they may be permitted to stop and enter shall be quarantined for a period of four days, as provided in Rule Sixth hereof.

8th. The County Health Officer is hereby empowered and directed to cause to be printed large quarantine cards to be posted up in a conspicuous place at each quarantine station so created as aforesaid, which said quarantine card shall correctly describe the boundaries of the Quarantine District hereby created.

9th. Every person or persons, company or corporation violating any of the provisions of this Order will be prosecuted as in such case made and provided.

An emergency existing therefore, this Order shall be and is in full force and effect from the date hereof.

Penalty for violation of this Order is $50.00 fine or imprisonment in the county jail for ninety days or by both such fine and imprisonment.

Dated at Challis, Idaho, this 4th day of February, 1920.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 25, 1920, Page 1

19200225DSM1

19200225DSM2Axel Pearson Was Buried Here Wednesday

The funeral of Axel Pearson was held at 1:30 Wednesday at Grice’s chapel, Rev. J. E. Oslund, of the Swedish Lutheran church conducting the services. Dean J. G. Eldridge also spoke. Mr. Pearson was a Moscow boy, but had been working recently in Spokane, where he died of pneumonia following influenza. He was 34 years of age. He leaves his mother, Mrs. P. E. Pearson, two brothers, Fred and Victor, and a sister, Mrs. Andrew Nelson, all of Moscow.
— —

‘Tenshun!

All ex-service men are commanded to appear at the University of Idaho campus at 1:30 Sunday afternoon, February 29, to take part in the parade to the Liberty theatre, where services in honor of our sleeping comrades will be held.

Every ex-service man is expected to wear his uniform and to take part in the parade. The French government has given memorial certificates which will be presented at the theatre to relatives of those sleeping in France.

Let us make this occasion a memorable one.

Remember the time, 1:30 p.m.; the place, University campus, and the date, Sunday, February 29.

Be One of the Marchers.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 25 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 25, 1920, Page 3

“Truth” Presented By Drama League

“Truth,” a comedy of American life in four acts, by Clyde Fitch, will be presented by the Drama League of Moscow at Guild Hall Tuesday evening, February 24th, at eight o’clock. Several dates have been set heretofore for the presentation of the play but it was postponed on account of the influenza epidemic.

The play promises to be most entertaining. It deals with prevarication. …

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 25, 1920, Page 4

Individual Health Claims Resumed Now
Student Health Claims Will Be Paid Only If Certificate IS Obtained First

Health claims will be paid after this week, according to Professor H. T. Lewis, chairman of the health committee. Written authorization from either Professor Lewis, or Dean French, will be required before any student can obtain benefit from the fund.

“Absolutely no claims will be paid,” says Professor Lewis, “without written authorization. Emergency cases only will be excepted, such as a fall or burns. There has been much confusion concerning the health claims, and any infringement on the rules as states will not be recognized. In an emergency case the proper authorities should be notified by phone, and provision will be made immediately for the student.”

Must Have Certificate

The physicians certificate or bill will not be accepted as a substitute for a card. The only way in which a student may utilize the fund, is to get an authorization, or health card from Professor Lewis or Dean French.

A new card must be secured for each consultation. A student may not use the same card for several consultations, but is free, however, to go to any physician he may care to.

Pay as Follows

The committee will pay according to the following rule: (1): Any bill up to five dollars in its entirety. (2) In larger bills, $5.00 plus 50 percent of the excess over $5.00 will be paid. If the amount should happen to be six dollars, five fifty will be paid, or seven fifty will be paid on a ten dollar claim. The maximum amount the board will pay is $7.50. This includes all claims for the semester. This amount will be paid in one sum or for several consultations. The physician will take the health card, write his fee on it and sent it to Professor Lewis, who will pay up to the maximum amount.

Equipment Added

The resumption of payment of individual health claims does not mean that students having consultations this week may receive a card. During the time the claims have been suspended the money has been spent for general expense. To the hospital equipment purchased last year, four cots, four mattresses, four complete sets of bedding have been added. In addition to this a nurse bill for service during the quarantine, was paid.

Heat, light and food have been supplied, also ambulance hire for students who were ill with influenza. Miscellaneous supplies such as thermometers, hot water bags, pails, etc., were also purchased. Most of what was purchased is permanent equipment. There are now 8 hospital cots.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 25, 1920, Page 5

City News

A letter from George Rowland, written in Spokane Tuesday, says Mrs. Rowland’s mother, Mrs. H. A. DeBolt, is low with pneumonia, but the fever has been reduced from 105 to 102, and that Mrs. and Mrs. Rowland would not leave for Moscow until the family is better. Mrs. P. L. Orcutt, of Orofino, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. DeBolt, was summoned, and passed through Moscow Tuesday for Spokane. Mr. DeBolt is recovering, also other members of the family who are down.

Corlis McElroy is a recent victim of influenza. Mrs. McElroy and son, Ivan, are just recovering from an attack. Mrs. G. F. Savage is acting as nurse.

Mrs. M. M. Snow, who has been very ill of influenza and other complications, is improving slowly. Her nurse, Mrs. H. L. Judd, who has been here for four weeks, left today for her home at Marshall, Wash.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 25, 1920, Page 6

Mrs. Lindley Improving

The hundreds of friends of President and Mrs. E. H. Lindley will be please to learn that Mrs. Lindley’s condition is such as to give strong hopes of her recovery. She is “holding her own” to use the expression of those in attendance, and it is believed the crisis has passed and that she will begin now to show improvement. Mrs. Lindley has been very ill with influenza followed by a very severe attack of pneumonia and her condition has caused the gravest alarm. But the reports today are more encouraging and that hope that “springs eternal in the human breast” is in the ascendancy. Mrs. Lindley’s mother, Mrs. Kidder, who has been ill at the same times, is also reported to be improving today and it is believed that the “worst is over” in both cases. Dr. Lindley has been dividing his time between his arduous duties as president of the University of Idaho and the home where Mrs. Lindley and Mrs. Kidder have been very ill for several days, but he is standing the strain remarkably well despite the fact that he but recently recovered from a severe attack of influenza.
— —

Possible Cause of Fever

The Medical Journal asks if “all fever, or at least a large proportion of it, may not be due to some change in the fluids of the body which prevents water from being available as perspiration which by its evaporation serves to keep the body cool.”

It may be that the practice of making a fever patient perspire freely has another purpose than the washing out of impurities from the blood, this being an actual cooling by evaporation. “An abundance of water has been found beneficial in fevers, and there are many clinicians who are decidedly of the opinion that cold-water baths have much more than merely a direct and mechanical refrigerating purpose, for they are followed by rather free diuresis and often also by perspiration. Indeed, one of the great indications for bath in fever is that the skin is dry and hot, for it is under these circumstances that the bath will do much good.”
— —

A Freak Egg

M. W. Schumacher, living northeast of Moscow, has a monstrosity in the form of an egg. Mr. Schumacher is engaged in dairying and raising Barred Rock chickens. One of these hens has laid several double yolked eggs and one egg had three yolks. But the freak consists of an egg as large as a goose egg, inside of which is an ordinary sized egg with shell, yolk, white and all complete. The outside, or big egg shell contained only white and no yolk, but it contained enough white to fill a tea cup. The end of the big egg shell was broken and the fluid drained out into a cup. Through the aperture could be seen a perfect egg of normal size and the end of this was perforated and the white and yolk were drained out. Mr. Schumacher retained the two empty shells as a souvenir.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — — — — — — — —

Payette High School, Payette, Idaho (1)

SchoolHighPayetteFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

February 26

Payette Enterprise., February 26, 1920, Page 1

19200226PE1

Personal And Local Mention

Mr. W. L. Spotswood is having a hard siege of lagrippe and is under the doctor’s care. The sudden change from the climate of southern California was evidently a little too great.

Harry Sanger who has been in a very critical condition at the Ontario Hospital for the past two weeks is now showing some improvement. His case has been a baffling one, but the attending physician gives much hopes of his recovery.

Mrs. H. T. Smith returned Monday evening from Spokane where she went three weeks ago to visit with relatives. She was taken with the Flu shortly after arriving and was confined to her bed most of the time during her stay. She feels like a bird out of the cage since arriving home.

Mr. A. J. Shearer, living north of town, is quite seriously sick with mumps.

Gen. L. V. Patch returned to Boise Wednesday after spending several days with his family. The General was quite sick during his stay in Payette.

Ben Bruce a painter working for Mr. R. Miller, was quite seriously injured this morning while painting the J. A. Lauer house. He fell from a ladder and was found unconscious by the young lady working for Mrs. Lauer. Dr. I. R. Woodward was called but found no bones broken. He was badly bruised and somewhat scratched about the face and will be laid up for several days.

source: Payette Enterprise. (Payette, Canyon Co., Idaho), 26 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Payette Enterprise., February 26, 1920, Page 2

[Obituary]

Juanita Griner who had been lying for the past two weeks almost at the point of death, died on Sunday afternoon at 3:30 o’clock. Great hopes for her recovery were entertained last week, but on Saturday new complications arose which in her weakened condition she could not overcome. She was the second child of Clarence and Zora Griner and was born at Danville, Illinois, on February 18, 1910. When she was four years of age her parents removed to Oregon and she lived in that state until last September when the family came to Fruitland. She had been attending the Baptist Sunday School here and belonged to the third grade at school. In a peculiar way she attracted the love of those who came in contact with her and her passing from this world is sincerely mourned by a large number of friends young and old. Her mother and older sister and two younger brothers, an uncle and grandfather survive her. He death was caused by pneumonia following influenza.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

Payette Enterprise., February 26, 1920, Page 5

Fruitland Department
Mrs. F. M. Burtch

Mr. and Mrs. William McConnell were called to Caldwell Monday by the serious illness of Mrs. McConnell’s aunt, Mrs. Anna Spencer.

Miss Alberta Griner is getting well after being dangerously ill for the past three weeks.

Andy Castle who has been very ill with pneumonia was taken to the Ontario Hospital on Monday of this week to be operated upon for appendicitis.

Everett Smith who has been quite ill is now able to be out again.

Mrs. Frank Thompson and Miss Lola Rich who were among those very ill lately are improving at present.

Little Helen Tussing who was taken to Portland to a specialist, was operated upon by Dr. Otis Aiken, Orthopedic Surgeon, who lengthened the muscle of the right leg and put the limb in a cast. He predicted that she would soon be able to walk.
— —

Little Willow

Nellie Kiefer is still on the sick list, not fully recovered from the effects of the Flu.

Our school house at the Eastside needs some attention from the school board at Payette. If something isn’t done in the near future they may be called upon to explain the reason why. The pupils need more than a teacher and a fire in their school room and that is all that is furnished them now.
— —

Dead Ox Flat

Mr. Widsdom is slowly recovering from the flu.

Miss Smith who has been very ill with influenza is much improved and plans to take up her work as teacher next Monday. Miss Cecil Dixon of Payette is substituting in her place.

Miss Charlotte West, teacher of the Jefferson district is suffering with a severe cold and slight attack of the grippe and could not teach Monday.

Mrs. Wm. Vincent is recovering slowly from the flu.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

Payette Enterprise., February 26, 1920, Page 6

North Payette

Mrs. McGrevey is able to be up and around her room again after an attack of the flu.

Mrs. Will Armstrong is recovering from the flu.

Mrs. Fowler who has been quite ill is reported much better.

Edna Parsons is recovering from the flu.

(ibid, page 6)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Filer Record., February 26, 1920, Page 1

19200226FR1

Died

Wednesday morning at her home at Roseworth, Mrs. Anna Cox, age 24. Pneumonia following influenza was the cause of her demise. Mrs. Cox leaves to mourn her death, her husband and one son, age 10, and a multitude of friends. She was a native of Virginia and has been a resident of this section for the past four years. Funeral services were held at the M. E. church Friday afternoon, burial following in the I. O. O. F. cemetery.
— —

Received Sad News

Mrs. J. O Noggle received the sad word Tuesday morning telling of the critical illness of her father, B. F. Sherrick at Elida, Ohio. Owing to her recent illness and that of her daughter, Gladys, together with the fact that she will on Monday move to 511 fifth avenue north, Twin Falls, she will be unable to go to the bedside of her father. The Noggle ranch will be farmed by John [?].

source: The Filer Record. (Filer, Idaho), 26 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Filer Record., February 26, 1920, Page 4

Maroa Notes

Attendance at school is on the increase as the flu decreases.

The light and power line to the school house is completed. As soon as fixtures can be installed there will be plenty of light for all occasions. The school house, teacherage and janitor’s cottage will be lighted, in all there will be forty lights put on. There will be a motor in the pump house to pump water.
— —

Elmwood Items

Leona Chapman has been absent from school on account of illness.

William Detweiler is ill at his home, with pneumonia.

The family of Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Rutter are ill with the influenza.

Mrs. Rubie Bennet and little daughter are ill with the Lagrippe.

O. L. Dudley left Sunday for Ohio, where he was called by the serious illness of his sister, Miss Carrie Dudley.

The family of Mr. Korkel [?] are quite ill with influenza.

Mr. George Lincoln had the misfortune to bread his leg Wednesday when he slipped into an irrigation ditch.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

The Filer Record., February 26, 1920, Page 7

News Notes

William Detweiler is reported ill at his home south of town.

Mr. and Mrs. Grant Paget are again able to be about after having been sick with influenza for a week.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Filer Record., February 26, 1920, Page 10

19200226FR2
Cedar Draw School Teacher Is A Victim of Influenza

Miss Geneva Bohman, 24, who has been teaching the Cedar Draw school for the past several months, passed away last week at Cedar Draw. Death was due to influenza and pneumonia. Miss Bohman, whose home was in St. Louis, Missouri, was taken sick a week ago. The school trustees secured a physician from Buhl who attended her during her illness. Funeral arrangements will not be made pending receipt of information from her relatives in St. Louis.

(ibid, page 10)
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Idaho County Free Press. February 26, 1920, Page 1

19200226ICFP1

19200226ICFP2Three In Same Family Are Dead Of Influenza

Three persons in one family died of influenza at Keuterville last week. The dead are:

Mrs. Frank Winkler, aged 65, who died at 6:30 Wednesday evening.

Frank Winkler, aged 70, her husband, who died at 11:15 the same night.

Arthur Romain, 13, a grandson of Mr. and Mrs. Winkler, who died Thursday evening.

Mr. and Mrs. Winkler were pioneer residents of the Keuterville section. They were natives of Austria.
— —

Idaho County Will Have But One Man in Lower House
Representation In Legislature Reduced Because of Light Vote In 1918

Idaho county will have but one representative in the next legislature. Heretofore two representatives have been sent to the low house of the state law-making body from Idaho county, but because of the light vote polled in the county in the election of 1918 the representation is reduced by one-half.

Announcement that, with three new counties in the state, ten less representatives will be sent to Boise in 1921 than in 1919, was made Saturday by Robert O. Jones, secretary of state, after statutory appointment had been completed. The house, in the next session, will outnumber the senate by ten.

What Change Means

The new apportionment means that only seven counties in the state will have more than one representative in the lower house next year, whereas twice that number of counties had two or more in 1919. Nezperce county, where 3289 votes were cast for governor in 1918, gets only one representative, while Caribou, with only 461 votes, has equal representation.

Three reasons exist for the big decrease in the number of votes cast in 1918, compared with previous elections in Idaho – the influenza epidemic, which raged about the time of the last election, failure of voters to go to the polls because of unconcern, and the fact that many voters were in the army and navy and did not cast ballots at the last election.

Situation Unheeded

The legislature, cognizant of the paucity of votes, nevertheless failed to provide a new plan for apportionment this year and the secretary of state was required to comply with the following sections of the statues:

Sec. 52. Representatives Districts.

The several counties shall elect members of the house of representatives as follows: Each county shall elect one representative for each 2500 votes and remaining fraction thereof amounting to 1000 votes or more cast in said county at the last general election, based on the total vote cast for all candidates for governor; provided, that there shall be at least one representative from each county.

Sec. 54. Duty of Secretary of State

The secretary of state must certify to the county auditor of each county on or before the first day of April preceding a general election the number of representatives in the legislature said county will be entitled to elect at the following election.

Where Members Come From

Here is the new apportionment:

The number of representatives each county is entitled to elect to the house of representatives of the Idaho state legislature which convenes January 3, 1921, is as follows:

Ada, 4; Adams, 1; Bannock, 2; Bear Lake, 1; Benewah, 1; Bingham, 1; Blaine, 1; Boise, 1; Bonner, 1; Bonneville, 1; Boundary, 1; Butte, 1; Camas, 1; Canyon, 2; Caribou, 1; Cassin, 1; Clark, 1; Clearwater, 1; Custer, 1; Elmore, 1; Franklin, 1; Fremont, 1; Gem, 1; Gooding, 1; Idaho, 1; Jefferson, 1; Jerome, 1; Kootenai, 2; Latah, 2; Lemhi 1; Lewis, 1; Lincoln, 1; Madison, 1; Minidoka, 1; Nezperce, 1; Oneida, 1; Owyhee, 1; Payette, 1; Power, 1; Shoshone, 2; Teton, 1; Twin Falls, 3; Valley, 1; Washington, 1. Total 54.
— —

Highway Closed For Period of 30 Days

The North and South highway will be closed for a distance of about a mile up the Salmon river from a point one-half mile south of the Doumecq place, for a period of thirty days, it is announced by Grant Smith & Co., highway contractors. Excavation is now in progress on this stretch of road, and it is impossible for teams to pass over the road. Mail is being packed around the obstructed section of the road.

source: Idaho County Free Press. (Grangeville, Idaho), 26 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Idaho County Free Press. February 26, 1920, Page 2

Doumecq

(Special Correspondence)

The Rev. G. W. Gamble held preaching services Sunday. He was unable to keep his last appointment on account of the influenza quarantine.

The play which was presented in the Doumecq schoolhouse Friday night was successful. The crowd though not large, was appreciative and caused the players to do their best. Proceeds from the play and dance were devided [sic] between the two schools.

Miss Iowa Wann, who teachers at Bug Slope, attended the play and dance Friday night.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

Idaho County Free Press. February 26, 1920, Page 4

Whitebird

(Special Correspondence)

Mrs. W. Lane and family left recently for Nogalez, Ariz., where they were called on account of illness of Mrs. Lane’s father. Mrs. Land had not known of her father’s location for a number of years, until she received a telegram from a physician saying her father was there and dangerously ill. Mrs. Lane’s brother owns property, in Arizona and if she likes the location the family will make their home there.

Mrs. J. B. Hardman was called to Portland recently owing to illness of her mother.

The new primary teacher, Miss Ethel Davenport, arrived here last Thursday. She began teaching on Monday.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Wallace Miner. February 26, 1920, Page 6

19200226WM1

The Metals

Under date of February 18 the Engineering and Mining Journal has the following comment on the metal market: (…)

Copper — Copper has been very dull during the week and there has been very little or no buying by large consumers, who have been held back by lack of transportation facilities, due largely to congestion resulting from recent storms, and who have experienced much difficulty in some cases by labor shortage due to the epidemic of influenza. Large producers are not meeting the outside market, but are holding firm at around 19c. Export business is reported done regularly at 19c and a little higher.

source: The Wallace Miner. (Wallace, Idaho), 26 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — — — — — — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 26, 1920, Page 1

19200226DSM1

Mrs. Lindley Not So Well

Mrs. E. H. Lidnley, wife of President Lindley of the University of Idaho, who has been critically ill with pneumonia following influenza, is not so well today. Her condition has caused some alarm but there is still strong hope that she will recover. Ernest Lindley, eldest son of President and Mrs. Lindley, who has been with the basket ball team of which he is captain, has been asked by telegraph to come home and is expected to reach Moscow tomorrow noon. Faculty women and neighbors are assisting in caring for Mrs. Lindley and her mother, Mrs. Kidder, who is also quite seriously ill with the disease. Yesterday it was believed that the crisis had been passed and that Mrs. Lindley was beginning to improve, but this proved a false hope as her condition is not as satisfactory today as yesterday.
— —

Short Skirts and Low Necks

The dress reformers will have to find some other platform than ill health upon which to state their attack on modern feminine attire. The world is full of fine, strong, healthy girls in short skirts and low necks. If the morals of the world can’t stand the low necks and the short skirts, it is the morals of the world which are unhealthy, the girls are all to the good. — Baker (Oregon) Herald.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 26 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 26, 1920, Page 3

Harvard Happenings – Aged Pioneer Miner Ill

Harvard — Frank Cochrane and John English went to Bovill Saturday to see “Uncle Pat” Flynn, who is quick sick at the Bovill hospital. Mr. Flynn, who was one of the early pioneers of the Hoodoo Mining district, is now past eighty years old and is getting quite feeble.

The influenza situation is greatly improved here. School reopened Monday after two weeks quarantine. While there were several cases of the disease in the community, all were of a mild type compared with a year ago, and those afflicted are on the road to a speedy recovery.

Mr. and Mrs. H. J. Smith took their young son, Fred, to Spokane, for medical treatment the first of the week. The little fellow has been in poor health for some time.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 26, 1920, Page 5

City News

Miss Betty Dowdy, who with her brothers, Marvin and Marcus, spent the winter in California, returned home today, the brother having arrived two days ago. Miss Dowdy was ill in Spokane, where she was compelled to stay two weeks, on the journey home.

Mrs. W. H. Connor has gone to Cheney, Wash., where her daughter, Mrs. Cora Campbell is ill with influenza.

“Billie” Carter, little son of Mr. and Mrs. Ray Carter, is quite ill with pneumonia.

A wire from Spokane, dated 10:42 this morning, to V. McQueen, a brother of Mrs. H. A. DeBolt, said: “Mother has pneumonia. Is getting worse all the time. S. T. DeBolt.” All relatives of the family here have been summoned, as little hope is now entertained for her recovery. Other members of the family are, it is believed, out of danger.

A two-reel film of Dodge Brothers ignition system will be given at the Y. M. C. A. This evening. Admission free.
— —

Cora Correspondence

Mr. Bursan has gone to Dakota to join his wife who has been very ill but is improving. Later they may go to Everett.

Mrs. Doupe is very ill with influenza.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Nezperce Herald., February 26, 1920, Page 1

19200226NH1

Local News

Curtis J. Miller is about his business activities again after a real tussle with the flu.

Mrs. Lizzie Ransier has a severe attack of influenza, contracted last Sunday when she spent the day in intensive work among the flu sufferers on Central Ridge.

Among the Nezpercers who have visited Central Ridge the past few days to render assistance among the influenza sufferers are the following: Misses Lottie Sorenson, Bertha Schafer, Blanche Sweet, Laura Jacobs; Mrs. Lizzie Ransier, Mrs. Frank Wright, and Messers. Roy Walters, Earl Hess, Floyd Jorgens, Ben Laier, Arthur Heston and Billie Conger. Calls have been coming in for assistance and Judge Niles and others here are making every effort to have people ready to meet these calls. Dr. Gist was expecting three nurses last night, to be supplied by the Lewiston Red Cross, but these failed to arrive. Many of the flu patients on the Ridge are showing good improvement, there are a few severe cases there still, with a continued tendency of the spreading of the malady in that neighborhood.
— —

Fred Williams is ill of the flu at the home of his uncle, C. T. Berry, in this city.
— —

County Spelling Contest March 23

On March 23, next a written spelling contest will be held among the schools of Lewis county that care to compete, according to advices being prepared and sent out by County Superintendent of Schools Miss Wilson.

Since this is to be a written match, definite plans can be made for it and carried out without probable interference by influenza conditions. The regular annual oral and written contest is set for March 19, the rules of which will be along lines of those which have gone before. Preliminary matches will be held by the several schools and winners at these matches will compete at the county contest at Nezperce on March 19. But the holding of this event will be contingent upon flu conditions within a limited time prior to that date, and the matter will be more or less in abeyance for the present.

The inter-county contest, which was to have been held at Lewiston on March 26, has been dropped for the reason that influenza outbreaks in sections of the five counties concerned make preliminary work for it impractical.
— —

Mrs. Anna Lomax-Walters Dead

The sad news was received here the first of the week that Mrs. Anna Walters, nee Miss Anna Lomax, had passed away at her home in Los Angeles, Cal., on the 17th instant as the result of an attack of influenza.

The deceased was about 35 years of age, and leaves her husband and two children. She was well known in Nezperce, where for a number of years she was a popular member of the sales force of the Felt Mercantile Co., during which time she was prominent in our social circles and made many warm friends in the community, who will be sadly impressed by the sad news of her untimely end.
— —

County Teachers Conference

It is planned to hold the conference of Lewis county school teachers at Ilo on Friday March 5, and the meeting of the school directors of the county on the following day. The program as arranged for the conference on its original date, Feb. 13, will be carried out as far as possible.
— —

Mrs. J. R. Hughes and baby daughter returned Tuesday from a visit with relatives in South Idaho, being well recovered from a severe flu attack which detained them at Spokane several days.
— —

Central Ridge News

Most every family that didn’t have the flu last winter is having it this, it seems.

The schools are closed this week on account of the flu.

Mrs. Stach and daughter, Hattie were called to the Bruce Senter home, where all are sick with the fly.

The Thostensons have a case of measles at their home, Lewis being confined with the ailment, but is getting along all right.

source: The Nezperce Herald. (Nezperce, Idaho), 26 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Nezperce Herald., February 26, 1920, Page 7

Local and Personal News Notes

Sheriff A. W. Mitchell has been on the sick list the past week with an attack bordering on the flu. His condition is improving at this time, however.

Mrs. E. Nelson and Mr. R. L. Ralstin, of Lewiston, came in Friday to visit Mr. and Mrs. Bert Ralstin, of near Mohler, and assist in caring for him during an attack of the flu.

Wilfred Waters, one of our well known young farmers of Route 2, has been confined to his home for some time by an attack of inflammatory rheumatism, but is said to be showing improvement at this time.

Tom Thompson was in Lewiston yesterday for treatment of wounds received in the service in France.
— —

For Mohler Postmastership

The department announces that an examination will be held at Ilo on March 13 for the filling of the postmastership of Mohler. That office pays a salary of $253 per year, and any adult residing in the territory served by that office may take this examination.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Nezperce Herald., February 26, 1920, Page 8

19200226NH2What Spreads Influenza?
Doctors, Boards of Health and Newspapers May Spread Influenza by Mental Suggestion.

[Editorial]

A well known citizen treats this important subject pointedly and interestingly as follows:

Common sense, supporting the doctrine of the church, affirms the golden mean between the extremes of co-called Christian Science (Mind Monism) and the Materialism (Matter Monism). It affirms the real existence of both mind and matter, but it also affirms the superiority of mind over matter. Common sense, confirmed by experience insists that mind is over matter.

Because mind is over matter, a clever doctor can, by mere mental suggestion, make you sick enough to die. Hypnotists can put some persons to sleep by mental suggestion. I have heard of medical fraternity initiations in which the victim almost died under the mental suggestion that blood was gushing from his arteries and veins. On the other hand, even in cases of pneumonia, patients sometimes fight their way back to health by sheer will power.

In view of these generally admitted facts, it is not improbable that much of the influenza epidemic is due to mental suggestion. I do not deny the germ theory. I believe that corn grows only where it is planted. But every farmer knows that corn will not grow, even if it is planted, unless the soil is also fit for it. Now medical men assure us that the pneumococci and other germs are nearly always present in the mouth of everyone. Lowered physical, and probably much more lowered mental resistance, makes the soil fit for the rapid growth of pneumococci. Doctors admit that they know little about the matter. But some of them hold that colds, la grippe, influenza and pneumonia are merely stages in such growth favored by the right mental and physical conditions in the patient.

It is my contention, therefore, that many disease epidemics are greatly promoted, if not even caused by mental suggestion. If newspapers from the very beginning would make no mention of the flu, and if no one started or repeated or exaggerated rumors about it, there would be far fewer persons suffering from such diseases.

Even boards of health are the victims of misguided mental suggestion. To a certain extent they are also, no doubt innocently, contributing to the spread of the disease by mental suggestion.

Doctors and health experts disagree as to the value of the drastic bans. In the fall of 1918, when in the city of New York the flu was a prevalent and virulent as elsewhere, no ban was proclaimed. The death rate there was less than elsewhere. It must make many of the doctors smile in their sleeves to observe how the public, once having worn the yoke of a ridiculous and valueless ban, clamor for the same or a similar yoke upon the reappearance of the flu even in a mild form. Like many other characteristics in our mental life, it makes a man think, if he thinks at all, that this “land of the free” has become the land of bunc.

The present epidemic was only mild all over the country. Except in this or that locality the death-rate was scarcely above the normal. Of course “it is decreed unto all men once to die, and after this the judgement.” But why worry about a death-rate that is scarcely above the normal? What would the public demand and the boards of health decree if we were undergoing a really serious disease epidemic, in which the death would take 10 to 25 percent of the population? I hope that the boards would become hysterical and do nothing. Otherwise we would probably be ordered to burn down our houses and cremate our clothes and our bodies.

If, then, this epidemic is largely due to mental suggestion, it must largely be overcome by mental suggestion. Newspapers should avoid headlines and sensationalism. They should publish the full truth and show that the present death-rate is not so very alarming.

If boards of health were one-tenth as zealous in proclaiming bans on suggestive films in the movies, on suggestive and immoral dances and fashions that corrupt morals and invite the spread of venereal diseases, as they are in giving sensational interviews to newspapers on the flu, they would become veritable towers of moral and physical strength in their respective communities.

(Not be misunderstood or misinterpreted in my intentions, I feel impelled to state expressly and emphatically that this article from start to finish was meant only for general application, not with any particular reference to our local board of health or out local doctors; every one of whom is held by the writer of these lines in the highest and most sincere esteems.) — A Citizen

(ibid, page 8)
————–

Further Reading

Northwest Mask Wars And Pandemics

NWPB News July 20, 2020 By Knute Berger

1918FluCincinatti-aVolunteers wearing gauze masks at a street kitchen in Cincinnati serve food to children of families afflicted by the flu pandemic in the winter of 1918-1919. Courtesy of Spokesman-Review Archives

Was there resistance to masks during the 1918 pandemic? Did they work? How was mask wearing enforced in the old days?

Quick answers: Yes, there was resistance and defiance, masks worked to limit or stall the spread of disease, and mask-wearing was sometimes enforced with fines, arrests, jail time and, in at least one case, gunfire.

After scouring press coverage on the West Coast during the 1918 flu era, I can say resistance to adopting masks was not universal, but it also was not uncommon. In Seattle, during the influenza’s lockdown period in October and November of 1918, people without masks were banned from public transit and ticketed or fined by members of the police’s masked “Flu Squad.” Headlines had a somewhat negative spin: “Thousands Are Hit with Flu Mask Order,” shouted one in the Seattle Star.

The masks recommended during the 1918 pandemic were made of heavy-duty six-ply cotton gauze. They were thick and no particular joy to wear. People who refused to wear them or couldn’t be bothered were called “mask slackers” or “mask scoffers.” During World War I, the term slacker described people who neglected their patriotic duty, almost as bad as being a draft dodger.

In Walla Walla, the chief of police, John Haven, refused to enforce a state mask mandate. He pointed out that he was going to meet heavy resistance and, anyway, that he had no authority to carry out a state directive, only city ordinances. Still, he also openly defied the instructions of the city’s health officer, J.E. Vanderpool, to follow the state health officer’s guidance.

Even as people dropped dead in Walla Walla and rural southeast Washington, business owners pushed to have their establishments — saloons and billiard halls — reopened in defiance of advice from most doctors and health officials.

Yakima was less reluctant to crack down on scoffers and slackers if they were doing business with the public. The city’s sanitation inspector arrested 15 people for “working or transacting business in a public place without wearing gauze masks prescribed by the city health commissioner,” according to a 1918 article in the Spokesman-Review. The problem was the merchants, not their customers. The business community held that the city had no authority to mandate masks.

Then, as now, health officials were divided on whether masks truly prevented the spread of Spanish influenza. Many understood that the chances of transmission were worse in enclosed public spaces, like churches and movie theaters, but opinion was divided on the efficacy of masks outdoors. Some believed the fresh air fought the flu, and encouraged people to open their windows and let in the bountiful breeze.

Mainstream medical belief held that going maskless could spread contagion. The thick multilayered gauze masks appeared to work in reducing new cases, and they proved effective for medical staff treating flu patients.

Other physicians claimed the masks themselves became an unsanitary health hazard if not cleaned and sterilized. Dr. J. C. Bainbridge, a prominent physician from Santa Barbara, California, claimed, “The common use of the mask tends to propagate rather than check influenza.” Others simply argued that masks had no effect. However, historians generally believe that social distancing and masks saved tens of thousands of lives since there was little else that proved truly effective, such as vaccines and serums.

Still, divided opinions and often localized health authority meant communities responded differently to the pandemic. Seattle and Spokane, for example, were generally mask compliant. Spokane, in fact, had trouble keeping up with the public demand for masks, and many of the coverings were hurriedly made and ill-fitting. The Spokesman-Review featured photographs of professional women in masks under the headline, “Women in Business Life Don ‘Flu’ Masks.” There was less enthusiasm in Portland, on the other hand, which did not pass a mask ordinance, with one city council member objecting that he would “not be muzzled with a mask like a hydrophobia dog.”

The San Francisco Bay Area saw reluctant acceptance of masks at first, then massive pushback. A mandatory ordinance, announced in bold headlines on the front page of the San Francisco Chronicle in late October 1918, read: “Wear Your Mask! Commands Drastic New Ordinance.” It blared over the mugshots of city leaders all masked up like surgeons. Many equated mask compliance with patriotism and the war effort, an appeal that worked for many prior to the end of World War I with the signing of the armistice on Nov. 11, 1918, midpandemic on the West Coast.

In the debate over masks by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, Seattle and Portland were cited as cities that had benefited from masking. Violators of the new San Francisco law would be guilty of a misdemeanor and fined between $5 and $100 and risked up to 10 days in jail. The city wasn’t fooling. By Nov. 10, a San Francisco Examiner headline read, “1,000 Alleged Mask Slacker Cases in Jails.” Judges tried to clear this mass of mask arrest cases as fast as possible with fines or two days in jail.

But the penalty, in some cases, could be even worse. Shortly after the mask rule went into effect, a local blacksmith named James Weisser was arrested for drunkenness and spent the night in jail. After release the next morning, he proceeded to publicly and loudly inveigh against the mask rule on the corner of Powell and Market streets, drawing a substantial crowd, according to the Examiner newspaper. This intersection is well known as the downtown jumping-off point of the city’s famed cable cars.

A deputy health inspector, Henry Miller, pushed his way through the crowd and ordered Weisser to get a mask at a nearby drugstore. Weisser then attacked Miller, flogging him with a pouch full of silver dollars and knocking him to the ground, where he continued the beating. Miller drew and fired his revolver, wounding Weisser and two bystanders, including a woman whose leg was grazed by a bullet. The crowd scattered and police arrested both Weisser and Miller. I could not find coverage of what happened to the two after that.

The city’s influenza numbers showed improvement less than three weeks after the mask ordinance went into effect. But, as in the current pandemic, opposite conclusions were drawn: Success could mean masks were no longer necessary, or could be a sign that the policy was working and should continue. That December, the mask order was lifted. Bay Area residents celebrated. In Oakland, one newspaper reported, “citizens made bonfires of their muzzles in the streets.”

But shortly after the mask bonfires, the Spanish flu reignited and cases climbed again. San Francisco reinstituted its mask rules in January 1919, triggering a rebellion that resulted in the formation of the Anti-Mask League. A mass meeting protesting the masks drew over 2,000 people. The league petitioned the city, demanding a rollback of the mask mandate, and officials complied a month later.

In Seattle, a similar narrative took hold. Once people were free of their masks, they refused to go back to them, even as flu cases started to rise again. A Seattle Post-Intelligencer editorial in early December 1918 warned that reinstating health edicts would spark fear not of the flu, but of an excess of “regulatory zeal.” There was no indication, the editorial opined, that “another shutdown of business and revival of the mask would be tolerated.” Compliant Seattle was done with compliance.

Many observers of the time believed masks helped flatten the pandemic curve. When it came to stifling dissent, however, they proved an ineffective muzzle.

excerpted from:
— — — — — — — — — —

“Flu” Mask

1918FluMaskAd-a

State and Dearborn / Public domain
source: Texas State University
————–

Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
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Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
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Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
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Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 63)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 64)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 65)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 66)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 67)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 68)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 69)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 70)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 71)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 72)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 73)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 74)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 75)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 76)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 77)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 78)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 79)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 80)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 81)

Idaho History Nov 21, 2021

Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic

Part 81

Idaho Newspaper Clippings February 20-24, 1920

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

February 20 (continued)

American Falls Press. February 20, 1920, Page 1

19200220AFP1

19200220AFP2Flu-Pneumonia Claims Life Of John Schafer
School Attendance Back to Normal After Inroad of Epidemic During Last Two Weeks – Physicians Report Several New Cases

John J. Schafer died Saturday following an attack of influenza that developed into pneumonia. He will be buried today in Odessa, Washington, his former home. Several new cases of the “flu” are reported this week. Middle aged people seem to predominate in catching the germs at the present state of the epidemic. The attendance in the public schools of the city is back to normal following a fifty per cent attendance of ten days ago.

Among those recently afflicted are Mr. and Mrs. Harvey Anderson, Mrs. L. B. Smith, G. W. Austin, Mr. Slagel, his assistant at the Gem State Lumber company, Mrs. E. E. Anderson and Miss Grace Cronkhite. Families who were reported seriously afflicted last week are in nearly every case well on the road to recovery. A serious case still endangers one of the Cazier boys who has pneumonia. Miss Inez Gillette, teacher in the high school is recovering from pneumonia after a long illness. Mrs. Ethel Sennell, daughter of Sam Baugh, is recovering from a severe illness. Children who have recently become ill with the “flu” are Ruth Barton, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Barton, Ruth French, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. C. Lee French, two children in the family of Mr. and Mrs. Ted Budge and two children belonging to Mrs. Edwin Brown.

Eighty-three cases were reported last week and local doctors are of the opinion that there are several more cases this week than last. That the worst stage of the epidemic is past is the general feeling among health authorities.

The Red Cross still has great difficulty in procuring nurses for families that are in need. This feature of the problem has been the most difficult to cope with. Proper medical attention demands that many families have one or more nurses. The Red Cross has undertaken to supply the nurses but has not succeeded in obtaining help that was needed in several cases.

Mr. Schafer who died Saturday was the brother-in-law to George Horst of American Falls. He had been here about six months before the pneumonia took him. He leaves his wife and three small children to mourn his loss. The family and Mr. Horst accompanied the casket to Odessa, Washington where burial services were held.
— —

19200220AFP3Criminal To Neglect Vaccination Says Noth
Health Officer Scores Those Who Spread Smallpox When Ordinary Precautions Would Eradicate – Several Cases Reported in City

That there should be no quarantine for smallpox and no effort made to curb its spread is the opinion of Dr. R. F. Noth, county health officer, who has been called during the last week to care for several cases of the disease that have developed among the people of American Falls.

“Vaccination is almost a certain preventative for smallpox,” said the doctor yesterday, “and it should be listed as a crime for anyone to catch it. It is positively preventable and there is no excuse for its spread. People who get it and do not report it until the contagion is spread commit a crime against the city. Even those who report cases are fearful lest their friends find out that they made the report. People should know now that smallpox is the filthiest disease we have and most easily prevented. I am not in favor of quarantining cases as the only people who will catch it are those who will not undergo vaccination. If they will not be vaccinated my opinion is that they should have the smallpox and get it over with.”

Several smallpox cards have been placed about the city during the week and Dr. Noth warns all who have not been vaccinated that this is their first obligation to the community.
— —

Fallen Soldiers Will Be Honored Sunday
Certificates Will Be Presented Parents at Legion Exercises

The following men are on the honor roll of Power county as those who fell in the war with Germany:

Roland Evans, son of L. L. Evans, killed in action September 29, 1918 in battle of the Argonne, with the 362nd infantry, 91st division.

Fred Howard, son of Mrs. Georg Howard, Garfield, Washington, died October 28 on the Meuse-Argonne front. He was killed in action. He was with the second engineers.

John Daniels, son of Mrs. Martha Daniels of Pauline died of the influenza at Camp Fremont.

Albert T. Ralphs, son of Ephriam Ralphs of Rockland was killed September 9th, 1918, with the 347th machine gun battalion during the attack on Sedan.

John Fiemer of Prosperity, died from wounds received in action March 5th, 1918. He was with Company “C” of the 343 infantry.

Robert Hutchinson died on board S. S. Corona from pneumonia. He was with motor truck company 543, M.S.J. 427. …

source: American Falls Press. (American Falls, Idaho), 20 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

American Falls Press. February 20, 1920, Page 3

Correspondence
News of Interest From Nearby Towns and Settlements

Arbon Items

There is very little sickness in the valley except colds. Mr. Ripley’s family all have the flu except one small boy. They are getting along nicely. No one was seriously ill at latest reports.

Nearly all the snow is gone here leaving considerable mud. Fall grain is looking nice and green. The mail man makes the trip all the way in the car now.

Prosperity

It is impossible to drive a car over the roads since last Saturday.

Many of the farmers are burning weeds, getting ready for spring plowing.
— —

School Notes

By Alvin Reading

The eighth grade has received the good news that Albert Cazier is recovering from a serious case of flu.

The sickness of Lavere Kelly shifted his place in the high school play upon Boyd Bevan. The play will be given Friday evening at the Auditorium, 25 and 50 cents.

The grades observed valentines day last Friday with valentine boxes in every room.
— —

19200220AFP4

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

American Falls Press. February 20, 1920, Page 5

Local Briefs

Mrs. Lee Warf has been ill the past two weeks.

Miss Nettie Hauk has returned to her work at the Fall Creek [school?] after a two weeks’ absence on account of sickness.

E. J. Twomey took Mrs. Twomey, who is suffering with inflammatory rheumatism, to the Lava Hot Springs Monday.

Sheriff Geo. Hailson returned Wednesday morning from Walla Walla, Washington. He reports the influenza raging in that section.

A. K. Dahlen, who recently visited his old friends in American Falls is back at his work in Nea Bay, Washington. He was ill with the influenza before he left American Falls but was determined to reach home before it got the better of him. He sends regards to all his oldtime friends.
— —

Hospital Notes

Miss Inez Gilliett has been a patient at the hospital for the past two weeks with pneumonia.

Mrs. Harvey Anderson is confined to the “flu” ward with a light attack of influenza.

Clark Schlagel is recovering from an attack of influenza.
— —

Roy And Vicinity

Vernon Glasscock is on the sick list this week.

Ivan Clark is on the sick list this week.

Three members of the family of S. E. Bingamun are reported ill with the flu.

The Mt. View school has closed for a few days on account of sickness.

Mrs. Jesse Richards is quite ill presumably with the flu. Dr. Logan was called Tuesday.

Harvey Armstrong had to quit the road work Saturday and go home because he was feeling ill and afraid he was taking down with the flu.

Miss Katherine Reitz is on the sick list with a bad cold or the flu.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Idaho Republican. February 20, 1920, Page 4

19200220TIR1

19200220TIR2Volunteer Nurses

In a number of influenza cases in Blackfoot and surrounding territory nursing service is needed, and available nurses are asked to list their names with Mrs. George Holbrook at the city hall or with W. B. Goodnough at the Goodnough Cleaning & Tailoring Co. if they desire to volunteer to take cases where help is required.
— —

Sterling

Mr. and Mrs. Joe Maxwell are both very ill. Mrs. Maxwell being quite seriously ill.

The baby of Mr. and Mrs. White who live near Springfield has been very ill, but is improving now.

The Westley family are ill with the small pox. Several cases of it are reported in the Grandview district.

Mrs. John Herbert has been taken to the hospital.

The baby of Mr. and Mrs. George Andrews, who has been sick for some time has been very low the past week, and is still very seriously ill.

Mrs. George L. Andrews is suffering with a severe attack of neuralgia.

The D. Edwin Nelson family are reported to be ill with the small pox.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 20 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. February 20, 1920, Page 5

Local News

E. J. Benson is ill at his home.

Joe Giles is among the sick folks in Blackfoot this week.

Judge J. H. Anderson has recovered from his recent illness and is now back at his office.

John DeHart, son of J. B. DeHart is improving rapidly from his recent attack of the influenza.

H. H. Kanzelmeyer is confined to the hospital, suffering from an attack of the influenza.

W. R. Dolan and son Martin are confined to their homes with influenza. Mr. Dolan is Central school janitor.

Mark Tuohy, who has been confined to the hospital on account of the influenza is reported to be rapidly improving.
— —

Firth

Owing to so much illness there will be no ladies aid meetings in February.

The William Murphy family are out after a siege with the influenza.

The William Jolley family are reported on the influenza list.

The baby of William Brewington is recovering from pneumonia.

Miss Emma Brewington is at her duties in the Ramsey Cash store after a short illness.

Mrs. Ed Johnston, who has been seriously ill with influenza is greatly improved at this writing.

Edith Christensen, assistant cashier in the First National Bank is at her duties after an illness of a few days.

Men began work Monday at the local school putting up a merry-go-round. The children are looking forward to many good times as this is the first play ground equipment at the school.
— —

Elmer Dodge Pneumonia Victim

Elmer Dodge, aged twenty-seven years, died at noon Wednesday, Feb. 18, after a short illness with pneumonia. He was employed at DeKay’s cafe since last October. Tuesday morning he was not feeling well and remained at his home instead of going to work and by Wednesday morning was in a very serious condition, from which he was unable to rally.

Mr. Dodge was married last August to Mrs. Crump, who survives him. Funeral arrangements have not been completed and are in charge of E. T. Peck, funeral director.
— —

19200220TIR3

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

Shoshone Journal. February 20, 1920, Page 1

19200220SJ1

19200220SJ2Shoshone To Have Hospital

The first step has been taken to provide Shoshone with a well equipped hospital under the direction of a competent trained Nurse.

The doctors have all agreed to support such a hospital and Drs. Dill and Jones have purchased the Joe Vernon estate south and west of town which will be used for the site of the new institution. It is proposed to care for the town and county cases at greatly reduced rates and in return the authorities have given assurance that a good road will be made to the building and the water supply assured. The building is well built and with very little alterations will furnish accommodations for ten ward patients and six private cases.

Additional rooms can easily be added. A system of hot water heating will be installed this summer.

The central location of Shoshone and its railway connections with the country to the north, east and west are such as to emphasize this move to open a general hospital. The location selected could not be improved. It is away from the noise and confusion of the business district and street traffic, on high ground away from the dust and dirt of any traveled highway and should appeal to the whole hearted support of every citizen of the town.
— —

Darrah Community Notes

A number of children have been absent from school on account of colds.

Mr. Hasting is able to be about again after a week’s illness with the grippe.

The Penner family on the upper Darrah ranch have sufficiently recovered from the flu to be out driving their new Chevrolet.

Mrs. D. G. Mitchell is detained in Colo. by the illness of her mother, brother and sister who have the flu.

Mrs. C. Sprenger returned home from Jerome where she has been nursing her daughter, Mrs. Burns, through an attack of small pox.
— —

Darrah Community Health Notes

The nursing class met at Mrs. Winegar’s Tuesday, Feb. 17. Miss Sinclair being away attending a convention at Moscow, the lesson for the text was not touched upon.

The time was taken up with the reading and discussion of the instructions being sent out by the County Board of Health to the teachers and trustees of the schools dealing with the necessity of carefully complying with the state laws in regard to contagious diseases.

The members of the class desire to go on record as being grateful to the department of health for such instructions.

They are anxious to see quarantine regulations rigidly enforced and will give any assistance necessary to that end. They strongly urge that the penalty provided by the state laws for failure on the part of individuals to observe or officers to enforce quarantine be imposed if necessary.

Lincoln county can not afford to be so out of date as to fail to inforce [sic] the laws concerning health.

Mrs. J. W. Stoddard, Community Project Leader
— —

Grange Hall Activities

Wednesday afternoon, Feb. 11th, a meeting was held at the grange hall by the ladies of the Gomes, Jones or new district and Peck districts, for the purpose of organizing a home nursing class and fostering the cooperation and community spirit.

Our county nurse and sixteen other ladies were present, all three districts being represented, but we are looking for every woman who is able to do so to meet us Friday, Feb, 20th, at one o’clock. All meetings are to be held in the grange hall until further notice.

Our work is to be educational to all, along some very important and well as badly neglected lines. Not only nursing but preventing sickness, including contagious diseases and their distressing results.

We also hope in addition to our regular classes to meet Miss Wold, the state clothing specialist and learn some valuable facts regarding remodeling, making and cleaning clothing, millinery, etc.

In addition to organizing, and interesting and instructive afternoon was enjoyed and plans laid for a quantity of good work for the near future.

source: Shoshone Journal. (Shoshone, Idaho), 20 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Shoshone Journal. February 20, 1920, Page 4

[Obituary]

Mrs. George W. Leighty, who resided with her husband and family for three or four years on an enlarged homestead entry near Kimama died of pneumonia following influenza, in Pocatello, last Thursday morning. Mrs. Leighty was a sister of Governor D. W. Davis. Mr. and Mrs. Leighty proved up on their homestead about a year ago. They are well known to a number of Shoshone people, and were popular residents of the Kimama neighborhood. The death of Mrs. Leighty is greatly regretted by all who knew her.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

Shoshone Journal. February 20, 1920, Page 5

Local Items
I can not say what the truth may be, I tell the tale as ’twas told to me.

Mrs. Theodore Schneider is confined to her home with an attack of the grippe.

Mrs. Keith Ferguson has been ill for a few days but is now recovering.

Mrs. Lucy L. Sims is able to be out again after having been confined to her home several days with a severe cold.

Mrs. Thomas H. Gooding, Jr., is confined to her bed with an attack of influenza. She is getting along nicely and the attack does not seem to be serious.

Miss Helen Stevenson, a trained nurse from Twin Falls, who has been in Shoshone caring for Mrs. A. E. Vredenburgh during her illness, has returned home.

Miss Lydia Sinclair, County Nurse, is in Moscow this week attending a conference meeting called for all of the employees of the University extension Department.

The home nursing class will meet March 4th with Mrs. Yaden. These meetings are very interesting and instructive and all persons interested are welcome to any of the meetings.

Miss Sinclair, county nurse, went to Nampa Monday afternoon with a patient for the state hospital located at that place.

Mrs. Ruby Morton has gone to housekeeping again after spending the winter with her children.

Coal is plentiful in Shoshone at this time. Purdum & Purdum received two cars the first of the week and the other dealers are said to be well supplied also, having a quantity stored in their bins.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 20, 1920, Page 1

19200220DSM1

19200220DSM3Two New Influenza Cases

Dr. F. M. Leitch, city health officer, reports two new cases of influenza in Moscow in two days, one each for Wednesday and Thursday, February 18 and 19. General conditions show marked improvement and the situation is regarded as highly encouraging.
— —

19200220DSM2Father And Daughter Were Buried Together

Word has reached Moscow of the death of Bidwell Cairy, February 14, at Weiser, Idaho, of pneumonia following influenza. His 14 year old daughter also died of the same disease and father and daughter were buried at the same time. He leaves a wife and seven children.

Mr. Cairy was a pioneer of the neighborhood south of Moscow, as was also his wife, whose maiden name was Hawks. Mr. Cairy was a brother of Mrs. Ab Haynes and of Mrs. Joe Millsap.
— —

Admiral Peary Is Dead

Washington. — (By A. P.) — Rear Admiral Robert Edwin Peary, retired, Arctic explorer and discoverer of the north pole, died at his home here today of pernicious anemia, with which he had suffered for several years. The funeral arrangements are uncomplete [sic]. He will be buried with full naval honors.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 20 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 20, 1920, Page 3

City News

Doctor Adair has received word that his daughter, Bernadine, who is attending the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, is rapidly recovering from the flu. Miss Jennie, daughter of Claus Peterson, of Moscow, who is with Miss Adair, and who has been a flu victim, is also recovering. This will be most welcome news to their many Moscow friends, who have been greatly worried since word came telling of their illness.

Mrs. W. A. Adair is in Spokane with her daughter, Mrs. O. E. Shromber. Mrs. Shomber is down with the flu, and has been sick for some two weeks.

C. J. McCollister went to his home at Nezperce today on a short business trip. Mrs. McCollister, who has been very ill of influenza, is now thought to be out of danger.

(ibid, page 3)
— — — — — — — — — —

Public School, Moscow, Idaho ca. 1916

SchoolPublicMoscow1916Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

February 21

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 21, 1920, Page 1

19200221DSM1

Mrs. Worley Sells Team

Mrs. Jesse Worley, whose husband was a “flu” victim recently, leaving her with five children, the oldest nine years old, sold her team at auction on the streets of Moscow today. The team brought $137.40, which was better than she had expected. It was a small, driving team. A colt, of little value, brought $50. It was bought by a number of persons for $5 each, and put up and sold again. Mrs. Worley sent a card of thanks to the citizens of Moscow for the help they gave her and to the Star-Mirror for advertising the sale. She has not [?] will probably remain in Moscow this summer.
— —

John Gibb Funeral Sunday

The funeral of John Gibb will be held Sunday at 10 o’clock at his ranch five miles east of Genesee, Rev. Crown, minister of the Presbyterian church at Genesee conducting the services. The body will be brought overland to Moscow and interment will be made at 1 o’clock in the Moscow cemetery. His father, W. N. Gibb, arrived Saturday from California and his brother, William of Boise and sister, Alice, of Oregon, are now at the Gibb home.
— —

Moscow Drama Club Will Present Play
“The Truth” To Be Played By Home Talent Here Tuesday, February 24.

The Drama Club will continue its series of plays, which has been discontinued on account of the influenza epidemic, by a production of “The Truth,” by Clyde Fitch, on Tuesday February 24, at the Guild Hall at 8 o’clock.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 21 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 21, 1920, Page 5

City News

A telegram reached Moscow yesterday evening about 4 o’clock, summoning Mrs. George Rowland to Spokane at once, her parents both being very low with the flu. Mr. and Mrs. Rowland left within a few minutes in their Buick for Spokane, via Colfax, where they were to pick up two of Mrs. Rowland’s brothers.

The county commissioners adjourned their session today, to meet again March 8. Commission Columbus Clark went to his home at Juliaetta and John Cone to Princeton.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — — — — — — — —

Irving School, Moscow, Idaho

SchoolIrvingMoscowFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

February 23

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 23, 1920, Page 1

19200223DSM1

19200223DSM2
Interesting Talk By Dr. Gilchrist

Woman Physician Tells Of Her Experiences On The Battle Fronts

Friday afternoon, Dr. V. M. Gilchrist gave a talk on her work abroad at the Historical Club. She spoke interestingly of the trip across and of her impressions of London and Paris. The children of the refugees and the French children seemed greatly undernourished, many of them being afflicted with rickets and a large percentage suffering from tuberculosis. During an epidemic of influenza the undernourished refugees seemed to escape when the better fed French people succumbed.

Dr. Gilchrist told of the celebration of the signing of the armistice, which lasted for days in France.

The French people are divided in four classes.

Miss Amy Kelly of the home economics department of the University gave an instructive address on the extension work for the women of Idaho. The success of the agriculture of the state depends on good conditions in the home. Agriculture is important for it produces the raw material that is the basis of all other occupations.

The home job is the broadest of all labors for its branches of work covers many departments. One of the reasons that the rural life should be brought to its best development, is that it is the normal place for the rearing of children.

There are 18 women in the extension work of Idaho.

Miss Kelly stated that those who live dearest our great university often fail to appreciate its advantages. How often that is true. People come many miles to attend Farmers’ and Housekeepers’ week, while those within a few miles of Moscow often fail to attend or take any interest in the splendid demonstrations given at their very door.
— —

Plan State Natatorium

Pocatello, Ida. — Final plans for the construction of a mammoth state natatorium at Lava Hot spring, Idaho are being worked out and it is expected the project will be completed by May 15. The last Idaho legislature passed an act providing for the erection of the plunge which will be modern in all respects. The main swimming tank will be 50×150 feet and private pools and dressing rooms also will be provided. Admission to the plunge will be charged, the funds derived going to the state.
— —

Peary is Laid to Rest

Washington — (By A. P.) — The body of Rear Admiral Peary, discoverer of the north pile, was laid to rest in Arlington cemetery today with full military and naval honors, and with high diplomatic and government officials present. The ceremonies were in charge of the navy department.

source: The Daily Star-Mirror. (Moscow, Idaho), 23 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Daily Star-Mirror., February 23, 1920, Page 5

City News

Roy Douglas, clerk at the Hotel Moscow, has returned to his work after a wrestle with the “flu.”

Mrs. Albert Vennigerholz has received a telegram stating the serious illness of her sister-in-law, Mrs. Oliver Schurtz, at Seattle. Mrs. Schurtz was a former resident of Moscow and is well known here.
— —

Birthday Not Observed

There was no general observance of Washington’s birthday in Moscow today. The banks remained closed all day and the postoffice was closed with the exception of the general delivery window from 12:30 to 1:30, and there was no delivery of mail either in the city or on rural routes. The schools were going on, with the exception of a few students of the university being out part of the time. A misunderstanding caused the absence of many students during the afternoon. Word had gone out that there would be no school today but this was later corrected. Special assembly was held in the forenoon, when President Lindley, Dean Cockerell and Charles Darling, a senior, addressed the students. Classes were held during the afternoon with a fair attendance. The county offices were open all day as usual.

(ibid, page 5)
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Moscow High School, Moscow, Idaho ca. 1911

SchoolHighMoscow1911Fritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
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February 24

The Caldwell Tribune. February 24, 1920, Page 3

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Local And Personal

Mrs. Ed Meeks is recovering from influenza.

Mr. and Mrs. I. Carson’s little daughter is suffering from an attack of tonsillitis.

Funeral services were held Sunday afternoon at the Case Undertaking parlors for Billy Jesse, the three-year-old son of Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Jesse, who died last Friday of pneumonia.

A note from J. W. Cupples indicates that his party is enjoying their stay in the Hawaiian Islands,. According to Mr. Cupples, Hawaii is dominated by Hula girls and Republicans.

source: The Caldwell Tribune. (Caldwell, Idaho), 24 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. February 24, 1920, Page 7

Items of Interest From Surrounding Territory

Wilder News

Dr. and Mrs. W. W. Bouer, from Milwaukee, Wis., arrived in Wilder last Tuesday. Dr. Bouer will be associated with Dr. A. B. Boeck in the practice of medicine.

Ten Davis News

Miss Cora Orr teacher in the high school was sick three days last week and was unable to be at school. Marvin McLaughlin taught in her place.

Little Frank Smart has had a relapse of the influenza and is quite sick.

Miss Ruth Miller, intermediate teacher here is ill at the W. M. Gahley home with a severe case of pneumonia. She had just got over the influenza and over exertion caused the relapse. Miss Veda Johnes of Caldwell is substituting for her.

Grace Tucker has been sick all this week. She was unable to attend school.

Mrs. L. E. Small received a telegram Friday afternoon from Portland saying that her brother died from pneumonia Thursday. Mr. and Mrs. Small left on the night train Friday for Portland, the funeral will be held Sunday.

Claytonia

Influenza has abated some and the schools have opened with good attendance.

The mumps have made a visit to this vicinity. Some of the sheep men have had it for some time. Wesley Maxwell has had it for about a week. Thelma Hansbrough was taken down with it last Tuesday.

Mr. Sam Stilzel’s family have all had the influenza but are now recovering.

Mrs. Slaybough is suffering from an attack of pneumonia.

Mr. and Mrs. Cover and baby are recovering from the influenza.

Mrs. Tom Jackson has been suffering from an attack of pleurisy caused by a relapse of the influenza.

Now that the spring work opens up there is a tendency to keep the bigger boys home for work off and on. We hope that the parents will remember that we have the first examination in less than three months and every day counts.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Caldwell Tribune. February 24, 1920, Page 8

College of Idaho Dept.

College Notes

Miss Margaret Rudy visited in Nampa Sunday with Miss Alta Elmer, who is convalescing from a severe illness.

Prof. Smith returned to his classes Monday after a 3 weeks absence.

(ibid, page 8)
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The Idaho Republican. February 24, 1920, Page 3

19200224TIR1

Thomas

The Wilson school was closed last week on account of influenza.

Nathan Goodwin and son are suffering with influenza.

Andrew and Arnold Crystal are among those from this city who have influenza.

Mrs. Hans W. Peterson is very sick at the present writing.

source: The Idaho Republican. (Blackfoot, Idaho), 24 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Republican. February 24, 1920, Page 5

Local News

The J. J. Quillin family has recovered from the influenza.

Rscoe [sic] Conklin is suffering from an attack of the influenza.

Miss Veda Booker, teacher at Aberdeen, is reported to be very ill with the influenza.

Mark Tuohy and H. Kanzelmeyer, who have been confined to the hospital with the influenza are able to be out again.

Miss Margurite Van Akin, who has been teaching school at Shelley is at home this week, resting and recovering from a siege of the flu.

Mark Tuohy appeared again Monday morning at his place in the Rowles-Mack store after an illness of more than a week. Mark insists that he did not have the flu but a comeback of malaria that got into his blood while serving as a marine in Cuba for two years.
— —

News Notes From The High School
Interesting Items of the Week’s Doings Written by the Pupils

Mr. Kanzelmeyer, science teacher at the high school is very ill with influenza.

Miss Hay, teacher of Spanish and Latin was ill Tuesday and Wednesday, but was able to resume her work Thursday.

Mrs. LeRoy Jones is substituting for Mrs. Garvin, who has been very seriously ill with influenza.

Miss Ridd of Mackay is substituting for Miss Mauzey; Miss Cherrington, who has been teaching at Thomas, for Miss Schroeder; Miss Brose for Miss Vaughn.

Miriam Pearson substituted for Miss Turman, who is ill with influenza. Miss Burgraff is now teaching that class.

Miss Rushfeldt has been substituting for Mrs. Armstrong.

Miss Carlson has been substituting for Mrs. Dygert.

Pluma Pelkey is substituting for Miss Inglested.

Wayne Kinney was injured last week when a well bucket fell on his head.

(ibid, page 5)
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Bonners Ferry Herald. February 24, 1920, Page 4

19200224BFH1

Local Pick-ups

Mrs. R. H. McCoy has been ill the past week with an attack of the Spanish influenza.

H. L. Shively has been on the sick list with influenza. He is reported as being in better health today.

Miss Margaret Eagan, bookkeeper at Causton Bros. store, was ill the past week with an attack of influenza.

Mr. and Mrs. W. O. Rosebaugh and daughter, have been on the sick list the past ten days with Spanish influenza.

The county commissioners have ordered paraphernalia for a finger print record for Sheriff Dunning. At the recent meeting of the county sheriffs in Boise, it was recommended that all counties install the same system.

source: Bonners Ferry Herald. (Bonners Ferry, Idaho), 24 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. February 24, 1920, Page 5

Local Pick-ups

C. G. Welch is again able to be up and around after a severe attack of pneumonia.

R. H. McCoy, vice president and the general manager of the Bonners Ferry Lumber Company, was confined to his bed several days last week with an attack of influenza.

J. T. Davis has been engaged to teach the remainder of the term for the Curley creek school. Mrs. Jerry Dore resigned as teacher recently on account of ill health.

Laura Mildred, the five year old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Cowell, died on February 13 from influenza. The funeral was held the following day, services being conducted by Rev. Wilbur.
— —

Curley Creek News Items

That was some supper they gave at P. O. Swanson’s birthday party on the 17th.

(ibid, page 5)
— — — —

Bonners Ferry Herald. February 24, 1920, Page 8

Round Prairie News Items

A number of the Copeland young people attended the dance held at the Round Prairie hall on Saturday evening.

Tom Ames of Porthill is laid up with a lame shoulder and his mother has the influenza. This prevented them from attending the dance here Saturday evening.

Carl Rudolph returned this week from Walla Walla, Wash., where he has been stopping at Mr. Greenway’s for some time. He was taken sick with influenza shortly after his return home.
— —

19200224BFH2Died of Spanish Influenza

Edward Krum, a section man in the employ of the Great Northern Railway company at Yakt, Mont., died last Friday of Spanish influenza. He was buried Sunday at the Lenia cemetery, Rev. E. R. Henderson, of this city, conducting the services at the grave. The deceased is survived by a widow and two small children.

(ibid, page 8)
—————-

Further Reading

When The Pandemic Came To Spokane — 102 Years Ago

NWNews – By Nicholas Deshais March 29, 2020


An undated photo of military parade in downtown Spokane in 1918. Courtesy of the Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture

Note: This story is a collaboration between the public media Northwest News Network, Spokane Public Radio, Northwest Public Broadcasting and the Spokesman-Review.

Two weeks before Spokane went on lockdown, the news was the disease wouldn’t come here.

The newspaper told its readers that “there is no reason to be greatly alarmed” because the “imported type” of viral infection was “not available” here.

The city’s public health officer offered soothing words.

“If Spokane people will sneeze in their handkerchiefs and turn their heads the ‘other’ way when they cough, there is but a remote chance that the city will be attacked,” he told the paper.

They were wrong.

The virus arrived, and the city’s theaters, schools, churches, dance halls and every other place where people gathered were ordered closed, as were events like funerals and weddings.

The year was 1918 – the last time a pandemic reached Spokane. A century has passed, and Spokane and the world are once again contending with quarantine and the powerful role public health officials can play in times of outbreak.

It’s a frightening time, with a sedate city anxiously waiting to see how bad it gets. But some look back to see a way forward.

“My reaction about learning about the disease today, about COVID-19, my first reaction as a historian was to try to give it context,” said Logan Camporeale, a local historian. “Based on the newspaper record, what we did in 1918, in October 1918, is much of what we’re dong in March of 2020.”

Dr. Bob Lutz, the health officer for the Spokane Regional Health District, agreed that 1918 is a good analogy to now.

“I think there are a lot of comparisons to 1918,” Lutz said. “So to say that we’ve been here before, yeah, we’ve been here before a century ago, but not in the recent past. Not in the past anyone here can remember.”

The inability to recall how bad things got here has led people to dismiss the threat, Lutz said.

“I think that we have, as a society, become so independent that when I tell you that I require you to do this, there’s a lot of, ‘Well don’t tell me, I don’t believe it,’” he said. …

That brings up another difference between 1918 and 2020.

“Back then, you did not have testing. Now you have testing,” Lutz said. “Back then you – essentially based upon a constellation of symptoms – you said this person had flu and you treated them accordingly. Now we have a constellation of symptoms, which is consistent with COVID-19, and we have a test for COVID-19, but we don’t have the testing materials to provide the evidence.”

In other words, people don’t believe the outbreak is here until there is a test confirming it’s here. And if they don’t believe it’s here, they won’t follow Lutz’s recommendations for social distancing.

“To some degree, until people truly believe that it is here, they are pushing back against a lot of the social distancing recommendations that we are providing,” Lutz said.

As testing proved on March 14 that the novel coronavirus had arrived in Spokane, Lutz urged people to take it seriously.

“We’ve not had anything of this complexity and severity for a century,” he said.

War Brings Flu Home

… The 1918-19 influenza pandemic infected 500 million people worldwide, and killed between 17 and 100 million people – upwards of 5% of the human population.

It didn’t spare the U.S., where more than 500,000 people died. Joseph Waring, a medical historian in South Carolina, called it “the greatest medical holocaust in history.” And Isaac Starr, in the Annals of Internal Medicine, ranked it as “one of the three most destructive human epidemics” along with the Justinian plague in the year 541 and the Black Death in the mid-1300s.


A naval unit in Pullman, Washington, on Nov. 11, 1918, celebrating the end of World War I. Courtesy of the Franks Collection, Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture

At the same time, the world was seeing the end of what would later be called World War I, referred to at the time as the Great War.

The so-called “War to End All Wars” would result in the deaths of 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians, making it the third deadliest war ever, behind World War II and the Mongol conquests of the 13th century.

It’s no coincidence the war and influenza pandemic struck at the same time.

Though the war began in Europe in 1914, the U.S. didn’t join the Allies until 1917. The draft was extended, and the Army went from having tens of thousands of troops to millions.

While theories compete about the flu’s source, there is no argument that it was ravaging the soldiers in Europe in 1917, where the newly expanded American Army was headed.

During their tours, men from around the world, including Americans, lived in tight, squalid conditions that “favored the transmission of influenza. Men moved between camps frequently and went overseas and back, facilitating the transmission of the disease over even wider areas,” wrote Keirsten Snover in her 2008 master’s degree thesis for Eastern Washington University called “The Spanish Influenza Epidemic of 1918-1919: The Spokane Experience.”

“Because of the war, what might have been a limited epidemic quickly became a pandemic, with troops spreading infection all over the globe,” Snover wrote.

“Fear Of Influenza”

Dr. John Anderson was strolling down Riverside Avenue in downtown Spokane when a man spit on the sidewalk in front of him – a common, if foul, occurrence.

It was also an arrestable offense, as the man would soon find out.

The year was 1918, and Spokane was under something like martial law – but instead of the military giving orders, it was the public health authority.

And Dr. Anderson, Spokane’s chief public health officer, called the shots.

The man wasn’t arrested. Instead, Anderson ordered him to wipe his own spittle off the sidewalk, which he did, with Anderson watching.

The date was Oct. 8, and Anderson could be forgiven for his extreme reaction. He and 17 Spokane physicians had just met to discuss a telegram they’d received from T.D. Tuttle, the state commissioner of health, urging them to ban public gatherings.

Anderson and the doctors agreed. At midnight that day, Oct. 8, all theaters, schools, churches, dance halls and every other place where people gathered were ordered closed, as were events like funerals and weddings.

When Anderson ordered the closure of most of Spokane’s public places, there were few who protested, even if most people didn’t believe or understand the danger of influenza. The city streets were “as sparsely filled as in a blizzard,” The Spokesman-Review reported.

The first day of those quiet streets – Oct. 9, 1918 – Spokane had its first reported flu death.

In an article titled “Epidemic grows, girl succumbs,” the Spokesman reported the death of Vera Wood, 17, the daughter of “pioneers of the Sprague region” who lived near the old Spokane University in Spokane Valley. She was “stricken last Saturday,” and contracted the flu from her brother, Vernon Wood, a Lewis and Clark High School student. He recovered, she didn’t.

It was later reported that James Alphea Howe was the first 1918 influenza death. When he died on Oct. 5, 1918, it was first thought the 79-year-old had succumbed to pneumonia, but later ascribed to influenza.

The cases piled up. By Oct. 10, 1918, there were 220 reported cases of influenza in Spokane and Anderson ordered all doctors in the city to file daily reports with him. The city’s hospitals were at capacity and Anderson saw the situation deteriorating.

Anderson and the local Red Cross formulated a plan to transform one of the city’s hotels into a hospital. Near the corner of Lincoln Street and First Avenue, the Lion Hotel was perfect. It had big and small rooms, and was centrally located near Deaconess Hospital.

On Oct. 16, the city seized the Lion Hotel to convert for people “with severe cases or those who were homeless,” according to the newspaper. The owners objected, and the following day the Spokane Daily Chronicle reported Anderson’s indifference to their concerns.

“We don’t care a rap what the owners of the building think about it or about us,” Anderson said. “We don’t propose to haggle with them over it. This is a very serious emergency and if the owners of the Lion Hotel think they can put a dollar in one side of the scale and a human life in the other and get away with it they are very, very badly mistaken.”

It was just the beginning of Anderson’s increasingly belligerent tone against people who disagreed with his measures to combat the flu. The number of reported cases was growing by 75 each day, and the total stood at 815 when the Lion became an influenza ward.


In the family papers of Robert O’Brien, old newsletters tell the story of Mary Philomena O’Brien, who volunteered to care for WWI soldiers as well as those afflicted with the 1918 flu. She died of the flu after caring for patients. Credit: Jesse Tinsley/The Spokesman-Review

Two days later, on Oct. 18, a total of 15 people had died from the flu, and Anderson put Spokane under an even stricter quarantine: gatherings in private clubs were now banned, and passengers on the city’s streetcars were no longer allowed to stand in the aisle and hang on a strap if the seats were full.

On Oct. 23 – just two weeks after the city’s first death – the city had its worst day yet, with 300 new cases reported. Anderson was furious, blaming lax adherence to his measures, and promised to squelch such activities.

“It has been brought to my attention that some people have disobeyed the order by giving private social affairs at their homes,” he said. “Upon the first information I have that such a thing is being planned, we will appear on the scene and arrest the ringleaders without respect to their prominence or social standing.”

Four days later, Anderson was “shocked” to see 1,500 people gather at the Great Northern Depot, site of the clocktower in Riverfront Park, to see young men go off to war. He banned public send-offs of the troops then and there.

“There is a difference between wholesome fear of influenza and morbid dread of the disease,” Anderson told the Chronicle. “Spokane people, for their own good, must realize the difference.”

If he couldn’t get them to fear the disease, he would rule the city with an iron, health-minded fist. He considered shutting the entire city down, except grocery stores and restaurants, but backed off without explanation. Instead, he outlawed Halloween masks, and ordered police to stop masked trick-or-treaters.

“Small Plants Called Germs”

As a doctor, Anderson was well-versed in his day’s theories of sickness and health.

But he, like everyone else in 1918, didn’t know that influenza was a virus, a fact only revealed in 1933 when the human influenza virus was first isolated from a pig. Since its identity as a virus wasn’t yet known, there was no flu vaccine, and would not be on widely available until 1945.

But Anderson knew about germ theory, and he was happy to explain it to those who balked at his strict measures.

“Spanish influenza is caused by very small plants called germs that come from the mouth or nose of persons suffering from it,” he told the Chronicle. “The person gets the germ into his body by breathing into the nose or mouth the drops or spray that have been sneezed or coughed out into the air by a person sick with influenza or else he gets the germs into his body by putting into his mouth something soiled by the spit of a sick person.”

In a full-page ad in the Spokesman, the city’s health department told people, “Don’t Be Alarmed – Be Careful!” The ad advised people to go to bed if they were feeling sick, keep the windows open, take laxatives and consume milk, eggs and broth every four hours. Nurses were told to wear a mask and wash their hands frequently. Workers were urged to avoid streetcars, walk to work and “eat good, clean food.”

Nowadays, the explanation and remedies seem less than satisfactory, and we have a more nuanced understanding of viruses.

In short, a virus is so small and simple it’s not considered a living thing. Instead, it invades living things, and only once it has infected a life form does it replicate. The only identifiable function of a virus is to reproduce, and it will reproduce until the cell it has invaded bursts, sending its millions of duplicates out to invade more cells.

The 1918 influenza virus went by a few names back then: Influenza, the Spanish flu, la grippe, the grip.

Now, we know it as H1N1, which describes the type of proteins that make up the virus, as well as its shape. It’s also called swine flu. …

When H1N1 struck in 1918, it decimated the usual victims – the very young, and the very old. But it was unusually fatal for healthy adults as well.

In his book “The Great Influenza,” John Barry writes that the immune systems of healthy adults “mounted massive responses to the virus. That immune response filled the lungs with fluid and debris, making it impossible for the exchange of oxygen to take place.”

Instead of saving them, the immune systems drowned their masters.

Despite his odd description of the germ-plants, Anderson showed that he and other medical professionals knew how the virus was spread: through the air and by an exchange of fluids between the healthy and the infected.

War Is Over

As November 1918 began, the war and flu raged on, and things weren’t looking good in Spokane.

It hadn’t even been a month since the first H1N1 death, and the city had tallied 4,000 flu cases and more than 100 dead. There weren’t enough doctors and nurses to staff the city’s many sick wards.

Anderson told the Chronicle the “situation is grave … really serious, more serious than the general public seems to realize.”


Volunteers wearing gauze masks at a street kitchen in Cincinnati serve food to children of families afflicted by the flu pandemic in the winter of 1918-1919. Courtesy of Spokesman-Review Archives

On Nov. 4, the state health board issued a new order: Everyone had to wear a mask while out in public, including at stores and restaurants. The masks had to be a certain size – 5 by 6 inches – with six layers of sewn-and-bound gauze.

Two days later, the local Red Cross sold the masks at City Hall. Two types of masks were priced at 5 or 10 cents and all 500 sold out in a half-hour. Hundreds of people were turned away. The Red Cross hastily made 4,000 more masks, but they hung loosely on the face and were unpopular and uncomfortable.

The next day, 800 masks were sold in the first half-hour. The paper tallied the dead at 117.

On Nov. 9, the front-page of the Chronicle screamed in large, bold letters, “Kaiser Quits.” The war was over, at least in Europe. Anderson tried to cool any hearts that may have been warmed by the news.

“Stay home all you can. Order your merchandise over the telephone. Don’t forget to keep your windows open both night and day and keep in the fresh air as much as possible and comply with all rules and regulations,” Anderson said.

He was ignored. With the end of war, celebrations broke out around Spokane on Nov. 11, Armistice Day, including a parade on Riverside Avenue. Thousands of motorists and marchers created a “bedlam of sound” with horns, klaxons, tin cans, streetcar whistles and gongs. The parade, which started at 1 p.m., continued deep into the night. Public parties lasted throughout the day.

More than 4,500 Spokane men had gone to war, and more than 200 had died in the fight. Anderson, fighting to prevent more death, knew he couldn’t stop the celebration, but lamented that the “merrymakers as a rule disregarded the mask rule as a hindrance to their vocal powers.”

The same day, the state health commissioner lifted the mask rule, and news of his ruling reached Spokane that evening and “immediately circulated among a population already in the midst of celebrating the end to the war,” according to the Influenza Encyclopedia, a website with an account of the illness in the city based on newspaper reports of the time.

Anderson, buoyed by peace, said he thought all the restrictions could be lifted soon.

With Anderson – and therefore probably most of the city – believing the flu was on its way out, the Spokesman wrote a fawning profile of the health officer, saying “it is probably fair to say that he has earned the respect and admiration of his fellow citizens in a way no other public official of Spokane has approached.”

Anderson used logic to convince his fellow citizens, the profile said. Failing that, he wielded power.

In the profile, Anderson likens his fight against the flu to the war won in Europe. More to the point, he demanded the power of a general to finally vanquish his “invisible enemy.”

“It is just as necessary to concentrate responsibility and authority in one man here as on the battlefield. Perhaps more so, for the soldier fights a visible foe while the health authorities and the physician are combating an invisible enemy. All we see is results of the foe’s strength,” he said. “It is prompt action which saves the day, and we know it as never before after this epidemic.” …

Theaters Revolt

As December 1918 began, nothing changed. Every day, 200 cases of the flu were reported. Still, Anderson believed the flu was waning, lifted some restrictions and said school would be in session again, after seven weeks of closure. Theaters were allowed to open, but with strict temperature and humidity controls.

At a time before radio and television, the bored people of Spokane rejoiced. Social life would begin again, just in time for the holidays.

It didn’t last. The flu roared, and the city counted 231 dead. Anderson blamed the war celebrations and recent Thanksgiving gatherings.

“Keep away from crowds,” he said. “Influenza is a crowd disease. The present increase should convince the most skeptical that the gatherings of the Thanksgiving week have been dangerous.”

SpokaneTheatersPetition-a
Local businesses affected by the flu ban were gathering signatures to have it lifted. “They might as well save their ink,” said the city’s health officer. Credit: Spokesman-Review Archives

On Dec. 3, 300 new influenza cases were reported and again the city’s schools were ordered shut. Anderson again recommended a full ban on public gatherings, causing a “near-riot” at a city board of health meeting on Dec. 6.

“Hooting, hissing and cat-calling came from the back of the room, and one man had to be cautioned by police Sgt. Daniel to keep quiet or leave the room,” reported the Chronicle.

Facing a would-be mob, Anderson and the board compromised: Churches would be allowed one service each week, but with no singing because it “acts as a releaser of germs during the singing, nearly the same as during coughing, and that would be dangerous.” Theaters could remain open, but would have to “close between the hours of 5 and 7 p.m., to air out the theater building.”

That day, there were 342 new cases of the flu and eight deaths.

Despite the death and disease, business owners were tired of the forced closures, and people were too. The Empress Theater, at Riverside and Browne Street, violated the quarantine. Two health inspectors went to the theater and found “84 people standing in the lobby, in direct violation of the quarantine order,” Anderson said. There also were children under 12 in attendance and the gallery was overcrowded. When the health inspectors ordered the lobby cleared, “management paid no heed.”

If the Empress tried to reopen, Anderson said he’d arrest the manager, the ticket seller, the doorkeeper and every other employee.

Later that week, with deaths tallied at 374, the owner of the Hippodrome on Howard Street said he was closing the theater for good, and blamed the financial losses stemming from the quarantine.

The next day, Dec. 17, a coalition of theater owners said they had collected several thousand signatures asking for the end of the ban on public gatherings.

“Those petitions will have as much effect on me as water on a duck’s back,” Anderson said. “The people circulating and signing the petitions might just as well save their ink.”

He said the partial ban would go on until January and suggested the business people were putting profits ahead of the public good. “A dollar is good, but it is no good to a dead man,” he said.

Around this time, Anderson outlawed Christmas and New Year’s celebrations.

Forget All About The Flu

Over the next few weeks, the situation improved. The worst was over. On Dec. 30, Anderson announced all restrictions would be lifted at noon New Year’s Day, and schools would reopen Jan. 2.

Even Anderson’s rhetoric shifted.

“Forget all about the ‘flu.’ Dismiss it from your mind,” Anderson said, according to the Jan. 4, 1919, paper. “I believe everybody would be better off if they would just forget all about the ‘flu.’ I don’t mean by this that people should mingle with persons who have the disease, but I do mean that people should get away from the idea that if they have a little pain or ache they should think it is the influenza. Just quit thinking about it as much as possible. This is my suggestion.”

On Jan. 13, Anderson closed the Lion Hotel hospital, which “truly signaled the end of Spokane’s epidemic,” according to the Influenza Encyclopedia. Over 89 days, the hospital had treated 617 people and saw 68 deaths.

By the end of the flu’s course through Spokane, some 17,000 Spokanites got the flu, and 1,045 died. The severity of the disease in Spokane led to a higher death rate than in Seattle. And its three “peaks” – two in October and one in December – were more than the typical American city, which saw just two.

The number of cases and deaths would grow outside of this October-to-February window, but Anderson wouldn’t stay in Spokane to see it all the way through. Deaths would continue to mount after February 1919, but at a slower rate.

On April 18, Anderson was given a farewell reception by the employees of the city health office and members of the Rivercrest Contagion Hospital, according to the May 10 edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

He was retiring as the city’s health officer after eight years and had been named the state commissioner of health. …

full story:
(also posted Feb 28, 2021)
——————

Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 1)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 2)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 3)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 4)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 5)
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Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 11)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 12)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 13)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 14)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 15)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 16)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 17)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 18)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 19)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 20)
Link to Idaho 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Part 21)
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Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 23)
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Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 28)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 29)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 30)
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Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 33)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 34)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 35)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 36)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 37)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 38)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 39)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 40)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 41)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 42)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 43)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 44)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 45)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 46)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 47)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 48)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 49)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 50)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 51)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 52)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 53)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 54)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 55)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 56)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 57)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 58)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 59)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 60)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 61)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 62)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 63)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 64)
Link to Idaho 1919 Influenza Pandemic (Part 65)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 66)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 67)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 68)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 69)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 70)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 71)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 72)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 73)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 74)
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Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 78)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 79)
Link to Idaho 1920 Influenza Pandemic (Part 80)

Idaho History Nov 14, 2021

Idaho 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic

Part 80

Idaho Newspaper Clippings February 20, 1920

Idaho photos courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

February 20 (continued)

Cottonwood Chronicle. February 20, 1920, Page 1

19200220CC1

19200220CC2Death Takes Five From Our Midst This Week
Husband and Wife and Grandson Taken from One Home at Keuterville – Kuther of Ferdinand and Grandma Kopzcynski of Cottonwood Also Taken Away

The Dead Are

Frank Winkler, Keuterville, age 70; death due to old age and general breakdown.

Mrs. Frank Winkler, age 65; death due to influenza followed by pneumonia.

Arthur Romain, Keuterville, grandson of Mr. and Mrs. Winkler, age 13; death due to influenza followed by pneumonia.

Mrs. Mary Anna Kopczynski, Cottonwood; age 65, death due to leakage of the heart.

Henry Kruther, Ferdinand, age 28; death due to influenza followed by pneumonia.

Death again visited our immediate community during the past week and took from us five well known citizens, and pioneers of the country who all faced the hardships of the early days to make this country what it is. In chronicling events of this kind it is with the deepest heartfelt sympathy for the bereaved relatives and friends, who did everything possible to restore them back to health but of no avail, as the hand of their creator reached out and picked them from the garden of flowers.

Kuther First One Called

Henry Kuther, a prosperous young farmer residing near Ferdinand was the first one to answer the call and died at his home Monday of influenza followed by pneumonia. Mr. Kuther had been ill for only a short time and everything possible in the medical science was done to save his life, but with out avail.

Henry Kuther was born at Keuterville 28 years ago and has been a life long resident of the county.

Surviving him are his sorrowful wife, three children and his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Kuther of Lewiston, a brother Joe Kuther of Ferdinand and five sisters, Mrs. Joe Busher, Mrs. Nick Kinzer, Mrs. Henry Stricker, Mrs. Henry Sprute and Mrs. Josephine Swearmine.

The funeral services were held from the Catholic church at Ferdinand Wednesday morning and was attended by some 35 Knights of Columbus of Cottonwood, of which council he was a member. The remains were laid to rest in the Ferdinand cemetery.

Two Pioneers Called

On Thursday morning Cottonwood was shocked to hear of the death of two old pioneers of the Keuterville section, Mr. and Mrs. Frank J. Winkler, who both died in their home in Keuterville Wednesday evening. Mrs. Winkler was the first one to pass into the great beyond having been called by her creator at 6:30 and at 11:15 the husband was also summoned.

These sturdy old pioneers who have lived at Keuterville for the past 24 years were born in Austria and came to the U. S. in 1876. The death of Mrs. Winkler was due to influenza followed by pneumonia while her husband died of old age, having been in poor health for some time. At the time of their deaths Mrs. Winkler was 65 years of age and her life partner had reached his 70th milestone.

Surviving them are four children, Frank Winkler of Cottonwood, Mrs. C. Andre of Keuterville, Henry Winkler of Camas, Mont., Mrs. M. Ritter of Kalispell, Mont.

The remains of Mr. and Mrs. Winkler were laid to rest in the Keuterville cemetery today, services having been conducted from the Catholic church of that place with Rev. Fr. Martin in charge of the services.

Grandson Also Dies

Within less than 24 hours from the time of the death of Mr. and Mrs. Winkler, their little grandson Arther Romain also died from influenza followed by pneumonia, having passed away Thursday evening at 8:05. Arthur was the 13 year old son of John Romain, who had made his home with his grandparents since the death of his mother some time ago. He is survived by his sorrowing father and a sister. John Romain, father of the young boy, has also been very ill with influenza but at the present time is well on the road to recovery. The funeral arrangements for the young boy have not been completed, it is presumed he will be laid to rest beside his grandparents Saturday.

Grandma Kopczynski Dead

Mrs. Mary Anna Kopczynski, a resident of Idaho since 1887, passed away at the home of her son, August, two miles east of Cottonwood Wednesday evening after a lingering illness of almost two years from leakage of the heart, being 65 years old at the time of her death.

Mrs. Kopczynski was born in Germany and came to this country in 1872. Her husband, August preceding her in death some 12 years ago.

Mrs. Kopczynski was the mother of 10 children, five of whom survive their mother. They are: August Kopczynski, Mrs. Enoch Crosby, Mrs. Lloyd Crosby, Mrs. Jake Welte all of Cottonwood and Mrs. H. J. Moran of St. Ignatius, Mont.

The funeral services were held from the Catholic church this morning, of which faith she has been a most devot [sic] member all her life with Rev. Fr. Willibrord officiating. The services were attended by a large number of friends and truly shows the high esteem in which she was held. The remains were laid to rest in the Catholic cemetery.

A. H. Hau supplied funeral furnishes for all the above named persons and was assisted by A. J. Maugg of Grangeville at the Kuther home in preparing the body for burial.
— —

Fire At School House

Monday evening, an electric iron, which had not been turned off, in the domestic science bungalow, near the public school, caused the same to burn through a table upon which it had been placed. The fire department was called out, and while the fire did only a small damage, the greater damage was accomplished by the fire fighters, consisting of broken windows and doors. The loss is estimated at $100 which was fully covered by insurance.
— —

News Around The State
Items of Interest From Various Sections Reproduced for Benefit of Our Readers

Dr. E. H. Lindley, president of the University of Idaho, has the influenza in mild form. His condition is not regarded as at all serious, but he is confined to his home.

Mrs. Maud May Leighty, wife of G. W. Leighty of Pocatello, and sister of Governor D. W. Davis, died in a hospital at Pocatello Thursday morning. Pneumonia, following influenza, was the cause of death. Governor Davis, who had been summoned from Boise, arrived too late to see his sister alive.

Announcement that there will be no general extension of time for filing income tax returns has been made by the bureau of internal revenue and Deputy Collector Haight of the northern counties of Idaho, who maintains offices in the federal building at Lewiston, has been so advised.

source: Cottonwood Chronicle. (Cottonwood, Idaho), 20 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

Cottonwood Chronicle. February 20, 1920, Page 2

School Notes

(By Wm. A. Lustie)

School opened Monday with an attendance about 80 per cent normal. There were absent from: The High School 11; Seventh and Eighth grades 2; Fifth and Sixth grades 7; Third and Fourth grades 4; First and Second 4.

Pupils who are yet compelled to stay away from school for a week or two should not become discouraged. Ample time to make up work and individual help will be given to all such students. All the written material in the first eight grades can be read in forty hours. Work can be made up and made up effectively.

What is happening to the teaching profession?

22 per cent going into industry each year.

8 per cent fewer graduates from teacher training schools.

The school board of the Nez Perce public schools has granted to its teachers a bonus to be given at the end of the school year equivalent to 10 per cent of his or her salary. – Idaho Teacher.

No one ought to forget that the raising of salaries is not only for the sake of the teachers now at work, but also for the sake of getting other and better teachers in the future, and thus eliminating the in-efficient, the unfit, and the misfit teacher. We don’t want the teaching profession to be an asylum for people who have failed in everything they have undertaken. Low standards and low salaries makes the profession just such a place of refuge.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

Cottonwood Chronicle. February 20, 1920, Page 4

County Seat News Items

Mr. and Mrs. W. N. Knox will leave some time next week for a few weeks or a month’s sojourn at points in California. Mr. Knox recently got out after a severe attack of the influenza and it is expected the California climate will assist him in recuperating and aid his health generally.

Miss Elsie Stanbery was an arrival Friday evening from Berkeley, Cal., where she was attending college. Miss Stanbery was called here by the sickness and subsequent death of her father, Geo. D. Stanbery.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

Cottonwood Chronicle. February 20, 1920, Page 8

Cottonwood And Vicinity
Personal Mention and Local Happenings of the Week in This Vicinity

Mrs. F. M. Bowman of Grangeville, a sister of Mrs. Olie Rhett has been waiting on her sister this past week. Mrs. Rhett has been ill with the influenza but at the present time is able to set up.

Sheriff William Eller was in Cottonwood Tuesday on official business. This is Mr. Eller’s first visit to Cottonwood since his recent attack with the flu. Although somewhat weak, Mr. Eller states he is feeling pretty well.

A large number of members of the Knight of Columbus attended the funeral of Henry Kuther at Ferdinand Wednesday, he having been a member of the local council.

A. J. Maugg of Grangeville was a business visitor in Cottonwood Tuesday.

Miss Ruby Lunstrum who was called to Clarkston by the serious illness and death, of her sister, returned Thursday evening to again resume her duties at the Leggett Mercantile Co.

Ash Wednesday, the first day of Lent was fittingly commemorated at the Catholic Church Wednesday morning.

The small boy with his baseball, the grown-ups with their automobiles and a clear sky above are all indications that spring has arrived – for a short time at least. The weather the past two weeks has simply been “grand.”

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. February 20, 1920, Page 1

19200220KG1

19200220KG2Flu Ban Lifted

The ban will be lifted on public meetings Sunday. This is the order of the local health officers. The regular church services will be held in the churches. School will open Monday morning. Yesterday afternoon it was reported that Kendrick was entirely free from influenza, so it was believed to be safe to lift the ban on public gatherings, beginning Sunday.
— —

Banks Closed Monday

The local banks will be closed all day Monday in observance of Washington’s birthday, which is a legal holiday.
— —

19200220KG3Death of Martin Norman

Martin Norman of Big Bear Ridge, age 21 years, passed away at the Bovill hospital after a short illness caused by influenza which later resulted in pneumonia. The young man is well known on Bear Ridge where he has made his home for a number of years. He is survived by his father, a sister and two brothers.
— —

Over the County

Juliaetta Record: Baby chicks this early in the season is something quite unusual, but Mrs. C. S. Biddison has a Rhode Island Red hen which has just hatched out 14 fine healthy chicks, which is believed to be the first hatched in this part of the country this year. Mrs. Biddison has a good warm place to keep them and believes she will be able to raise all of them.
— —

Music by Henry Ford

For Sale – One Ford car with Piston rings; two rear wheels, one front spring.
Has no fenders, seat or plank; burns lots of gas. Hard to crank.
Carburetor busted, half way through. Engine missing; hits on two.
Three years old; four in the spring. Has shock absorbers and everything.
Radiator busted, sure does leak. Differential’s dry; you can hear it squeak.
Ten spokes missing. Front all bent. Tires blowed out. Ain’t worth a cent.
Got lots of speed; will run like the deuce; burns either gas or tobacco juice.
Tires all off; been run on the rim. A dam good Ford for the shape it’s in.
– Ex.

source: The Kendrick Gazette. (Kendrick, Idaho), 20 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. February 20, 1920, Page 2

Big Bear Ridge

There are no influenza cases on the ridge at this writing.

Miss Wilson and Miss Hupp resumed their school work at Steele and Fern Hill, Monday.

P. A. Norman went to Bovill the first of the week to be with his son Martin, who is seriously ill at the hospital there with pneumonia following influenza.
— —

Linden News

The Gold Hill school is closed on account of the “flu” and scarlet fever in neighboring communities. There is only one home quarantined in this vicinity that being McAllister’s.

Jim Farrintgon is suffering from pleurisy, following an attack of influenza.

Miss Leah Smith is assisting the Fred Darby family at Crescent. Mrs. Darby has pneumonia following the “flu” and Mr. Darby and Mr. Trail have the flu. All are getting along nicely.

Dr. Kelly of Kendrick was called to the Weaver home last Saturday.

Miss Eva Smith is staying with Mrs. Ed Fonberg who recently returned from the hospital at Moscow.
— —

Southwick Items

School opened again Monday. Southwick and vicinity had quite a siege of the epidemic, so school was closed for a time on account of it.

Mrs. J. M. McFadden and little daughter, Leola, are on the sick list at present.

Mrs. Fred Darby has been seriously ill from an attack of the epidemic.

William Stump and family have all been sick and little Harry is quite ill yet.

Dr. Truitt has been a hero thru our hard time of sickness, staying with his patients all night if necessary, losing his own much needed rest, to bring the sick folks thru. He has been kept on the go both night and day for some time.

Mrs. Lock is enjoying a period of rest as most of the sick people are recovering. Mrs. Lock put thru calls for the doctors at all seasons of the night for a time. But she is still on the job, if she did get pretty tired.
— —

19200220KG4

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. February 20, 1920, Page 7

[Local News]

There are a good many “wobblies”* in Kendrick these days, since the flu epidemic.

Old timers marvel at the new fangled diseases such as the flu, and wonder why it is that diseases, like other things seem to go out of date. It is seldom you hear of anyone outside of Missouri ever having the itch**, and yet our fathers in their boyhood days seemed to be quite familiar with the disease. Inflammatory rheumatism and St. Vitus Dance used to be considered a combination of diseases that would bring considerable discomfort to an individual if he were visited with both at one and the same time. However, since the flu, an equally disastrous visitation would be the combination of flu and the itch. Anyone with as little energy as a flu convalescent could get very little peace of mind if he had the itch and couldn’t scratch.

* see: Industrial Workers of the World

** see: Life and Death on the Oregon Trail, the Itch to Move West, a Half Million Pioneers Struggled West Seeking a Better Life Pamphlet
By James L Gibbons, Boyd & Amos January 1, 1986
— —

Leland Idaho

Mrs. Enoch Harrison has been seriously ill of pneumonia following influenza, but is some better at present.

(ibid, page 7)
— — — —

The Kendrick Gazette. February 20, 1920, Page 8

Gleanings

J. T. Schmitt of Leland returned from Lewiston Tuesday where he spent a week in a hospital with a severe case of pneumonia.

Lester Crocker, who has been attending business college in Spokane, returned home Tuesday to recuperate after an attack of the flu.

Mrs. Sylvia Jenks of Lewiston arrived Thursday morning. She went from here to Cedar Creek ridge to nurse Mrs. Lester Hill.

Harry Stanton went to Troy Tuesday to attend the funeral of Harry Robinson, section boss of Troy. Mr. Robinson died from pneumonia. He was section boss in Kendrick a few years ago.

It is said that a counterfeit dollar was circulating around in this community last week. One man, so the story goes, “sloughed” it twice before he got it out of circulation here. The last time he took particular pains to see that a traveling man got it, so it is probably beating its way through the world at some distant place. A dollar doesn’t buy anything these days so it doesn’t make much difference whether it is counterfeit or not.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

High School, Kendrick, Idaho

SchoolHighKendrickFritz-a

Photo courtesy: the Mike Fritz Collection, History of Idaho
— — — — — — — — — —

The Idaho Recorder. February 20, 1920, Page 1

19200220IR1

Doctors Confer at May

Dr. Kirtley went to Pahsamaroi the later part of last week for a conference with Dr. Hanmer, county physician for Lemhi county relative to the flu situation. Dr. Hanmer assured Dr. Kirtley that the board of health of Lemhi county and he, as its executive official, were heartily in accord with our quarantine and that the county commissioners of Lemhi county had instructed him to use every effort to keep the disease out of Salmon this year. We are not, it seems, entirely alone in our desire for a rigid quarantine against infected districts. — Messenger.
— —

[School Notes]

News items from the fifth and sixth grades, east side school.

Fifth and sixth grades east side, have had four absent on account of bad colds. – Jean Turnbull

Four children of the fifth grade have left school. They are Bonita and Gilmore Denny and John and George Young. Bonita and Gilmore are leaving town; George and John are leaving on account of the flu. We will miss them very much. — Mary Abbot

Charles Beers has just recovered from a sick spell. We are glad to have him with us again. — William White

source: The Idaho Recorder. (Salmon City, Idaho), 20 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. February 20, 1920, Page 2

Idaho State News

Mrs. Cynthia Mann, founder of the state children’s home in Boise, died February 6 of pneumonia, following influenza. She was 68 years of age and one of the leading benefactors in the state for homeless children.

A Chinaman, who runs a restaurant at Boise was fined $50 for furnishing dirty towels for use of guests.

The total population of Idaho in 1919, according to census figures was 325,594. Estimated, the population is now 538,639.

Ada county, in which Boise City is located, gained 37.64 per cent on school census since 1910. The county population in 1910 was 29,088; estimated for this year 40,036.

Taking figures of the school census in 1909 and those of 1919 as a basis, the population increase of the school eligibles in Twin Falls county in ten years was 276 per cent. In 1909 the school population was 2226. In 1919 it was 8374.

The third quarter of the State Normal school opened at Lewiston last week with an increased attendance, many former students returning to complete their preparation for teaching.
— —

Northwest Notes

Federal veterinary surgeons, after inquiry into the mysterious malady that has been carrying off stock in Northern Montana, are said to have decided that it is influenza or hemorrhagic septicemia.

(ibid, page 2)
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. February 20, 1920, Page 3

19200220IR2

(ibid, page 3)
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. February 20, 1920, Page 5

Salmon Locals

Numerous Flu Cases at Challis

Numerous cases of flu are reported from Challis, with one death, that of Ray Tracht.

School Notes

Miss Straud is still ill and will not be able to resume her studies for several days.

Two children were sent home Wednesday because they showed symptoms of the flu.

Miss Olive Hettinger is a substitute teacher for Miss Strand.
— —

May

The flu situation in the upper part of the valley around Patterson is improving. The families of Ed Miller and Will Miller were very sick for a time but are better, and no new cases have developed in this section since early last week. In May the cases are confined to two families, those of Jack Grubb and Arthur Grubb, the entire families being down. Mr. Shorett is recovering. Some new cases have developed below May, the entire family of George Hammond being sick and John Rose at his ranch. Lafe Frost is also sick at George Hammond’s. Dr. Gilman is taking every precaution to keep the disease from spreading and is going day and night. The schools of the valley are closed until the epidemic is under control. Mark Howe is the quarantine officer and guards the health of the community faithfully.

Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Thompson received the sad news the first of this month of the death of their son, Lee in Kansas City from pneumonia. Lee left May in October to attend an automobile school and had been very unfortunate ever since his arrival there. On his first day at school some chemical was thrown in his eyes and for some weeks it was feared he would lose his sight. Then he was ill with smallpox, and finally while in this weekended condition he contracted influenza and pneumonia, which resulted in his death. He was buried in Bramer, Mo., near his grandparents. Lee was a general favorite in the valley and his death was a shock to the whole community.

Miss Florence Shultz is spending the interval while the schools are closed at the ranch home of her mother on the Salmon river.

(ibid, page 4)
— — — —

The Idaho Recorder. February 20, 1920, Page 8

Leadore And Upper Lemhi

Leadore Personal

Loy H. Lee was on the sick list last week for a few days.

Little Virginia Allhands was confined to the home for a few days last week with a slight attack of grippe.

Leadore Local Lines

Jaunita Williams was absent from school during the week on account of sickness but will be in ship-shape for next week.

A meeting was held last Tuesday evening in which out coming brass band was well represented and the project thoroughly launched and we will have home made patriotic music for the Fourth.

Leadore School Notes

Ruth Barrows, our reporter, is sick and unable to be at school.

Forest Stewart is ill with yellow jaundice.

Merie Hays has chicken pox.

Lillie Benedict was absent from school two days last week on account of illness.

Delaphine Smith, also of the class of ’19, and attending school at Salt Lake, is recovering from an attack of the flu.

Fred Purcell was sick Monday and not at school.

There will be a masquerade ball pie social at the school house this Friday night. Proceeds to help pay for the light plant.

Call for Nurse Service

The Lemhi chapter of the Red Cross has issued a call for nurses or those who will aid in caring for the sick. Places in which flu is raging or prevalent have sent requests for this help,. Those who volunteer will be paid for their services. Register or telephone to Mrs. Theodore Ketchum, Salmon, who is chairman of the committee having this relief work in charge.
— —

So-called Flu

We are thoroughly convinced that the scare heads and exaggerated publicity of the newspapers is responsible for more deaths during the epidemic than any other one cause or feature in the case. The unscrupulous druggist and patent medicine vendor come next, for all three of them assist in spreading terror through the rank and file of the gullible public. Constant fear and worry will break down the constitution of a polar bear and make the human being ten times more susceptible to disease. The newspaper throws the scare into the people and the patent medicine faker holds it there with scare-head ads. As a result nine-tenths of the patients meet the disease half way. If our forefathers could see what a soft, susceptible, nervous bunch has been the outgrowth of their struggle to make an American nation they would probably consider their efforts wasted. A cold is a cold now just the same as it was a hundred years ago, and we hope people who have a little gumption will not let newspapers and calamity howlers manufacture more than half of the epidemic for them.
– Dr. Safford
— —

Spring Creek

School opened again after a week’s recess on account of flu.

The people of Ulysses and vicinity were greatly shocked and saddened by the death of Wilda Leabo. She was an excellent woman, deeply loved by all who knew her, and will be greatly missed by relatives and many friends. Mr. Leabo and five children are left to mourn her loss. Her sister, Mrs. Will Sharkey, came up from Salt Lake, but arrived too late to see her sister.

W. E. McCracken is taking the federal census hereabouts.

(ibid, page 8)
— — — — — — — — — —

Montpelier Examiner. February 20, 1920, Page 1

19200220ME1

19200220ME2William H. Smith Succumbs to Pneumonia

Wm. H. Smith died in this city last Tuesday morning after a two week’s illness with pneumonia, resulting from influenza.

The deceased was the son of Mr. and Mrs. Al Smith. He was born in Evanston, Wyo., but his parents came to Montpelier when he was a babe and he has made his home here ever since. For the past two years or more he has been working with one of the bridge and building outfits on the Oregon Short Line.

Besides his parents he is survived by three brothers and three sisters.

His funeral services were held from the Third ward meeting house yesterday morning at 11 o’clock.
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400 Idahoans Gave Lives In World War

Idaho’s total casualties during the war with Germany numbered 1351, of which 409 lost their lives and 933 were wounded. Detailed figures showed the casualties to be as follows: Killed in action, ten officers and 189 men; died of wounds, one officer and seven men; died of disease, three officers and 110 men; died of accident, one officer and seven men; drowned, one; suicide, one; died of other cause one; died, cause undetermined, eight; presumed dead, two. Nine Idaho men were taken prisoners and later recovered. The lightly wounded numbered eight officers and 400 men; severely wounded, seven officers and 367 men; wounded, degree undetermined, one officer and 148 men. …

When the secretary of war reports to congress on decorations conferred upon members of the American Expeditionary forces, he will state that the distinguished service cross was conferred upon sixteen Utah soldiers, twenty-two from Idaho and four from Wyoming, and that the medal of honor, the highest of all army awards were conferred up on two Idaho men, the only two such awards in the group of states named.
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School Boards Raising Salaries Of Teachers

The school boards in most of the towns throughout Southeastern Idaho are meeting the needs of the teachers by granting them additional pay in the form of bonuses and raising their salaries for the coming year.

The Blackfoot school board has adopted the following salary schedule for the coming year:

Grade teachers will receive $120 per month for the first year and an increase of $10 per month for each year in the schools until $150 is reached. Special teachers will receive $140 per month the first year and an increase of $5 per month for each year in the schools until $160 is reached. High school teachers are to receive $150 per month for the first year and an increase of $5 per month for each year until a maximum of $170 is reached. Manual training and agricultural teachers will receive $2000 for twelve months. High school principal, $2000 to $2,200 for ten months.

source: Montpelier Examiner. (Montpelier, Idaho), 20 Feb. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
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Montpelier Examiner. February 20, 1920, Page 3

In The Gem State

The city council has rejected a plea for the opening of picture shows at Twin Falls on Sundays. An effort was made to have the issue put to a vote at the special election, but this also failed.

The roads throughout southern Idaho are reported to be drying up rapidly, and in some sections they are being dragged and put in shape for heavy travel.

Sheriffs of the different counties of the state, at a recent meeting held in Boise, went on record as favoring higher salaries for the various peace officers.

Demands made upon the board of county commissioners of Twin Falls early in January for an increase of salary for deputies in courthouse departments have been rejected.

(ibid, page 3)
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Montpelier Examiner. February 20, 1920, Page 4

Paris Items

Paris, [Idaho] Feb, 18. — During the past two weeks death has claimed six persons from Paris. Three deaths have resulted from influenza-pneumonia. The six funeral services were held within six days. The first occurring was that of James Davis, one of the oldest and most highly respected residents of this place. His death followed an illness of several weeks, and resulted from neuritis. Mr. Davis was born in London, England on August 9, 1840. He spent his early life there and in 1854 after meeting Mormon missionaries and being converted to their religion, was baptized. He took an active part in the mission branch in England until 1862, when he emigrated to the United States. He first settled in Cedar City, Utah, where he established himself as a farmer. He there met, and in 1864 married, Miss Mary E. Fretwell. In 1874 Mr. Davis was called by the church on a mission to settle the San Juan, Arizona country. He unhesitatingly disposed of his flourishing property and moved his family to the new country. He struggled with the conditions there until, in 1884, a flood drove the settlers from their homes. In that year he came to Bear Lake valley, where he lived until the time of his death, which occurred Feb. 7. Mr. Davis’ life was an exemplary one, and his faithfulness and sterling character cannot be spoken of too highly. Funeral services were held in front of the public school building on the 11th. President Roy A. Welker, ex-Bishop James Poulson and Bishop Morris D. Low were the speakers. All spoke highly of the life of the deceased. His wife and a large family survive him. Interment was in the Paris cemetery.

On Thursday afternoon services were held at the family residence for Leland George, the two-year-old son of Mr. and Mrs. Morgan Rich, who died Wednesday of complication following the flu. The services were held on the lawn under the direction of Bishop Ezra Stucki. On Friday morning another shock came to this household in the death of the wife and mother, Mrs. Elizabeth Rich. Not only the bereaved husband and children will feel the loss of Mrs. Rich, but the entire community will join in sincerely mourning her untimely death. Mrs. Rich was an active church worker, true and delightful friend and a faithful wife and mother. She was born in Derbyshire, England, 33 years ago. She there accepted the gospel. Ten year ago she came to Paris. Her mother and father in England, her husband and two small children, Sargent and Harriet, are left to mourn her loss.

Funeral services were held at the home Sunday.

At 12:30 o’clock Saturday many friends gathered at the stake tabernacle to do honor to Miner Wilcox, one of the earliest settlers of this valley. The death of Mr. Wilcox occurred in Nampa, Idaho, where he had been visiting for some time. He was born 85 years ago in Franklin county, Ohio. As a boy he mingled in the stirring events of early Mormon history in the east, and had the honor of being a personal acquaintance of the prophet Joseph Smith. In 1894 he emigrated to Utah, where he took an active part in the activities of the territory. In both the Black Hawk and Indian wars he did active service. He married Miss Julia A. Allread in 1860, and in 1864 they came and settled in Bear Lake valley. He was an active citizen and church worker here, being a member of the first High Council of this stake. He filled an honorable mission to the Southern states. His wife and nine children survive him.

On Friday last, a telegram received here notified his parents of the accidental death of John Scheidegger by a switch engine at Kemmerer, Wyoming. The body was brought to Paris Saturday and the funeral services were conducted Sunday under the direction of the local post of the American Legion. Mr. Scheidegger was 24 years of age, and has been a resident of Paris most of his life. He enlisted in 1917 for service in the late war and served as a gunner in the 52nd ammunition train. He did active service in the Argonne and Meuse offensives and was 18 months overseas. His wife, formerly Miss Oxenbein of Montpelier, a two weeks old babe, his parents, six sisters and one brother survive him.

Under the direction of